To evaluate the performance of the Airway Scope for tracheal intubation by non‐anaesthetist physicians.
Under supervision by staff anaesthetists, non‐anaesthesia residents performed tracheal intubation using either the Airway Scope (n = 100) or Macintosh laryngoscope (n = 100). The time required for airway instrumentation and the success rate at first attempt were investigated.
The time to secure the airway was shorter with the Airway Scope than with the Macintosh laryngoscope (p<0.001). The success rate at first attempt was higher with the Airway Scope than with the Macintosh laryngoscope (p<0.001).
The Airway Scope may reduce the time to secure the airway and the incidence of failed tracheal intubation in novice laryngoscopists.
Establishing a secure airway in a trauma patient is one of the primary essentials of treatment. Any flaw in airway management may lead to grave morbidity and mortality. Maxillofacial trauma presents a complex problem with regard to the patient's airway. By definition, the injury compromises the patient's airway and it is, therefore, must be protected. In most cases, the patient undergoes surgery for maxillofacial trauma or for other, more severe, life-threatening injuries, and securing the airway is the first step in the introduction of general anaesthesia. In such patients, we anticipate difficult endotracheal intubation and, often, also difficult mask ventilation. In addition, the patient is usually regarded as having a "full stomach" and has not been cleared of a C-spine injury, which may complicate airway management furthermore. The time available to accomplish the task is short and the patient's condition may deteriorate rapidly. Both decision-making and performance are impaired in such circumstances. In this review, we discuss the complexity of the situation and present a treatment approach.
Airway management is an important component of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Recent guidelines recommend keeping any interruptions of chest compressions as short as possible and not lasting more than 10 seconds. Endotracheal intubation seems to be the ideal method for establishing a secure airway by experienced providers, but emergency medical technicians (EMT) often lack training and practice. For the EMTs supraglottic devices might serve as alternatives.
40 EMTs were trained in a 1-hour standardised audio-visual lesson to handle six different airway devices including endotracheal intubation, Combitube, EasyTube, I-Gel, Laryngeal Mask Airway and Laryngeal tube. EMTs performances were evaluated immediately after a brief practical demonstration, as well as after 1 and 3 months without any practice in between, in a randomised order. Hands-off time was pair-wise compared between airway devices using a repeated-measures mixed-effects model.
Overall mean hands-off time was significantly (p<0.01) lower for Laryngeal tube (6.1s; confidence interval 5.2-6.9s), Combitube (7.9s; 95% CI 6.9-9.0s), EasyTube (8.8s; CI 7.3-10.3s), LMA (10.2s; CI 8.6-11.7s), and I-Gel (11.9s; CI 10.2-13.7s) compared to endotracheal intubation (39.4s; CI 34.0-44.9s). Hands-off time was within the recommended limit of 10s for Combitube, EasyTube and Laryngeal tube after 1 month and for all supraglottic devices after 3 months without any training, but far beyond recommended limits in all three evaluations for endotracheal intubation.
Using supraglottic airway devices, EMTs achieved a hands-off time within the recommended time limit of 10s, even after three months without any training or practice. Supraglottic airway devices are recommended tools for EMTs with lack of experience in advanced airway management.
Anaesthesia; Emergency medical technicians; Hands-off time; Endotracheal intubation; Supraglottic airways; Emergency airway management; CPR
Many courses teaching advanced life support skills are now available in this country. These 'provider' courses include those dealing with cardiac, trauma and paediatric resuscitation. The numbers of applicants for all these courses far exceed the places available. There is further demand for places from those who currently hold advanced life support provider certificates and who require re-evaluation to maintain their certification. For many, particularly non-medical staff, obtaining funding or study leave to attend such a course may also be a problem. All these factors lead to delays in providing the training in advanced life support skills that is clearly needed. We here report on the development and success of local 1-day resuscitation courses as a means of introducing all staff who may be expected to cope with an emergency situation to the current principles of resuscitation. We do not suggest that such abbreviated courses are in any way a substitute for the full advanced life support course, but that they can provide tuition that may otherwise be unavailable.
Care of the polytrauma patient does not end in the operating room or resuscitation bay. The patient presenting to the intensive care unit following initial resuscitation and damage control surgery may be far from stable with ongoing hemorrhage, resuscitation needs, and injuries still requiring definitive repair. The intensive care physician must understand the respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic consequences of trauma resuscitation and massive transfusion in order to evaluate and adjust the ongoing resuscitative needs of the patient and address potential complications. In this review, we address ongoing resuscitation in the intensive care unit along with potential complications in the trauma patient after initial resuscitation. Complications such as abdominal compartment syndrome, transfusion related patterns of acute lung injury and metabolic consequences subsequent to post-trauma resuscitation are presented.
A non-systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to May 2012.
Results and conclusion
Polytrauma patients with severe shock from hemorrhage and massive tissue injury present major challenges for management and resuscitation in the intensive care setting. Many of the current recommendations for “damage control resuscitation” including the use of fixed ratios in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy remain controversial. A lack of large, randomized, controlled trials leaves most recommendations at the level of consensus, expert opinion. Ongoing trials and improvements in monitoring and resuscitation technologies will further influence how we manage these complex and challenging patients.
Coagulopathy; Trauma; Acute lung injury; Transfusion; Intensive care unit; Complications; Thromboelastography
A prone position is not a standard position for anesthesia induction and associated with problems like difficult mask fit, impairment of orotracheal intubation by direct laryngoscopy, and reduction of pulmonary compliance. However anesthetic management of trauma victims presenting with penetrating posterior lumbar spine injury requires airway securement and induction of anesthesia in the prone position to avoid further neurological impairment. We herein present the first reported case of an adult trauma patient presented with an impaled knife protruding out of lower back, who underwent endotracheal intubation with an intubating laryngeal mask airway under general anesthesia in the prone position. Our experience indicates that this technique would be easier and less risky compared to direct laryngoscopy or awake fiber optic intubation and might be considered in an emergency situation.
Airway management; endotracheal intubation; intubating laryngeal mask airway; prone position
OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of and reasons for rapid sequence inductions done by accident and emergency (A&E) doctors out of hospital as part of the activities of the MEDIC 1 Flying Squad. "Rapid sequence induction" was defined as any attempted endotracheal intubation accompanied by use of drugs to assist intubation and ventilation, including opiates, benzodiazepines, intravenous and topical anaesthetics, and neuromuscular blocking drugs. METHODS: Retrospective study of all MEDIC 1 and A&E records over the period 1 February 1993 to 28 February 1996 (37 months). The anaesthetic technique used, drugs used, complications, difficulties, reasons for induction out of hospital, and grade of doctor performing the technique were determined. RESULTS: Various anaesthetic techniques were used to secure the airway definitively by endotracheal intubation. Several difficulties were encountered in the prehospital setting, all of which were dealt with successfully. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of complications related to rapid sequence induction in prehospital care suggests that this technique is safe when done by A&E doctors on appropriate patients.
A 77-year-old man suffered hypoxemic cardiac arrest by supraglottic and tracheal airway obstruction in the emergency department. A previously unknown cervical fracture had caused a traumatic retropharyngeal–mediastinal hematoma. A lifesaving surgical emergency tracheostomy succeeded. Supraglottic and tracheal obstruction by a retropharyngeal–mediastinal hematoma with successful resuscitation via emergency tracheostomy after hypoxemic cardiac arrest has never been reported in a context of trauma. This clinically demanding case outlines the need for multidisciplinary airway management systems with continuous training and well-implemented guidelines. Only multidisciplinary staff preparedness and readily available equipments for the unanticipated difficult airway solved the catastrophic clinical situation.
Airway obstruction; endotracheal; emergency medicine; intubation; tracheostomy; trauma center
Objective: Airway care is the cornerstone of resuscitation. In UK emergency department practice, this care is provided by anaesthetists and emergency physicians. The aim of this study was to determine current practice for rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in a sample of emergency departments in Scotland.
Methods: Two year, multicentre, prospective observational study of endotracheal intubation in the emergency departments of seven Scottish urban teaching hospitals.
Results: 1631 patients underwent an intubation attempt in the emergency department and 735 patients satisfied the criteria for RSI. Emergency physicians intubated 377 patients and anaesthetists intubated 355 patients. There was no difference in median age between the groups but there was a significantly greater proportion of men (73.2% versus 65.3%, p=0.024) and trauma patients (48.5% versus 37.4%, p=0.003) in the anaesthetic group. Anaesthetists had a higher initial success rate (91.8% versus 83.8%, p=0.001) and achieved more good (Cormack-Lehane Grade I and II) views at laryngoscopy (94.0% versus 89.3%, p=0.039). There was a non-significant trend to more complications in the group of patients intubated by emergency physicians (8.7% versus 12.7%, p=0.104). Emergency physicians intubated a higher proportion of patients with physiological compromise (91.8% versus 86.1%, p=0.027) and a higher proportion of patients within 15 minutes of arrival (32.6% versus 11.3%, p<0.0001).
Conclusion: Anaesthetists achieve more good views at laryngoscopy with higher initial success rates during RSI. Emergency physicians perform RSI on a higher proportion of critically ill patients and a higher proportion of patients within 15 minutes of arrival. Complications may be fewer in the anaesthetists' group, but this could be related to differences in patient populations. Training issues for RSI and emergency airway care are discussed. Complication rates for both groups are in keeping with previous studies.
Background: Emergency airway management for trauma adults is practised by physicians from a range of training backgrounds and with differing levels of experience. The indications for intubation and technique employed are factors that vary within EDs and between hospitals.
Objectives: To provide practical evidence based guidance for airway management in trauma resuscitation: first for the trauma adult with potential cervical spine injury and second the management when a difficult airway is encountered at intubation.
Search strategy and methodology: Full literature search for relevant articles in Medline (1966–2003), EMBASE (1980–2003), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Relevant articles relating to adults and written in English language were appraised. English language abstracts of foreign articles were included. Studies were critically appraised on a standardised data collection sheet to assess validity and quality of evidence. The level of evidence was allocated using the methods of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.
emergency airway management; trauma; cervical spine; difficult airway
Experience with 29 000 cases in which the oesophageal obturator airway has been used in cardiopulmonary resuscitation indicates its safety, efficacy, and ease of use. Blood gases, fractional inspired oxygen, and pH were measured in 18 patients given both the oesophageal obturator airway and the endotracheal tube; there was no significant difference between the two. The former was found to be inserted more rapidly and reliably; moreover, paramedical staff are quickly trained to use it. It is concluded that the oesophageal obturator airway provides the technique of choice whenever ideal conditions and facilities--and trained staff--for endotracheal intubation are not immediately available.
Each year approximately 10 million babies do not breathe immediately at birth, of which about 6 million require basic neonatal resuscitation. The major burden is in low-income settings, where health system capacity to provide neonatal resuscitation is inadequate.
To systematically review the evidence for neonatal resuscitation content, training and competency, equipment and supplies, cost, and key program considerations, specifically for resource-constrained settings.
Evidence from several observational studies shows that facility-based basic neonatal resuscitation may avert 30% of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths. Very few babies require advanced resuscitation (endotracheal intubation and drugs) and these newborns may not survive without ongoing ventilation; hence, advanced neonatal resuscitation is not a priority in settings without neonatal intensive care. Of the 60 million nonfacility births, most do not have access to resuscitation. Several trials have shown that a range of community health workers can perform neonatal resuscitation with an estimated effect of a 20% reduction in intrapartum-related neonatal deaths, based on expert opinion. Case studies illustrate key considerations for scale up.
Basic resuscitation would substantially reduce intrapartum-related neonatal deaths. Where births occur in facilities, it is a priority to ensure that all birth attendants are competent in resuscitation. Strategies to address the gap for home births are urgently required. More data are required to determine the impact of neonatal resuscitation, particularly on long-term outcomes in low-income settings.
Asphyxia neonatorum; Birth asphyxia; Intrapartum-related neonatal deaths; Low-income countries; Neonatal; Neonatal encephalopathy; Neonatal resuscitation; Newborn resuscitation; Perinatal; Hypothermia
Direct trauma to the airway is a rare injury which can lead to disastrous consequences due to compounding effect of bleeding, aspiration of blood, airway obstruction and severe sympathetic stimulation. Here we are presenting two cases of open tracheal injury in two adult males following assault with sharp weapon. Two different techniques of securing the airways were employed depending upon the severity and urgency of the situation. In the first case, orotracheal intubation helped the surgeon to repair airway around the endotracheal tube whereas in the second patient this stenting effect was absent as he was intubated through the distal cut-end of trachea in the face of airway emergency.
Penetrating neck trauma; Open tracheal injury; Airway emergency; Airway management
Awake intubation is usually performed electively in the presence of a difficult airway. A detailed airway examination is time-consuming and often not feasible in an emergency. A simple 1-2-3 rule for airway examination allows one to identify potential airway difficulty within a minute. A more detailed airway examination can give a better idea about the exact nature of difficulty and the course of action to be taken to overcome it. When faced with an anticipated difficult airway, the anaesthesiologist needs to consider securing the airway in an awake state without the use of anaesthetic agents or muscle relaxants. As this can be highly discomforting to the patient, time and effort must be spent to prepare such patients both psychologically and pharmacologically for awake intubation. Psychological preparation is best initiated by an anaesthesiologist who explains the procedure in simple language. Sedative medications can be titrated to achieve patient comfort without compromising airway patency. Additional pharmacological preparation includes anaesthetising the airway through topical application of local anaesthetics and appropriate nerve blocks. When faced with a difficult airway, one should call for the difficult airway cart as well as for help from colleagues who have interest and expertise in airway management. Preoxygenation and monitoring during awake intubation is important. Anxious patients with a difficult airway may need to be intubated under general anaesthesia without muscle relaxants. Proper psychological and pharmacological preparation of the patient by an empathetic anaesthesiologist can go a long way in making awake intubation acceptable for all concerned.
Awake intubation; monitoring; pharmacological preparation; psychological preparation; topical anaesthesia
Carotid artery dissection is a rare entity, and most cases are attributable to causative factors, which include trauma and local malignancy. The vast majority of dissections present with cerebral infarct; those few that present with local mass effect and respiratory compromise may deteriorate rapidly, requiring urgent resuscitation and consideration of endotracheal intubation, which is often dangerous and/or impossible. The case of a spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection in an otherwise healthy young man, leading to gross mass effect and eventual fatal airway obstruction, is presented here. The need for a high index of suspicion for cervical vascular injury in cases of neck injury (even trivial), known head and neck malignancy/irradiation, or coagulopathy is highlighted. Patients presenting with unilateral neck swelling and symptoms related to mass effect must be assumed to have progressive airway obstruction, and difficult intubation should be anticipated.
Modern anaesthesia practice in children was made possible by the invention of the endotracheal tube (ET), which made lengthy and complex surgical procedures feasible without the disastrous complications of airway obstruction, aspiration of gastric contents or asphyxia. For decades, endotracheal intubation or bag-and-mask ventilation were the mainstays of airway management. In 1983, this changed with the invention of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), the first supraglottic airway device that blended features of the facemask with those of the ET, providing ease of placement and hands-free maintenance along with a relatively secure airway. The invention and development of the LMA by Dr. Archie Brain has had a significant impact on the practice of anaesthesia, management of the difficult airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children and neonates. This review article will be a brief about the clinical applications of supraglottic airways in children.
Difficult airway; laryngeal mask airway; paediatric airway; proseal laryngeal mask airway; supraglottic airways
An important factor contributing to the high mortality in patients with severe head trauma is cerebral hypoxia. The mechanical ventilation helps both by reduction in the intracranial pressure and hypoxia. Ventilatory support is also required in these patients because of patient's inability to protect the airway, persistence of excessive secretions, and inadequacy of spontaneous ventilation. Prolonged endotracheal intubation is however associated with trauma to the larynx, trachea, and patient discomfort in addition to requirement of sedatives. Tracheostomy has been found to play an integral role in the airway management of such patients, but its timing remains subject to considerable practice variation. In a developing country like India where the intensive care facilities are scarce and rarely available, these critical patients have to be managed in high dependency cubicles in the ward, often with inadequately trained nursing staff and equipment to monitor them. An early tracheostomy in the selected group of patients based on Glasgow Coma Score(GCS) may prove to be life saving.Against this background a prospective study was contemplated to assess the role of early tracheostomy in patients with isolated closed head injury.
The series consisted of a cohort of 50 patients admitted to the surgical emergency with isolated closed head injury, that were not considered for surgery by the neuro-surgeon or shifted to ICU, but had GCS score of less than 8 and SAPS II score of more than 50. First 50 case records from January 2001 that fulfilled the criteria constituted the control group. The patients were managed as per ATLS protocol and intubated if required at any time before decision to perform tracheostomy was taken. These patients were serially assessed for GCS (worst score of the day as calculated by senior surgical resident) and SAPS scores till day 15 to chart any changes in their status of head injuries and predictive mortality. Those patients who continued to have a GCS score of <8 and SAPS score of >50 for more than 24 hours (to rule out concussion or recovery) underwent tracheostomy.
All these patients were finally assessed for mortality rate and hospital stay, the statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS10 version.
The final outcome (in terms of mortality) was analyzed utilizing chi-square test and p value <0.05 was considered significant.
At admission both tracheostomy and non-tracheostomy groups were matched with respect to GCS score and SAPS score.
The average day of tracheostomy was 2.18 ± 1.0038 days.
The GCS scores on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 between tracheostomy and non-tracheostomized group were comparable. However the difference in the GCS scores was statistically significant on day 15 being higher in the tracheostomy group.Thus early tracheostomy was observed to improve the mortality rate significantly in patients with isolated closed head injury
It may be concluded that early tracheostomy is beneficial in patients with isolated closed head injury which is severe enough to affect systemic physiological parameters, in terms of decreased mortality and intubation associated complications in centers where ICU care is not readily available. Also, in a selected group of patients, early tracheostomy may do away with the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation.
Trauma has assumed epidemic proportion. 10% of global road accident deaths occur in India. Hypoxia and airway mismanagement are known to contribute up to 34% of pre-hospital deaths in these patients. A high degree of suspicion for actual or impending airway obstruction should be assumed in all trauma patients. Objective signs of airway compromise include agitation, obtundation, cyanosis, abnormal breath sound and deviated trachea. If time permits, one should carry out a brief airway assessment prior to undertaking definitive airway management in these patients. Simple techniques for establishing and maintaining airway patency include jaw thrust maneuver and/or use of oro- and nas-opharyngeal airways. All attempts must be made to perform definitive airway management whenever airway is compromised that is not amenable to simple strategies. The selection of airway device and route- oral or -nasal, for tracheal intubation should be based on nature of patient injury, experience and skill level.
Airway algorithms; airway management; airway trauma
Securing an airway in children with trismus is challenging and dangerous. Sound clinical judgment is critical for timing and for selecting the method for airway intervention. We present two pediatric cases of submandibular abscess with difficult oral intubation who underwent incision and drainage. Large facial (jaw) swelling, trismus-limited mouth opening, edema, protruding teeth, and altered airway anatomy makes airway management more difficult. Chances of rupture of abscess intraorally and aspiration under General Anesthesia (GA) is a major threat. Loss of airway under muscle relaxation, difficult to ventilate, difficult to intubate and unwillingness for awake intubation in the pediatric age group makes these cases most challenging. On the basis of our experience, both cases were successfully intubated in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing children with visual-guided fibreoptic intubation.
We report a case of severe upper airway obstruction due to a retropharyngeal hematoma that presented nearly one day after a precipitating traumatic injury. Retropharyngeal hematomas are rare, but may cause life-threatening airway compromise.
A 50 year-old man developed severe dyspnea with oropharyngeal airway compression due to retropharyngeal hematoma 20 hours after presenting to the emergency department. The patient also had a fractured first cervical vertebra and was diagnosed with a left brachial plexopathy. The patient underwent emergent awake fiberoptic endotracheal intubation to provide a definitive airway.
Retropharyngeal hematoma with life-threatening airway compromise can develop hours or days after a precipitating injury. Clinicians should be alert to the potential for this delayed airway collapse, and should also be prepared to rapidly secure the airway in this patient population likely to have concomitant cervical spinal or head injuries.
Providing a secured airway is of paramount importance in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Although intubating the trachea is yet seen as gold standard, this technique is still reserved to experienced healthcare professionals. Compared to bag-valve facemask ventilation, however, the insertion of a laryngeal mask airway offers the opportunity to ventilate the patient effectively and can also be placed easily by lay responders. Obviously, it might be inserted without detailed background knowledge.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the intuitive use of airway devices by first-year medical students as well as the effect of a simple, but well-directed training programme. Retention of skills was re-evaluated six months thereafter.
The insertion of a LMA-Classic and a LMA-Fastrach performed by inexperienced medical students was compared in an airway model. The improvement on their performance after a training programme of overall two hours was examined afterwards.
Prior to any instruction, mean time to correct placement was 55.5 ± 29.6 s for the LMA-Classic and 38.1 ± 24.9 s for the LMA-Fastrach. Following training, time to correct placement decreased significantly with 22.9 ± 13.5 s for the LMA-Classic and 22.9 ± 19.0 s for the LMA-Fastrach, respectively (p < 0.05). After six months, the results are comparable prior (55.6 ± 29.9 vs 43.1 ± 34.7 s) and after a further training period (23.5 ± 13.2 vs 26.6 ± 21.6, p < 0.05).
Untrained laypersons are able to use different airway devices in a manikin and may therefore provide a secured airway even without having any detailed background knowledge about the tool. Minimal theoretical instruction and practical skill training can improve their performance significantly. However, refreshment of knowledge seems justified after six months.
In 1999, the laryngeal tube (VBM Medizintechnik, Sulz, Germany) was introduced as a new supraglottic airway. It was designed to allow either spontaneous breathing or controlled ventilation during anaesthesia; additionally it may serve as an alternative to endotracheal intubation, or bag-mask ventilation during resuscitation. Several variations of this supraglottic airway exist. In our study, we compared ventilation with the laryngeal tube suction for single use (LTS-D) and a bag-mask device. One of the main points of the revised ERC 2005 guidelines is a low no-flow-time (NFT). The NFT is defined as the time during which no chest compression occurs. Traditionally during the first few minutes of resuscitation NFT is very high. We evaluated the hypothesis that utilization of the LTS-D could reduce the NFT compared to bag-mask ventilation (BMV) during simulated cardiac arrest in a single rescuer manikin study.
Participants were studied during a one day advanced life support (ALS) course. Two scenarios of arrhythmias requiring defibrillation were simulated in a manikin. One scenario required subjects to establish the airway with a LTS-D; alternatively, the second scenario required them to use BMV. The scenario duration was 430 seconds for the LTS-D scenario, and 420 seconds for the BMV scenario, respectively. Experienced ICU nurses were recruited as study subjects. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two groups first (LTS-D and BMV) to establish the airway. Endpoints were the total NFT during the scenario, the successful airway management using the respective device, and participants' preference of one of the two strategies for airway management.
Utilization of the LTS-D reduced NFT significantly (p < 0.01). Adherence to the time frame of ERC guidelines was 96% in the LTS-D group versus 30% in the BMV group. Two participants in the LTS-D group required more than one attempt to establish the LTS-D correctly. Once established, ventilation was effective in 100%. In a subjective evaluation all participants preferred the LTS-D over BMV to provide ventilation in a cardiac arrest scenario.
In our manikin study, NFT was reduced significantly when using LTS-D compared to BMV. During cardiac arrest, the LTS-D might be a good alternative to BMV for providing and maintaining a patent airway. For personnel not experienced in endotracheal intubation it seems to be a safe airway device in a manikin use.
During the course of their training, medical students may receive introductory experience with advanced resuscitation skills. Endotracheal intubation (ETI – the insertion of a breathing tube into the trachea) is an example of an important advanced resuscitation intervention. Only limited data characterize clinical ETI skill acquisition by medical students. We sought to characterize medical student acquisition of ETI procedural skill.
The study included third-year medical students participating in a required anesthesiology clerkship. Students performed ETI on operating room patients under the supervision of attending anesthesiologists. Students reported clinical details of each ETI effort, including patient age, sex, Mallampati score, number of direct laryngoscopies and ETI success. Using mixed-effects regression, we characterized the adjusted association between ETI success and cumulative ETI experience.
ETI was attempted by 178 students on 1,646 patients (range 1–23 patients per student; median 9 patients per student, IQR 6–12). Overall ETI success was 75.0% (95% CI 72.9–77.1%). Adjusted for patient age, sex, Mallampati score and number of laryngoscopies, the odds of ETI success improved with cumulative ETI encounters (odds ratio 1.09 per additional ETI encounter; 95% CI 1.04–1.14). Students required at least 17 ETI encounters to achieve 90% predicted ETI success.
In this series medical student ETI proficiency was associated with cumulative clinical procedural experience. Clinical experience may provide a viable strategy for fostering medical student procedural skills.
clinical skills; education environment; practical procedures; medical education research
Aim. To describe the subsequent treatment of airway trauma sustained during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation.
Methods. A rare injury occurring during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation that resulted in perforation of the tongue by an endotracheal tube and the subsequent management of this unusual complication are discussed. A 65-year-old female with intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage with rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration had the airway secured prior to arrival at the referral institution. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was noted to have pierced through the base of the tongue and entered the trachea, and the patient underwent operative laryngoscopy to inspect the injury and the ETT was replaced by tracheostomy. Results. Laryngoscopy demonstrated the ETT to perforate the base of the tongue. The airway was secured with tracheostomy and the ETT was removed. Conclusions. A wide variety of complications resulting from direct and video-assisted laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation have been reported. Direct perforation of the tongue with an ETT and ability to ventilate and oxygenate subsequently is a rare injury.
Which anesthesia for patients with critical airway? Safe and effective analgesia and anesthesia in critical airway is a skilled task especially after severe maxillofacial injury combined with head injury and hemorrhagic shock. If on one side sedation is wanted, on the other hand it may worsen the airway and hemodynamic situation to a point where hypoventilation and decrease of blood pressure, common side-effect of many opioids, may prejudice the patient's level of consciousness and hemodynamic compensation, compounding an already critical situation. What to do when endotracheal intubation fails and blood is trickling down the airways in an unconscious patient or when a conscious patient has to sit up to breathe? Which surgical airway in critical airway? Comparative studies among the various methods of emergency surgical airway would be unethical; furthermore, operator's training and experience is relevant for indications and performance.
Ketamine; maxillofacial trauma; neck trauma; remifentanyl; tracheostomy