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1.  Arthroscopic Bullet Removal from the Acetabulum (Hip Joint) 
Hip arthroscopy has been shown to offer minimally invasive access to the hip joint compared with standard open arthrotomy. The use of arthroscopy for diagnosing and treating disorders about the hip continues to evolve. This study describes a case that involves arthroscopic removal of a bullet from a low-velocity gunshot wound. The patient sustained a gunshot wound that entered the abdomen and traversed the small bowel, sigmoid colon then penetrated the urinary bladder before ending up in the medial wall of the acetabulum. After surgical repair of the viscus, the bullet was retrieved from the hip joint using standard arthroscopic portals and a fracture table. A number of issues led to the decision to use arthroscopy. Most importantly was the need to minimize soft tissue dissection, which was required to access the bullet, without interfering with previous wound at the suprapubic area. The risks of potential bullet fragmentation and migration, as well as a possible abdominal compartment syndrome were considered before proceeding. Arthroscopy allowed adequate inspection of the articular surface, irrigation of the joint, and removal of the foreign body while avoiding an invasive arthrotomy with its associated morbidity and soft tissue disruption. This surgical technique afforded a very satisfactory outcome for this patient and serves as a model for others when encountering a similar injury pattern in a trauma patient. It is a procedure that can be performed safely, quickly, and with minimal complications for surgeons with experience in arthroscopy of the hip joint.
PMCID: PMC3673356  PMID: 23741592
Acetabulum; arthroscopy; bullet; foreign body; gunshot; hip
2.  Bullet in Hip Joint 
The Eurasian Journal of Medicine  2013;45(2):141-142.
Recently, hip arthroscopy has become more popular in the diagnosis and extraction of intraarticular foreign bodies compared to open surgery. If a foreign object such as a bullet is not extracted from the hip joint, it may cause mechanical arthritis, infection and systemic lead toxicity. We present the arthroscopic excision of a bullet from the hip joint of a 33-year-old male patient who sustained a gunshot injury.
PMCID: PMC4261491  PMID: 25610269
Arthroscopy; bullet; hip joint
3.  Arthroscopic Lavage and Debridement for Osteoarthritis of the Knee 
Executive Summary
The purpose of this review was to determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of arthroscopic lavage and debridement, with or without lavage, in the treatment of symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, and to conduct an economic analysis if evidence for effectiveness can be established.
Questions Asked
Does arthroscopic lavage improve motor function and pain associated with OA of the knee?
Does arthroscopic debridement improve motor function and pain associated with OA of the knee?
If evidence for effectiveness can be established, what is the duration of effect?
What are the adverse effects of these procedures?
What are the economic considerations if evidence for effectiveness can be established?
Clinical Need
Osteoarthritis, the most common rheumatologic musculoskeletal disorder, affects about 10% of the Canadian adult population. Although the natural history of OA is not known, it is a degenerative condition that affects the bone cartilage in the joint. It can be diagnosed at earlier ages, particularly within the sports injuries population, though the prevalence of non-injury-related OA increases with increasing age and varies with gender, with women being twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with this condition. Thus, with an aging population, the impact of OA on the health care system is expected to be considerable.
Treatments for OA of the knee include conservative or nonpharmacological therapy, like physiotherapy, weight management and exercise; and more generally, intra-articular injections, arthroscopic surgery and knee replacement surgery. Whereas knee replacement surgery is considered an end-of-line intervention, the less invasive surgical procedures of lavage or debridement may be recommended for earlier and more severe disease. Both arthroscopic lavage and debridement are generally indicated in patients with knee joint pain, with or without mechanical problems, that are refractory to medical therapy. The clinical utility of these procedures is unclear, hence, the assessment of their effectiveness in this review.
Lavage and Debridement
Arthroscopic lavage involves the visually guided introduction of saline solution into the knee joint and removal of fluid, with the intent of extracting any excess fluids and loose bodies that may be in the knee joint. Debridement, in comparison, may include the introduction of saline into the joint, in addition to the smoothening of bone surface without any further intervention (less invasive forms of debridement), or the addition of more invasive procedures such as abrasion, partial or full meniscectomy, synovectomy, or osteotomy (referred to as debridement in combination with meniscectomy or other procedures). The focus of this health technology assessment is on the effectiveness of lavage, and debridement (with or without meniscal tear resection).
Review Strategy
The Medical Advisory Secretariat followed its standard procedures and searched these electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment.
The keywords searched were: arthroscopy, debridement, lavage, wound irrigation, or curettage; arthritis, rheumatoid, osteoarthritis; osteoarthritis, knee; knee or knee joint.
Time frame: Only 2 previous health technology assessments were identified, one of which was an update of the other, and included 3 of 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from the first report. Therefore, the search period for inclusion of studies in this assessment was January 1, 1995 to April 24, 2005.
Excluded were: case reports, comments, editorials, and letters. Identified were 335 references, including previously published health technology assessments, and 5 articles located through a manual search of references from published articles and health technology assessments. These were examined against the criteria, as described below, which resulted in the inclusion of 1 health technology assessment and its corresponding update, and 4 articles (2 RCTs and 2 level 4 studies) for arthroscopic lavage and 8 papers (2 RCTs and 6 level 4 studies) for arthroscopic debridement.
Inclusion Criteria
English-language articles from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, and health technology assessments from January 1, 1995 onward
Studies on OA of the knee with a focus on the outcomes of motor function and pain
Studies of arthroscopic procedures only
Studies in which meniscal tear resection/meniscectomy (partial or full) has been conducted in conjunction with lavage or debridement.
Exclusion Criteria
Studies that focus on inflammatory OA, joint tuberculosis, septic joints, psoriatic joints (e.g., psoriatic knee joint synovitis), synovitis, chondropathy of the knee and gonarthrosis (which includes varotic gonarthrosis)
Studies that focus on rheumatoid arthritis
Studies that focus on meniscal tears from an acute injury (e.g., sports injury)
Studies that are based on lavage or debridement for microfracture of the knee
Studies in which other surgical procedures (e.g., high tibial osteotomy, synovectomy, have been conducted in addition to lavage/debridement)
Studies based on malalignment of the knee (e.g., varus/valgus arthritic conditions).
Studies that compare lavage to lavage plus drug therapy
Studies on procedures that are not arthroscopic (i.e., visually guided) (e.g., nonarthroscopic lavage)
Studies of OA in children.
Arthroscopic lavage or debridement, with or without meniscectomy, for the treatment of motor function symptoms and pain associated with OA of the knee.
Studies in which there was a comparison group of either diseased or healthy subjects or one in which subjects were their own control were included. Comparisons to other treatments included placebo (or sham) arthroscopy. Sham arthroscopy involved making small incisions and manipulating the knee, without the insertion of instruments.
Summary of Findings
In early OA of the knee with pain refractory to medical treatment, there is level 1b evidence that:
Arthroscopic lavage gives rise to a statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful effect in improving pain (WOMAC pain and VAS pain) up to 12 months following surgery. The effect on joint function (WOMAC function) and the primary outcome (WOMAC aggregate) was neither statistically nor clinically significant.
In moderate or severe OA of the knee with pain refractory to medical treatment, there is:
Level 1b evidence that the effect on pain and function of arthroscopic lavage (10 L saline) and debridement (with 10 L saline lavage) is not statistically significant up to 24 months following surgery.
Level 2 evidence that arthroscopic debridement (with 3 L saline lavage) is effective in the control of pain in severe OA of the medial femoral condyle for up to 5 years.
For debridement in combination with meniscectomy, there is level 4 evidence that the procedure, as appropriate, might be effective in earlier stages, unicompartmental disease, shorter symptom duration, sudden onset of mechanical symptoms, and preoperative full range of motion. However, as these findings are derived from very poor quality evidence, the identification of subsets of patients that may benefit from this procedure requires further testing.
In patients with pain due to a meniscal tear, of the medial compartment in particular, repair of the meniscus results in better pain control at 2 years following surgery than if the pain is attributable to other causes. There is insufficient evidence to comment on the effectiveness of lateral meniscus repair on pain control.
Arthroscopic debridement of the knee has thus far only been found to be effective for medial compartmental OA. All other indications should be reviewed with a view to reducing arthroscopic debridement as an effective therapy.
Arthroscopic lavage of the knee is not indicated for any stage of OA.
There is very poor quality evidence on the effectiveness of debridement with partial meniscectomy in the case of meniscal tears in OA of the knee.
PMCID: PMC3382413  PMID: 23074463
4.  Outcome of arthroscopic drainage and debridement with continuous suction irrigation technique in acute septic arthritis 
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical course and functional outcome of acute septic arthritis treated by arthroscopic drainage and debridement with continuous suction irrigation.
Eighteen subsequent cases of acute septic arthritis of hip and knee were included in this study. Complete hemogram, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), blood sugar, liver and kidney function test was done. Plain radiographs and ultrasound of affected joints were done. Joint aspirate was analyzed for gram staining, AFB staining, culture/sensitivity, biochemistry and cytology. Quantitative CRP was repeated every third day till normal CRP level was noted. Intravenous cloxacillin 25–50 mg/kg was started according to WHO protocol and was later changed to specific antibiotics after culture reports. Arthroscopic drainage and debridement of joints was done through standard portals and two tubes were placed in each joint for continuous suction and irrigation. Continuous suction irrigation was used till the effluent saline from the joint was clear. Functional outcome was documented as per Harris hip score for hips and Lysholm score for knee joint. Scoring was done before surgery, at one month and at three months. The duration of intravenous antibiotics and hospitalization was recorded.
Out of eighteen cases 83.33% were males and 14.67% females. The mean age was 22 years (±12.01). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.33 days (±1.41). According to Gachter classification 88.88% of cases were stage 2 infection and 11.12% cases in stage 1 at the time of arthroscopy. The mean duration of hospital stay was 14.61 days (±4.01). Intravenous antibiotics were given for a mean period of 9.33 days (±2.16). The mean pre-operative Harris score was 13.6 (±2.07) which improved to 98 (±1.87) at 3 months and all the cases had painless normal range of movements. Mean pre-operative Lysholm score was 38.38 (±4.29) and it improved to 98.84 (±2.19) at 3 months. There were no sequelae of septic arthritis in any case.
Early arthroscopic decompression and debridement of septic arthritis with continuous suction irrigation can eradicate the infection. The duration of intravenous antibiotics and the hospital stay required is shorter. The functional outcome of joints is satisfactory.
PMCID: PMC4009452
Septic; Arthritis; Arhroscopic; Suction irrigation; Functional outcome
5.  A Bullet in the Supraspinatus Compartment Successfully Removed by Arthroscopy: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Orthopedics  2015;2015:806735.
Arthroscopic removal of bullet from intra-articular compartment has been described for several joints. Only few reports dealing with this condition in the shoulder have been reported especially for the glenohumeral and the subacromial compartments. We report the story of a fifty-seven-year-old man presenting a bullet in the supraspinatus compartment of his left shoulder successfully removed by arthroscopy.
PMCID: PMC4324955
6.  Single-Portal Arthroscopy: Report of a New Technique 
Arthroscopy Techniques  2013;2(3):e265-e269.
A new technique of single-portal arthroscopy using new instrumentation for arthroscopic knee surgery is reported. The procedure is intended for “targeted” surgery to address limited pathology. The arthroscope, cutters, and biters are all introduced into the joint through 1 portal. The technique is generally applicable to knee arthroscopy for isolated conditions and potentially useful in treating other joints. A 2.9-mm-diameter, light-sensitive, high-definition, 20-cm-long arthroscope is inserted through a 4.6-mm cannula. This arthroscope-cannula combination yields fluid flow mechanics similar to a standard 4-mm arthroscope in a 5.8-mm cannula. A Parallel Portal Cannula (PPC) (Stryker Endoscopy) is applied to the arthroscope cannula, producing a “double-barrel” system for entry into the joint. The PPC allows for sliding and rotational freedom along the axis of the arthroscope cannula but also locks in place once a desired position is achieved. PPC devices are available in zero-length, short (25-mm), and long (55-mm) sizes. Cutters that are bent in the mid shaft are available in 3.5- and 4-mm diameters. The instrumentation system allows both viewing with the arthroscope and passage of working cutters and biters through a single 9- to 10-mm portal. Potential advantages of single-portal arthroscopy include decreased patient morbidity and recovery time while still allowing for adequate treatment of limited knee pathology.
PMCID: PMC3834641  PMID: 24265996
7.  Utilization of the Safe Surgical Dislocation Approach of the Hip to Retrieve a Bullet from the Femoral Head 
Case Reports in Orthopedics  2011;2011:160591.
Retained intra-articular missiles from low-velocity handguns can lead to mechanical arthritis, synovitis, and lead toxicity. Various surgical approaches have been described to extract such foreign bodies from the hip joint. We present the case of a 17-year-old male in which the surgical dislocation approach was utilized to retrieve a bullet from the femoral head with a good short-term outcome. This case represents a rare application of the surgical hip dislocation approach for an unusual trauma.
PMCID: PMC3505894  PMID: 23198205
8.  In Situ Pinning With Arthroscopic Osteoplasty for Mild SCFE: A Preliminary Technical Report 
There is emerging evidence that even mild slipped capital femoral epiphysis leads to early articular damage. Therefore, we have begun treating patients with mild slips and signs of impingement with in situ pinning and immediate arthroscopic osteoplasty.
Description of Techniques
Surgery was performed using the fracture table. After in situ pinning and diagnostic arthroscopy, peripheral compartment access was obtained and head-neck osteoplasty was completed.
Between March 2008 and August 2009, three male patients (age range, 11–15 years; BMI, 22–31 kg/m2) presented with slip angles between 15º and 30º. All were ambulatory without assistance but had 2 to 12 weeks of hip and/or knee pain, limited motion and a positive impingement test. Postoperatively, patients were assessed at 6 weeks; 3 and 6 months; then every 6 months for the first two years. Hip motion, epiphyseal-metaphyseal offsets and alpha angles were determined. Patients completed the UCLA activity scale at latest followup that ranged from 6 to 23 months.
Arthroscopic evaluation revealed labral fraying, acetabular chondromalacia, and a prominent metaphyseal ridge. At last followup, each was pain-free and had returned to unrestricted activities. Hip motion improved in all and none demonstrated clinical impingement. Radiographs showed normalized epiphyseal-metaphyseal offsets and alpha angles.
In situ pinning with arthroscopic osteoplasty can limit impingement after mild slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Due to limited followup, we are unable to say whether this protocol reduces subsequent articular damage. Although we recommend performing these procedures concomitantly, they can be performed in a staged fashion, especially since hip arthroscopy following an epiphyseal slip can be challenging.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC2974872  PMID: 20532715
9.  Revision Rates after Primary Hip and Knee Replacement in England between 2003 and 2006 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(9):e179.
Hip and knee replacement are some of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. Resurfacing of the hip and unicondylar knee replacement are increasingly being used. There is relatively little evidence on their performance. To study performance of joint replacement in England, we investigated revision rates in the first 3 y after hip or knee replacement according to prosthesis type.
Methods and Findings
We linked records of the National Joint Registry for England and Wales and the Hospital Episode Statistics for patients with a primary hip or knee replacement in the National Health Service in England between April 2003 and September 2006. Hospital Episode Statistics records of succeeding admissions were used to identify revisions for any reason. 76,576 patients with a primary hip replacement and 80,697 with a primary knee replacement were included (51% of all primary hip and knee replacements done in the English National Health Service). In hip patients, 3-y revision rates were 0.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8%–1.1%) with cemented, 2.0% (1.7%–2.3%) with cementless, 1.5% (1.1%–2.0% CI) with “hybrid” prostheses, and 2.6% (2.1%–3.1%) with hip resurfacing (p < 0.0001). Revision rates after hip resurfacing were increased especially in women. In knee patients, 3-y revision rates were 1.4% (1.2%–1.5% CI) with cemented, 1.5% (1.1%–2.1% CI) with cementless, and 2.8% (1.8%–4.5% CI) with unicondylar prostheses (p < 0.0001). Revision rates after knee replacement strongly decreased with age.
Overall, about one in 75 patients needed a revision of their prosthesis within 3 y. On the basis of our data, consideration should be given to using hip resurfacing only in male patients and unicondylar knee replacement only in elderly patients.
Jan van der Meulen and colleagues show that about one in 75 patients with a primary hip or knee replacement needed a revision of their prosthesis within 3 years.
Editors' Summary
Though records show attempts to replace a hip date back to 1891, it was not till the 1960s before total hip replacements were successfully performed, and the 1970s before total knee replacements were carried out. These procedures are some of the most frequently performed surgical operations, with a total of 160,00 total hip and knee replacement procedures carried out in England and Wales and about half a million in the US in 2006. Hip and knee replacements are most commonly used as a treatment for severe arthritis once other approaches, such as pain relief medications, have failed. A total hip replacement involves replacing the head of the femur (the thigh bone) with an artificial component, typically metal; the socket into which the new femur head will insert is also replaced with artificial components. In an alternative procedure, resurfacing, rather than replacing the entire joint, the diseased surfaces are replaced with metal components. This procedure may be better suited to patients with less severe disease, and is also thought to result in quicker recovery. The techniques for hip and knee replacement can also be divided into those where a cement is used to position the metal implant into the bone (cemented) versus those where cement is not used (cementless).
Why Was This Study Done?
To date, little evidence has been available to compare patient outcomes following hip or knee replacement with the many different types of techniques and prostheses available. National registries have been established in a number of countries to try to collect data in order to build the evidence base for evaluating different types of prosthesis. Specifically, it is important to find out if there are any important differences in revision rates (how often the hip replacement has to be re-done) following surgery using the different techniques. In England and Wales, the National Joint Registry (NJR) has collected data on patient characteristics, types of prostheses implanted, and the type of surgical procedures used, since its initiation in April 2003.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers linked the records of the NJR and the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for patients treated by the NHS in England who had undergone a primary hip and knee replacement between April 2003 and September 2006. The HES database contains records of all admissions to NHS hospitals in England, and allowed the researchers to more accurately identify revisions of procedures that were done on patients in the NJR database.
They identified 327,557 primary hip or knee replacement procedures performed during that time period, but only 167,076 could be linked between the two databases.
76,576 patients in the linked database had undergone a primary hip replacement. The overall revision rate was 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2%–1.5%) at 3 years, with the lowest revision rates experienced by patients who had cemented prostheses. Women were found to have higher revision rates after hip resurfacing, and the revision rate was about twice as high in patients who had had a hip replacement for other indications than osteoarthritis. A patient's age did not appear to affect revision rates after hip surgery.
80,697 patients in the linked database had undergone a primary knee replacement. The overall revision rate was 1.4% (95% CI 1.3%–1.6%) at three years, again with the lowest rates of replacement experienced by patients who had cemented prostheses. Revision rates after knee replacement strongly decreased with age.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Overall, about one in 75 patients required a revision of their joint replacement, which is considered low, and cemented hip or knee prosthesis had the lowest revision rates. Post hip replacement, the highest revision rate was in patients who had undergone hip resurfacing, especially women. Following knee replacement, the highest revision rate was in patients who had undergone unicondylar prosthesis. However, in this study patients were only followed up for three years after the initial knee replacement, and it's possible that different patterns regarding the success of these differing techniques may emerge after longer follow-up. Importantly, this study was entirely observational, and data were collected from patients who had been managed according to routine clinical practice (rather than being randomly assigned to different procedures). Substantial differences in the age and clinical characteristics of patients receiving the different procedures were seen. As a result, it's not possible to directly draw conclusions on the relative benefits or harms of the different procedures, but this study provides important benchmark data with which to evaluate future performance of different procedures and types of implant.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The website of the British Orthopaedic Association contains information for patients and surgeons
The website of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence contains guidance on hip prostheses
Information is available from the US National Institutes of Health (Medline) on hip replacement, including interactive tutorials and information about rehabilitation and recovery
Medline also provides similar resources for knee replacement
The NHS provides information for patients on hip and knee replacement, including questions patients might ask, real stories, and useful links
The National Joint Registry provides general information about joint replacement, as well as allowing users to download statistics on the data it has collected on the numbers of procedures carried out in the UK
PMCID: PMC2528048  PMID: 18767900
10.  Interventions for Hip Pain in the Maturing Athlete 
Sports Health  2014;6(1):70-77.
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) alters hip mechanics, results in hip pain, and may lead to secondary osteoarthritis (OA) in the maturing athlete. Hip impingement can be caused by osseous abnormalities in the proximal femur or acetabulum. These impingement lesions may cause altered loads within the hip joint, which result in repetitive collision damage or sheer forces to the chondral surfaces and acetabular labrum. These anatomic lesions and resultant abnormal mechanics may lead to early osteoarthritic changes.
Evidence Acquisition:
Relevant articles from the years 1995 to 2013 were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the bibliographies of reviewed publications.
Level of Evidence:
Level 4.
Improvements in hip arthroscopy have allowed FAI to be addressed utilizing the arthroscope. Adequately resecting the underlying osseous abnormalities is essential to improving hip symptomatology and preventing further chondral damage. Additionally, preserving the labrum by repairing the damaged tissue and restoring the suction seal may theoretically help normalize hip mechanics and prevent further arthritic changes. The outcomes of joint-preserving treatment options may be varied in the maturing athlete due to the degree of underlying OA. Irreversible damage to the hip joint may have already occurred in patients with moderate to advanced OA. In the presence of preexisting arthritis, these patients may only experience fair or even poor results after hip arthroscopy, with early conversion to hip replacement. For patients with advanced hip arthritis, total hip arthroplasty remains a treatment option to reliably improve symptoms with good to excellent outcomes and return to low-impact activities.
Advances in the knowledge base and treatment techniques of intra-articular hip pain have allowed surgeons to address this complex clinical problem with promising outcomes. Traditionally, open surgical dislocations for hip preservation surgery have shown good long-term results. Improvements in hip arthroscopy have led to outcomes equivalent to open surgery while utilizing significantly less invasive techniques. However, outcomes may ultimately depend on the degree of underlying OA. When counseling the mature athlete with hip pain, an understanding of the underlying anatomy, degree of arthritis, and expectations will help guide the treating surgeon in offering appropriate treatment options.
PMCID: PMC3874222  PMID: 24427445
hip pain; joint preservation; hip arthroscopy; femoroacetabular impingement
11.  Whole-Organ Arthroscopic Knee Score (WOAKS) 
To describe a semi-quantitative score for multi-feature, whole-organ evaluation of the knee in osteoarthritis based on the results of arthroscopic evaluation.
This was a study of 1,199 patients who were suffering from knee pain for over 3 months (range 3 to 48 months) and had undergone arthroscopy. The mean age of patients was 49.8 (range 17 to 85) years old. Cartilage lesions were graded according to the ICRS protocol (grade 0 to 4 and for osteophytes "grade 5"). Meniscus lesions were classified regarding to the extent of resection which was needed (grade 0: intact meniscus, grade 1: partial meniscectomy, grade 2: subtotal meniscectomy, and grade 3: total meniscectomy). The whole grade of cartilage lesions was calculated as the sum of ICRS grades in all joint surfaces (bearing and non-bearing margin). The whole grade of meniscus lesions was calculated as the sum of the points for medial and lateral meniscus surgery. The Whole-Organ Arthroscopic Knee Score (WOAKS) was the sum of the cartilage and meniscus score.
The mean knee osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) of all patients was 67.3 ± 26.0 (range 21 to 128) points. The WOAKS was significantly associated (p = 0.001) with patient age (R = 0.399), the subjective complaints (R = 0.630) in KOOS, and the radiological grade of OA (R = 0.731).
The good correlation between the WOAKS and the subjective complaints as well as the radiological grade of OA suggests that the score can be used as an instrument for description of the "whole organ" knee. This score may be useful for clinical or epidemiological studies in the future.
PMCID: PMC2658669  PMID: 19025645
12.  Hip arthroscopy: evolution, current practice and future developments 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(6):1115-1121.
Arthroscopic examination and treatment is an ever-increasing part of modern orthopaedic practice in this age of minimally invasive surgery. Arthroscopic procedures have been widespread in surgery of the knee and the shoulder for many years; however, the hip until relatively recently, has been largely neglected. Even now hip arthroscopy is not widely available; this may be due to the complexity of the procedure, the requirement of specialist equipment and a reportedly long learning curve. On the other hand, it has gone through a period of rapid growth over the last decade and is being performed in large numbers routinely in some centres around the world. Hip arthroscopy now provides excellent visualisation of not only the articular surfaces of the hip joint but also of the peritrochanteric or extra-articular space around the hip. Pathology of both the femoral head and the acetabulum along with the soft tissues of the hip, namely the ligamentum teres, the acetabular labrum, the synovial folds and synovium, is readily diagnosed. Modern techniques provide therapeutic options for a myriad of conditions and allow modulation of pathological processes early. Additionally hip arthroscopy is a relatively safe procedure with few complications and contraindications. However, the key to good outcomes is in the careful selection of patients and meticulous surgical technique. The aim of this review is to bring the reader up to date with an overview of the evolution of arthroscopy of the hip, review the current practice and explore possible future developments.
PMCID: PMC3353094  PMID: 22371112
13.  Intraoperative Cartilage Degeneration Predicts Outcome 12 Months After Hip Arthroscopy 
When considering arthroscopic surgery for treatment of hip pain, it is important to understand the influence of joint degeneration on the likelihood of success. Previous research has shown poorer outcomes among patients with osteoarthritis but new arthroscopic techniques including femoroacetabular impingement correction and microfracture may lead to better arthroscopic outcomes.
We investigated the effect of intraarthroscopic articular and rim cartilage degeneration on the outcome after hip arthroscopy using contemporary techniques.
The modified Harris hip score (MHHS) and nonarthritic hip score (NAHS) were completed preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively by 560 patients undergoing hip arthroscopy after March 2007. Change in these scores was compared between patients with and without acetabular or femoral articular cartilage degeneration and between patients with and without rim cartilage degeneration. Correlation and regression analyses were used to predict the change in outcome scores based on the severity of cartilage degeneration.
Hips without degeneration had greater improvement in the outcome scores. The presence of cartilage degeneration showed negative correlations with change in outcomes. The best model to explain change in MHHS included preoperative score, articular cartilage degeneration grade, and rim lesion grade (adjusted R2 = 0.24).
Our data support previous findings regarding the negative influence of cartilage degeneration on improvement after hip arthroscopy. Nevertheless, many patients with cartilage degeneration still improved and the severity of degeneration accounts for little of the resulting variance in change. Future studies must determine the clinical importance of the improvements gained by patients with cartilage degeneration and identify other predictors of outcome.
Level of Evidence
Level III, prognostic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3549183  PMID: 22992870
14.  Combat-Related Intradural Gunshot Wound to the Thoracic Spine: Significant Improvement and Neurologic Recovery Following Bullet Removal 
Asian Spine Journal  2015;9(1):127-132.
The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.
PMCID: PMC4330208
Gunshot wound; Foreign body; Spinal cord injury; Laminectomy; Recovery of function
15.  The incidence, pattern and outcome of stray bullet injuries. A growing challenge for surgeons 
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences  2013;29(5):1178-1181.
Objective: To study the incidence, pattern of injuries, presentation and management of stray bullet injuries.
Methods: All patients presented and admitted with stray bullet injuries during a period of 4 years from January 2006 to December 2010 were included in this prospective study which was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital Hyderabad/Jamshoro. All of the study subjects were admitted through casualty and were initially thoroughly examined and resuscitated. The pattern of injuries was noted and requisite investigations performed. Patients who sustained injuries demanding surgery were prepared accordingly and were submitted for laparotomy or other procedures depending upon the severity of injuries. The data collected on individual basis and variables studied including demographics, pattern of injuries, time since injury occurred and management.
Results: A total number of 165 patients with a mean age of 17.1 years, SD 13.807 and range of 74(2-76) presented with stray bullet injuries during study period. The study population comprised 117(70.90%) males and 48(29.09%) females. Majority of the patients were brought late because of delay in diagnosis or delay in transportation. The commonest victims were young children in their teens and comprised 78% of the study population. Haemothorax/ pneumothorax or peritonitis was the common presentations occurring in 11% and 61.81% of the study population respectively. Of the total number, 92 (55.75%) patients underwent laparotomy while remaining patients either had chest intubation or some other procedures done accordingly. Nine (5.45%) patients developed permanent disabilities while 13(7.87%) patients died either immediately after arrival or later on in the hospital during or after the operative treatment. Mortality was related to the time of arrival in hospital since the injury and thus was highest among those brought 4 or more hours after the shot (P<0.001). Patients who did not sustain major injuries were kept under observation and were subsequently discharged.
Conclusion: Stray bullet injuries are an ever increasing challenge in our society. Unlawful and jubilant use of weapons in celebrations, weddings and similar occasions are causing a lot of morbidity and mortality in the society.
PMCID: PMC3858914  PMID: 24353715
Incidental bullet injuries; Morbidity; Mortality; Stray bullet injuries; Young victims
16.  Labral Injuries of the Hip in Rowers 
Injuries of the hip in the adolescent and young adult athlete are receiving more attention with advances in the understanding of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), labral pathology, and hip arthroscopy. Labral tears have not been well characterized in rowers.
The purposes of this study were (1) to describe the clinical presentation of labral pathology in rowers; (2) to describe the MRI and radiographic findings of labral pathology in rowers; and (3) to determine the likelihood that a rower with labral injury, treated arthroscopically, will return to sport.
We conducted a review from August 2003 to August 2010 to identify all rowers with MRI-confirmed intraarticular pathology of the hip presenting to our institution. Baseline demographics, symptoms and physical findings, and location of the labral tear with associated pathology, management, and early followup were recorded. The review yielded a total of 21 hips (18 rowers, three with bilateral labral pathology) with a mean patient age of 18.5 years (range, 14–23 years). Most of the rowers (85%) were female and the series included prep school (44%) and collegiate rowers (56%). Eighteen of the 21 hips (85%) eventually underwent arthroscopic surgery at our institution.
A large majority of patients had isolated groin pain (71%) and physical findings consistent with impingement (81%). There was no single, dominant location for the labral tears on MRI. Among the 18 patients who had surgery, 10 (56%) returned to rowing, six (33%) never returned, and return data were not available for two (11%) at a mean of 8 months (range, 3–25 months) after surgery.
The repetitive motions of the hip required for rowing may be a factor leading to intraarticular labral injuries in the athletes. Underlying anatomic abnormalities of the hip such as FAI may predispose certain patients to these injuries. However, many patients treated arthroscopically did not return to sport at a mean of 8 months after surgery.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3705063  PMID: 23801059
17.  Treatment of early septic arthritis of the hip in children: comparison of results of open arthrotomy versus arthroscopic drainage 
The goal of this study was to compare results of open arthrotomy versus arthroscopic drainage in treating septic arthritis of the hip in children.
This prospective controlled study was conducted on twenty patients (20 hips) with acute septic arthritis of the hip. Diagnosis was suspected if there was: a history of fever, non-weight-bearing on the affected limb, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of at least 40 mm/h, and white blood cell count of more than 12,000 cells per cubic millimeter. Diagnosis was established by ultrasonographic examination of the affected hip followed by ultrasound-guided aspiration of the joint. Patients were allocated to have either open arthrotomy or arthroscopic drainage of the joint. There were ten patients (ten hips) in each treatment group. The mean age of the patients was 7.3 years in the arthrotomy group, and 8 years in the arthroscopy group. The mean temperatures for the arthrotomy and arthroscopy groups were 38.8 and 38.7°C, respectively. All the children were unable to bear weight on the affected limb.
Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative microorganism in both groups. The mean duration of the children’s hospital stay was 6.4 days in the arthrotomy group and 3.8 days in the arthroscopy group. The difference was highly significant. Infection could be eradicated in all patients of both groups. At the latest follow-up, seven children in the arthrotomy group (70%) had excellent results and three children (30%) had good results. In the arthroscopy group, nine children (90%) had excellent results and one child (10%) had good results. The difference was not statistically significant.
Arthroscopic drainage is an effective method in treating septic arthritis of the hip. It is a minimal invasive procedure which is associated with less hospital stay. Arthroscopic drainage of septic arthritis of the hip in children is a valid alternative procedure in early uncomplicated cases and for orthopedic surgeons skilled in pediatric arthroscopy.
PMCID: PMC2656801  PMID: 19308583
Septic arthritis; Hip joint; Arthroscopy; Children
Study Design:
Case Report
Femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) has been implicated in the etiology of acetabular labral tears. The rehabilitation of younger athletes following arthroscopic surgery for FAI and labral tears is often complex and multifactorial. A paucity of evidence exists to describe the rehabilitation of younger athletes who have undergone arthroscopic hip surgery.
Case Presentation:
This case report describes a four-phase rehabilitation program for a high school football player who underwent hip arthroscopy with a labral repair and chondroplasty.
The player returned to training for football 16 weeks later and at the 4 month follow-up was pain free with no signs of FAI.
There is little evidence regarding the rehabilitation of younger athletes who undergo arthroscopic hip surgery. This case study described a four phase rehabilitation program for a high school football player who underwent hip arthroscopy and labral repair. The patient achieved positive outcomes with a full return to athletic activity and football. The overall success of these patients depends on the appropriate surgical procedure and rehabilitation program.
Key Words:
Femoral acetabular impingement (FAI), hip, hip impingement
Level of evidence:
4-Case report
PMCID: PMC3325633  PMID: 22530192
19.  Arthroscopy. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;308(6920):51-53.
Arthroscopy has reduced the morbidity and period of hospitalisation associated with orthopaedic surgery and has increased the range of procedures that may be performed. From early operations on the knee it has expanded to include procedures for the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, ankle, and foot. For some joints the indications for surgery are clear, for others the clinical advantages are still being assessed. This expansion has also led to the recognition of complications, though the incidence is low. Specialist instrumentation has allowed a wide variety of operations previously needing open surgery to be carried out arthroscopically. The repertoire of arthroscopic procedures will undoubtedly continue to expand, and controlled studies are required to validate their efficacy, particularly in the management of degenerative joint diseases.
PMCID: PMC2539138  PMID: 8298357
20.  Surgical Technique: Arthroscopic Treatment of Heterotopic Ossification of the Hip After Prior Hip Arthroscopy 
The incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) after hip arthroscopy reportedly ranges from less than 1.0% to 6.3%. Although open debridement has been described and a few series mention arthroscopic debridement, the techniques for arthroscopic excision of HO have not been described in detail. We describe the arthroscopic treatment of this complication.
Description of Technique
Revision arthroscopy was completed in the central and peripheral compartments using prior portals and fluoroscopy was used to identify the HO. Spinal needle localization was used to triangulate onto the HO. Cannulas were inserted over the spinal needle. Once the HO was clearly identified with the arthroscope, it was excised using a burr and confirmed on fluoroscopy.
We retrospectively reviewed 66 patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement between July 2008 and June 2010. There were 36 females and 30 males with an average age of 38 years (range, 15–68 years). Eight of the 66 (12%) patients had HO develop. Using the grading of Brooker et al., six patients had Grade 1, one had Grade 2, and one had Grade 3 HO. Three patients with HO were symptomatic and underwent arthroscopic resection. We obtained modified Harris hip scores (HHS) and radiographs at followup. The minimum followup for the three patients with revision surgery was 2 years (mean, 2 years 2 months; range, 2 years–2 years 8 months).
The three patients who underwent arthroscopic resection had HHS ranging from 85 to 96 at last followup. No patient had recurrence of HO.
Our data suggest HO is not uncommon after hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement but most patients have minor degrees and no symptoms. In symptomatic patients, arthroscopic excision appears to relieve pain and restore function.
PMCID: PMC3586006  PMID: 23054520
21.  Capsulotomy First: A Novel Concept for Hip Arthroscopy 
Arthroscopy Techniques  2014;3(5):e599-e603.
Capsulotomy during hip arthroscopy improves the mobility of arthroscopic instruments and helps gain greater access to key areas of the hip. During the past decade, its use has expanded dramatically as the complexity of hip arthroscopy has advanced. We report a novel approach for hip arthroscopy that consists of performing an extra-articular capsulotomy under endoscopic control before exploration of the hip joint. The principle of this new concept is to replicate an anterior Hueter approach of the hip joint. We describe the surgical technique and discuss its advantages compared with conventional hip arthroscopy techniques using either a peripheral- or central-compartment starting point. This new approach is easy to master, can be performed with a 30° optic system, does not require fluoroscopic assistance, allows a reduction in both the force and duration of traction, and reduces the risk of labral or chondral damage.
PMCID: PMC4246391  PMID: 25473614
22.  Evaluation of microfracture of traumatic chondral injuries to the knee in professional football and rugby players 
Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited.
To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play.
Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms.
This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2) after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively) however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score.
We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated by MRI and a modified knee function score occurred between 5 to 7 months in most cases, which is a reasonable absence period for the majority of players to resume their normal sports activity without risking contracts and careers. MRI correlated well with the functional knee score, but neither of these methods were totally reliable in confirming healing at the defect site. Arthroscopic probing is therefore still the gold standard in our view. From a strict scientific stand point an untreated control group would be valuable to demonstrate that microfracture does not just mirror the natural course of healing.
PMCID: PMC2686688  PMID: 19422712
23.  Finnish Degenerative Meniscal Lesion Study (FIDELITY): a protocol for a randomised, placebo surgery controlled trial on the efficacy of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for patients with degenerative meniscus injury with a novel ‘RCT within-a-cohort’ study design 
BMJ Open  2013;3(3):e002510.
Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) to treat degenerative meniscus injury is the most common orthopaedic procedure. However, valid evidence of the efficacy of APM is lacking. Controlling for the placebo effect of any medical intervention is important, but seems particularly pertinent for the assessment of APM, as the symptoms commonly attributed to a degenerative meniscal injury (medial joint line symptoms and perceived disability) are subjective and display considerable fluctuation, and accordingly difficult to gauge objectively.
Methods and analysis
A multicentre, parallel randomised, placebo surgery controlled trial is being carried out to assess the efficacy of APM for patients from 35 to 65 years of age with a degenerative meniscus injury. Patients with degenerative medial meniscus tear and medial joint line symptoms, without clinical or radiographic osteoarthritis of the index knee, were enrolled and then randomly assigned (1 : 1) to either APM or diagnostic arthroscopy (placebo surgery). Patients are followed up for 12 months. According to the prior power calculation, 140 patients were randomised. The two randomised patient groups will be compared at 12 months with intention-to-treat analysis. To safeguard against bias, patients, healthcare providers, data collectors, data analysts, outcome adjudicators and the researchers interpreting the findings will be blind to the patients’ interventions (APM/placebo). Primary outcomes are Lysholm knee score (a generic knee instrument), knee pain (using a numerical rating scale), and WOMET score (a disease-specific, health-related quality of life index). The secondary outcome is 15D (a generic quality of life instrument). Further, in one of the five centres recruiting patients for the randomised controlled trial (RCT), all patients scheduled for knee arthroscopy due to a degenerative meniscus injury are prospectively followed up using the same protocol as in the RCT to provide an external validation cohort. In this article, we present and discuss our study design, focusing particularly on the internal and external validity of our trial and the ethics of carrying out a placebo surgery controlled trial.
Ethics and dissemination
The protocol has been approved by the institutional review board of the Pirkanmaa Hospital District and the trial has been duly registered at The findings of this study will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.
Trial registration, number NCT00549172.
PMCID: PMC3612785  PMID: 23474796
Sports Medicine
24.  Do Professional Athletes Perform Better Than Recreational Athletes After Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement? 
Although a large number of athletes’ returns to sports after hip arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), it is not clear if they do so to the preinjury level and whether professional athletes (PA) are more likely to return to the preinjury level compared with recreational athletes (RA).
We therefore compared (1) the time taken to return to the preinjury level of sport between professional and recreational athletes; (2) the degree of improvement in time spent in training and competitive activities after arthroscopic surgery for FAI; and (3) the difference in trend of improvement in hip scores.
We prospectively followed 80 athletes (PA = 40, RA = 40; mean age, 35.7 years; males = 50, females = 30; mean followup, 1.4 years; range, 1–1.8 years) who underwent hip arthroscopy for FAI. We measured the time to return to sports; training time and time in competition; and the modified Harris hip score and the nonarthritic hip score.
There was a 2.6-fold improvement in the training time (from 7.8 to 20 hours per week) and a 3.2-fold increase in time in competition (from 2.5 to 7.9 hours per week) 1 year after surgery. The mean time to return to sporting activities was 5.4 months, which was lower for PA (4.2) as compared with RA (6.8). Eighty-two percent (66) (PA = 88% [35] versus RA = 73% [29]) returned to their preinjury level of sport within 1 year of surgery.
The data suggest PA may show quicker return to sports than RA but the hip scores and rate of return to sports are similar.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3705039  PMID: 23456186
25.  Arthroscopic Osteochondral Grafting for Radiocarpal Joint Defects 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2013;2(3):212-219.
Background Focal chondral lesion is a common cause of chronic wrist pain. The best treatment remains unknown. We have developed a technique of arthroscopic transplantation of an osteochondral autograft from the knee joint to the distal radius with satisfactory clinical results.
Materials and Methods Between December 2006 and December 2010, four patients (average age 31 years) with posttraumatic osteochondral lesions over the dorsal lunate fossa were treated with arthroscopic osteochondral grafting. Pre- and postoperative motion, grip strength, wrist functional performance score, pain score, and return to work status were charted. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and second-look arthroscopy were performed to assess graft incorporation.
Description of Technique With the arthroscope in the 3-4 portal, synovitis over the dorsal lunate fossa was débrided to uncover the underlying osteochondral lesion. We employed the 6-mm trephine of the Osteoarticular Transfer System (OATS) to remove the osteochondral defect. Osteochondral graft was harvested from the lateral femoral condyle and delivered into the wrist joint arthroscopically.
Results In all cases, grafts incorporation was completed by 3-4 months postoperative. All patients showed improvement in the wrist performance score (preoperative 27.5, postoperative 39 out of 40) with no pain on final follow-up at average 48.5 months (range 24-68 months). Grip strength improved from 62.6 to 98.2% of the contralateral side. Motion improved from 115.5 to 131.3°. X-ray images showed preserved joint space. Patient satisfaction was high with no complication.
Conclusion An arthroscopic-assisted transfer of an osteochondral graft is a viable treatment option for chondral defects of the distal radius.
PMCID: PMC3764241  PMID: 24436819
wrist arthroscopy; osteochondral graft; radiocarpal joint; wrist surgery; focal; osteochondral defect

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