Mycotic aneurysms constitute a small proportion of aortic aneurysms. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysms has been applied with good short-term and midterm results. However, the uncommon aortoenteric fistula formation remains a potentially fatal complication when repairing such infective aneurysms. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with thoracic and abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysms, which were successfully treated with endografting. However, the patient presented 3 months later with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to erosion of the thoracic graft into the oesophagus. The patient was treated conservatively due to the high risk of surgical repair. There is currently little exposure to the management of mycotic aortic aneurysms. If suspected, imaging of the entire vasculature will aid initial diagnosis and highlight the extent of the disease process, allowing for efficient management. Aortic endografting for mycotic thoracic aneurysms is a high-risk procedure yet is still an appropriate intervention. Aortoenteric fistulae pose a rare but severe complication of aortic endografting in this setting.
Infected abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) can present insidiously with non-specific symptoms or they may present as ruptured AAA in the classical manner.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report two cases of mycotic AAA with Listeria monocytogenes. One patient presented with a ruptured aneurysm, while the other patient had a symptomatic non-ruptured presentation with computer tomography (CT) angiogram demonstrating peri-aortic inflammatory change of a rapidly expanding aneurysm. Both patients were treated with excision of the infected tissue and inlay prosthetic surgical repair as well as long term antibiotics.
Arterial aneurysms caused by L. monocytogenes are rare. Risk factors include immunosuppression, infective endocarditis, intravenous drug use and septicaemia. Listeria infections should be discussed with the Health Protection Agency and local microbiologists due to their ubiquity.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm due to L. monocytogenes is best managed via surgical resection in combination with long term antimicrobial therapy. The role of endovascular exclusion is unclear.
Mycotic; Aneurysm; Listeria; Monocytogenes; Aortic
Mycotic pseudoaneurysms of native arteries are rare. Treatment involves arterial excision with or without revascularization.
Presentation of case
A 49-year-old diabetic man presented with a 4-month history of progressive left mid-thigh pain, associated with a pulsatile mass and fever. Clinically, he appeared to have a mycotic pseudoaneurysm, which was confirmed by computed tomography. The aneurysm was excluded from the circulation by an extra-anatomical bypass graft using autologous vein.
Native arterial mycotic pseudoaneurysms typically occur in immuno-compromised patients. They may be successfully treated using autologous vein bypass.
Arterial infection is associated with immunosuppressive states and Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism in mycotic aneurysms. Also, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and anaerobic species have been identified. Salmonella species are associated with mycotic aneurysms in the abdominal aorta and the use of autogenous vein grafts is the standard treatment for this condition. In lower extremities, autogenous conduits have been already used with good results of patency and freedom from re-infection. Endovascular treatment is a feasible approach in these situations, but there is not reports regarding long term results and this treatment is occasionally associated with prosthesis infection.
Pseudoaneurysm; Femoral artery; Salmonella
Tuberculous aneurysm of the aorta is exceedingly rare. To date, the standard therapy for mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta has been surgery involving in-situ graft placement or extra-anatomic bypass surgery followed by effective anti-tuberculous medication. Only recently has the use of a stent graft in the treatment of tuberculous aortic aneurysm been described in the literature. We report two cases in which a tuberculous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta was successfully repaired using endovascular stent grafts. One case involved is a 42-year-old woman with a large suprarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a right psoas abscess, and the other, a 41-year-old man in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptured during surgical drainage of a psoas abscess.
Aorta, disease; Aorta, aneurysm; Aorta, grafts and prostheses
Mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is a rare and life threatening condition. Two patients are presented (both male, aged 66 and 59 years) in whom coronary artery bypass surgery was complicated by the development of a mycotic aneurysm. Fever preceded the radiological and echocardiographic signs of the aneurysm by at least several months in both cases. Blood cultures were negative for one patient and the source of Corynebacterium sp infection in the other was not determined for several months. Both patients died before surgery could correct the aneurysm.
Keywords: mycotic aneurysm; aorta; revascularisation; surgical complications
Mycotic aneurysms are a rare cause of intracranial aneurysms that develop in the presence of infections such as infective endocarditis. They account for a small percentage of all intracranial aneurysms and carry a high-mortality rate when ruptured. The authors report a case of a 54-year-old man who presented with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve and acute stroke. He subsequently developed subarachnoid hemorrhage during antibiotic treatment, and a large intracranial aneurysm was
discovered on CT Angiography. His lesion quickly progressed into an intraparenchymal hemorrhage, requiring emergent craniotomy and aneurysm clipping. Current recommendations on the management of intracranial Mycotic Aneurysms are based on few retrospective case studies. The natural history of the patient's ruptured aneurysm is presented, as well as a literature review on the management and available treatment modalities.
We report a rare case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with
Campylobacter fetus. A 72-year-old male admitted to the hospital
because of pain in the right lower quadrant with pyrexia. The enhanced abdominal computed
tomography (CT) examination showed abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) measuring 50 mm in
maximum diameter and a high-density area of soft tissue density from the right lateral
wall to the anterior wall of the aorta. However, since the patient showed no significant
signs of defervescence after antibiotics administration, so we performed emergency surgery
on the patient based on the diagnosis of impending rupture of mycotic AAA. The aneurysm
was resected in situ reconstruction using a bifurcated albumin-coated knitted Dacron graft
was performed. The cultures of blood and aneurysmal wall grew Campylobacter
fetus, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management in this
case, and the patient is making satisfactory progress. This is the fifth report of mycotic
AAA characterizing culture positive for Campylobacter fetus in blood and
tissue culture of the aortic aneurysm wall.
mycotic abdominal aneurysm; Campylobacter fetus; vascular surgery
Mycotic aneurysms are uncommon, but are fatal without appropriate management. Previous reports have shown that anaerobes and gram-negative organisms are less common but more dangerous than other causative agents of mycotic aneurysm. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis in the aorta, and a 10-day of history of lower abdominal pain and fever. This man was diagnosed with an uncommon abdominal aorta mycotic aneurysm caused by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Acinetobacter lwoffii. The aneurysm was successfully treated with antibiotics therapy and aorto-bi-external iliac artery bypass with debridement of the infected aortic wall. We present this case together with a review of the relevant literature.
Aneurysm; Infected; Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; Acinetobacter lwoffii
Acute subdural haematoma (ASDH) is rarely caused by an aneurysmal rupture. We report four cases of pure acute subdural haematomas caused by ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Aneurysms were localized in the posterior communicating artery in two cases, in the anterior communicating artery in one case and in the middle cerebral artery in one other case. Possible mechanisms for this type of aneurysmal bleeding are discussed. A good prognosis for these patients can be expected with rapid evacuation of the haematoma (in case of high intracranial pressure and midline structure shift), and treatment of the aneurysm (surgical clipping or endovascular treatment).
Our report demonstrates the utility of angiography in the evaluation of nontraumatic acute subdural haematomas. Angiography has to be performed before haematoma evacuation or just after if the patient requires urgent surgery in case of intracranial hypertension. Aneurysms may require surgical clipping or endovascular treatment.
subdural haematoma, intracranial aneurysm, angiography
We present a case of 58-year-old woman with underlying diabetes mellitus, hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis, and total hysterectomy for uterine myoma 11 moths ago, who was diagnosed ruptured aortic arch mycotic pseudoaneurysm after a certain period of survey for her unknown fever cause. After emergent surgery with prosthetic graft interposition, all her blood cultures and tissue cultures revealed pathogen with Bacteroides fragilis. Although mycotic aneurysms have been well described in literatures, an aneurysm infected solely with Bacteroides fragilis is unusual, with only eight similar cases in the literature. Here we reported the only female case with her specific clinical and management course and summarized all reported cases of mycotic aneurysm caused by Bacteroides fragilis to clarify their conditions and treatments, alert the difficulty in diagnosis, and importance of highly suspicious.
Infectious thoracic aortitis is a rare entity in the antibiotic era and usually appears in patients with prior aortic disease and/or associated infective endocarditis. Infected nonaneurysmal aorta will likely progress to mycotic aneurysm if left untreated. In most of the reports, infectious thoracic aortitis presents with a mycotic aneurysm. We report the case of a patient with a nonaneurysmal infectious thoracic aortitis, probably secondary to purulent meningitis, early diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiogram.
We present a case of vertebral osteomyelitis with an adjacent abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysm caused by a highly penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strain. The occurrence of all three phenomena in a single patient has not been previously described. This presentation offers the opportunity to reflect on the increasing incidence of S. pneumoniae as a resistant pathogen, the treatment of highly penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and the etiologic agents of both vertebral osteomyelitis and mycotic aneurysm.
Aortic endograft placement is evolving into the standard of care for treatment of patients with anatomically suitable thoracic aortic aneurysms. Application of this technique and these devices in other thoracic aortic pathology, such as traumatic pseudoaneurysms, symptomatic type B aortic dissections, penetrating ulcers, and even mycotic aneurysms, appears to be promising. We report a case in which a stent graft was used to treat a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta. The case was complicated by delayed collapse of the endograft, which led to hypoperfusion of the extremities, kidneys, and intestines. Reestablishment of endograft patency and distal reperfusion was achieved by placement of two balloon-expandable stents within the endograft. Potential factors leading to the development of this complication are discussed.
Thoracic aorta; trauma; endograft; collapse
Infective spondylitis occurring concomitantly with mycotic aneurysm is rare. A retrospective record review was conducted in all cases of mycotic aneurysm from January 1995 to December 2004, occurring in a primary care and tertiary referral center. Spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm were found in six cases (10.3% of 58 mycotic aneurysm patients). Neurological deficit (50% vs. 0; P < 0.001) is the significant clinical manifestation in patients with spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm. The presence of psoas abscess on computed tomography (83.3% vs. 0; P < 0.001) and endplate destruction on radiography (50% vs. 0; P < 0.001) are predominated in patients with spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm. Of these six patients, four with Salmonella infection received surgical intervention and all survived. Another two patients (one with Streptococcus pyogenes, another with Staphylococcus aureus) received conservative therapy and subsequently died from rupture of aneurysm or septic shock. Paravertebral soft tissue swelling, presence of psoas abscess and/or unclear soft tissue plane between the aorta and vertebral body in relation to mycotic aneurysm may indicate a concomitant infection in the spine. In contrast, if prevertebral mass is found in the survey of spine infection, coexisting mycotic aneurysm should be considered.
Infective spondylitis; Mycotic aneurysm; Psoas abscess
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause endocarditis and vascular infections that result in severe morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a C. burnetii-infected abdominal aorta and its management in a patient with a previous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.
A 62-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital three months after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with a bifurcated stent graft. He had increasing abdominal complaints and general malaise. A computed tomography scan of his abdomen revealed several para-aneurysmal abscesses. Surgery was performed via midline laparotomy. The entire abdominal wall of his aneurysmal sac, including the abscesses, was removed. The vascular endoprosthesis showed no macroscopic signs of infection. The decision was made to leave the endograft in place because of the severe cardiopulmonary comorbidities, thereby avoiding suprarenal clamping and explantation of this device with venous reconstruction. The proximal and distal parts of the endograft were secured to the aortic wall and common iliac artery walls, respectively, to avoid future migration. Polymerase chain reaction for C. burnetii was positive in all specimens of aortic tissue. Specific antibiotic therapy was initiated. Our patient was discharged in good clinical condition after six days.
In our patient, the infection was limited to the abdominal aneurysm wall, which was removed, leaving the endograft in place. Vascular surgeons should be familiar with this bailout procedure in high-risk patients.
Cerebral mycotic aneurysms (MAs) also called infective aneurysms, are uncommon and are usually encountered in patients with infective endocarditis. These aneurysms often present with intracranial hemorrhage. MAs may resolve on treatment with antibiotics alone. However prognosis with medical management alone is unpredictable. Good prognosis with surgery has been reported for single accessible ruptured MAs. However surgery is associated with significant morbidity. Endovascular treatment of MAs along with appropriate antibiotics is emerging as an acceptable option for these patients.
We describe two cases of infective endocarditis complicated by ruptured MA treated successfully by liquid embolic glue material.
mycotic aneurysm, infective endocarditis, endovascular treatment, liquid embolic glue material
We designed this study to evaluate a multi-institutional experience regarding the efficacy of cryopreserved aortic allografts in the treatment of infected aortic prosthetic grafts or mycotic aneurysms. We reviewed clinical data of all patients from 4 institutions who underwent in situ aortic reconstruction with cryopreserved allografts for either infected aortic prosthetic graft or mycotic aneurysms from during a 6-year period. Relevant clinical variables and treatment outcomes were analyzed.
A total of 42 patients (37 men; overall mean age 63 ± 13 years, range 41–74 years) were identified during this study period. Treatment indications included 34 primary aortic graft infections (81%), 6 mycotic aneurysms (22%), and 2 aortoenteric erosions (5%). Transabdominal and thoracoabdominal approaches were used in 38 (90%) and 4 patients (10%), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly identified organism (n=27, 64%). Although there was no intraoperative death, the 30-day operative mortality was 17% (n=7). There were 21 (50%) nonfatal complications, including local wound infection (n=8), lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (n=5), amputation (n=6), and renal failure requiring hemodialysis (n=2). The average length of hospital stay was 16.4 ± 7 days. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 months, reoperation for allograft revision was necessary in 1 patient due to graft thrombosis (6%). The overall treatment mortality rate was 21% (n=9).
In situ aortic reconstruction with cryopreserved allografts is an acceptable treatment method in patients with infected aortic prosthetic graft or mycotic aneurysms. Our study showed that mid-term graft-related complications such as reinfection or aneurysmal degeneration were uncommon.
Aneurysm, infected/surgery; bacterial infections/complications/surgery; arteries/transplantation; blood vessel prosthesis/adverse effects; cryopreservation; prosthesis-related infections/ surgery; staphylococcal infections/surgery; surgical wound infection/surgery; reoperation; transplantation, homologous
The presence of perigraft air is a common finding in the immediate post-operative phase following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair whilst the later appearance of air, in association with elevated inflammatory markers, is regarded as being indicative of the serious complication of graft infection. What is not known is at what timepoint following surgery does the perigraft air become a significant finding.
We report the case of a 71 year old man who underwent a computed tomography scan 15 days following repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm because of the presence of unexplained pyrexia. The scan showed the presence of perigraft air and a small haematoma. The patient was managed conservatively and after 6 weeks the air and haematoma had resolved completely.
The presence of perigraft air in the early postoperative phase is probably a normal finding, is not associated with graft infection and can be managed non-operatively.
Two cases of delayed non-mycotic false aneurysm arising from ascending aortic cannulation site, presenting one-and-a-hald years and seven years after cardiopulmonary bypass, are described. These two cases represent an incidence of 0.12% of this complication. Repair using profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest with femoral artery and femoral vein cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass is recommended. The advantages and complications of aortic cannulation are discussed and recommendations to minimise the complications of cannulation are made. The clinical presentation and diagnosis of non-mycotic false aneurysms arising from the aortic cannulation site are described. In addition one delayed and two early cases of non-mycotic cannulation site false aneurysms previously published are analysed. Surgeons should be alert to the possibility of this complication in all patients who have had aortic cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass even in the distant past. Unexpected symptoms such as constant anterior chest pain, dysphagia, hoarseness, and increasing widening of the superior mediastinum on the chest radiograph warrant prompt investigation.
Background: Endovascular aneurysm repair has gained
widespread acceptance, and there has been a significant increase in the number of
aneurysms treated with stent grafts. However, the endovascular technique alone is often
not appropriate for anatomically complex aneurysms involving the neck branches. We used
the TAG stent for thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA), and report our initial results.
Patients and Results: We deployed 80 TAG stents in 65
patients electively treated with TAA between June 2006 and June 2008. Thoracic
endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) was performed in 45 cases of descending aortic
aneurysm with no morbidity or mortality. A combination of open surgery and TEVAR was
performed in 11 out of 20 cases with aneurysms of the aortic arch. The prior total arch
replacement and elephant trunk procedure was performed in 3 cases with dilated ascending
aorta, total debranching from ascending aorta with sternotomy in 5, and carotid-carotid
artery crossover bypass in 3 cases. Meanwhile, TEVAR with coverage of the left subclavian
artery was performed in the remaining 9 distal arch cases. In 3 cases with extremely short
necks, a 0.018” guide wire was inserted percutaneously in a retrograde manner through the
common carotid artery (CCA) into the ascending aorta to place the stent graft in close
proximity to the CCA (wire protection). In 1 of these 3 cases, the TAG stent was deployed
through the CCA, and the 0.018” guide wire was used to deliver a balloon-expandable stent
in order to restore the patency of the CCA. In arch and distal arch aneurysm cases,
perioperative mortality and the incidence of stroke were both 5.0%; dissection of the
ascending aorta was seen in one case (5.0%).
Conclusion: As treatment for descending aortic aneurysms,
TEVAR can replace conventional open repair. However, TEVAR for arch aneurysms has some
problems, and further improvement is necessary. (English Translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg
2010; 19: 547-555.)
Keywordsthoracic aortic aneurysm; endovascular surgery; stent graft
The purpose of this case report is to familiarize the sinus surgeon with the possibility of the rapid development of internal carotid artery aneuryams from fungal infections of the sphenoid sinuses. A renal dialysis patient with progressive loss of vision was treated with high doses of steroids for the presumed diagnosis of temporal arteritis. Subsequent work-up included a magnetic resonance arteriogram (MRA) and computed tomography (CT) with contrast that failed to demonstrate aneurysmal changes of the carotid arteries but suggested the presence of a mycotic infection of the sphenoid sinuses. During a sphenoidotomy two days later, in addition to the anticipated aspergillus infection of the sinuses, an aneurysm extending from the left internal carotid artery into the sphenoid sinus was encountered. An emergency arteriogram immediately following the surgery revealed a second newly developed large mycotic aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery filling the right sphenoid sinus as well. This case report documents the rapidity with which mycotic aneurysms can develop from a sphenoid sinus infection secondary to aspergillosis in an immunocompromised host.
Mycotic aneurysm is a disease requiring immediate treatment because of the high risk of rupture. A difficult surgical approach, especially in the case of occurrence on the iliac artery, involving endovascular embolization and extra-anatomic bypass grafting, is known to be a suitable treatment. We performed extra-anatomic bypass grafting after endovascular embolization successfully in two patients. The postoperative computed tomography of both patients showed complete exclusion of the mycotic aneurysm.
Mycotic aneurysm; Endovascular stent; Extra-anatomic bypass
A true aneurysym is a dilation of arterial lumen as a consequence of congenital or acquired abnormalities leading to a reduction of mechanical resistance of vascular wall, most commonly caused by its defected structure in the form of absence or weakening of the muscular and/or elastic layer. From the pathophysiological point of view, cerebral aneurysms can be classified as ‘saccular’ – most commonly occurring, and ‘other types’, including fusiform/dolichoectatic, dissecting, serpentine, posttraumatic, mycotic and giant aneurysms with or without intra-aneurysmal thrombosis.
We present a rare case of a patient with multiple fusiform dilations of cerebral vessels and giant fusiform aneurysm in supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery. The patient presented to hospital because of sudden, severe vertigo with nausea, impaired balance and disturbed vision. Vascular anomalies were detected on CT scanning without contrast. The diagnostic work-up was complemented by CT angiography, MRI and cerebral angiography.
Aneurysm located within the intracranial arteries is one of the most common vascular defects of the brain. The number, size and location of aneurysms are highly variable. Aneurysms can have either supra- or infratentorial location, affecting a single or multiple arteries within one or both brain hemispheres. There is often a correlation between the location of the aneurysm and its etiology, as in case of so-called mirror-image aneurysms. Symmetrically located aneurysms may indicate a defect in vascular structure. Asymmetric location, as in the patient described above, is more likely due to acquired causes, mainly atherosclerosis, but also septic emboli or blood disorders.
fusiform aneurysm; dolichoectasia; cerebral giant aneurysm; angio-CT; angiography; endovascular treatment
The treatment of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms remains a significant surgical challenge associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the following case report, we describe our successful management of a patient with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using two cryopreserved superficial femoral artery allografts (available from the UK NHS tissue bank) to create a Y-shaped allograft to permit immediate aortic reconstruction after surgical debridement. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a reconstruction has been reported in the literature.
Arterial infection; Vascular allograft; Cryopreservation
We report a clinical case of multiple mycotic aneurysms, in the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The patient underwent surgery to replace the ascending aorta and aortic arch by means of a highly modified “elephant trunk” technique and with the aid of arterial cannulation from the right subclavian artery, which provided antegrade cerebral perfusion. Samples of purulent material taken from the aneurysmal wall yielded cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was treated with antibiotics for 6 weeks and then underwent a 2nd procedure for the aneurysmal resection of the descending thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta, through a thoracic laparo-phrenicectomy. We comment on the clinical and surgical aspects of the case. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:225–8)
Aneurysm, infected/surgery; staphylococcal infections/complications; Staphylococcus aureus