The present study investigated the relationship between coping skills and job satisfaction among Japanese full-time occupational physicians (OPs).
In 2000 we mailed self-administered questionnaires to 716 full-time OPs who were members of “Sanyu-kai”, the only Japanese association of full-time OPs. The questionnaires included age, gender, marital status, main type of company’s work, the number of full-time OPs, the number of employees, working years as an OP, tenure in the present company, job stress, and coping skills question. The coping skills questions consisted of 11 items which were decided after discussion among several experienced full-time OPs. In total, 351 (49%) of the OPs returned suitable questionnaires for analyses.
Considering age, gender, marital status, and coping skills, multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) found that age, simplification of work, obvious roles for staff, consultations, and communication in the community and company were factors which contributed significantly to job satisfaction. Structural equation modeling showed that age and coping skills such as work system improvements, consultations, and communication in the community and company influenced job satisfaction.
Our results indicated that the age and coping skills influenced job satisfaction among full-time OPs. Our results are also considered to support the training of OPs in the future.
full-time occupational physician; coping skills; job satisfaction; multiple regression analysis; structural equation modeling
To examine the relationship between job strain and two indicators of mental health, depression and alcohol misuse, among currently employed older adults.
Data come from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,902). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between job strain, indicated by the imbalance of job stress and job satisfaction, with depression and alcohol misuse.
High job strain (indicated by high job stress combined with low job satisfaction) was associated with elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99–4.45) relative to low job strain after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, labor force status, and occupation. High job stress combined with high job satisfaction (OR = 1.93) and low job stress combined with low job satisfaction (OR = 1.94) were also associated with depressive symptoms to a lesser degree. Job strain was unrelated to either moderate or heavy drinking. These associations did not vary by gender or age.
Job strain is associated with elevated depressive symptoms among older workers. In contrast to results from investigations of younger workers, job strain was unrelated to alcohol misuse. These findings can inform the development and implementation of workplace health promotion programs that reflect the mental health needs of the aging workforce.
Aging workforce; Alcohol misuse; Depression; Job strain
Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians' well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery.
Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) and the demand-control model (job strain). The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians' self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted.
Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting suboptimal quality of care. Magnitude of the association varies depending on the respective job stress model and the indicator of health care quality used. Odds ratios, adjusted for gender, occupational position and job experience vary between 1.04 (CI 0.70-1.57) and 3.21 (CI 2.23-4.61).
Findings indicate that theoretical models of psychosocial stress at work can enrich the analysis of effects of working conditions on health care quality. Moreover, results suggest interventions for job related health promotion measures to improve the clinicians' working conditions, their quality of care and their patients' health.
Throughout China, a growing number of physicians are leaving or intending to depart from their organizations owing to job dissatisfaction. Little information is available about the role of occupational burnout in this association. We set out to analyze the relationship between job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover intention, and further to determine whether occupational burnout can serve as a mediator among Chinese physicians from urban state-owned medical institutions.
A cross-sectional survey was carried out in March 2010 in Hubei Province, central China. The questionnaires assessed sociodemographic characteristics, job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover intention. The job satisfaction and occupational burnout instruments were obtained by modifying the Chinese Physicians' Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (CPJSQ) and the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI), respectively. Such statistical methods as one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, GLM-univariate and structural equation modeling were used.
Of the 1600 physicians surveyed, 1451 provided valid responses. The respondents had medium scores (3.18 +/-0.73) on turnover intention, in which there was significant difference among the groups from three urban areas with different development levels. Turnover intention, which significantly and negatively related to all job-satisfaction subscales, positively related to each subscale of burnout syndrome. Work environment satisfaction (b = -0.074, p < 0.01), job rewards satisfaction (b = -0.073, p < 0.01), organizational management satisfaction (b = -0.146, p < 0.01), and emotional exhaustion (b = 0.135, p < 0.01) were identified as significant direct predictors of the turnover intention of physicians, with 41.2% of the variance explained unitedly, under the control of sociodemographic variables, among which gender, age, and years of service were always significant. However, job-itself satisfaction no longer became significant, with the estimated parameter on job rewards satisfaction smaller after burnout syndrome variables were included. As congregated latent concepts, job satisfaction had both significant direct effects (gamma21 = -0.32, p < 0.01) and indirect effects (gamma11 × beta21 = -0.13, p < 0.01) through occupational burnout (62% explained) as a mediator on turnover intention (47% explained).
Our study reveals that several, but not all dimensions of both job satisfaction and burnout syndrome are relevant factors affecting physicians' turnover intention, and there may be partial mediation effects of occupational burnout, mainly through emotional exhaustion, within the impact of job satisfaction on turnover intention. This suggests that enhancements in job satisfaction can be expected to reduce physicians' intentions to quit by the intermediary role of burnout as well as the direct path. It is hoped that these findings will offer some clues for health-sector managers to keep their physician resource motivated and stable.
There is long-term interest in the effects of stress on health, due to the strain that it places on individuals which can lead to an increased risk of disease. The present study examined degree of perceived job stress related to incidents reporting rate and its dimensions among workers’ Isfahan Steel Company.
A self-administered anonymous was distributed to 189 workers. The survey included demographic factors, incidents reporting rate and its components (physical symptoms, psychological symptoms and accidents) and the Job Stress Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by multivariate (MANOVA) and correlation techniques.
1) there was internal significant correlation between perceived job stress with incident reporting rate as well as with its two components namely physical symptoms and psychological symptoms; 2) there was not a significant relationship between perceived job stress and accident; 2) In multivariate analysis, perceived job stress respectively about 12%, 18% and 19% of the variance of variables of incidents reporting rate, physical and psychological symptoms significantly predicted (P< 0.05).
Perceived job stress influences to physical and psychological symptoms. Therefore, decreasing job stress can be important to prevent the development of stress-related diseases and to promote workers health.
Perceived job stress; Incident reporting rate; Physical symptoms; Psychological symptoms; Accident
Recently socioeconomic status (SES) and job stress index received more attention to affect mental health. Folate intake has been implicated to have negative association with depression. However, few studies were published for the evidence association together with the consideration of SES and job stress factors. The current study is a part of the Japanese study of Health, Occupation and Psychosocial factors related Equity (J-HOPE study) that focused on the association of social stratification and health and our objective was to clarify the association between folate intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese general workers.
Subjects were 2266 workers in a Japanese nationwide company. SES and job stress factors were assessed by self-administered questionnaire. Folate intake was estimated by a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured by Kessler’s K6 questionnaire. “Individuals with depressive symptoms” was defined as K6≧9 (in K6 score of 0–24 scoring system). Multiple logistic regression and linear regression model were used to evaluate the association between folate and depressive symptoms.
Several SES factors (proportion of management positions, years of continuous employment, and annual household income) and folate intake were found to be significantly lower in the subjects with depressive symptom (SES factors: p < 0.001; folate intake: P = 0.001). There was an inverse, independent linear association between K6 score and folate intake after adjusting for age, sex, job stress scores (job strains, worksite supports), and SES factors (p = 0.010). The impact of folate intake on the prevalence of depressive symptom by a multiple logistic model was (ORs[95% CI]: 0.813 [0.664-0.994]; P =0.044).
Our cross-sectional study suggested an inverse, independent relation of energy-adjusted folate intake with depression score and prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese workers, together with the consideration of SES and job stress factors.
Practicing physicians on the full-time academic and clinical (volunteer) faculty of an urban university department of medicine (N = 211) completed questionnaires that examined their coping behaviors, health habits, life satisfaction, job stress, conflict between work and home life, health status and moods. Attempts to organize and restructure work activities were more frequently practiced by physicians who were more satisfied with work. Socializing, exercising and discussing feelings with others were not associated with any measures of physician health status, job stress, conflict or satisfaction. Those with higher scores on a health habits index tended to be less anxious, experienced less job stress, less conflict between work and home life and were more satisfied with their lives in general. Full-time academic faculty engaged in fewer positive or negative coping behaviors than clinical faculty. There were few strong intercorrelations among the various positive and negative coping behaviors or health habits; physicians often simultaneously engaged in both positive and negative activities, indicating complex patterns of coping behaviors that were not dramatically associated with life or work satisfaction.
Previous studies on self-rated health among nurses have indicated an association of low job satisfaction and stress in relation to poor self-rated health. The relationship between self rated health and the specific work characteristics and health related behaviours of nurses to our knowledge have not been adequately studied.
To investigate the health profile of nurses working in hospitals in North West Greece and to examine the associations between self rated health (SRH) and health related behaviours and work characteristics in this group of hospital employees.
A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 443 nurses working in all the hospitals in North West Greece. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship of health related behaviours and work characteristics with self rated health among the nurses.
A total of 353 responded to the questionnaire (response rate 80%) of which 311 (88%) were female and 42 (12%) male. The mean age (standard deviation) of the respondents was 36 years (5.6) and their mean years of working as nurses were 13.5 years (5.9). Almost half of the nurses' smoked, and about one third were overweight or obese. About 58% (206) of the nurses reported having poor health while 42% (147) reported having good health. Self-rated health was independently associated with gender, effort to avoid fatty foods and physical activity, according to multiple logistic regression analysis.
The population studied presented a relatively poor health profile, and a high proportion of poor SRH. Though female gender and effort to avoid fatty foods were associated with poor SRH, and exercise and white meat consumption with good SRH, specific work characteristics were not associated with SRH.
Job stress is associated with adverse health effects. The present study was conducted to examine the association between sense of coherence (SOC), as advocated by Antonovsky, and psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese workers.
A self-administered questionnaire containing a Japanese version of the 13-item SOC scale, the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, and a self-rated health item were distributed to 1968 workers in X Prefecture. Anonymous responses were recovered by postal mail.
Complete responses were received from 299 workers (response rate 15.2%, 191 males and 108 females) who consented to participate in the study. Participants were 186 office clerks, 38 sales representatives, 22 technical engineers, 16 service trade workers, eight information processing workers, eight technical experts, and 21 other workers of various types. SOC scores were associated with age, self-rated health, job title, and marriage status. According to regression analyses stratified by gender, SOC was inversely associated with tension, fatigue, anxiety, depression and subjective symptoms in males, and tension, depression and subjective symptoms in females. SOC was positively associated with vigor in both males and females.
Having a strong SOC may reduce worker’s negative job stress responses and increase their vigor. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm this finding.
Sense of coherence; Job stress; Brief Job Stress Questionnaire; Stress reduction
To determine the sources of stress, its intensity, frequency, and psychophysical and behavioral reactions in physicians working in emergency medical service and those working in health centers.
To a convenience sample of primary care physicians employed in emergency medical service (n = 79) and health centers (n = 81), we administered the list of demographic questions, Scale of Sources of Stress, Scale of Intentions of Leaving the Job, and Scale of Psychosomatic Symptoms.
Emergency medicine physicians experienced significantly more intense and more frequent uncontrollable working situations, conflict between work and family roles, and unfavorable relationships with coworkers than physicians working in health centers. They were also more likely to leave the job during the next few years and/or change jobs within the profession (scores 2.2 ± 0.9 vs 1.7 ± 0.9 out of maximum 5.0, F = 12.2, P = 0.001) and they had a poorer physical health status (scores 1.8 ± 0.5 vs 1.7 ± 0.5 out of maximum 4.0, F = 5.3, P = 0.023).
Physicians working in emergency medical service experience more stress in almost all aspects of their work than physicians working in health centers. They also have a stronger intention of leaving the job, which decreases with years of experience.
To address the relative importance of general job-related stressors, ambulance specific stressors and individual characteristics in relation to job satisfaction and health complaints (emotional exhaustion, psychological distress and musculoskeletal pain) among ambulance personnel.
Materials and methods
A nationwide prospective questionnaire survey of ambulance personnel in operational duty at two time points (n = 1180 at baseline, T1 and n = 298 at one-year follow up, T2). The questionnaires included the Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Job Satisfaction Scale, Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-10), Job Stress Survey, the Norwegian Ambulance Stress Survey and the Basic Character Inventory.
Overall, 42 out of the possible 56 correlations between job stressors at T1 and job satisfaction and health complaints at T2 were statistically significant. Lower job satisfaction at T2 was predicted by frequency of lack of leader support and severity of challenging job tasks. Emotional exhaustion at T2 was predicted by neuroticism, frequency of lack of support from leader, time pressure, and physical demands. Adjusted for T1 levels, emotional exhaustion was predicted by neuroticism (beta = 0.15, p < .05) and time pressure (beta = 0.14, p < 0.01). Psychological distress at T2 was predicted by neuroticism and lack of co-worker support. Adjusted for T1 levels, psychological distress was predicted by neuroticism (beta = 0.12, p < .05). Musculoskeletal pain at T2 was predicted by, higher age, neuroticism, lack of co-worker support and severity of physical demands. Adjusted for T1 levels, musculoskeletal pain was predicted neuroticism, and severity of physical demands (beta = 0.12, p < .05).
Low job satisfaction at T2 was predicted by general work-related stressors, whereas health complaints at T2 were predicted by both general work-related stressors and ambulance specific stressors. The personality variable neuroticism predicted increased complaints across all health outcomes.
Purpose. To perform a parsimonious measurement of workplace psychosocial stress in routine occupational health surveillance, this study tests the psychometric properties of a short version of the original Italian effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. Methods. 1,803 employees (63 percent women) from 19 service companies in the Italian region of Latium participated in a cross-sectional survey containing the short version of the ERI questionnaire (16 items) and questions related to self-reported health, musculoskeletal complaints and job satisfaction. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency of scales and criterion validity were utilized. Results. The internal consistency of scales was satisfactory. Principal component analysis enabled to identify the model's main factors. Significant associations with health and job satisfaction in the majority of cases support the notion of criterion validity. A high score on the effort-reward ratio was associated with an elevated odds ratio (OR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.86–3.95) of musculoskeletal complaints in the upper arm. Conclusions. The short form of the Italian ERI questionnaire provides a psychometrically useful tool for routine occupational health surveillance, although further validation is recommended.
A better understanding of how occupational indicators (e.g. job type, doing shift-work, hours worked, physical demand) influence sitting time will aid in the design of more effective health behaviour interventions. The aim of the study was to examine the associations between several occupational indicators and total, occupational and leisure-time sitting.
Cross-sectional self-report data was collected in November 2011 from 1194 participants through a telephone interview in regional Queensland, Australia (response rate was 51.9%). The Workforce Sitting Questionnaire was used to measure sitting time. Multiple logistic regression was applied to examine associations between sitting time and occupational indicators.
Of all participants 77.9% were employed full-time, 72.7% had white-collar jobs, 35.7% were engaged in shift-work, 39.5% had physically demanding jobs, and 53.2% had high total sitting time (>8 hours a day). Those in physically demanding and blue-collar occupations were less likely to report high total (physically demanding: OR = 0.41,95% CI = 0.29–0.58; blue-collar: OR = 0.55,95% CI = 0.37–0.82) and occupational (physically demanding: OR = 0.26,95% CI = 0.14–0.24; blue-collar: OR = 0.32,95% CI = 0.21–0.49) sitting time compared to those in physically undemanding and white-collar occupations respectively. Working more than 8 hours per day was inversely associated with high leisure-time sitting (OR = 0.44,95% CI = 0.29–0.68). No evidence for ‘compensation’ effects, where lower occupational sitting is compensated with higher leisure-time sitting, was found.
Behaviour change interventions are needed to reduce sitting time as a means to prevent chronic disease. Workplace initiatives to reduce sitting time may be particularly important among individuals employed in white-collar and physical undemanding occupations, although other intervention strategies targeting leisure-time sitting are also required.
Sitting time; Sedentary behaviour; Occupation; Leisure-time; Shift-work; Workplace; Full-time; Part-time; Blue-collar; White-collar; Physical demand
Workers in blue-collar and service occupations smoke at higher rates than workers in white-collar and professional occupations. Occupational stress may explain some of the occupational class differences in smoking and quitting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over a ten year period among a multiethnic cohort of urban transit operators, while accounting for demographic factors and alcohol.
The sample consists of 654 San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI) transit operators who participated in two occupational health studies and biennial medical examinations during 1983–85 and 1993–95. Workers who had initiated, increased, or maintained their smoking over the ten year period were compared to workers who remained non-smokers. Occupational factors included self-rated frequency of job problems (e.g., difficulties with equipment, passengers, traffic), job burnout (i.e., the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory), time needed to unwind after work, and years employed as a transit operator. A series of logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over time.
Approximately 35% of the workers increased, initiated, or maintained their smoking over the ten-year period. Frequency of job problems was significantly associated with likelihood of smoking increase, initiation, or maintenance (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09, 1.55). Black operators were significantly more likely to have smoked over the ten-year period compared to operators in other racial/ethnic groups.
Understanding the role of work-related stress vis-à-vis smoking behavior is of critical importance for crafting workplace smoking prevention and cessation interventions that are applicable to blue-collar work settings, and for developing policies that mitigate occupational stress.
Job satisfaction in the hospital is an important predictor for many significant management ratios. Acceptance in professional life or high workload are known as important predictors for job satisfaction. The influence of social capital in hospitals on job satisfaction within the health care system, however, remains to be determined. Thus, this article aimed at analysing the relationship between overall job satisfaction of physicians and social capital in hospitals.
The results of this study are based upon questionnaires sent by mail to 454 physicians working in the field of patient care in 4 different German hospitals in 2002. 277 clinicians responded to the poll, for a response rate of 61%. Analysis was performed using three linear regression models with physician overall job satisfaction as the dependent variable and age, gender, professional experience, workload, and social capital as independent variables.
The first regression model explained nearly 9% of the variance of job satisfaction. Whereas job satisfaction increased slightly with age, gender and professional experience were not identified as significant factors to explain the variance. Setting up a second model with the addition of subjectively-perceived workload to the analysis, the explained variance increased to 18% and job satisfaction decreased significantly with increasing workload. The third model including social capital in hospital explained 36% of the variance with social capital, professional experience and workload as significant factors.
This analysis demonstrated that the social capital of an organisation, in addition to professional experience and workload, represents a significant predictor of overall job satisfaction of physicians working in the field of patient care. Trust, mutual understanding, shared aims, and ethical values are qualities of social capital that unify members of social networks and communities and enable them to act cooperatively.
With the medical reform, the function of community health centres emerged to be more important recently in China. However, the health service capabilities were tremendously different between metropolitan cities and small cities. This study aims to clarify the level of job satisfaction of Chinese community health workers between a metropolitan (Shenyang) and a small city (Benxi) in Liaoning province and explore its associated factors.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. A multi-stage sample was used and a total of 2,100 Chinese community health workers from the two cities completed self-administered questionnaire pertaining to job satisfaction indicated by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristic and working situations, stress and job burnout. The effective response rate was 80.7%. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors. All data analyses for the two cities were performed separately.
The averages of overall job satisfaction score of Chinese community health workers were 67.17 in Shenyang and 69.95 in Benxi. Intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers were significantly different between Shenyang and Benxi (p < 0.05). In Shenyang, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the fourth model explained 36%, 32% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. In Benxi, the fourth model explained 48%, 52% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. Three significant predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions for the two cities were the two dimensions (social support and decision latitude) of stress and cynicism of burnout.
From this study, the job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers in the two cities enjoyed a moderate level of job satisfactions, which represented they are not fully satisfied with their jobs. Community health workers in Shenyang had lower job satisfaction as compared to those in Benxi. This study strengthened the evidence that stress and burnout were important predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions.
Aims: To determine whether psychosocial work environment and indicators of health problems are prospectively related to incident long term sickness absence in employees who visited the occupational physician (OP) and/or general practitioner (GP) in relation to work.
Methods: The baseline measurement (May 1998) of the Maastricht Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study among 45 companies and organisations, was used to select employees at work who indicated having visited the OP and/or GP in relation to work. Self report questionnaires were used to measure indicators of health problems (presence of at least one long term disease, likeliness of having a mental illness, fatigue) and psychosocial work environment (job demands, decision latitude, social support, job satisfaction) as predictors of subsequent sickness absence. Sickness absence data regarding total numbers of sickness absence days were obtained from the companies and occupational health services during an 18 month period (between 1 July 1998 and 31 December 1999). Complete data were available from 1271 employees.
Results: After adjustment for demographics and the other predictors, presence of at least one long term disease (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.29 to 4.29) and lower level of decision latitude (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.22 to 2.38) were the strongest predictors for sickness absence of at least one month. A higher likelihood of having a mental illness, a higher level of fatigue, a lower level of social support at work, and low job satisfaction were also significant predictors for long term sickness absence, but their effect was less strong.
Conclusion: In detecting employees at work but at risk for long term sickness absence, OPs and GPs should take into account not only influence of the psychosocial work environment in general and level of decision latitude in particular, but also influence of indicators of health problems, especially in the form of long term diseases.
Police work is regarded as a high-stress occupation, but so far, no nationwide study has explored the associations between work stress and health.
To explore physical and mental health among Norwegian police and associations to job stress. Comparisons were made with a nationwide sample of Norwegian physicians and the general Norwegian population.
Comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of 3,272 Norwegian police at all hierarchical levels, including the Norwegian Police Stress Survey with two factors (serious operational tasks and work injuries), the Job Stress Survey with two factors (job pressure and lack of support), the Basic Character Inventory, the Subjective Health Complaint questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Paykel's Suicidal Feelings in the General Population.
The frequency of job pressure and lack of support was mainly associated to physical and mental health problems. Females showed higher means on anxiety symptoms than males (4.2, SD 2.9 and 3.7, SD 2.9, respectively; p < 0.01), while males showed higher means on depressive symptoms (3.1, SD 2.9 and 2.4, SD 2.5, respectively; p < 0.001). Police reported more subjective health complaints, depersonalization and higher scores on three of four personality traits than physicians, but lower scores on anxiety and depressive symptoms than the general population.
This is the first nationwide study to explore job stress and physical and mental health in police. The results indicate that Norwegian police have high levels of musculoskeletal health problems mainly associated to the frequency of job pressure and lack of support. However, also frequent exposure to work injuries was associated to health problems. This may indicate that daily routine work as well as police operational duties must be taken into consideration in assessing job stress and police health.
Japanese suicide rate is one of the highest among industrialized nations, especially following the economic crisis of the 1990s, with more than 30000 suicides every year since 1998. Previous studies have pointed out to relationships between overwork and/or job stress, and death and other health risks, and suggested several possible avenues for releasing stress and emotional burden, including suicidal ideation, through talking with intimate friends, family, and specialists, such as counselors and physicians. The present study was performed to explore the potential role of owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pub establishments in mitigating stress of middle-aged and elderly Japanese men by having informal conversations with them. A self-administered questionnaire was posted to all bars and izakaya-pubs registered in Ohmura-city, Nagasaki prefecture, in December 2009. Among 260 bars and izakaya-pubs, a total of 103 owners and managers completed the questionnaire. More than half of the respondents experienced engaging in conversations with their customers regarding customers’ various personal and private issues. The most frequently talked about problem was that regarding work (56.3%). Regardless of sex and age of the respondents, those with longer working experience in bar and izakaya-pub establishments were more likely to have had customers confiding in them financial problems including debts/loans (adjusted odds ratio: 5.48, p = 0.033). Owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pubs may be in a position to act as “listeners”, to whom middle-aged and elderly men can talk about their personal problems casually and without having to worry about conflict of interests, and direct those in need to professional counseling.
Bar and izakaya-pub; Middle-aged and elderly men; Mitigation of stress; Prevention of suicide
Previous research in performance appraisal (PA) indicates that variation exists in learning and job motivation from performance appraisal between occupational groups. This research evaluates the potential effect of job motivation, learning and self-assessment through performance appraisals for health personnel.
This article focuses on goal-setting, feedback, participation and training in performance appraisals in municipal health services in Norway; and job motivation, learning and self-assessment of performance are the dependent factors. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of 600 health personnel from the Norwegian municipal health service, with a response rate of 62%. Factor analysis and regression analysis were run in SPSS 12.
Discussion and evaluation
The study suggests that respondents learn from performance appraisal. Nurses experienced some higher job motivation from performance appraisal than auxiliary nurses. All subordinates perceived higher job motivation after performance appraisal than managers.
Useful feedback, active participation and higher education are fundamental elements of discussion in performance appraisal, as well as the role of increasing employees' job motivation. In this study, nurses' job motivation seems to be more effected by PA, than for auxiliary nurses. Both nurses and auxiliary nurses indicate that there is a learning effect from PA. This study may be of interest to health researchers and managers in municipal health services.
To study the impact that physician, practice, and patient characteristics have on physician stress, satisfaction, mental, and physical health.
Based on a survey of over 5,000 physicians nationwide. Four waves of surveys resulted in 2,325 complete responses. Elimination of ineligibles yielded a 52 percent response rate; 1,411 responses from primary care physicians were used.
A conceptual model was tested by structural equation modeling. Physician job satisfaction and stress mediated the relationship between physician, practice, and patient characteristics as independent variables and physician physical and mental health as dependent variables.
The conceptual model was generally supported. Practice and, to a lesser extent, physician characteristics influenced job satisfaction, whereas only practice characteristics influenced job stress. Patient characteristics exerted little influence. Job stress powerfully influenced job satisfaction and physical and mental health among physicians.
These findings support the notion that workplace conditions are a major determinant of physician well-being. Poor practice conditions can result in poor outcomes, which can erode quality of care and prove costly to the physician and health care organization. Fortunately, these conditions are manageable. Organizational settings that are both “physician friendly” and “family friendly” seem to result in greater well-being. These findings are particularly important as physicians are more tightly integrated into the health care system that may be less clearly under their exclusive control.
Primary care physicians; job satisfaction; job stress; mental health; physical health
In retrospective occupational studies, the degree of confounding by smoking depends on variation in smoking among job-related exposure groups. We assessed the relationship between job title and smoking behavior as part of a study on occupational exposures and lung cancer.
A questionnaire on smoking was mailed to a sample of 11,986 trucking industry. Company records were used to gather other relevant information.
The response rate was 40.5%. Among white males, the age-adjusted prevalence of ever smoking was highest among longhaul truck drivers (67%) and lowest among clerks (44%). Smoking rates among workers with other job titles were similar.
Our results will be used to adjust for the differences in smoking among job-related exposure groups when assessing the association between particulate matter exposure and lung cancer mortality. Our study also suggests that an assessment of methods to control for smoking should be considered in the design of retrospective occupational health studies.
smoking; occupational health; industry
We assessed job satisfaction among anesthesiologists at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria and identified elements of job stress and dissatisfaction.
A cross-sectional study design was employed; a structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed, which focused on sociodemographic data, rating of job satisfaction, identification of stressors, and work relationships.
Out of 55 questionnaires distributed, 46 (83.6%) completed questionnaires were returned. Overall, 27 (58.7%) of the anesthesiologists were satisfied with their job. While 8.7% were very satisfied (grade 5), 6.5% were very dissatisfied (grade 1) with their job. The stressors identified by the respondents were time pressures, long working hours with complaints of insufficient sleep, and employment status. Among the respondents, the medical officers were the most discontented (9 out of 12, 75%), followed by senior registrars (5 out of 9, 56%). A high percentage of participants (54.1%) declared that the one change if implemented that would enhance their job satisfaction was having a definite closing time.
Our results showed that despite the demanding nature of anesthesiology as a specialty, many anesthesiologists were contented with their job.
Anesthesiologists; anesthesiology; dissatisfaction; job satisfaction
Conflict of interest: none declared.
Employees’ job satisfaction and commitment depends upon the leadership style of managers. This study clarifies further the relationships between leadership behaviors of managers and two employees’ work-related attitudes-job satisfaction and organizational at public hospitals in Iran. A better understanding of these issues and their relationships can pinpoint better strategies for recruiting, promotion, and training of future hospital managers and employees, particularly in Iran but perhaps in other societies as well.
This cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires distributed among 814 hospital employees and managers through a stratified random sampling.
Results and discussion
The dominant leadership style of hospital managers was participative style. Hospital employees were moderately satisfied with their jobs and committed to their organization. Salaries, benefits, promotion, contingent rewards, interpersonal relationships and working conditions were the best predictors of job satisfaction among hospitals employees. Leadership, job satisfaction and commitment were closely interrelated. The leadership behavior of managers explained 28% and 20% of the variations in job satisfaction and organizational commitment respectively.
This study clarifies the causal relations of job satisfaction and commitment, and highlights the crucial role of leadership in employees’ job satisfaction and commitment. Nevertheless, participative management is not always a good leadership style. Managers should select the best leadership style according to the organizational culture and employees’ organizational maturity.
Leadership; Job satisfaction; Organizational commitment; Hospital
Stress and stress-related illnesses are increasing among medical specialists. This threatens the quality of patient care. In this study we investigated (a) levels of job stress and job satisfaction among medical specialists, (b) factors contributing to stress and satisfaction and (c) the effect of stress and satisfaction on burnout.
A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 2400 Dutch medical specialists. Measures included job stress, job satisfaction, burnout, personal characteristics, job characteristics and perceived working conditions.
The final response rate was 63%. Of the respondents, 55% acknowledged high levels of stress, and 81% reported high job satisfaction. Personal and job characteristics explained 2%–6% of the variance in job stress and satisfaction. Perceived working conditions were more important, explaining 24% of the variance in job stress and 34% of the variance in job satisfaction. Among perceived working conditions, the interference of work on home life (odds ratio [OR] 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35–1.76) and not being able to live up to one's professional standards (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.37–1.80) were most related to stress. Feeling poorly managed and resourced (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.76–2.43) diminished job satisfaction. Burnout was explained by both high stress and low satisfaction (41% of variance explained) rather than by stress alone.
Our study showed a protective effect of job satisfaction against the negative consequences of work stress as well as the importance of organizational rather than personal factors in managing both stress and satisfaction.