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1.  Perceptions of Pharmacy Students, Faculty Members, and Administrators on the Use of Technology in the Classroom 
Objectives. To gather and evaluate the perceptions of students, faculty members, and administrators regarding the frequency and appropriateness of classroom technology use.
Methods. Third-year pharmacy students and faculty members at 6 colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed to assess their perceptions about the type, frequency, and appropriateness of using technology in the classroom. Upper-level administrators and information technology professionals were also interviewed to ascertain overall technology goals and identify criteria used to adopt new classroom technologies.
Results. Four hundred sixty-six students, 124 faculty members, and 12 administrators participated in the survey. The most frequently used and valued types of classroom technology were course management systems, audience response systems, and lecture capture. Faculty members and students agreed that faculty members appropriately used course management systems and audience response systems. Compared with their counterparts, tech-savvy, and male students reported significantly greater preference for increased use of classroom technology. Eighty-six percent of faculty members reported having changed their teaching methodologies to meet student needs, and 91% of the students agreed that the use of technology met their needs.
Conclusions. Pharmacy colleges and schools use a variety of technologies in their teaching methods, which have evolved to meet the needs of the current generation of students. Students are satisfied with the appropriateness of technology, but many exhibit preferences for even greater use of technology in the classroom.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77475
PMCID: PMC3663629  PMID: 23716743
educational technology; perceptions; students; faculty; administrators
2.  Faculty Awards at US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objectives
To determine recognition given for outstanding teaching, service, and scholarship at US colleges and schools of pharmacy, the types of awards given, and the process used to select the recipients.
Methods
A self-administered questionnaire was made available online in 2006 to deans at 89 colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results
Sixty-four usable responses (72%) were obtained. An award to acknowledge teaching excellence was most commonly reported (92%), followed by an award for adjunct/volunteer faculty/preceptors (79%). The majority of the institutions (31 out of 58) reported offering 1 teaching award annually. The 2 most common methods for selecting the recipient of the teaching award were by student vote and by college/school committee vote following nominations. Twenty-four of the 63 respondents indicated that their institution provided an award for research/scholarship and 18 offered an award for outstanding service.
Conclusions
Teaching excellence was recognized and rewarded at most US colleges and schools of pharmacy; however, research/scholarship and service were formally recognized less frequently.
PMCID: PMC2576424  PMID: 19009732
faculty awards; faculty retention; preceptor awards; awards
3.  Portfolio Use and Practices in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objectives. To identify the prevalence of portfolio use in US pharmacy programs, common components of portfolios, and advantages of and limitations to using portfolios.
Methods. A cross-sectional electronic survey instrument was sent to experiential coordinators at US colleges and schools of pharmacy to collect data on portfolio content, methods, training and resource requirements, and benefits and challenges of portfolio use.
Results. Most colleges and schools of pharmacy (61.8%) use portfolios in experiential courses and the majority (67.1%) formally assess them, but there is wide variation regarding content and assessment. The majority of respondents used student portfolios as a formative evaluation primarily in the experiential curriculum.
Conclusions. Although most colleges and schools of pharmacy have a portfolio system in place, few are using them to fulfill accreditation requirements. Colleges and schools need to carefully examine the intended purpose of their portfolio system and follow-through with implementation and maintenance of a system that meets their goals.
doi:10.5688/ajpe76346
PMCID: PMC3327244  PMID: 22544963
portfolio; assessment; evaluation; competency achievement; pharmacy practice experiences; pharmacy education
4.  Recognition of Teaching Excellence* 
The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs.
PMCID: PMC2996754  PMID: 21301598
teaching excellence; teaching recognition; teaching awards; pharmacy education; faculty development
5.  Perceptions and Use of iPad Technology by Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members 
Objectives. To explore the potential of tablet technology to address the specific workload challenges of pharmacy practice faculty members and to evaluate tablet usage after a department-wide iPad initiative.
Methods. After conducting a needs assessment to determine pharmacy faculty attitudes towards tablet technology and to identify potential usage scenarios, all faculty members in a department of pharmacy practice received an iPad. After iPad distribution, training sessions and virtual tutorials were provided. An anonymous survey was administered to evaluate the pilot.
Results. The needs assessment survey revealed positive attitudes towards iPad technology, identified use scenarios, and led to a department-wide iPad pilot program. Most faculty members used iPads for connectivity with students (86%), paper/project annotation (68%), assessment (57%), and demonstration of tools used in practice (36%). For teaching, 61% of faculty members used iPads in seminars/laboratories, 57% used iPads in the experiential setting, and 43% used iPads in the classroom. Use of iPads for patient-care activities varied and depended on site support for mobile technology. The 23 faculty members with external practice sites used iPads to a greater extent and had more positive attitudes towards this technology compared with campus-based faculty members.
Conclusion. Integration of tablet technology into the pharmacy education setting resulted in faculty-reported increased productivity and decreased paper waste. It also allowed faculty members to experiment with new teaching strategies in the classroom and experiential setting. Administrators at institutions exploring the use of tablet technology should allocate resources based on faculty needs and usage patterns.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78352
PMCID: PMC3996384  PMID: 24761013
instructional technology; pharmacy faculty; health care; iPad
6.  Evaluation of Pre-Service Training on Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness in Ethiopia 
Background
The Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness strategy equips health workers with essential knowledge and skills to effectively manage sick children with common neonatal and childhood diseases. Since in-service training is very demanding to achieve the desired coverage of training of health workers, pre-service training is taken as a solution. At the time of the survey, most public and some private health professionals' training institutions were conducting pre-service training. However, several concerns have been expressed on the training. Therefore, this survey was conducted to assess the status of pre-service Integrated Management of New-born and Childhood Illness training.
Methods
A cross sectional survey on health professional training institutes/schools to evaluate pre-service Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness training was conducted in November 2007. Data was collected using pre-tested questionnaires, focused group interviews with teachers and students, observation of students while managing sick children using Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness guidelines, and reviews of pediatric course outlines and other teaching/learning materials. Data was entered in computer and analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 12.0.1.
Results
Twenty nine health professionals' training institutions (34 academic programs) which have started pre-service training were included in the survey. Of the 34 programs 22 were diploma nursing, 6 Bachelor of Sciences nursing, 4 health officer and the remaining two medicine. Thirty (88.2%) programs have integrated it in their curriculum. All academic programs had at least one fulltime staff for Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness classroom instruction. Twenty nine (85.3%) programs had staff trained in case management skills. All the 34 academic programs taught health workers skills, 28(82.3%) used mixed approach. Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness was either incorporated for 21 (61.8%) or added to the previous teaching 11 (32.3%). The instructor to student ratio was low for most of the schools. Main challenges encountered in the pre-service teaching were constraints with trained staff and other resources each by 28 (82.3%) programs. Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness was included in student evaluation by all programs (100%). All students and instructors (100%) rated that Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness concept is very relevant or extremely relevant but majority said the time given was short. The over all mean score of students clinical practice was 63.5%.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated that Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness was introduced into the teaching programs of most health professional training institutions. The most preferred teaching style was the mixed approach. Group discussion and demonstration were commonly used methods and Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness questions were included in students' evaluation in almost all programs. Shortage of IMNCI trained staff and teaching materials were major challenges. The use of teaching materials prepared for pre-service training like handbook and model chapter was limited. Instructors and students attitude towards IMNCI was very good. The students overall performance in managing sick child as per the IMNCI guidelines was above average. We recommend that the respective bodies at every level make every effort to strengthen IMNCI pre-service teaching through revisiting curricula, facilitating staff training, availing teaching materials and allocating adequate time. Exploring for an alternative/innovative and sustainable training approach is an assignment for all.
PMCID: PMC3275900  PMID: 22434956
IMNCI; pre-service; Ethiopia
7.  Medical students-as-teachers: a systematic review of peer-assisted teaching during medical school 
Introduction
International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL) during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.
Objective
To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.
Method
A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.
Results
From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective contexts, achieves short-term learner outcomes that are comparable with those produced by faculty-based teaching. Furthermore, peer-teaching has beneficial effects on student-teacher learning outcomes.
Conclusions
Peer-teaching in undergraduate medical programs is comparable to conventional teaching when utilized in selected contexts. There is evidence to suggest that participating student-teachers benefit academically and professionally. Long-term effects of peer-teaching during medical school remain poorly understood and future research should aim to address this.
doi:10.2147/AMEP.S14383
PMCID: PMC3661256  PMID: 23745087
peer-teaching; peer-assisted learning; near-peer teaching; medical student; medical school
8.  A Reflective Teaching Challenge to Motivate Educational Innovation 
Objective. To describe a teaching challenge intended to increase faculty use of evidence-based and student-centered instructional strategies in the demanding school of pharmacy context with technology-savvy students.
Design. A teaching challenge was created that required faculty members to incorporate a “new-to-you” innovative teaching method in a class, course, or experiential activity. The method was linked to at least 1 of 7 evidence-based principles for effective teaching. Faculty members were exposed to colleagues' teaching strategies via brief voluntary presentations at department meetings.
Assessment. A post-challenge survey provided assessment data about the challenge. Responses to a baseline survey provided additional information about what faculty members were already doing (52% response rate). Eighty-one percent of faculty respondents completed the challenge. A wide array of new strategies (13 categories such as flipped classrooms and social media) was implemented and 75% included the use of technology. Nearly all respondents (96%) thought that participation in the challenge was worth the effort and planned to participate again the following year. All faculty members intended to continue using their new strategy and 56% planned additional modifications with future implementations. The challenge demonstrated how multiple goals of curricular improvement, faculty development, and student-centered instruction could be achieved together.
Conclusion. The teaching challenge motivated most of the faculty members to try something new to them. Links between evidence-based principles and day-to-day activities were strengthened. The new-to-you design placed the challenge within reach of faculty members regardless of their background, subject, or experience.
doi:10.5688/ajpe785103
PMCID: PMC4064480  PMID: 24954943
faculty development; teaching innovation; reflective teaching challenge; faculty survey
9.  Implementation and Refinement of a Problem-based Learning Model: A Ten-Year Experience 
Objectives
To evaluate the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) model implemented in 1995 at the University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy.
Design
The third-professional (P3) year curriculum was reoriented from a faculty-centered model of teaching to a student-centered model of learning. Didactic lectures and structured classroom time were diminished. Small student groups were organized and a faculty facilitator monitored each group's discussions and provided individual student assessments. At the end of each 8-week block, students were assessed on group participation, disease and drug content knowledge, and problem-solving abilities. Faculty and student input was solicited at the end of each year to aid programmatic improvement. In 2000, a formal 5-year review of the PBL program was conducted.
Assessment
Recommendations for improvement included clarifying course objectives, adopting a peer-review process for examination materials, refining the group assessment instruments, and providing an opportunity for student remediation after a course was failed. A weekly case conference presided over by a faculty content expert was also recommended. Ongoing critical evaluation during the following 5-year period was provided by graduates of the program, faculty participants, and accreditation reviews.
Conclusion
Over our 10-year experience with a PBL model of P3 education, we found that although the initial challenges of increased demands on personnel and teaching space were easily overcome, student acceptance of the program depended on their acknowledgment of the practical benefits of active learning and on the value afforded their input on curricular development.
PMCID: PMC1847543  PMID: 17429517
active learning; problem-based learning; student-centered learning
10.  Use of Adjunct Faculty Members in Classroom Teaching in Departments of Pharmacy Practice 
Objective. To determine trends among departments of pharmacy practice regarding use of adjunct faculty members for classroom-based teaching and to assess departmental support provided to these faculty members.
Methods. Chairs of pharmacy practice departments in US colleges and school of pharmacy were contacted by e-mail and asked to complete an 11-item electronic survey instrument.
Results. Chair respondents reported an average of 5.7 adjunct faculty members hired to teach required courses and 1.8 adjunct faculty members hired to teach elective courses. Compensation averaged $108 per lecture hour and $1,257 per 1-credit-hour course. Twenty-five percent of the respondents expected to hire more adjunct faculty members to teach required courses in the upcoming year due to curricular changes, faculty hiring freezes, and the shortage of full-time faculty members. Only 7% of respondents reported that they provided a teaching mentor and 14% offered no support to their adjunct faculty members.
Conclusions. Departments of pharmacy practice commonly use adjunct faculty members to teach required and elective courses. Given the pharmacy faculty shortage, this trend is expected to increase and may be an area for future faculty development.
doi:10.5688/ajpe757129
PMCID: PMC3175648  PMID: 21969715
adjunct faculty; faculty; teaching
11.  Assessment of Full-time Faculty Preceptors By Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico 
Objective. To identify the manner in which colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico assess full-time faculty preceptors.
Methods. Directors of pharmacy practice (or equivalent title) were invited to complete an online, self-administered questionnaire.
Results. Seventy of the 75 respondents (93.3%) confirmed that their college or school assessed full-time pharmacy faculty members based on activities related to precepting students at a practice site. The most commonly reported assessment components were summative student evaluations (98.5%), type of professional service provided (92.3%), scholarly accomplishments (86.2%), and community service (72.3%). Approximately 42% of respondents indicated that a letter of evaluation provided by a site-based supervisor was included in their assessment process. Some colleges and schools also conducted onsite assessment of faculty members.
Conclusions. Most colleges and schools of pharmacy assess full-time faculty-member preceptors via summative student assessments, although other strategies are used. Given the important role of preceptors in ensuring students are prepared for pharmacy practice, colleges and schools of pharmacy should review their assessment strategies for full-time faculty preceptors, keeping in mind the methodologies used by other institutions.
doi:10.5688/ajpe768148
PMCID: PMC3475777  PMID: 23129847
assessment; faculty; preceptors
12.  Online discussion for block teaching in postgraduate health professionals’ curriculum: the Ethiopian experience 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:29.
Background
Online discussions as a method of instruction are a new approach in Ethiopia. There is no previous study in the Ethiopian context that has assessed students’ engagement and learning experience using this instruction method, which may offer a valuable complement to other instruction methods for intensive block teaching in a resource-limited environment. The aim of this study was to assess the value of online discussions in supporting students’ engagement and interaction with their peers and teachers in a block teaching postgraduate health professionals’ curriculum.
Methods
The research was conducted at Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences, School of Medical Laboratory Sciences (SMLS), which has structured the curriculum around intensive block teaching. Between December 2011 and February 2012, two groups of full-time (N = 21) and part-time (N = 52) postgraduate students participated in online discussions as part of a Biostatistics and Research Methods module, in addition to other instructional methods. Every week, the course instructor initiated the online discussion by posting an assignment and articles with a few discussion questions. To evaluate the participants’ collective learning experience, the content of the email messages generated during these online discussions was analyzed qualitatively.
Result
A total of 702 emails were exchanged during the three week module, of which 250 emails (35.6%) were posted by full-time students and 452 emails (64.4%) by part-time Continuing Education Program (CEP) students. During the online discussion forum, students identified different statistical data analysis tools and their application for given data sets. In terms of message contents, 67% of full-time and 64% of part-time students’ messages were classified as learning experiences. However, a slightly higher proportion of part-time students’ posts were social messages. The majority of students in both groups reported high levels of satisfaction with their online experience.
Conclusion
Online discussion could be a valuable addition to face-to-face classroom teaching to improve students’ engagement and interaction in an intensive block teaching postgraduate curriculum where learners are engaged in a full work load with academic studies.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-14-29
PMCID: PMC3924913  PMID: 24521146
Online discussion; Block teaching; Ethiopia
13.  Mental Health and Psychiatric Pharmacy Instruction in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objectives
To describe the extent of psychiatric pharmacy instruction in US pharmacy curricula, including course and faculty characteristics and mental health topics taught in clinical therapeutics-based courses.
Methods
An 11-item survey instrument (54% response) was developed and mailed to 91 colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results
Over 75% of colleges and schools employed a psychiatric pharmacist; however, less than 50% of faculty teaching psychiatric pharmacy content were psychiatric pharmacy specialists as defined in the study. All colleges and schools included psychiatric topics as part of a therapeutics-based course with an average of 9.5% of course content devoted to these topics. About 25% of colleges and schools offered elective didactic courses in psychiatric pharmacy. Only 2 schools required a psychiatric pharmacy advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE), but about 92% offered elective APPEs. The mean number of hours spent on lecture- and case-based instruction across all colleges and schools was highest for depression and lowest for personality disorders.
Conclusions
There is a need for colleges and schools of pharmacy to better identify and standardize the minimal acceptable level of didactic instruction in psychiatric pharmacy as well as the minimal level of specialty qualifications for faculty members who teach this subject.
PMCID: PMC1847556  PMID: 17429504
psychiatric pharmacy; pharmacy education; curriculum; mental health
14.  Peer- and Self-Grading Compared to Faculty Grading 
Objectives. To determine the reliability and value of peer- and self -reported evaluations in the grading of pharmacy students.
Methods. Mean student peer- and self- reported grades were compared to faculty grades in the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) and seminar presentation courses. Responses from pharmacy school alumni regarding curricular peer- and self-reported evaluations were solicited using an online survey tool.
Results. Self-reported student grades were lower than the faculty-reported grade overall and for the formal presentation component of the APPE course grading rubric. Self-reported grades were no different than faculty-reported grades for the seminar course. Students graded their peers higher than did faculty members for both the seminar and APPE courses on all components of the grading rubric. The majority of pharmacy alumni conducted peer- and self-evaluations (64% and 85%, respectively) at least annually and considered peer- and self-evaluations useful in assessing students’ work in group projects, oral presentations, and professional skills.
Conclusion. The combination of self-, peer-, and faculty-assessments using a detailed grading rubric offers an opportunity to meet accreditation standards and better prepare pharmacy students for their professional careers.
doi:10.5688/ajpe757130
PMCID: PMC3175657  PMID: 21969716
self-assessment; peer-assessment; grading rubric; evaluation; assessment; advanced pharmacy practice experience
15.  Medicare Part D Community Outreach Train-the-Trainer Program for Pharmacy Faculty 
Objectives
To assess the train-the-trainer component of an initiative (Partners in D) to train pharmacy students to facilitate patient enrollment in the best Medicare Part D prescription drug plan (Part D).
Methods
Faculty members from 6 California colleges or schools of pharmacy were taught how to train pharmacy students about Medicare Part D and how to conduct outreach events targeting underserved patient populations. A preintervention and postintervention survey instrument was administered to determine participants' (1) knowledge of the Part D program; (2) skill using the Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Finder tool; and (3) confidence in their ability to train pharmacy students. Implementation of the Partners in D curriculum in faculty members' colleges or schools of pharmacy was also determined.
Results
Participants' knowledge of Part D, mastery of the Plan Finder, and confidence in teaching the material to pharmacy students all significantly improved. Within 8 weeks following the program, 5 of 6 colleges or schools of pharmacy adopted Partners in D coursework and initiated teaching the Partners-in-D curriculum. Four months afterwards, 21 outreach events reaching 186 Medicare beneficiaries had been completed.
Conclusions
The train-the-trainer component of the Partners in D program is practical and effective, and merits serious consideration as a national model for educating patients about Medicare Part D.
PMCID: PMC2703286  PMID: 19564996
Medicare Part D; Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Finder; train-the-trainer; faculty development
16.  Evaluation of an Evidence-based Peer Teaching Assessment Program 
Objective
To determine faculty perceptions about an evidence-based peer teaching assessment system.
Methods
Faculty members who served as instructors and assessors completed questionnaires after year 1 (2002-2003) and year 4 (2005-2006) of the peer assessment program. Factors were evaluated using a Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree) and included logistics, time, fostering quality teaching, diversifying teaching portfolios, faculty mentoring, and value of structured discussion of teaching among faculty members. Mean responses from instructors and assessors were compared using student t tests.
Results
Twenty-seven assessors and 52 instructors completed survey instruments. Assessors and instructors had positive perceptions of the process as indicated by the following mean (SD) scores: logistics = 4.0 (1.0), time = 3.6 (1.1), quality teaching = 4.0 (0.9), diversifying teaching portfolios = 3.6 (1.2), faculty mentoring = 3.9 (0.9), and structured discussion of teaching = 4.2 (0.8). Assessors agreed more strongly than instructors that the feedback provided would improve the quality of lecturing (4.5 vs. 3.9, p < 0.01) and course materials (4.3 vs. 3.6, p < 0.01).
Conclusion
This peer assessment process was well-accepted and provided a positive experience for the participants. Faculty members perceived that the quality of their teaching would improve and enjoyed the opportunity to have structured discussions about teaching.
PMCID: PMC1913296  PMID: 17619645
teaching; assessment; peer assessment; faculty development; academic training
17.  Teaching and evaluation methods of medical ethics in the Saudi public medical colleges: cross-sectional questionnaire study 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:122.
Background
Saudi Arabia is considered one of the most influential Muslim countries being as the host of the two most holy places for Muslims, namely Makkah and Madina. This was reflected in the emphasis on teaching medical ethics in a lecture-based format as a part of the subject of Islamic culture taught to medical students. Over the last few years, both teaching and evaluation of medical ethics have been changing as more Saudi academics received specialized training and qualifications in bioethics from western universities.
Methods
This study aims at studying the current teaching methods and evaluation tools used by the Saudi public medical schools. It is done using a self-administered online questionnaire.
Results
Out of the 14 medical schools that responded, the majority of the responding schools (6; 42.8%), had no ethics departments; but all schools had a curriculum dedicated to medical ethics. These curricula were mostly developed by the faculty staff (12; 85.7%). The most popular teaching method was lecturing (13; 92.8%). The most popular form of student assessment was a paper-based final examination (6; 42.8%) at the end of the course that was allocated 40% or more of the total grade of the ethics course. Six schools (42.8%) allocated 15-30% of the total grade to research.
Conclusion
Although there is a growing interest and commitment in teaching ethics to medical students in Saudi schools; there is lack of standardization in teaching and evaluation methods. There is a need for a national body to provide guidance for the medical schools to harmonize the teaching methods, particularly introducing more interactive and students-engaging methods on the account of passive lecturing.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-122
PMCID: PMC3850889  PMID: 24020917
18.  Pharmacy cases in Second Life: an elective course 
Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL), an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple active-learning assignments were successful in increasing students’ knowledge, and provided additional practice in building the communication skills beneficial for students preparing for experiential clinical rotations.
doi:10.2147/AMEP.S35358
PMCID: PMC3650877  PMID: 23762008
Second Life; virtual worlds; pharmacy case studies; computer simulation; health education; pharmacy education
19.  Mental Health Curricula at Schools of Pharmacy in the United Kingdom and Recent Graduates’ Readiness to Practice 
Objective. To assess mental health education in the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in the United Kingdom and gauge how well prepared graduates are to manage mental health patients.
Method. The authors conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with pharmacy educators and administered an electronic self-administered survey instrument to pharmacy graduates.
Results. The mental health conditions of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Parkinson disease were taught, in detail, by all schools, but more specialized areas of mental health (eg, personality disorder, autism) were generally not taught. Just 5 of 19 schools attempted to teach the broader social aspects of mental health. A third of the schools provided experiential learning opportunities. Graduates and recently registered pharmacists stated that undergraduate education had prepared them adequately with regard to knowledge on conditions and treatment options, but that they were not as well prepared to talk with mental health patients and deal with practical drug management-related issues.
Conclusion. The mental health portion of the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom is largely theoretical, and pharmacy students have little exposure to mental health patients. Graduates identified an inability to effectively communicate with these patients and manage common drug management-related issues.
doi:10.5688/ajpe777147
PMCID: PMC3776901  PMID: 24052650
mental health; pharmacy education; graduate; curriculum
20.  Faculty Perceptions of the Educating Pharmacy Students to Improve Quality (EPIQ) Program 
Objective. To investigate users’ initial perceptions of and potential applications for the Educating Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists to Improve Quality (EPIQ) program, a 5-module education program designed to educate pharmacists and pharmacy students about quality improvement in pharmacy practice.
Methods. The 5-module EPIQ program was distributed to pharmacy faculty members, pharmacy practitioners, and other health professionals across the country upon request. A 6-item survey instrument was sent to the first 97 people who requested the program.
Results. Twenty-seven (56%) of the 55 respondents had reviewed the EPIQ program and 22 (82%) intended to use some or all of the content to teach about quality improvement or patient safety primarily in pharmacy management and medication safety courses.
Conclusion. Initial perceptions of the EPIQ program were positive; however, further evaluation is needed after more extensive implementation of the program in pharmacy colleges and schools and other settings.
doi:10.5688/ajpe758163
PMCID: PMC3220344  PMID: 22102753
medication safety; qualitative research; science of safety; education; pharmacy curriculum
21.  An Elective Course to Engage Student Pharmacists in Elementary School Science Education 
Objective. To develop and assess the impact of an elective course (HealthWISE) on student pharmacists’ skills in communication and health promotion and elementary school students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward science.
Design. Three colleges and schools of pharmacy collaborated to develop a 1-credit elective course that used online and classroom teaching and learning techniques to prepare student pharmacists to teach science in elementary school classrooms. Student pharmacists delivered 6 science lessons to elementary students over the course of 2 months.
Assessment. In weekly journal reflections and a final paper, student pharmacists reported improved communication and health promotion skills. Elementary teachers reported they were satisfied with student pharmacists’ performance in the classroom. On pretest and posttest evaluations, elementary students demonstrated increased science knowledge and enhanced enthusiasm for science following the lessons taught by student pharmacists.
Conclusions. The HealthWISE elective course provided positive benefit for student pharmacists, elementary school teachers, and elementary students.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7510203
PMCID: PMC3279034  PMID: 22345722
service-learning; communication skills; health promotion; STEM education
22.  Pharmacy Faculty Members' Perspectives on the Student/Faculty Relationship in Online Social Networks 
Objective
To describe pharmacy faculty members' use of the online social network Facebook and compare the perspectives of faculty members with and without Facebook profiles regarding student/faculty relationships.
Methods
An electronic survey instrument was sent to full-time faculty members (n = 183) at 4 colleges of pharmacy in Ohio seeking their opinions on student/faculty relationships on Facebook. If respondents answered “yes” to having a Facebook profile, they were asked 14 questions on aspects of being “friends” with students. If respondents answered “no,” they were asked 4 questions.
Results
Of the 95 respondents (52%) to the survey instrument, 44 faculty members (46%) had a Facebook profile, while 51 faculty members (54%) did not. Those who had a profile had been faculty members for an average of 8.6 years, versus 11.4 years for those who did not have a Facebook profile. Seventy-nine percent of faculty members who used Facebook were not “friends” with their students. The majority of respondents reported that they would decline/ignore a “friend” request from a student, or decline until after the student graduated. Although a limited number of faculty members had used Facebook for online discussions, teaching purposes, or student organizations, the majority of universities did not have policies on the use of social networking sites.
Conclusion
Online social network sites are used widely by students and faculty members, which may raise questions regarding professionalism and appropriate faculty/student relationships. Further research should address the student/preceptor relationship, other online social networking sites, and whether students are interested in using these sites within the classroom and/or professional organizations.
PMCID: PMC3058463  PMID: 21436929
online social networking; Facebook; relationships; technology; network
23.  Pharmacoeconomic Education in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy: An Update 
Objectives
To determine the extent of pharmacoeconomics education at US pharmacy colleges and schools in 2007.
Methods
An e-mail survey was developed and sent to pharmacoeconomics instructors at all US colleges of pharmacy.
Results
Of the 90 colleges and schools of pharmacy that completed the survey, 7 colleges and schools did not currently have someone teaching pharmacoeconomics (eg, new school or looking for instructor). For the 83 colleges and schools that had an instructor who taught pharmacoeconomics, 69 covered pharmacoeconomic-related topics in a required course only; 5, in an elective course only; and 9, in both a required and elective course. The number of hours of pharmacoeconomic-related topics presented in required courses ranged from 1 to 48 hours (mean = 21 ± 14; median = 19).
Conclusions
Pharmacoeconomics education courses are offered at the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. There was a wide range of hours devoted to pharmacoeconomic-related topics and the topics covered in these colleges and schools varied. Although the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy offer pharmacoeconomics courses, official guidelines are needed for the specific aspects and topics that should be covered in the classroom.
PMCID: PMC2508714  PMID: 18698384
pharmacoeconomics education
24.  Evaluation of a Train-the-Trainer Program for Cultural Competence 
Objectives
To develop, implement, and evaluate the impact of a cultural competence train-the-trainer workshop for pharmacy educators.
Methods
A 2-day train-the-trainer workshop entitled Incorporating Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education (1.65 CEUs) was provided to pharmacy faculty from schools across the United States. Baseline, posttraining, and 9-month follow-up surveys assessed participants' (n = 50) characteristics and self-efficacy in developing and teaching content.
Results
At baseline, 94% of faculty members reported no formal training in teaching cultural competence. After completing the workshop, participants' self-rated confidence for developing and teaching workshop content significantly increased. The number of participants who rated their ability to teach cultural competence as “very good” or “excellent” increased from 13% to 60% posttraining. Participants reported teaching 1 or more aspects of the workshop curriculum to nearly 3,000 students in the 9-months following training.
Conclusions
The workshop significantly increased faculty members' perceived and documented ability to teach cultural competence. The train-the-trainer model appears to be a viable and promising strategy for meeting the American Council for Pharmacy Education accreditation standards relating to the teaching of diversity, cultural issues, and health literacy.
PMCID: PMC2690913  PMID: 19503694
cultural competence; pharmacy education; assessment; faculty development; train-the-trainer program
25.  A Collaborative Approach to Combining Service, Teaching, and Research 
Objective. To describe a faculty-student collaborative model and its outcomes on teaching, service, and scholarship.
Design. A Medicare Part D elective course was offered that consisted of classroom and experiential learning where pharmacy students participated in community outreach events to assist Medicare beneficiaries with Part D plan selection. The course training was expanded to include medication therapy management (MTM) and the administration of immunizations. At the completion of the course, students collaborated with faculty members on research endeavors.
Evaluation. During the first 6 years of this course, the class size more than doubled from 20 to 42 students, and all students participating in the course met the IPPE requirements for community outreach. Over that same period, the number of beneficiaries receiving assistance with their Part D plan grew from 72 to 610; and with the help of students starting in 2011, faculty members had 28 poster presentations at national conferences, 7 invited podium presentations at national/international meetings, and published 8 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals.
Conclusion. Through collaborative efforts, this model took an elective course and provided classroom and experiential learning for students, needed health services for the community, and opportunities to pursue wide ranging research projects for faculty members and students.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78358
PMCID: PMC3996390  PMID: 24761019
service-learning; community-engaged scholarship; promotion and tenure; faculty development; experiential learning

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