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1.  In vivo imaging of the Mouse Model of X-Linked Juvenile Retinoschisis Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to investigate Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FD OCT) as a non-invasive tool for retinal imaging in the Rs1h knockout mouse (model for X-linked Juvenile Retinoschisis).
Methods
A prototype spectrometer based FD OCT system was used in combination with a custom optical beam-scanning platform. Images of the retinas from wild type and Rs1h knockout mice were acquired non-invasively using FD OCT with the specimen anesthetized. At the completion of the non-invasive FD OCT imaging, invasive retinal cross sectional images (histology) were acquired from a nearby region for comparison to the FD OCT images.
Results
The retinal layers could be identified in the FD OCT images, permitting delineation and thickness measurement of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). During FD OCT in vivo imaging of the Rs1h knockout mouse, holes were observed in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and retinal cell disorganization was observed as a change in the backscattering intensity profile. Comparison of the ONL measurements acquired non-invasively using FD OCT to measurements taken using histology at nearby locations showed a degeneration of roughly thirty percent of the ONL by the age of two months in Rs1h knockout mice relative to wild type.
Conclusions
FD OCT has been demonstrated for non-invasive imaging of retinal degeneration and observation of retinal holes in Rs1h knockout mice.
doi:10.1167/iovs.08-2542
PMCID: PMC2693243  PMID: 19182246
2.  Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Mouse Models of Retinal Degeneration 
Purpose
Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) allows cross-sectional visualization of retinal structures in vivo. Here, we report the efficacy of a commercially available SD-OCT device to study mouse models of retinal degeneration.
Methods
C57BL/6 and BALB/c wild type mice and three different mouse models of hereditary retinal degeneration (Rho-/-, rd1, RPE65-/-) were investigated using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) for en face visualization and SD-OCT for cross-sectional imaging of retinal structures. Histology was performed to correlate structural findings in SD-OCT with light microscopic data.
Results
In C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, cSLO and SD-OCT imaging provided structural details of frequently used control animals (central retinal thickness, CRTC57BL/6 = 237±2μm and CRTBALB/c = 211±10μm). RPE65-/- mice at 11 months of age showed a significant reduction of retinal thickness (CRTRPE65 = 193±2μm) with thinning of the outer nuclear layer. Rho-/- mice at P28 demonstrated degenerative changes mainly in the outer retinal layers (CRTRho = 193±2μm). Examining rd1 animals before and after the onset of retinal degeneration allowed to monitor disease progression (CRTrd1 P11 = 246±4μm, CRTrd1 P28 = 143±4μm). Correlation of CRT assessed by histology and SD-OCT was high (r2 = 0.897).
Conclusion
We demonstrated cross sectional visualization of retinal structures in wild type mice and mouse models for retinal degeneration in vivo using a commercially available SD-OCT device. This method will help to reduce numbers of animals needed per study by allowing longitudinal study designs and facilitate characterization of disease dynamics and evaluation of putative therapeutic effects following experimental interventions.
doi:10.1167/iovs.09-3724
PMCID: PMC2800101  PMID: 19661229
optical coherence tomography; retinal degeneration; imaging; mouse models
3.  Use of Optical Coherence Tomography and Electroretinography to Evaluate Retinal Pathology in a Mouse Model of Autoimmune Uveitis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63904.
Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) in mice is a model for human autoimmune uveitis. Longitudinal follow-up is only possible by non-invasive techniques, but the information obtained by visual fundus examination can be limited. We therefore evaluated the efficacy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinography (ERG) to monitor pathological and functional changes of the retina in vivo. OCT imaging and ERG recording as a measure of visual function were compared with visual fundoscopic imaging and histology findings in the same mouse. Our results showed that OCT imaging of the retina was well correlated with clinical and histological observations in mice during EAU. However, OCT imaging was more sensitive than fundoscopic imaging in detecting the cell infiltrates at the early phase of disease onset. Furthermore, by allowing multi-layer cross- and horizontal-sectional visualizations of retinal lesions longitudinally in a noninvasive fashion, OCT added information that could not be obtained by fundoscopic and histological examinations. Lastly, retinal thickness obtained by OCT imaging provided a key indicator reflecting disease activity, which showed a close association with visual dysfunction as measured by ERG recordings in EAU mice. Thus, our findings demonstrate that OCT is a highly sensitive and reliable technique, and a valuable method for the semi-quantitative evaluation of retinal inflammation in vivo in the mouse.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063904
PMCID: PMC3653843  PMID: 23691112
4.  Structural Correlation Between the Nerve Fiber Layer and Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Mice with Targeted Disruption of the Brn3b Gene 
Manual segmentation of SD-OCT images allows for the noninvasive characterization of retinal layers in Brn3b knockout mice. Brn3b knockouts have generalized loss of retinal ganglion cells; segmentation results were correlated with histologic cell counts.
Purpose.
Mice with a targeted disruption of Brn3b (knockout Brn3b-/-) undergo the loss of a majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) before birth. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) allows for the noninvasive examination of Brn3b-/- cellular loss in vivo.
Methods.
The central retinas of Brn3b-/- and phenotypically wild-type (Brn3b+/+ and Brn3b±) mice were imaged by SD-OCT. The combined nerve fiber layer (NFL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL) were manually segmented and thickness maps were generated. The results were confirmed by histologic and immunofluorescence cell counts of the RGC layer (RGCL) of the same retinas.
Results.
The combined NFL and IPL of the Brn3b-/- retinas were significantly thinner, and the histologic cell counts significantly lower, than those of the phenotypically wild-type retinas (paired t-test; P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). The combined NFL and IPL thickness and the histologic cell count correlated highly (R2 = 0.9612). Immunofluorescence staining revealed significant RGC-specific loss in Brn3b-/- retinas (paired t-test; P < 0.01). The distribution of combined central NFL and IPL loss was not localized or sectorial.
Conclusions.
The strong correlation between the combined layer thickness and histologic cell counts validates manual OCT segmentation as a method of monitoring cell loss in the RGCL. A retinal thickness map assessed if combined NFL and IPL thickness loss in Brn3b-/- eyes was topographically specific. Generalized RGC and combined NFL and IPL loss was observed in the Brn3b-/- retinas, in contrast to topographically specific RGC loss observed in glaucomatous DBA2/J eyes.
doi:10.1167/iovs.10-6307
PMCID: PMC3176044  PMID: 21622702
5.  Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Experimental Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy and Histologic Confirmation 
Purpose.
The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system, and interruption of this pathway due to ischemia typically results in optic atrophy and loss of retinal ganglion cells. In this study, we assessed in vivo retinal changes following murine anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and compared these anatomic measurements to that of histology.
Methods.
We induced ischemia at the optic disc via laser-activated photochemical thrombosis, performed serial SD-OCT and manual segmentation of the retinal layers to measure the ganglion cell complex (GCC) and total retinal thickness, and correlated these measurements with that of histology.
Results.
There was impaired perfusion and leakage at the optic disc on fluorescein angiography immediately after AION and severe swelling and distortion of the peripapillary retina on day-1. We used SD-OCT to quantify the changes in retinal thickness following experimental AION, which revealed significant thickening of the GCC on day-1 after ischemia followed by gradual thinning that plateaued by week-3. Thickness of the peripapillary sensory retina was also increased on day-1 and thinned chronically. This pattern of acute retinal swelling and chronic thinning on SD-OCT correlated well with changes seen in histology and corresponded to loss of retinal ganglion layer cells after ischemia.
Conclusions.
This was a serial SD-OCT quantification of acute and chronic changes following experimental AION, which revealed changes in the GCC similar to that of human AION, but over a time frame of weeks rather than months.
SD-OCT imaging in experimental murine AION revealed the spectrum of anatomic changes following ischemia with initial swelling and gradual thinning out to 3-4 weeks. SD-OCT findings were corroborated by histologic analysis and correlated with gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells over several weeks.
doi:10.1167/iovs.13-12419
PMCID: PMC3771554  PMID: 23887804
AION; animal model; SD-OCT; retinal ganglion cell; optic neuropathy
6.  Adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography: optimizing visualization of microscopic retinal structures in three dimensions 
Adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) permits improved imaging of microscopic retinal structures by combining the high lateral resolution of AO with the high axial resolution of OCT, resulting in the narrowest three-dimensional (3D) point-spread function (PSF) of all in vivo retinal imaging techniques. Owing to the high volumetric resolution of AO-OCT systems, it is now possible, for the first time, to acquire images of 3D cellular structures in the living retina. Thus, with AO-OCT, those retinal structures that are not visible with AO or OCT alone (e.g., bundles of retinal nerve fiber layers, 3D mosaic of photoreceptors, 3D structure of microvasculature, and detailed structure of retinal disruptions) can be visualized. Our current AO-OCT instrumentation uses spectrometer-based Fourier-domain OCT technology and two-deformable-mirror-based AO wavefront correction. We describe image processing methods that help to remove motion artifacts observed in volumetric data, followed by innovative data visualization techniques [including two-dimensional (2D) and 3D representations]. Finally, examples of microscopic retinal structures that are acquired with the University of California Davis AO-OCT system are presented.
PMCID: PMC2583222  PMID: 17429483
7.  Optical coherence tomography – current and future applications 
Current opinion in ophthalmology  2013;24(3):213-221.
Purpose of review
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized the clinical practice of ophthalmology. It is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides high-resolution, cross-sectional images of the retina, retinal nerve fiber layer and the optic nerve head. This review discusses the present applications of the commercially available spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) systems in the diagnosis and management of retinal diseases, with particular emphasis on choroidal imaging. Future directions of OCT technology and their potential clinical uses are discussed.
Recent findings
Analysis of the choroidal thickness in healthy eyes and disease states such as age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, diabetic retinopathy and inherited retinal dystrophies has been successfully achieved using SD-OCT devices with software improvements. Future OCT innovations such as longer-wavelength OCT systems including the swept-source technology, along with Doppler OCT and en-face imaging, may improve the detection of subtle microstructural changes in chorioretinal diseases by improving imaging of the choroid.
Summary
Advances in OCT technology provide for better understanding of pathogenesis, improved monitoring of progression and assistance in quantifying response to treatment modalities in diseases of the posterior segment of the eye. Further improvements in both hardware and software technologies should further advance the clinician’s ability to assess and manage chorioretinal diseases.
doi:10.1097/ICU.0b013e32835f8bf8
PMCID: PMC3758124  PMID: 23429598
applications of optical coherence tomography; chorioretinal diseases; retina; spectral-domain optical coherence tomography; swept-source optical coherence tomography
8.  Functional and morphological analysis of the subretinal injection of retinal pigment epithelium cells 
Visual neuroscience  2012;29(2):83-93.
Replacement of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells by transplantation is a potential treatment for some retinal degenerations. Here, we used a combination of invasive and noninvasive methods to characterize the structural and functional consequences of subretinal injection of RPE cells. Pigmented cells from primary cultures were injected into albino mice. Recovery was monitored over 8 weeks by fundus imaging, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (sdOCT), histology, and electroretinography (ERG). sdOCT showed that retinal reattachment was nearly complete by 1 week. ERG response amplitudes were reduced after injection, with cone-mediated function then recovering better than rod function. Photoreceptor cell loss was evident by sdOCT and histology, near the site of injection, and is likely to have been the main cause of incomplete recovery. With microscopy, injected cells were identified by the presence of apical melanosomes. They either established contact with Bruch’s membrane, and thus became part of the RPE monolayer, or were located on the apical surface of the host’s cells, resulting in apposition of the basal surface of the injected cell with the apical surface of the host cell and the formation of a series of desmosomal junctions. RPE cell density was not increased, indicating that the incorporation of an injected cell into the RPE monolayer was concomitant with the loss of a host cell. The transplanted and remaining host cells contained large vacuoles of ingested debris as well as lipofuscin-like granules, suggesting that they had scavenged the excess injected and host cells, and were stressed by the high digestive load. Therefore, although significant functional and structural recovery was observed, the consequences of this digestive stress may be a concern for longer-term health, especially where RPE cell transplantation is used to treat diseases that include lipofuscin accumulation as part of their pathology.
doi:10.1017/S0952523812000041
PMCID: PMC3694443  PMID: 22391151
Retina; Spectral domain optical coherence tomography; Cell transplantation; Lipofuscin; Electroretinography
9.  Spatial correlation of mouse photoreceptor-RPE thickness between SD-OCT and histology 
Experimental eye research  2010;92(2):155-160.
Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) applied to the mouse retina has been limited due to inherent movement artifacts and lack of resolution. Recently, SD-OCT scans from a commercially available imaging system have yielded retinal thickness values comparable to histology. However, these measurements are based on single point analysis of images. Here we report that using the Spectralis HRA+OCT Spectral Domain OCT and Fluorescein Angiography system (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), retinal thickness of linear expanses from SD-OCT data can be accurately assessed. This is possible by the development of a Spectralis-compatible ImageJ plug-in that imports 8-bit SLO and 32-bit OCT B-scan images, retaining scale and segmentation data and enabling analysis and 3-D reconstruction. Moreover, mouse retinal layer thickness values obtained with this plug-in exhibit a high correlation to thickness measurements from histology of the same retinas. Thus, use of this ImageJ plug-in results in reliable quantification of long retinal expanses from in vivo SD-OCT images.
doi:10.1016/j.exer.2010.10.009
PMCID: PMC3169798  PMID: 21035444
Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT); ImageJ plug-in; retina; mouse; retinal thickness; histology
10.  PARP1 Gene Knock-Out Increases Resistance to Retinal Degeneration without Affecting Retinal Function 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(11):e15495.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases affecting photoreceptors and causing blindness in humans. Previously, excessive activation of enzymes belonging to the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) group was shown to be involved in photoreceptor degeneration in the human homologous rd1 mouse model for RP. Since there are at least 16 different PARP isoforms, we investigated the exact relevance of the predominant isoform - PARP1 - for photoreceptor cell death using PARP1 knock-out (KO) mice. In vivo and ex vivo morphological analysis using optic coherence tomography (OCT) and conventional histology revealed no major alterations of retinal phenotype when compared to wild-type (wt). Likewise, retinal function as assessed by electroretinography (ERG) was normal in PARP1 KO animals. We then used retinal explant cultures derived from wt, rd1, and PARP1 KO animals to test their susceptibility to chemically induced photoreceptor degeneration. Since photoreceptor degeneration in the rd1 retina is triggered by a loss-of-function in phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6), we used selective PDE6 inhibition to emulate the rd1 situation on non-rd1 genotypes. While wt retina subjected to PDE6 inhibition showed massive photoreceptor degeneration comparable to rd1 retina, in the PARP1 KO situation, cell death was robustly reduced. Together, these findings demonstrate that PARP1 activity is in principle dispensable for normal retinal function, but is of major importance for photoreceptor degeneration under pathological conditions. Moreover, our results suggest that PARP dependent cell death or PARthanatos may play a major role in retinal degeneration and highlight the possibility to use specific PARP inhibitors for the treatment of RP.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015495
PMCID: PMC2990765  PMID: 21124852
11.  Real-Time Imaging of Rabbit Retina with Retinal Degeneration by Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e36135.
Background
Recently, a transgenic rabbit with rhodopsin Pro 347 Leu mutation was generated as a model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), which is characterized by a gradual loss of vision due to photoreceptor degeneration. The purpose of the current study is to noninvasively visualize and assess time-dependent changes in the retinal structures of a rabbit model of retinal degeneration by using speckle noise-reduced spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
Methodology/Principal Findings
Wild type (WT) and RP rabbits (aged 4–20 weeks) were investigated using SD-OCT. The total retinal thickness in RP rabbits decreased with age. The thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and between the external limiting membrane and Bruch's membrane (ELM–BM) were reduced in RP rabbits around the visual streak, compared to WT rabbits even at 4 weeks of age, and the differences increased with age. However, inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness in RP rabbits did not differ from that of WT during the observation period. The ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in RP rabbits increased near the optic nerve head but not around the visual streak in the later stages of the observation period. Hyper-reflective change was widely observed in the inner segments (IS) and outer segments (OS) of the photoreceptors in the OCT images of RP rabbits. Ultrastructural findings in RP retinas included the appearance of small rhodopsin-containing vesicles scattered in the extracellular space around the photoreceptors.
Conclusions/Significance
In the current study, SD-OCT provided the pattern of photoreceptor degeneration in RP rabbits and the longitudinal changes in each retinal layer through the evaluation of identical areas over time. The time-dependent changes in the retinal structure of RP rabbits showed regional and time-stage variations. In vivo imaging of RP rabbit retinas by using SD-OCT is a powerful method for characterizing disease dynamics and for assessing the therapeutic effects of experimental interventions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036135
PMCID: PMC3338600  PMID: 22558356
12.  Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT) 
Eye (London, England)  2011;25(3):321-330.
The combination of adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was first reported 8 years ago and has undergone tremendous technological advances since then. The technical benefits of adding AO to OCT (increased lateral resolution, smaller speckle, and enhanced sensitivity) increase the imaging capability of OCT in ways that make it well suited for three-dimensional (3D) cellular imaging in the retina. Today, AO–OCT systems provide ultrahigh 3D resolution (3 × 3 × 3 µm3) and ultrahigh speed (up to an order of magnitude faster than commercial OCT). AO–OCT systems have been used to capture volume images of retinal structures, previously only visible with histology, and are being used for studying clinical conditions. Here, we present representative examples of cellular structures that can be visualized with AO–OCT. We overview three studies from our laboratory that used ultrahigh-resolution AO–OCT to measure the cross-sectional profiles of individual bundles in the retinal nerve fiber layer; the diameters of foveal capillaries that define the terminal rim of the foveal avascular zone; and the spacing and length of individual cone photoreceptor outer segments as close as 0.5° from the fovea center.
doi:10.1038/eye.2011.1
PMCID: PMC3113555  PMID: 21390066
optical coherence tomography; adaptive optics; retinal nerve fibers; retinal capillaries; foveal avascular zone; photoreceptors
13.  Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT) 
Eye  2011;25(3):321-330.
The combination of adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was first reported 8 years ago and has undergone tremendous technological advances since then. The technical benefits of adding AO to OCT (increased lateral resolution, smaller speckle, and enhanced sensitivity) increase the imaging capability of OCT in ways that make it well suited for three-dimensional (3D) cellular imaging in the retina. Today, AO–OCT systems provide ultrahigh 3D resolution (3 × 3 × 3 μm3) and ultrahigh speed (up to an order of magnitude faster than commercial OCT). AO–OCT systems have been used to capture volume images of retinal structures, previously only visible with histology, and are being used for studying clinical conditions. Here, we present representative examples of cellular structures that can be visualized with AO–OCT. We overview three studies from our laboratory that used ultrahigh-resolution AO–OCT to measure the cross-sectional profiles of individual bundles in the retinal nerve fiber layer; the diameters of foveal capillaries that define the terminal rim of the foveal avascular zone; and the spacing and length of individual cone photoreceptor outer segments as close as 0.5° from the fovea center.
doi:10.1038/eye.2011.1
PMCID: PMC3113555  PMID: 21390066
optical coherence tomography; adaptive optics; retinal nerve fibers; retinal capillaries; foveal avascular zone; photoreceptors
14.  In vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of Light-Driven Melanosome Translocation in Retinal Pigment Epithelium 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:2644.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may revolutionize fundamental investigation and clinical management of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. However, quantitative OCT interpretation is hampered due to uncertain sub-cellular correlates of reflectivity in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to test OCT correlates in the RPE, and 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of longitudinal OCT monitoring of sub-cellular RPE dynamics. A high resolution OCT was constructed to achieve dynamic imaging of frog eyes, in which light-driven translocation of RPE melanosomes occurred within the RPE cell body and apical processes. Comparative histological examination of dark- and light-adapted eyes indicated that the RPE melanin granule, i.e., melanosome, was a primary OCT correlate. In vivo OCT imaging of RPE melanosomes opens the opportunity for quantitative assessment of RPE abnormalities associated with disease, and enables longitudinal investigation of RPE kinetics correlated with visual function.
doi:10.1038/srep02644
PMCID: PMC3770963  PMID: 24025778
15.  Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis 
Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindness in the industrialized world that includes age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, the review is devoted to retinal imaging and image analysis methods and their clinical implications. Methods for 2-D fundus imaging and techniques for 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are reviewed. Special attention is given to quantitative techniques for analysis of fundus photographs with a focus on clinically relevant assessment of retinal vasculature, identification of retinal lesions, assessment of optic nerve head (ONH) shape, building retinal atlases, and to automated methods for population screening for retinal diseases. A separate section is devoted to 3-D analysis of OCT images, describing methods for segmentation and analysis of retinal layers, retinal vasculature, and 2-D/3-D detection of symptomatic exudate-associated derangements, as well as to OCT-based analysis of ONH morphology and shape. Throughout the paper, aspects of image acquisition, image analysis, and clinical relevance are treated together considering their mutually interlinked relationships.
doi:10.1109/RBME.2010.2084567
PMCID: PMC3131209  PMID: 21743764
Computer-aided diagnosis; fundus photography; optical coherence tomography (OCT); population screening; retina
16.  The Structure and Function of the Macula in Patients with Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa 
OCT image segmentation was used to reveal the correlation of structural and functional changes in retinitis pigmentosa. The authors show that the inner retina is damaged only at a more advanced stage in contrast to the early changes of the outer retina.
Purpose.
To assess the structure and function of the macula in advanced retinitis pigmentosa (RP).
Methods.
Twenty-nine eyes of 22 patients with RP were compared against 17 control eyes. Time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) data were processed using OCTRIMA (optical coherence tomography retinal image analysis) as a means of quantifying commercial OCT system images. The thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer complex (GCL+IPL), inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer complex (INL+OPL), and the outer nuclear layer (ONL) were measured. Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) was performed; two groups were formed based on the mfERG findings. Fourteen eyes had no detectable central retinal function (NCRF) on mfERG; detectable but abnormal retinal function (DRF) was present in the mfERG of the other 15 eyes.
Results.
The thickness of the ONL in the central macular region was significantly less in the NCRF eyes compared with that in both DRF eyes and controls. The ONL was significantly thinner in the pericentral region in both patient groups compared with that in controls, whereas the thickness of the GCL+IPL and INL+OPL was significantly decreased only in the NCRF eyes. The RNFL in the peripheral region was significantly thicker, whereas the thickness of the GCL+IPL and ONL was significantly thinner in both patient groups compared with that in controls.
Conclusions.
The results are consistent with degeneration of the outer retina preceding inner retinal changes in RP. OCT image segmentation enables objective evaluation of retinal structural changes in RP, with potential use in the planning of therapeutic interventions and conceivably as an outcome measure.
doi:10.1167/iovs.11-7780
PMCID: PMC3253539  PMID: 21948552
17.  Posterior Lattice Degeneration Characterized by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)  2011;31(3):492-496.
PURPOSE
To utilize high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the characterization of retinal and vitreal morphological changes overlying posterior lattice degeneration.
METHODS
A cross-sectional, retrospective analysis was performed on 13 eyes of 13 nonconsecutive subjects with posterior lattice degeneration seen at the New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center between October 2009 and January 2010. SD-OCT images taken through the region of lattice degeneration were qualitatively analyzed.
RESULTS
Four characteristic changes of the retina and vitreous were seen in the 13 eyes with lattice degeneration: (1) anterior/posterior U-shaped vitreous traction, (2) retinal breaks, (3) focal retinal thinning, and (4) vitreous membrane formation. The morphological appearance of vitreous traction and retinal breaks were found to be consistent with previous histological reports.
CONCLUSIONS
It is possible to image posterior lattice degeneration in many eyes using SD-OCT and to visualize the spectrum of retinal and vitreous changes throughout the area of lattice degeneration.
doi:10.1097/IAE.0b013e3181ed8dc9
PMCID: PMC3058864  PMID: 21102367
Lattice degeneration; Optical Coherence Tomography
18.  Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography as a Noninvasive Method to Assess Damaged and Regenerating Adult Zebrafish Retinas 
Purpose.
These experiments assessed the ability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to accurately represent the structural organization of the adult zebrafish retina and reveal the dynamic morphologic changes during either light-induced damage and regeneration of photoreceptors or ouabain-induced inner retinal damage.
Methods.
Retinas of control dark-adapted adult albino zebrafish were compared with retinas subjected to 24 hours of constant intense light and recovered for up to 8 weeks or ouabain-damaged retinas that recovered for up to 3 weeks. Images were captured and the measurements of retinal morphology were made by SD-OCT, and then compared with those obtained by histology of the same eyes.
Results.
Measurements between SD-OCT and histology were very similar for the undamaged, damaged, and regenerating retinas. Axial measurements of SD-OCT also revealed vitreal morphology that was not readily visualized by histology.
Conclusions.
SD-OCT accurately represented retinal lamination and photoreceptor loss and recovery during light-induced damage and subsequent regeneration. SD-OCT was less accurate at detecting the inner nuclear layer in ouabain-damaged retinas, but accurately detected the undamaged outer nuclear layer. Thus, SD-OCT provides a noninvasive and quantitative method to assess the morphology and the extent of damage and repair in the zebrafish retina.
SD-OCT imaging accurately reveals the laminar organization in the intact adult zebrafish retina and can also assess the extent of either light-induced or ouabain-induced damage. Additionally, SD-OCT imaging can be used to monitor regeneration of the damaged adult zebrafish retina.
doi:10.1167/iovs.11-8895
PMCID: PMC3383185  PMID: 22499984
19.  Clinical applications of optical coherence tomography in the posterior pole: the 2011 José Manuel Espino Lecture – Part II 
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging technique that allows detailed assessment of retinal thickness and morphologic evaluation of the retinal layers. This technology has developed quickly over the past two decades. OCT imaging has rapidly been integrated into routine ophthalmic clinical practice and trials. It has complemented fluorescein angiography in many instances, especially in the diagnosis and management of retinal disorders, including diabetic macular edema and age-related macular degeneration. With OCT, the exact localization of pathologic features can be visualized in segmentation maps of the retina, and this has allowed OCT to be used to evaluate specific features that may serve as predictive factors in the prognosis and follow up of these pathologies. Therefore, it has become an important clinical and research tool for the diagnosis, follow up, treatment, and assessment of new treatment modalities for all diseases that affect the posterior pole of the eye.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S51158
PMCID: PMC3825852  PMID: 24235811
AMD; DME; retinal diseases; spectral domain
20.  In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography 
Biomedical Optics Express  2011;2(6):1504-1513.
We present in vivo volumetric images of human retinal micro-circulation using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (Fd-OCT) with the phase-variance based motion contrast method. Currently fundus fluorescein angiography (FA) is the standard technique in clinical settings for visualizing blood circulation of the retina. High contrast imaging of retinal vasculature is achieved by injection of a fluorescein dye into the systemic circulation. We previously reported phase-variance optical coherence tomography (pvOCT) as an alternative and non-invasive technique to image human retinal capillaries. In contrast to FA, pvOCT allows not only noninvasive visualization of a two-dimensional retinal perfusion map but also volumetric morphology of retinal microvasculature with high sensitivity. In this paper we report high-speed acquisition at 125 kHz A-scans with pvOCT to reduce motion artifacts and increase the scanning area when compared with previous reports. Two scanning schemes with different sampling densities and scanning areas are evaluated to find optimal parameters for high acquisition speed in vivo imaging. In order to evaluate this technique, we compare pvOCT capillary imaging at 3x3 mm2 and 1.5x1.5 mm2 with fundus FA for a normal human subject. Additionally, a volumetric view of retinal capillaries and a stitched image acquired with ten 3x3 mm2 pvOCT sub-volumes are presented. Visualization of retinal vasculature with pvOCT has potential for diagnosis of retinal vascular diseases.
doi:10.1364/BOE.2.001504
PMCID: PMC3114219  PMID: 21698014
(110.4500) Optical coherence tomography; (170.0110) Imaging systems; (170.4470) Ophthalmology; (120.3890) Medical optics instrumentation
21.  Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography 
Journal of biomedical optics  2010;15(6):061704.
We present polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for quantitative assessment of retinal pathologies in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). On the basis of the polarization scrambling characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium, novel segmentation algorithms were developed that allow one to segment pathologic features such as drusen and atrophic zones in dry AMD as well as to determine their dimensions. Results from measurements in the eyes of AMD patients prove the ability of PS-OCT for quantitative imaging based on the retinal features polarizing properties. Repeatability measurements were performed in retinas diagnosed with drusen and geographic atrophy in order to evaluate the performance of the described methods. PS-OCT appears as a promising imaging modality for three-dimensional retinal imaging and ranging with additional contrast based on the structures’ tissue-inherent polarization properties.
doi:10.1117/1.3499420
PMCID: PMC3036956  PMID: 21198152
optical coherence tomography; polarization sensitive devices; medical imaging; ophthalmology; algorithms; segmentation; age-related macular degeneration
22.  Tensor total variation approach to optical coherence tomography reconstruction for improved visualization of retinal microvasculature 
Biomedical Optics Express  2011;3(1):160-169.
A novel optical coherence tomography (OCT) reconstruction approach is introduced for improved visualization of inner-retina capillaries in retinal OCT tomograms. The proposed method utilizes a minimization framework based on a tensor total variation (TTV) energy functional, to enforce capillary structural characteristics in the spatial domain. By accounting for structure tensor characteristics, the TTV reconstruction method allows for contrast enhancement of capillary structural characteristics. The novel TTV method was tested on high resolution OCT images acquired in-vivo from the foveal region of the retina of a healthy human subject. Experimental results demonstrate significant contrast and visibility enhancement of the inner retina capillaries in the retinal OCT tomograms, achieved by use of the TTV reconstruction method. Therefore, the TTV method has a strong potential for improved disease progression analysis based on the study of disease-induced changes in the inner retina vasculature.
doi:10.1364/BOE.3.000160
PMCID: PMC3255334  PMID: 22254176
(170.4500) Optical coherence tomography; (100.0100) Image processing; (100.2980) Image enhancement; (100.3008) Image recognition, algorithms and filters
23.  Choroidal Mapping; a Novel Approach for Evaluating Choroidal Thickness and Volume 
There are a limited number of non-invasive imaging techniques available for assessing the choroid, a structure that may be affected by a variety of retinal disorders or become primarily involved in conditions such as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and choroidal tumors. The introduction of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) has provided the advantage of in vivo cross-sectional imaging of the choroid, similar to the retina, with standard commercially available spectral-domain OCT machines. In this article, we review this imaging technique and introduce choroidal mapping as a novel approach for obtaining accurate topographic and volumetric information on the choroid in normal and diseased states.
PMCID: PMC3520468  PMID: 23275829
Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography; Choroidal Map
24.  In vivo sectional imaging of the retinal periphery using conventional optical coherence tomography systems 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2012;60(3):235-239.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has transformed macular disease practices. This report describes the use of conventional OCT systems for peripheral retinal imaging. Thirty-six eyes with peripheral retinal pathology underwent imaging with conventional OCT systems. In vivo sectional imaging of lattice degeneration, snail-track degeneration, and paving-stone degeneration was performed. Differences were noted between phenotypes of lattice degeneration. Several findings previously unreported in histopathology studies were encountered. Certain anatomic features were seen that could conceivably explain clinical and intraoperative behavior of peripheral lesions. Peripheral OCT imaging helped elucidate clinically ambiguous situations such as retinal breaks, subclinical retinal detachment, retinoschisis, choroidal nevus, and metastasis. Limitations of such scanning included end-gaze nystagmus and far peripheral lesions. This first of its kind study demonstrates the feasibility of peripheral retinal OCT imaging and expands the spectrum of indications for which OCT scanning may be clinically useful.
doi:10.4103/0301-4738.95885
PMCID: PMC3361828  PMID: 22569394
Choroidal nevus; in vivo; lattice degeneration; optical coherence tomography; peripheral retinal lesions; retinoschisis
25.  Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81499.
We demonstrate in vivo choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging in normal human subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An ultrahigh speed swept source OCT prototype at 1060 nm wavelengths with a 400 kHz A-scan rate is developed for three-dimensional ultrahigh speed imaging of the posterior eye. OCT angiography is used to image three-dimensional vascular structure without the need for exogenous fluorophores by detecting erythrocyte motion contrast between OCT intensity cross-sectional images acquired rapidly and repeatedly from the same location on the retina. En face OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature are visualized by acquiring cross-sectional OCT angiograms volumetrically via raster scanning and segmenting the three-dimensional angiographic data at multiple depths below the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fine microvasculature of the choriocapillaris, as well as tightly packed networks of feeding arterioles and draining venules, can be visualized at different en face depths. Panoramic ultra-wide field stitched OCT angiograms of the choriocapillaris spanning ∼32 mm on the retina show distinct vascular structures at different fundus locations. Isolated smaller fields at the central fovea and ∼6 mm nasal to the fovea at the depths of the choriocapillaris and Sattler's layer show vasculature structures consistent with established architectural morphology from histological and electron micrograph corrosion casting studies. Choriocapillaris imaging was performed in eight healthy volunteers with OCT angiograms successfully acquired from all subjects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ultrahigh speed OCT for in vivo dye-free choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature imaging, in addition to conventional structural imaging.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081499
PMCID: PMC3859478  PMID: 24349078

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