MenB, the 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase from the bacterial menaquinone biosynthesis pathway, catalyzes an intramolecular Claisen condensation (Dieckmann reaction) in which the electrophile is an unactivated carboxylic acid. Mechanistic studies on this crotonase family member have been hindered by partial active site disorder in existing MenB X-ray structures. In the current work the 2.0 Å structure of O-succinylbenzoyl-aminoCoA (OSB-NCoA) bound to the MenB from Escherichia coli provides important insight into the catalytic mechanism by revealing the position of all active site residues. This has been accomplished by the use of a stable analogue of the O-succinylbenzoyl-CoA (OSB-CoA) substrate in which the CoA thiol has been replaced by an amine. The resulting OSB-NCoA is stable and the X-ray structure of this molecule bound to MenB reveals the structure of the enzyme-substrate complex poised for carbon-carbon bond formation. The structural data support a mechanism in which two conserved active site Tyr residues, Y97 and Y258, participate directly in the intramolecular transfer of the substrate α-proton to the benzylic carboxylate of the substrate, leading to protonation of the electrophile and formation of the required carbanion. Y97 and Y258 are also ideally positioned to function as the second oxyanion hole required for stabilization of the tetrahedral intermediate formed during carbon-carbon bond formation. In contrast, D163, which is structurally homologous to the acid-base catalyst E144 in crotonase, is not directly involved in carbanion formation and may instead play a structural role by stabilizing the loop that carries Y97. When similar studies were performed on the MenB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a twisted hexamer was unexpectedly observed, demonstrating the flexibility of the interfacial loops that are involved in the generation of the novel tertiary and quaternary structures found in the crotonase superfamily. This work reinforces the utility of using a stable substrate analogue as a mechanistic probe in which only one atom has been altered leading to a decrease in α-proton acidity.
A high-throughput screen led to the discovery of 2-amino-4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoate inhibitors of the 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase (MenB) from the menaquinone biosynthesis pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, these compounds are unstable in solution and eliminate to form the corresponding 4-oxo-4-phenylbut-2-enoates that then react with CoA in situ to form nanomolar inhibitors of MenB. The potency of these compounds results from interaction of the CoA adduct carboxylate with the MenB oxyanion hole, a conserved structural motif in the crotonase superfamily. 4-Oxo-4-chlorophenylbutenoyl methyl ester has MICs of 0.6 and 1.5 μg/ml against replicating and nonreplicating M. tuberculosis, respectively, and it is proposed that the methyl ester penetrates the cell where it is hydrolyzed and reacts with CoA to generate the active antibacterial. The CoA adducts thus represent an important foundation for the development of novel MenB inhibitors, and suggest a general approach to the development of potent inhibitors of acyl-CoA binding enzymes.
Menaquinone; MenB; 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase; CoA; HTS; o-succinylbenzoic acid
A high-throughput screen led to the discovery of 2-amino-4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoate inhibitors of the 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase (MenB) from the menaquinone biosynthesis pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, these compounds are unstable in solution and eliminate to form the corresponding 4-oxo-4-phenylbut-2-enoates that then react with CoA in situ to form nanomolar inhibitors of MenB. The potency of these compounds results from interaction of the CoA adduct carboxylate with the MenB oxyanion hole, a conserved structural motif in the crotonase superfamily. 4-Oxo-4-chlorophenylbutenoyl methyl ester has minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.6 and 1.5 μg/mL against replicating and nonreplicating M. tuberculosis, respectively, and it is proposed that the methyl ester penetrates the cell where it is hydrolyzed and reacts with CoA to generate the active antibacterial. The CoA adducts thus represent an important foundation for the development of novel MenB inhibitors and suggest a general approach to the development of potent inhibitors of acyl-CoA binding enzymes.
Menaquinone; MenB; 1; 4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase; CoA; HTS; o-succinylbenzoic acid
Four independent menaquinone (vitamin K2)-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli, blocked in the conversion of o-succinylbenzoate (OSB) to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA), were found to represent two distinct classes. Enzymatic complementation was observed when a cell-free extract of one mutant was mixed with extracts of any of the remaining three mutants. The missing enzymes in the two classes were identified by in vitro complementation with preparations of OSB-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase or DHNA synthase isolated from Mycobacterium phlei. Mutants lacking DHNA synthase (and therefore complementing with M. phlei DHNA synthase) were designated menB, and the mutant lacking OSB-CoA synthetase (and therefore complementing with M. phlei OSB-CoA synthetase) was designated menE. The menB mutants produced only the spirodilactone form of OSB when extracts were incubated with [2,3-14C2]OSB, ATP, and CoA; the OSB was unchanged on incubation with an extract from the menE mutant under these conditions. Experiments with strains lysogenized by a λ men transducing phage (λG68) and transduction studies with phage P1 indicated that the menB and menE genes form part of a cluster of four genes, controlling the early steps in menaquinone biosynthesis, located at 48.5 min in the E. coli linkage map. Evidence was obtained for the clockwise gene order gyrA....menC-
-B-D, where the asterisk denotes the uncertain position of menE relative to menC and menB. The transducing phage (λG68) contained functional menB, menC, and menE genes, but only part of the menD gene, and it was designated λ menCB(D).
Menaquinone is an essential component of the electron transport chain in many pathogens and consequently enzymes in the menaquinone biosynthesis pathway are potential drug targets for the development of novel antibacterial agents. In order to identify leads that target MenB, the 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a high throughput screen was performed. Several 1,4-benzoxazines were identified in this screen and subsequent SAR studies resulted in the discovery of compounds with excellent antibacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv with MIC values as low as 0.6 µg/ml. The 1,4-benzoxazine scaffold is thus a promising foundation for the development of antitubercular agents.
In Escherichia coli, the biosynthesis of the electron carrier menaquinone (vitamin K2) involves at least seven identified enzymes. One of these, naphthoate synthase, forms the bicyclic ring system by catalyzing the conversion of o-succinylbenzoyl-coenzyme A to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The gene for this enzyme has been previously identified as menB. By genetic and biochemical tests, a 1.349-kb DNA fragment from the E. coli men locus complements menB mutants. This fragment contains a single 285-codon open reading frame (ORF). Recombinant plasmids containing deletions of either the amino or the carboxy region of the ORF fail to complement the mutants. The ORF is preceded by consensus sequences for a ribosomal binding site and a sigma 70 promoter. menB transcription sufficient to complement the menB mutant in vivo and in vitro can be initiated from the identified putative promoter, and that in the constructs, menB expression, can be made independent of read-through transcription from the lac promoter. However, multicopy plasmids containing menB fail to generate the expected levels of enzymatic activity.
Menaquinone (vitamin K2)-deficient mutants of Bacillus subtilis, whose growth requirement is satisfied by 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid but not by o-succinylbenzoic acid (OSB), have been analyzed for enzymatic defects. Complementation analysis of cell-free extracts of the mutants revealed that there are two groups, as already indicated by genetic analysis. The missing enzyme in each group was identified by complementation of the cell-free extracts with o-succinylbenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase and dihydroxynaphthoate synthase extracted from Mycobacterium phlei. Mutants found to lack dihydroxynaphthoate synthase, and which therefore complement with dihydroxynaphthoate synthase of M. phlei, were designated as menB; those lacking o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA synthetase, and therefore complementing with o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA synthetase, were designated as menE. The menB mutants RB413 (men-325) and RB415 (men-329), when incubated with [2,3-14C2]OSB, produced only the spirodilactone form of OSB in a reaction that was CoA and adenosine 5'-triphosphate dependent.
We measured antibody responses to meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) polysaccharide (PS) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 94 patients from The Netherlands with disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis group B. The patients ranged in age from 3 to 73 years (mean age, 18.8 years). In initial studies we showed that the binding of a panel of MenB PS-reactive human immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraproteins to biotinylated MenB PS bound to avidin-coated microtiter wells was inhibited > 90% by the addition of soluble MenB PS or encapsulated group B meningococci. In contrast, inhibition of IgM anti-MenB PS antibody-binding activity in many of the patient sera was less than 50% (range, 20 to 94%). These data suggested a high frequency of nonspecific binding in the patient sera. Therefore, all serum samples were assayed in replicate in the presence or absence of soluble MenB PS, and only the inhibitable fraction of the binding signal was used to calculate the anti-MenB PS antibody concentrations. In 17 control patients with meningococcal disease caused by serogroup A or C strains, there was no significant difference in the respective IgM or IgG anti-MenB PS antibody concentrations in paired acute- and convalescent-phase sera. In contrast, in patients with MenB disease, the geometric mean IgM anti-MenB PS antibody concentration increased from 3.9 units/ml in acute-phase serum to 10.5 units/ml in convalescent-phase serum (P < 0.001). The corresponding geometric mean IgG anti-MenB PS antibody titers were 1:27 and 1:36 (P < 0.05). There was only a weak relationship between age and the magnitude of the logarithm of the antibody concentrations in convalescent-phase sera (for IgM, r2 = 0.06 and P < 0.05; for IgG, r2 = 0.08 and P < 0.01). Our data indicate that precautions are needed to avoid nonspecificity in measuring serum antibody responses to MenB PS by ELISA. Furthermore, although this PS is thought to be a poor immunogen, patients as young as 3 years of age recovering from MenB disease demonstrate both ImG and IgG antibody responses in serum.
Menaquinone (MK) plays a central role in the respiratory chain of Bacillus subtilis. The biosynthesis of MK requires the formation of a naphthoquinone ring via a series of specific reactions branching from the shikimate pathway. "Early" MK-specific reactions catalyze the formation of o-succinylbenzoate (OSB) from isochorismate, and "late" reactions convert OSB to dihydroxynaphthoate, by utilizing an OSB-coenzyme A intermediate. We have cloned and sequenced the B. subtilis menE and menB genes encoding, respectively, OSB-coenzyme A synthase and dihydroxynaphthoate synthase. The MenB open reading frame encodes a potential polypeptide of 261 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 28.5 kDa, while the MenE open reading frame could encode a 24.4-kDa polypeptide of 220 amino acid residues. Probable promoter sequences were identified by high-resolution primer extension assays. Organization of these genes and regulatory regions was found to be menBp menB menEp menE. Expression of menE was dependent on both menEp and menBp, indicating an operonlike organization. A region of dyad symmetry capable of forming a stable RNA secondary structure was found between menB and menE. Culture cycle-dependent expression of menB and menE was measured by steady-state transcript accumulation. For both genes, maximal accumulation was found to occur within an hour after the end of exponential growth. The menBp and menEp promoters have sequences compatible with recognition by the major vegetative form of B. subtilis RNA polymerase, E sigma A. Both promoter regions also were found to contain homologies to a sequence motif previously identified in the menCDp region and in promoters for several B. subtilis tricarboxylic acid cycle genes.
The crystal structures of two 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA thioesterases of plant and cyanobacterial origin that are involved in the biosynthesis of phylloquinone are presented. The divergent structures of these two functionally similar enzymes indicate convergent evolution.
The synthesis of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in photosynthetic organisms requires a thioesterase that hydrolyzes 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA (DHNA-CoA) to release 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA). Cyanobacteria and plants contain distantly related hotdog-fold thioesterases that catalyze this reaction, although the structural basis of these convergent enzymatic activities is unknown. To investigate this, the crystal structures of hotdog-fold DHNA-CoA thioesterases from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis (Slr0204) and the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDHNAT1) were determined. These enzymes form distinct homotetramers and use different active sites to catalyze hydrolysis of DHNA-CoA, similar to the 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA (4-HBA-CoA) thioesterases from Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. Like the 4-HBA-CoA thioesterases, the DHNA-CoA thioesterases contain either an active-site aspartate (Slr0204) or glutamate (AtDHNAT1) that are predicted to be catalytically important. Computational modeling of the substrate-bound forms of both enzymes indicates the residues that are likely to be involved in substrate binding and catalysis. Both enzymes are selective for DHNA-CoA as a substrate, but this selectivity is achieved using divergent predicted binding strategies. The Slr0204 binding pocket is predominantly hydrophobic and closely conforms to DHNA, while that of AtDHNAT1 is more polar and solvent-exposed. Considered in light of the related 4-HBA-CoA thioesterases, these structures indicate that hotdog-fold thioesterases using either an active-site aspartate or glutamate diverged into distinct clades prior to the evolution of strong substrate specificity in these enzymes.
thioesterases; hotdog fold; vitamin K; phylloquinone; Synechocystis; Arabidopsis thaliana
Menaquinone (vitamin K2)-deficient mutants of Bacillus subtilis were selected by simultaneous resistance to two aminoglycoside antibiotics. These men mutants fell into two groups: group I, in which the nutritional requirement was satisfied either by o-succinylbenzoic acid or by 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid; and group II, comprising those capable of growing only when supplemented with 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The latter group could be further subdivided into two classes on the basis of syntrophy experiments, fine-structure genetic mapping, and in vitro complementation by cell-free extracts (Meganathan et al., J. Bacteriol., 145:328-332, 1981). These subclasses of group II defined the menB and menE genes, whereas group I appeared to comprise mutations in the menC and menD genes. All of the men mutations tested, whether occurring in menB, menE, or menC,D, could be placed by genetic mapping with bacteriophage PBS1 between bioB and ald on the B. subtilis genome.
Small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with persistent infections and may be selectively enriched during antibiotic therapy. Three pairs of clonally related S. aureus isolates were recovered from patients receiving systemic antibiotic therapy. Each pair consisted of an isolate with a normal phenotype and an isolate with an SCV phenotype. These SCVs were characterized by reduced susceptibility to gentamicin, reduced hemolytic activity, slow growth, and menadione auxotrophy. Sequencing of the genes involved in menadione biosynthesis revealed mutations in menB, the gene encoding naphthoate synthase, in all three strains with the SCV phenotype. The menB mutations were (i) a 9-bp deletion from nucleotides 55 to 63, (ii) a frameshift mutation that resulted in a premature stop codon at position 230, and (iii) a point mutation that caused the amino acid substitution Gly to Val at codon 233. Fluctuation tests showed that growth-compensated mutants arose in the SCV population of one strain, strain OM1b, at a rate of 1.8 × 10−8 per cell per generation. Sequence analyses of 23 independently isolated growth-compensated mutants of this strain revealed alterations in the menB sequence in every case. These alterations included reversions to the wild-type sequence and intragenic second-site mutations. Each of the growth-compensated mutants showed a restoration of normal growth and a loss of menadione auxotrophy, increased susceptibility to gentamicin, and restored hemolytic activity. These data show that mutations in menB cause the SCV phenotype in these clinical isolates. This is the first report on the genetic basis of menadione-auxotrophic SCVs determined in clinical S. aureus isolates.
In this study (S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (H16_A0461/FadB’, gene ID: 4247876) from one of two active fatty acid degradation operons of Ralstonia eutropha H16 has been heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified as protein possessing a His-Tag and initially characterized. FadB’ is an enzyme with two catalytic domains exhibiting a single monomeric structure and possessing a molecular weight of 86 kDa. The C-terminal part of the enzyme harbors enoyl-CoA hydratase activity and is able to convert trans-crotonyl-CoA to 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. The N-terminal part of FadB’ comprises an NAD+ binding site and is responsible for 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity converting (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA. Enoyl-CoA hydratase activity was detected spectrophotometrically with trans-crotonyl-CoA. (S)-3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity was measured in both directions with acetoacetyl-CoA and 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. FadB’ was found to be strictly stereospecific to (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA and to prefer NAD+. The Km value for acetoacetyl-CoA was 48 μM and Vmax 149 μmol mg−1 min−1. NADP(H) was utilized at a rate of less than 10% in comparison to activity with NAD(H). FadB’ exhibited optimal activity at pH 6–7 and the activity decreased at alkaline and acidic pH values. Acetyl-CoA, propionyl-CoA and CoA were found to have an inhibitory effect on FadB’. This study is a first report on biochemical properties of purified (S)-stereospecific 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/enoyl-CoA hydratase with the inverted domain order from R. eutropha H16. In addition to fundamental information about FadB’ and fatty acid metabolism, FadB’ might be also interesting for biotechnological applications.
Fatty acid metabolism; 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/enoyl-CoA hydratase, Ralstonia eutropha H16
Dimethyl-sulphoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced in abundance by marine phytoplankton, and the catabolism of this compound is an important source of carbon and reduced sulfur for marine bacteria and other organisms. The enzyme DmdD catalyzes the last step in the methanethiol (MeSH) pathway of DMSP catabolism. DmdD is a member of the crotonase superfamily of enzymes, and it catalyzes both the hydration and the hydrolysis of methylthioacryloyl-CoA (MTA-CoA), converting it to acetaldehyde, CO2, MeSH, and CoA. We report here the crystal structure of Ruegeria pomeroyi DmdD free enzyme at 1.5 Å resolution and the structures of the E121A mutant in complex with MTA-CoA and 3-methylmercaptopropionate-CoA (MMPA-CoA) at 1.8 Å resolution. DmdD is a hexamer, composed of a dimer of trimers where the three monomers of each trimer are related by a crystallographic 3-fold axis. The overall structure of this hexamer is similar to those of canonical crotonases. However, the C-terminal loops of DmdD in one of the trimers assume a different conformation and contribute to CoA binding in the active site of a neighboring monomer of the trimer, while these loops in the second trimer are disordered. MTA-CoA is bound deep in the active site in the first trimer, but shows a 1.5 Å shift in its position in the second trimer. MMPA-CoA has a similar binding mode to MTA-CoA in the first trimer. MMPA-CoA cannot be hydrated and is only hydrolyzed slowly by DmdD. Replacement of the sulfur atom in MMPA-CoA with a methylene group abolishes hydrolysis, suggesting that the unique property of the substrate is a major determinant of the hydrolysis activity of DmdD.
Neisseria meningitidis infection can cause life-threatening meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia. Over the past 40 years, vaccines against most of the main meningococcal serogroups have offered increasingly good protection from disease, with one major exception in the developed world: serogroup B meningococcus (MenB). In the United States, MenB accounts for about a quarter of cases of meningococcal meningitis, with the bulk of the rest caused by meningococcus serogroups C (MenC) and Y (MenY). In the UK, where a vaccine against MenC is widely used, MenB is now responsible for nearly 90% of cases of invasive meningococcal disease. Recent attempts to create a universal MenB vaccine have been thwarted by the variability of the surface proteins of MenB and by the similarity of the MenB capsule to human glycoproteins. This review discusses current meningococcal vaccine strategies and their limitations with regard to MenB, and examines a promising new strategy for the rational design of a MenB vaccine. Thanks to a fusion of a rational reverse genetics approach and a membrane vesicle approach, a MenB vaccine, 4CMenB (Bexsero®), has finally gained regulatory approval in Europe and could be in clinical use by the end of 2013.
Evidence Based Medicine; Mass Media; Misrepresentation; Randomised Controlled Trials
Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of endemic cases and epidemics of meningitis and devastating septicemia. Although effective vaccines exist for several serogroups of pathogenic N. meningitidis, conventional vaccinology approaches have failed to provide a universal solution for serogroup B (MenB) which consequently remains an important burden of disease worldwide. The advent of whole-genome sequencing changed the approach to vaccine development, enabling the identification of potential vaccine candidates starting directly with the genomic information, with a process named reverse vaccinology. The application of reverse vaccinology to MenB allowed the identification of new protein antigens able to induce bactericidal antibodies. Three highly immunogenic antigens (fHbp, NadA and NHBA) were combined with outer membrane vesicles and formulated for human use in a multicomponent vaccine, named 4CMenB. This is the first MenB vaccine based on recombinant proteins able to elicit a robust bactericidal immune response in adults, adolescents and infants against a broad range of serogroup B isolates. This review describes the successful story of the development of the 4CMenB vaccine, with particular emphasis on the functional, immunological and structural characterization of the protein antigens included in the vaccine.
Neisseria meningitidis B; reverse vaccinology; multicomponent vaccine; fHbp; NadA; NHBA
Escherichia coli is used as a model organism for elucidation of menaquinone biosynthesis, for which a hydrolytic step from 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A (DHNA-CoA) to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate is still unaccounted for. Recently, a hotdog fold thioesterase has been shown to catalyze this conversion in phylloquinone biosynthesis, suggesting that its closest homolog, YbgC in Escherichia coli, may be the DHNA-CoA thioesterase in menaquinone biosynthesis. However, this possibility is excluded by the involvement of YbgC in the Tol-Pal system and its complete lack of hydrolytic activity toward DHNA-CoA. To identify the hydrolytic enzyme, we have performed an activity-based screen of all nine Escherichia coli hotdog fold thioesterases and found that YdiI possesses a high level of hydrolytic activity toward DHNA-CoA, with high substrate specificity, and that another thioesterase, EntH, from siderophore biosynthesis exhibits a moderate, much lower DHNA-CoA thioesterase activity. Deletion of the ydiI gene from the bacterial genome results in a significant decrease in menaquinone production, which is little affected in ΔybgC and ΔentH mutants. These results support the notion that YdiI is the DHNA-CoA thioesterase involved in the biosynthesis of menaquinone in the model bacterium.
Three hundred fifty-nine serum samples from patients with immunoglobulin M (IgM) or IgG monoclonal gammopathies were tested for binding to the capsular polysaccharide (PS) of Neisseria meningitidis group B (MenB PS, poly-alpha[2-->8]-N-acetylneuraminic acid). Of 159 IgM paraproteins, 7 (4.4%) were positive, compared with 0 of 200 IgG paraproteins (P < 0.05). Since MenB PS reactivity was limited to the IgM paraproteins, the 159 IgM paraproteins were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for reactivity with seven other bacterial PSs. None reacted with meningococcal A or C, Haemophilus influenzae type b, or Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3, 6, 14, or 23 PS. The specificity of the MenB PS-reactive antibodies was confirmed by demonstration of binding to N. meningitidis group B cells but not to a capsular PS-deficient mutant and by specific inhibition of binding to solid-phase MenB PS by soluble MenB PS in an ELISA. Five of five antibodies tested protected infant rats from bacteremia caused by Escherichia coli K1, an organism with a PS capsule that also is composed of poly-alpha[2-->8]-N-acetylneuraminic acid. Each of the seven MenB PS-reactive paraproteins had autoantibody activity as defined by binding to homogenates of calf brain in a radioimmunoassay. For six of the seven antibodies, binding to calf brain was inhibited by the addition of soluble MenB PS. Thus, approximately 4% of human IgM paraproteins have autoantibody activity to poly-alpha[2-->8]-N-acetylneuraminic acid, an antigen expressed in fetal brain and cross-reactive with the MenB capsular PS. The reason for this skewing of the IgM paraprotein repertoire toward reactivity with poly-alpha[2-->8]-N-acetylneuraminic acid antigenic determinants is unknown.
Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile and dangerous pathogen and one of the major causes of community-acquired and hospital-acquired infections. The rise of multidrug-resistant strains of S. aureus requires the development of new antibiotics with previously unexploited mechanisms of action, such as inhibition of the β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III (FabH). This enzyme initiates fatty acid biosynthesis in a bacterial type II fatty acid synthase, catalyzing a decarboxylative condensation between malonyl-ACP and an acyl coenzyme A (CoA) substrate and is essential for viability. We have identified only one fabH in the genome of S. aureus and have shown that it encodes a protein with 57, 40, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with the FabH proteins of Bacillus subtilis (bFabH1), Escherichia coli (ecFabH), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtFabH). Additional genomic sequence analysis revealed that this S. aureus FabH (saFabH) is not mutated in certain methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains. saFabH was expressed in E. coli with an N-terminal polyhistidine tag and subsequently purified by metal chelate and size exclusion chromatography. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a molecular mass of 37 kDa, while gel filtration demonstrated a mass of 66.7 kDa, suggesting a noncovalent homodimeric structure for saFabH. The apparent Km for malonyl-ACP was 1.76 ± 0.40 μM, and the enzyme was active with acetyl-CoA (kcat, 16.18 min−1; Km, 6.18 ± 0.9 μM), butyryl-CoA (kcat, 42.90 min−1; Km, 2.32 ± 0.12 μM), and isobutyryl-CoA (kcat, 98.0 min−1; Km, 0.32 ± 0.04 μM). saFabH was weakly inhibited by thiolactomycin (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], >100 μM) yet was efficiently inhibited by two new FabH inhibitors, 5-chloro-4-phenyl-[1,2]-dithiol-3-one (IC50, 1.87 ± 0.10 μM) and 4-phenyl-5-phenylimino-[1,2,4]dithiazolidin-3-one (IC50, 0.775 ± 0.08 μM).
The benzenoid aromatic compound o-succinylbenzoic acid is formed by dehydration of the prearomatic compound 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid by the enzyme o-succinylbenzoate synthase, encoded by the menC gene. A 1.3-kb PstI-PvuII fragment was found to complement the menC mutation. The complete nucleotide sequence of this fragment revealed a single open reading frame of 954 bp capable of encoding a 35-kDa protein. A consensus sequence for a ribosomal binding site but no promoter consensus sequences were found. However, the first base of the initiating codon of this open reading frame overlaps the upstream menB gene termination codon, suggesting an operon-like organization for these genes. Consistent with this suggestion, the menB promoter can initiate transcription of the menC gene.
Malyl-CoA lyase (MCL) is a promiscuous carbon-carbon bond lyase that catalyzes the reversible cleavage of structurally related Coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters. This enzyme plays a crucial, multifunctional role in the 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation in Chloroflexus aurantiacus. A second, phylogenetically distinct MCL from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is involved in the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway for acetate assimilation. Both MCLs belong to the large superfamily of CitE-like enzymes, which includes the name-giving β-subunit of citrate lyase (CitE), malyl-CoA thioesterases and other enzymes of unknown physiological function. The CitE-like enzyme superfamily also bears sequence and structural resemblance to the malate synthases. All of these different enzymes share highly conserved catalytic residues, although they catalyze distinctly different reactions: C-C bond formation and cleavage, thioester hydrolysis, or both (the malate synthases).
Here we report the first crystal structures of MCLs from two different phylogenetic subgroups in apo- and substrate-bound forms. Both the C. aurantiacus and the R. sphaeroides MCL contain elaborations on the canonical β8/α8 TIM barrel fold and form hexameric assemblies. Upon ligand binding, changes in the C-terminal domains of the MCLs result in closing of the active site, with the C-terminal domain of one monomer forming a lid over and contributing side chains to the active site of the adjacent monomer. The distinctive features of the two MCL subgroups were compared to known structures of other CitE-like superfamily enzymes and to malate synthases, providing insight into the structural subtleties that underlie the functional versatility of these enzymes.
Although the C. aurantiacus and the R. sphaeroides MCLs have divergent primary structures (~37% identical), their tertiary and quaternary structures are very similar. It can be assumed that the C-C bond formation catalyzed by the MCLs occurs as proposed for malate synthases. However, a comparison of the two MCL structures with known malate synthases raised the question why the MCLs are not also able to hydrolyze CoA thioester bonds. Our results suggest the previously proposed reaction mechanism for malate synthases may be incomplete or not entirely correct. Further studies involving site-directed mutagenesis based on these structures may be required to solve this puzzling question.
Malyl-CoA lyase; Malate synthase; Citrate lyase; CitE
Targeting the biosynthetic pathway of Coenzyme A (CoA) for drug development will compromise multiple cellular functions of the tubercular pathogen simultaneously. Structural divergence in the organization of the penultimate and final enzymes of CoA biosynthesis in the host and pathogen and the differences in their regulation mark out the final enzyme, dephosphocoenzyme A kinase (CoaE) as a potential drug target.
We report here a complete biochemical and biophysical characterization of the M. tuberculosis CoaE, an enzyme essential for the pathogen's survival, elucidating for the first time the interactions of a dephosphocoenzyme A kinase with its substrates, dephosphocoenzyme A and ATP; its product, CoA and an intrinsic yet novel inhibitor, CTP, which helps modulate the enzyme's kinetic capabilities providing interesting insights into the regulation of CoaE activity. We show that the mycobacterial enzyme is almost 21 times more catalytically proficient than its counterparts in other prokaryotes. ITC measurements illustrate that the enzyme follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition with DCoA as the leading substrate and ATP following in tow. Kinetic and ITC experiments demonstrate that though CTP binds strongly to the enzyme, it is unable to participate in DCoA phosphorylation. We report that CTP actually inhibits the enzyme by decreasing its Vmax. Not surprisingly, a structural homology search for the modeled mycobacterial CoaE picks up cytidylmonophosphate kinases, deoxycytidine kinases, and cytidylate kinases as close homologs. Docking of DCoA and CTP to CoaE shows that both ligands bind at the same site, their interactions being stabilized by 26 and 28 hydrogen bonds respectively. We have also assigned a role for the universal Unknown Protein Family 0157 (UPF0157) domain in the mycobacterial CoaE in the proper folding of the full length enzyme.
In view of the evidence presented, it is imperative to assign a greater role to the last enzyme of Coenzyme A biosynthesis in metabolite flow regulation through this critical biosynthetic pathway.
MenBvac and Menjugate are safe and efficacious vaccines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of the combination (MenB/C) of the lyophilized active components of the conjugated group C vaccine Menjugate when reconstituted with the full liquid group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine MenBvac compared to MenBvac and Menjugate given separately. At 6-week intervals, healthy adults were given one dose of MenB/C followed by two doses of MenBvac (MenB/C group), three doses of MenBvac (MenB group), or one dose of Menjugate and two doses of placebo (MenC group). Injection site reactions were frequent in all groups. However, most reactions were short lasting and mild or moderate in intensity, and the vaccines were found to be well tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. MenB/C was immunogenic with regard to both serogroup B and C meningococci. Both the serum bactericidal assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses showed that the immune responses of the combination vaccine were similar to the immune responses of its separate components MenBvac and Menjugate for both serogroup B and C. In conclusion, the combined MenB/C vaccine is safe and immunogenic. The two vaccines do not interact negatively with each other and can easily be administered in the same syringe. The induced immune responses suggest that the combined vaccine is likely to confer protection against systemic group B disease caused by the vaccine strain as well as against group C meningococcal disease.
Sequence comparisons have implied the presence of genes encoding enzymes of the mevalonate pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis in the gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. In this study we showed through genetic disruption experiments that mvaA, which encodes a putative class II 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, is essential for in vitro growth of S. aureus. Supplementation of media with mevalonate permitted isolation of an auxotrophic mvaA null mutant that was attenuated for virulence in a murine hematogenous pyelonephritis infection model. The mvaA gene was cloned from S. aureus DNA and expressed with an N-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli. The encoded protein was affinity purified to apparent homogeneity and was shown to be a class II HMG-CoA reductase, the first class II eubacterial biosynthetic enzyme isolated. Unlike most other HMG-CoA reductases, the S. aureus enzyme exhibits dual coenzyme specificity for NADP(H) and NAD(H), but NADP(H) was the preferred coenzyme. Kinetic parameters were determined for all substrates for all four catalyzed reactions using either NADP(H) or NAD(H). In all instances optimal activity using NAD(H) occurred at a pH one to two units more acidic than that using NADP(H). pH profiles suggested that His378 and Lys263, the apparent cognates of the active-site histidine and lysine of Pseudomonas mevalonii HMG-CoA reductase, function in catalysis and that the general catalytic mechanism is valid for the S. aureus enzyme. Fluvastatin inhibited competitively with HMG-CoA, with a Ki of 320 μM, over 104 higher than that for a class I HMG-CoA reductase. Bacterial class II HMG-CoA reductases thus are potential targets for antibacterial agents directed against multidrug-resistant gram-positive cocci.
Acetone degradation by cell suspensions of Desulfococcus biacutus was CO2 dependent, indicating initiation by a carboxylation reaction, while degradation of 3-hydroxybutyrate was not CO2 dependent. Growth on 3-hydroxybutyrate resulted in acetate accumulation in the medium at a ratio of 1 mol of acetate per mol of substrate degraded. In acetone-grown cultures no coenzyme A (CoA) transferase or CoA ligase appeared to be involved in acetone metabolism, and no acetate accumulated in the medium, suggesting that the carboxylation of acetone and activation to acetoacetyl-CoA may occur without the formation of a free intermediate. Catabolism of 3-hydroxybutyrate occurred after activation by CoA transfer from acetyl-CoA, followed by oxidation to acetoacetyl-CoA. In both acetone-grown cells and 3-hydroxybutyrate-grown cells, acetoacetyl-CoA was thioyltically cleaved to two acetyl-CoA residues and further metabolized through the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. Comparison of the growth yields on acetone and 3-hydroxybutyrate suggested an additional energy requirement in the catabolism of acetone. This is postulated to be the carboxylation reaction (delta G(o)' for the carboxylation of acetone to acetoacetate, +17.1 kJ.mol-1). At the intracellular acyl-CoA concentrations measured, the net free energy change of acetone carboxylation and catabolism to two acetyl-CoA residues would be close to 0 kJ.mol of acetone-1, if one mol of ATP was invested. In the absence of an energy-utilizing step in this catabolic pathway, the predicted intracellular acetoacetyl-CoA concentration would be 10(13) times lower than that measured. Thus, acetone catabolism to two acetyl-CoA residues must be accompanied by the utilization of teh energetic equivalent of (at lease) one ATP molecule. Measurement of enzyme activities suggested that assimilation of acetyl-CoA occurred through a modified citric acid cycle in which isocitrate was cleaved to succinate and glyoxylate. Malate synthase, condensing glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA, acted as an anaplerotic enzyme. Carboxylation of pyruvate of phosphoenolpyruvate could not be detected.