As part of an effort to elucidate the molecular basis for the pathogenesis of NKX2.5 mutations in congenital heart disease using X-ray crystallography, the NKX2.5 homeodomain has been crystallized in complex with a specific DNA element, the −242 promoter region of atrial natriuretic factor. Crystals of the homeodomain–DNA complex diffracted X-rays to 1.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P65, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 71.5, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of the NKX2.5 homeodomain and one double-stranded oligonucleotide.
NKX2.5 is a homeodomain containing transcription factor regulating cardiac formation and function, and its mutations are linked to congenital heart disease. Here we provide the first report of the crystal structure of the NKX2.5 homeodomain in complex with double-stranded DNA of its endogenous target, locating within the proximal promoter –242 site of the atrial natriuretic factor gene. The crystal structure, determined at 1.8 Å resolution, demonstrates that NKX2.5 homeodomains occupy both DNA binding sites separated by five nucleotides without physical interaction between themselves. The two homeodomains show identical conformation despite the differences in the DNA sequences they bind, and no significant bending of the DNA was observed. Tyr54, absolutely conserved in NK2 family proteins, mediates sequence-specific interaction with the TAAG motif. This high resolution crystal structure of NKX2.5 protein provides a detailed picture of protein and DNA interactions, which allows us to predict DNA binding of mutants identified in human patients.
The mammalian Pax6 paired domain has been cocrystallizaed with a 25 bp DNA fragment of the Pax6 gene enhancer.
Pax6 is a member of the Pax family of transcription factors and is essential for eye development. Pax6 has two DNA-binding domains: the paired domain and the homeodomain. The Pax6 paired domain is involved in Pax6 gene autoregulation by binding to its enhancer. In this study, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the mammalian Pax6 paired domain in complex with the Pax6 gene enhancer was attempted. The Pax6 paired domain complexed with an optimized 25 bp DNA fragment was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0/3.7 Å resolution and belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.21, b = 70.69, c = 176.03 Å, β = 90.54°. Diffraction data were collected to 3.7 Å resolution.
Pax6 paired domain; Pax6 gene enhancer; Pax-family proteins
A complex comprising the LIM domains of the LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx4 tethered to a peptide region of Isl2 has been engineered, purified and crystallized. Crystals of this intramolecular complex diffracted to 2.16 Å resolution.
A stable intramolecular complex comprising the LIM domains of the LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx4 tethered to a peptide region of Isl2 has been engineered, purified and crystallized. The monoclinic crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.8, b = 88.7, c = 49.9 Å, β = 111.9°, and diffracted to 2.16 Å resolution.
Lhx4; Isl2; Lim domains; Lim-homeodomain transcription factors
Reversible post-translational protein modifications such as SUMOylation add complexity to cardiac transcriptional regulation. The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2-5/Csx is essential for heart specification and morphogenesis. It has been previously suggested that SUMOylation of lysine 51 (K51) of Nkx2-5 is essential for its DNA binding and transcriptional activation. Here, we confirm that SUMOylation strongly enhances Nkx2-5 transcriptional activity and that residue K51 of Nkx2-5 is a SUMOylation target. However, in a range of cultured cell lines we find that a point mutation of K51 to arginine (K51R) does not affect Nkx2-5 activity or DNA binding, suggesting the existence of additional Nkx2-5 SUMOylated residues. Using biochemical assays, we demonstrate that Nkx2-5 is SUMOylated on at least one additional site, and this is the predominant site in cardiac cells. The second site is either non-canonical or a “shifting” site, as mutation of predicted consensus sites and indeed every individual lysine in the context of the K51R mutation failed to impair Nkx2-5 transcriptional synergism with SUMO, or its nuclear localization and DNA binding. We also observe SUMOylation of Nkx2-5 cofactors, which may be critical to Nkx2-5 regulation. Our data reveal highly complex regulatory mechanisms driven by SUMOylation to modulate Nkx2-5 activity.
We have previously shown that Nkx3.2, a transcriptional repressor that is expressed in the sclerotome and developing cartilage, can activate the chondrocyte differentiation program in somitic mesoderm in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-dependent manner. In this work, we elucidate how BMP signaling modulates the transcriptional repressor activity of Nkx3.2. We have found that Nkx3.2 forms a complex, in vivo, with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and Smad1 and -4 in a BMP-dependent manner. The homeodomain and NK domain of Nkx3.2 support the interaction of this transcription factor with HDAC1 and Smad1, respectively, and both of these domains are required for the transcriptional repressor activity of Nkx3.2. Furthermore, the recruitment of an HDAC/Sin3A complex to Nkx3.2 requires that Nkx3.2 interact with Smad1 and -4. Indeed, Nkx3.2 both fails to associate with the HDAC/Sin3A complex and represses target gene transcription in a cell line lacking Smad4, but it performs these functions if exogenous Smad4 is added to these cells. While prior work has indicated that BMP-dependent Smads can support transcriptional activation, our findings indicate that BMP-dependent Smads can also potentiate transcriptional repression, depending upon the identity of the Smad-interacting transcription factor.
Crystals of dihydrouridine synthase from Thermus thermophilus and its complex with tRNA were obtained and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.70 and 3.51 Å resolution, respectively.
Dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) is responsible for catalyzing dihydrouridine formation in RNA by the reduction of uridine. To elucidate its RNA-recognition mechanism, Dus from Thermus thermophilus (TthDus) and its complex with tRNA were crystallized. Diffraction data sets were collected from crystals of native and selenomethionine-substituted TthDus to resolutions of 1.70 and 2.30 Å, respectively. These crystals belonged to space group P1. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that two molecules of TthDus were contained in an asymmetric unit. In addition, diffraction data were collected to 3.51 Å resolution from a crystal of selenomethionine-substituted TthDus in complex with tRNA, which belonged to space group P41212. Preliminary structural analysis showed that the asymmetric unit contained two TthDus–tRNA complexes.
dihydrouridine synthase; tRNA; flavin mononucleotide; Thermus thermophilus
The cardiac homeobox transcription factor CSX/NKX2-5 plays an important role in vertebrate heart development. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified a novel LIM domain–containing protein, named CSX-associated LIM protein (Cal), that interacts with CSX/NKX2-5. CSX/NKX2-5 and Cal associate with each other both in vivo and in vitro, and the LIM domains of Cal and the homeodomain of CSX/NKX2-5 were necessary for mutual binding. Cal itself possessed the transcription-promoting activity, and cotransfection of Cal enhanced CSX/NKX2-5–induced activation of atrial natriuretic peptide gene promoter. Cal contained a functional nuclear export signal and shuttled from the cytoplasm into the nucleus in response to calcium. Accumulation of Cal in the nucleus of P19CL6 cells promoted myocardial cell differentiation accompanied by increased expression levels of the target genes of CSX/NKX2-5. These results suggest that a novel LIM protein Cal induces cardiomyocyte differentiation through its dynamic intracellular shuttling and association with CSX/NKX2-5.
cardiogenesis; homeobox transcription factor; LIM domain; nucleocytoplasmic transport; transcriptional regulation
The recently described NK2 family of homeodomain proteins are key developmental regulators. In Drosophila melanogaster, two members of this family, bagpipe and tinman, are required for visceral and cardiac mesoderm formation, respectively. In vertebrates, tinman appears to represent a family of closely related NK2 genes, including Nkx-2.5, that are expressed at an early stage in precardiac cells. Consistent with a role for Nkx-2.5 in heart development, inactivation of the Nkx-2.5 gene in mice causes severe cardiac malformations and embryonic lethality. However, little is known about the molecular action of Nkx-2.5 and its targets in cardiac muscle. In this paper, we report the identification and characterization of a functional and highly conserved Nkx-2.5 response element, termed the NKE, in the proximal region of the cardiac atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) promoter. The NKE is composed of two near-consensus NK2 binding sites that are each able to bind purified Nkx-2.5. The NKE is sufficient to confer cardiac cell-specific activity to a minimal TATA-containing promoter and is required for Nkx-2.5 activation of the ANF promoter in heterologous cells. Interestingly, in primary cardiocyte cultures, the NKE contributes to ANF promoter activity in a chamber- and developmental stage-specific manner, suggesting that Nkx-2.5 and/or other related cardiac proteins may play a role in chamber specification. This work provides the identification of a direct target for NK2 homeoproteins in the heart and lays the foundation for further molecular analyses of the role of Nkx-2.5 and other NK2 proteins in cardiac development.
The isolation and preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of phage Mu activator protein C bound to promoter DNA are reported.
Bacteriophage Mu C protein is an activator of the four Mu late promoters that drive the expression of genes encoding DNA-modification as well as phage head and tail morphogenesis proteins. This report describes the purification and cocrystallization of wild-type and selenomethionine-substituted C protein with a synthetic late promoter Psym, together with preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis using SAD phasing. The selenomethionine peak data set was collected from a single crystal which diffracted to 3.1 Å resolution and belonged to space group P41 or P43, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.9, c = 187.6 Å and two complexes per asymmetric unit. The structure will reveal the amino acid–DNA interactions and any conformational changes associated with DNA binding.
activator protein C; bacteriophage Mu; transcription factor
A complex of tamarind trypsin inhibitor with porcine trypsin was crystallized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction.
The complex of Tamarindus indica Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor and porcine trypsin has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium acetate as precipitant and sodium acetate as buffer. The homogeneity of complex formation was checked by size-exclusion chromatography and further confirmed by reducing SDS–PAGE. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to the tetragonal space group P41, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.1, c = 120.1 Å. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the presence of one unit of inhibitor–trypsin complex per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 45%.
tamarind trypsin inhibitor; porcine pancreatic trypsin; Kunitz-type inhibitors
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes an important step in lysine biosynthesis. Here, the crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis to 1.2 Å resolution of DHDPS from C. botulinum in the presence of its substrate pyruvate is reported.
In this paper, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis to near-atomic resolution of DHDPS from Clostridium botulinum crystallized in the presence of its substrate pyruvate are presented. The enzyme crystallized in a number of forms using a variety of PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to 1.2 Å resolution and belonging to space group C2, in contrast to the unbound form, which had trigonal symmetry. The unit-cell parameters were a = 143.4, b = 54.8, c = 94.3 Å, β = 126.3°. The crystal volume per protein weight (V
M) was 2.3 Å3 Da−1 (based on the presence of two monomers in the asymmetric unit), with an estimated solvent content of 46%. The high-resolution structure of the pyruvate-bound form of C. botulinum DHDPS will provide insight into the function and stability of this essential bacterial enzyme.
antibiotics; antibiotic resistance; dihydrodipicolinate synthase; drug discovery; lysine biosynthesis
Heart formation is a complex morphogenetic process, and perturbations in cardiac morphogenesis lead to congenital heart disease. NKX2-5 is a key causative gene associated with cardiac birth defects, presumably because of its essential roles during the early steps of cardiogenesis. Previous studies in model organisms implicate NKX2-5 homologs in numerous processes, including cardiac progenitor specification, progenitor proliferation, and chamber morphogenesis. By inhibiting function of the zebrafish NKX2-5 homologs, nkx2.5 and nkx2.7, we show that nkx genes are essential to establish the original dimensions of the linear heart tube. The nkx-deficient heart tube fails to elongate normally: its ventricular portion is atypically short and wide, and its atrial portion is disorganized and sprawling. This atrial phenotype is associated with a surplus of atrial cardiomyocytes, whereas ventricular cell number is normal at this stage. However, ventricular cell number is decreased in nkx-deficient embryos later in development, when cardiac chambers are emerging. Thus, we conclude that nkx genes regulate heart tube extension and exert differential effects on ventricular and atrial cell number. Our data suggest that morphogenetic errors could originate during early stages of heart tube assembly in patients with NKX2-5 mutations.
nkx2.5; nkx2.7; atrium; ventricle; zebrafish; heart development; heart tube assembly; chamber morphogenesis
A DNA nonbinding mutant of the NK2 class homeoprotein Nkx2.5 dominantly inhibits cardiogenesis in Xenopus embryos, causing a small heart to develop or blocking heart formation entirely. Recently, ten heterozygous CSX/NKX2.5 homeoprotein mutations were identified in patients with congenital atrioventricular (AV) conduction defects. All four missense mutations identified in the human homeodomain led to markedly reduced DNA binding. To examine the effect of a DNA binding–impaired mutant of mouse Csx/Nkx2.5 in the embryonic heart, we generated transgenic mice expressing one such allele, I183P, under the β-myosin heavy chain promoter. Unexpectedly, transgenic mice were born apparently normal, but the accumulation of Csx/Nkx2.5(I183P) mutant protein in the embryo, neonate, and adult myocardium resulted in progressive and profound cardiac conduction defects and heart failure. P-R prolongation observed at 2 weeks of age rapidly progressed into complete AV block as early as 4 weeks of age. Expression of connexins 40 and 43 was dramatically decreased in the transgenic heart, which may contribute to the conduction defects in the transgenic mice. This transgenic mouse model may be useful in the study of the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction associated with CSX/NKX2.5 mutations in humans.
NKX3.1 is a prostate tumor suppressor belonging to the NK-2 family of homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. NK-2 family members often possess a stretch of 10–15 residues enriched in acidic amino acids, the acidic domain (AD), in the flexible, disordered region N-terminal to the HD. Interactions between the N-terminal region of NKX3.1 and its homeodomain affect protein stability and DNA binding. CD spectroscopy measuring the thermal unfolding of NKX3.1 constructs showed a 2 °C intramolecular stabilization of the HD by the N-terminal region containing the acidic domain (residues 85–96). CD of mixtures of various N-terminal peptides with a construct containing just the HD showed that the acidic domain and the following region, the SRF interacting (SI) motif (residues 99–105), was necessary for this stabilization. Phosphorylation of the acidic domain is known to slow proteasomal degradation of NKX3.1 in prostate cells, and NMR spectroscopy was used to measure and map the interaction of the HD with phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of the AD peptide. The interaction with the phosphorylated AD peptide was considerably stronger (Kd = 0.5 ± 0.2 mM), resulting in large chemical shift perturbations for residues Ser150 and Arg175 in the HD, as well as a 2 °C increase in the HD thermal stability compared to that of the nonphosphorylated form. NKX3.1 constructs with AD phosphorylation site threonine residues (89 and 93) mutated to glutamate were 4 °C more stable than HD alone. Using polymer theory, effective concentrations for interactions between domains connected by flexible linkers are predicted to be in the millimolar range, and thus, the weak intramolecular interactions observed here could conceivably modulate or compete with stronger, intermolecular interactions with the NKX3.1 HD.
NKX2–5 is a pivotal transcription factor in heart development. Previous studies on lymphocytic DNA provided evidence of familial NKX2–5 gene mutations in cardiac malformations. Common mutations are rare in unrelated families. We analysed, by direct sequencing, the gene encoding NKX2–5 in the diseased heart tissues of 68 patients with complex congenital heart disease, focussing particularly on atrial, ventricular, and atrioventricular septal defects. We identified 35 non-synonymous NKX2–5 mutations in the diseased heart tissues of patients. These mutations were mainly absent in normal, for example, unaffected, heart tissue of the same patient, indicating the somatic nature and mosaicism of mutations. We also observed multiple mutations and multiple haplotypes, as well as mutations in Down's syndrome patients with cardiac malformations. Taken collectively, the above results suggest the somatic nature of NKX2–5 mutations associated with complex cardiac malformations. Somatic mutations in transcription factor genes of cardiac progenitor cells provide a novel mechanism of disease.
An intramolecular complex comprising the LIM domains of Lhx3 and the interacting domain of Isl1 tethered by a flexible linker was engineered, overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized.
A stable intramolecular complex comprising the LIM domains of the LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx3 tethered to a peptide region of Isl1 has been engineered, purified and crystallized. The monoclinic crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 119, b = 62.2, c = 51.9 Å, β = 91.6°, and diffract to 2.05 Å resolution.
Lhx3; Isl1; LIM-homeodomain proteins; protein complex; motor-neuron development
Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SP0987 from Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 are reported.
Streptococcus pneumoniae SP0987, which was identified as a hypothetical protein, has a very low sequence identity to other well characterized lysozyme structures. Since determination of three-dimensional structure is a powerful means of functional characterization, X-ray crystallography has been used to accomplish this task. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SP0987 from Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 are reported. The crystal belonged to space group P212121 (with unit-cell parameters a = 36.46, b = 40.89, c = 147.44 Å) and diffracted to a resolution of 1.85 Å. The crystals are most likely to contain one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a V
M value of 2.02 Å3 Da−1.
SP0987; lysozyme; Streptococcus pneumoniae
NKX2.1 is a homeodomain transcription factor that controls development of the brain, lung, and thyroid. In the lung, Nkx2.1 is expressed in a proximo-distal gradient and activates specific genes in phenotypically distinct epithelial cells located along this axis. The mechanisms by which NKX2.1 controls its target genes may involve interactions with other transcription factors. We examined whether NKX2.1 interacts with members of the winged-helix/forkhead family of FOXA transcription factors to regulate two spatially and cell type-specific genes, SpC and Ccsp. The results show that NKX2.1 interacts physically and functionally with FOXA1. The nature of the interaction is inhibitory and occurs through the NKX2.1 homeodomain in a DNA-independent manner. On SpC, which lacks a FOXA1 binding site, FOXA1 attenuates NKX2.1-dependent transcription. Inhibition of FOXA1 by small interfering RNA increased SpC mRNA, demonstrating the in vivo relevance of this finding. In contrast, FOXA1 and NKX2.1 additively activate transcription from Ccsp, which includes both NKX2.1 and FOXA1 binding sites. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, the GST-FOXA1 fusion protein interferes with the formation of NKX2.1 transcriptional complexes by potentially masking the latter's homeodomain DNA binding function. These findings suggest a novel mode of selective gene regulation by proximo-distal gradient distribution of and functional interactions between forkhead and homeodomain transcription factors.
CSX/NKX2.5 is an evolutionarily conserved homeodomain-containing (HD-containing) transcription factor that is essential for early cardiac development. Recently, ten different heterozygous CSX/NKX2.5 mutations were found in patients with congenital heart defects that are transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. To determine the consequence of these mutations, we analyzed nuclear localization, DNA binding, transcriptional activation, and dimerization of mutant CSX/NKX2.5 proteins. All mutant proteins were translated and located to the nucleus, except one splice-donor site mutant whose protein did not accumulate in the cell. All mutants that had truncation or missense mutations in the HD had severely reduced DNA binding activity and little or no transcriptional activation function. In contrast, mutants with intact HDs exhibit normal DNA binding to the monomeric binding site but had three- to ninefold reduction in DNA binding to the dimeric binding sites. HD missense mutations that preserved homodimerization ability inhibited the activation of atrial natriuretic factor by wild-type CSX/NKX2.5. Although our studies do not characterize the genotype-phenotype relationship of the ten human mutations, they identify specific abnormalities of CSX/NKX2.5 function essential for transactivation of target genes.
Rice lectin was crystallized and analyzed by X-ray crystallography.
Lectins with sugar-binding specificity are widely distributed in higher plants and various other species. The expression of rice lectin from Oryza sativa is up-regulated in the growing coleoptile when anaerobic stress persists. A rice lectin of molecular weight 15.2 kDa has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. From the diffraction of the lectin crystals at 1.93 Å resolution, the unit cell belongs to space group P31, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.58, b = 98.58, c = 44.72 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates that there are two lectin molecules in an asymmetric unit with a large solvent content, 70.1%.
A homeodomain-containing transcription factor Csx/Nkx2.5 is an important regulator of cardiogensis in mammals. There has been considerable interest in understanding determinants of the diverse cardiac phenotypes associated with Csx/Nkx2.5 mutations situated within or around the homeodomain in patients. To make clear of the functional properties of the regions out of homeodomain, we found that mutants locate outside of the homeodomain retained intact nuclear localization and have nearly normal or increased transcriptional activity but impaired DNA binding capability, the C-terminus region exhibits an inhibitory function on transcriptional activity of wild type Csx/Nkx2.5, and the NK2-Specific Domain is likely to facilitate both DNA binding and protein-protein interaction. In the current study, deletion mutant in homeodomain displayed extremely different biological appearance from the mutants with deletion outside of the homeodomain, these may explain the clinical observation that patients with missense situated outside the homeodomain were not associated with atrioventricular conduction disturbance.
Csx/Nkx2.5; sporadic human congenital heart diseases (CHD); regions out of homeodomain; biochemical characteristics
The soluble domain of a putative copper-containing nitrite reductase from P. acnes has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystal belonged to space group P213 and diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution.
The soluble domain (residues 483–913) of PPA0092, a putative copper-containing nitrite reductase from Propionibacterium acnes KPA171202, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected and processed to a maximum resolution of 2.4 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P213, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 108.63 Å. Preliminary diffraction data show that one molecule is present in the asymmetric unit; this corresponds to a V
M of 2.1 Å3 Da−1.
nitrite reductases; copper; denitrification; acne
A hyperthermophilic nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the TTHA1015 gene from T. thermophilus was crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.7 Å resolution.
The TTHA1015 gene from Thermus thermophilus HB8 encodes a hyperthermophilic nucleotidyltransferase. TTHA1015 has high homology to proteins belonging to two related families: the nucleotidyltransferase-domain superfamily and the DNA polymerase β-like family. However, no crystal structures of these proteins have been reported. Determination of the crystal structure of TTHA1015 will help in elucidation of its function and will be useful for understanding the relationship between the structure and the function of these homologous proteins. In this study, TTHA1015 was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.70 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.5, b = 34.7, c = 42.4 Å, β = 119.1°. There was one molecule per asymmetric unit, giving a Matthews coefficient of 1.86 Å3 Da−1 and an approximate solvent content of 34%.
TTHA1015; Thermus thermophilus HB8; hyperthermophilic nucleotidyltransferases
Nkx2.5 is a homeodomain-containing nuclear transcription protein that has been associated with acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia. In addition, Nkx2.5 has an essential role in cardiomyogenesis. However, the expression of Nkx2.5 in the skin has not been investigated.
In an attempt to screen the differentially regulated genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation, using a cDNA microarray, we identified Nkx2.5 as one of the transcription factors controlling the expression of proteins associated with keratinocyte differentiation.
To investigate the expression of Nkx2.5 during keratinocyte differentiation, we used a calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation model.
RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of Nkx2.5, in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes, increased with calcium treatment in a time-dependent manner. In normal skin tissue, the expression of Nkx2.5 was detected in the nuclei of the keratinocytes in all layers of the epidermis except the basal layer by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of Nkx2.5 was significantly increased in psoriasis and squamous cell carcinoma, but was barely detected in atopic dermatitis and basal cell carcinoma.
These results suggest that Nkx2.5 may play a role in the change from proliferation to differentiation of keratinocytes and in the pathogenesis of skin disease with aberrant keratinocyte differentiation.
Keratinocyte differentiation; Nkx2.5; Transcription factor