Stump appendicitis is a delayed complication of appendectomy. It is rare and few cases reported in the paediatric literature. The authors report on another case in a child and focus on the diagnostic peculiarities of this entity.
A 9-year-old boy with previous history of open appendectomy was admitted for a right lower quadrant pain with bilious vomiting and fever. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness in the right lower quadrant and guarding over the appendectomy scar. The white blood cell count was 23.500 cells/mm3. Plain abdominal radiograph and ultrasonography revealed fecalith localized in the right iliac fossa. The diagnosis of stump appendicitis was advocated and confirmed at laparotomy. A gangrenous and perforated appendiceal stump was found and completely removed. The post-operative course was uneventful after 18 months follow-up period.
Stump appendicitis is rare and should be considered in any patient with right lower quadrant pain even if there is a history of appendectomy. Complete removal of the appendix is the only mean to prevent the occurrence of this complication.
Acute appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis is very rare, affecting mostly children. Whether pinworms cause inflammation of the appendix or just appendiceal colic has been a matter of controversy.
A Caucasian 52-year-old man was referred to our Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain in his right lower quadrant. The physical and laboratory examination revealed right iliac fossa tenderness and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. An open appendectomy was performed. The pathological examination showed the lumen containing pinworms. Two oral doses of mebendazole were administered postoperatively. The follow-up to date was without incident and he was free of symptoms one year after the operation.
The finding of E. vermicularis in appendectomy pathological specimens is infrequent. Parasitic infections rarely cause acute appendicitis, especially in adults.
One should keep in mind that the clinical signs of intestinal parasite infection may mimic acute appendicitis, although rare. A careful evaluation of symptoms such as pruritus ani, or eosinophilia on laboratory examination, could prevent unnecessary appendectomies.
Stump appendicitis (SA) is a rare clinicopathologic entity characterised by inflammation of the appendiceal remnant after incomplete appendectomy. The diagnosis is not routinely suspected in patients who have previously undergone appendectomy. We report a case of SA in an adolescent boy who had previously undergone laparoscopic appendectomy. The case necessitated surgical completion of the appendectomy.
Appendicitis; Stump; Surgery; Case report; India
Although rare, inflammation of the appendiceal stump can occur and is still an important clinical entity. There has been a recent increase in interest in stump appendicitis. In this study a case of right lower quadrant pain in an 18-year-old man who underwent an appendicectomy 7 months previously is presented. Recurrent appendicitis was noted in an appendiceal stump during surgery which previously diagnosed by CT and ultrasonography.
Stump appendicitis; CT; Ultrasonography
Situs inversus totalis is a rare inherent disease in which the thoracic and abdominal organs are transposed. Symptoms of appendicitis in situs inversus (SI) may appear in the left lower quadrant, and the diagnosis of appendicitis is very difficult. We report a case of left-sided appendicitis diagnosed preoperatively after dextrocardia that was detected by chest X-ray, although the chief complaint of the patient was left lower-quadrant pain. The patient underwent an emergent laparoscopic appendectomy under the diagnosis of appendicitis after abdominal computed tomography (CT). In patients with left lower quadrant pain, if the chest X-ray shows dextrocardia, one should suspect left-sided appendicitis. A strong suspicion of appendicitis and an emergency laparoscopic operation after confirmation of the diagnosis by imaging modalities including abdominal CT or sonography can reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosis and complications including perforation and abscess. Laparoscopic appendectomy in SI was technically more challenging because of the mirror nature of the anatomy.
Situs inversus; Appendicitis; Laparoscopic; Appendectomy
Acute appendicitis is a rare complication of colonoscopy that has been reported only 12 times in the English-language literature and is usually associated with obstruction of the appendiceal lumen with fecal matter during colonoscopy. None of the previous reports have described findings of perforation of the appendix within 24 hours of colonoscopy.
We present the case report of a patient who underwent urgent laparotomy within 16 hours of colonos-copy for findings of free intraabdominal air and peritonitis from acute perforated appendicitis.
Laparoscopy confirmed 2 perforations of the appendix and diffuse peritonitis. Laparotomy was necessary to perform appendectomy, exclude a right colonic injury, and control intraabdominal sepsis.
In patients with abdominal pain who have had a recent colonoscopy, a high index of suspicion is necessary for accurate diagnosis of perforated appendicitis. Perforation can occur hours after colonoscopy even when a biopsy is not performed.
Perforated appendicitis; Colonoscopy
Appendiceal mucocele is an infrequent but well recognized entity that can present with a variety of clinical syndromes or can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. A 55 years old patient was admitted in the emergency department for acute right lower quadrant pain. A diagnosis of appendicitis was made. At operation an appendiceal mucocele was found. An appendectomy was performed. The diagnosis of appendiceal mucocele is an important one in that it can be associated with malignancies and other serious gastrointestinal, ovarian, and urological complications.
Abdominal pain; appendicitis; mucocele; complication; malignancy; Morocco
Double appendix represents an extremely rare and commonly “missed” diagnosis, often with life threatening consequences.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
In this case report we present an interesting case of operative treatment of acute appendicitis in a doubled vermiform appendix stemming operative pitfalls. A 23-year-old female was admitted to the emergency room department complaining of diffuse abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting over the past 36 h. As soon as the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established a laparotomy via a McBurney incision was decided. Intraoperative findings included the presence of mild quantity of free fluid and surprisingly a thin non-inflamed appendiceal process. It was the preoperative ultrasound findings suggestive of acute appendicitis that dictated a more thorough investigation of the lower abdomen that led to the discovery of a second retrocecal inflamed appendix. Formal appendectomy was then performed for both processes. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the fourth postoperative day.
Double appendix represents a challenging clinical scenario in cases of right lower quadrant pain.
Life threatening consequences with legal extensions can arise from the incomplete removal of both stumps.
Double appendix; Acute appendicitis; Appendectomy; Ultrasonography; Abdominal pain
Intestinal schistosomiasis as unusual aetiology for acute appendicitis, nowadays a rising disease in western countries. Recent changes in global migration has led to an immigration growth in our scenario, upsurging people coming from endemic areas of schistosomiasis. Schistosomal appendicitis, seldom reported in developed countries, is now an expected incrising entity in our hospitals during the near future. Due to this circumstances, we believe that schistosomiasis should be consider as a rising source for acute appendicitis in western countries. In order to illustrate this point, we present a case of a 45-years-old black man, from Africa, was admitted via A&E because of acute abdominal pain, located in right lower quadrant. Acute appendicitis was suspected, and he underwent laparotomy and appendectomy. Pathological study by microscope revealed a gangrenous appendix with abscesses and parasitic ova into the submucosal layer of the appendix, suggesting Schistosomiasis.
The authors make the point that completion appendectomy in cases of stump appendicitis should be performed laparoscopically when possible guided by CT scan findings.
Stump appendicitis is defined by the recurrent inflammation of the residual appendix after the appendix has been only partially removed during an appendectomy for appendicitis. Forty-eight cases of stump appendicitis were identified in the English literature.
The institutional CPT codes were evaluated for multiple hits of the appendectomy code, yielding a total of 3 patients. After appropriate approval from an internal review board, a retrospective chart review was completed and all available data extracted. All 3 patients were diagnosed with stump appendicitis, ranging from 2 months to 20 years after the initial procedure. Two patients underwent a laparoscopic and the one an open completion appendectomy. All patients did well and were discharged home in good condition.
Surgeons need a heightened awareness of the possibility of stump appendicitis. Correct identification and removal of the appendiceal base without leaving an appendiceal stump minimizes the risk of stump appendicitis. If a CT scan has been obtained, it enables exquisite delineation of the surrounding anatomy, including the length of the appendiceal remnant. Thus, we propose that unless there are other mitigating circumstances, the completion appendectomy in cases of stump appendicitis should also be performed laparoscopically guided by the CT findings.
Appendicitis; Stump appendicitis; Laparoscopic appendectomy
Making the diagnosis of acute appendicitis is difficult, and is important for preventing perforation of the appendix and negative appendectomy results. Ultrasound and clinical scoring systems are very helpful in making the diagnosis. Ultrasound is non-invasive, available and cost-effective, and can accomplish more than CT scans. However, there is no certainty about its effect on the clinical outcomes of patients, and it is operator dependent. Counting the neutrophils as a parameter of the Alvarado Scale is not routine in many laboratories, so we decided to evaluate the diagnostic value of the Modified Alvarado Scaling System (MASS) by omitting the neutrophil count and ultrasonography.
After ethical approval of methodology in Tehran University of Medical Sciences ethical committee, we collected the data. During 9 months, 75 patients with right lower quadrant pain were enrolled in the study, and underwent abdominal ultrasonography and appendectomy, with pathological evaluation of the appendix. The MASS score was calculated for these patients and compared with pathology results.
Fifty-five male and 20 female patients were assessed. Of these patients 89.3% had acute appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy rate of ultrasonography was 71.2%, 83.3%, 97.4%, 25% and 72.4%, respectively. By taking a cutoff point of 7 for the MASS score, a sensitivity of 65.7%, specificity of 37.5%, PPV of 89.8%, NPV of 11.5% and accuracy of 62.7% were calculated. Using the cutoff point of 6, a sensitivity of 85.1%, specificity of 25%, PPV of 90.5%, NPV of 16.7% and accuracy of 78.7% were obtained.
Ultrasound provides reliable findings for helping to diagnose acute appendicitis in our hospital. A cutoff point of 6 for the MASS score will yield more sensitivity and a better diagnosis of appendicitis, though with an increase in negative appendectomy.
Appendicitis; Ultrasonography; Modified Alvarado Scoring System (MASS)
Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is quite rare, representing only 3% of all extrapulmonary cases. Involvement of the appendix is rare, only occurring in about 1% of cases. It is usually secondary to tuberculosis elsewhere in the abdomen. A prompt diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion as clinical signs may be nonspecific and microbiological confirmation is difficult. Histopathologic examination is often the only way to reach a diagnosis and to establish specific antibiotic therapy. In these cases, due to the absence of specific symptoms and signs, the diagnosis is delayed until after surgery.
Acute appendicitis; peritoneal tuberculosis; tuberculosis; peritonitis; appendectomy
Tuberculosis primarily affecting the appendix is extremely rare and the diagnosis is difficult. Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old healthy boy presenting with right lower quadrant abdominal pain. On computed tomography, the distended appendix with 3.3 × 2.7 cm mass located at the right side of the right iliac artery was detected. There was neither bowel wall thickening nor active lung lesion. After laparoscopic appendectomy with mass excision, histopathological examination revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation, with caseous necrosis of the appendix. We made a diagnosis of primary tuberculosis of appendix and administrated anti-tuberculosis medication.
Tuberculosis; Appendicitis; Mesenteric lymphadenitis
Acute acalculous cholecystitis is traditionally associated with elderly or critically ill patients.
We present the case of an otherwise healthy 23-year-old Caucasian man who presented with acute right-sided abdominal pain. An ultrasound examination revealed evidence of acute acalculous cholecystitis. A laparoscopy was undertaken and the dual pathologies of acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute appendicitis were discovered and a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy were performed.
Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare clinical entity in young, healthy patients and this report describes the unusual association of acute acalculous cholecystitis and appendicitis. A single stage combined laparoscopic appendectomy and cholecystectomy is an effective treatment modality.
A 48-year-old woman who was without any abnormal past medical history underwent colonoscopy as a screening procedure for colorectal disease. The procedure was uneventful and there was no sign of inflammation around the appendicular orifice or the luminal surface of the cecum. The patient did not complain of pain or significant discomfort throughout the procedure. She then developed pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen that evening and this persisted for four days. She visited the outpatient department and underwent abdominal ultrasonography, which showed a swollen appendix with a collection of pericecal fluid. Surgical exploration and appendectomy were performed; the final diagnosis was acute suppurative appendicitis. Colonoscopists should be aware of this rare complication and consider it when making the differential diagnosis of post-colonoscopy abdominal pain.
The presence of the appendix in a femoral hernia sac is known as de Garengeot's hernia. We report a rare case of an elderly woman with femoral hernia appendicitis and discuss the surgical pitfalls and considerations through a literature review.
Presentation of case
An 83-year-old woman presented with fever and right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Clinical examination revealed a femoral hernia. Ultrasonography confirmed bowel was present in the hernia sac. In the operation room, an acutely inflamed appendix was recognized within the sac. The patient underwent appendectomy and hernia repair with sutures.
Acute appendicitis within a femoral hernia is rare and multiple dilemmas exist regarding its treatment. An incision below the inguinal ligament is a reasonable choice in order to access the hernia sac. A mesh should be placed in non-infectious appendectomy while herniorrhaphy is preferred in cases of appendicitis.
The presence of the vermiform appendix in a femoral hernia sac is rare but the surgeon should be aware of this clinical entity. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate surgical treatment is the key to avoid complications.
de Garengeot hernia; Appendicitis; Femoral hernia; Groin hernia
Appendicitis in femoral hernia is a rare condition, which raises diagnostic challenge.
A 40-year-old man presented with painful right-sided groin swelling of 1-week duration. The area was explored, with presumpted diagnosis of inguinal abscess. At exploration a femoral hernia was found which contained a mildly inflammed appendix. Appendicectomy and hernia repair was done. Post surgical course was uneventful. We present this case with brief summary of literature pertaining to such lesions.
The rare occurrence of femoral hernia containing appendix may be explained by different degrees of intestinal rotation during development or variation in its attachment to the caecum. Inflammation is due to tight femoral ring. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Management options are diverse.
We present this case because of rarity. Early surgery prevents complications.
A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with an aggressive mantle cell lymphoma and was started on six cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy. Approximately two weeks after starting his first cycle of chemotherapy, he complained of severe right lower quadrant abdominal pain, and an abdominal CT scan demonstrated an enlarged appendix with evidence of contained perforation. The man underwent open appendectomy for acute appendicitis and recovered. The appendectomy specimen was submitted for routine pathological analysis. There was histologic evidence of perforation in association with an inflammatory infiltrate with fibrin adhered to the serosal surface; scattered small lymphoid aggregates were present on the mucosal surface. Although the lymphoid aggregates in the submucosa and lamina propria were rather unremarkable by routine histologic examination, immunohistochemistry revealed the lymphocytes to be predominantly Cyclin D1-overexpressing B cells. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute appendicitis in association with appendiceal involvement by mantle cell lymphoma.
BACKGROUND—The diagnosis of acute
appendicitis is often delayed, which may complicate the further course
of the disease.
AIMS—To review appendectomy cases
in order to determine the incidence of diagnostic delay, the underlying
factors, and impact on the course of the disease.
METHODS—Records of all children who
underwent appendectomy from 1994 to 1997 were reviewed. The 129 cases
were divided into group A (diagnostic period within 48 hours) and group
B (diagnostic period 48 hours or more).
RESULTS—In the group with
diagnostic delay, significantly more children had first been referred
to a paediatrician rather than to a surgeon. In almost half of the
cases in this group initial diagnosis was not appendicitis but
gastroenteritis. The perforation rate in group A was 24%, and in group
B, 71%. Children under 5 years of age all presented in the delayed
group B and had a perforation rate of 82%. The delayed group showed a
higher number of postoperative complications and a longer
CONCLUSIONS—Appendicitis is hard to
diagnose when, because of a progressing disease process, the classical
clinical picture is absent. The major factor in diagnostic delay is
suspected gastroenteritis. Early surgical consultation in a child with
deteriorating gastroenteritis is advised. Ultrasonographs can be of
major help if abdominal signs and symptoms are non-specific for appendicitis.
Endometriosis is a relatively common disease among women of reproductive age. However, gastrointestinal endometriosis is rare and endometriosis of the appendix resulting in perforated appendicitis is even rarer. We experienced a case of endometriosis of the appendix manifesting as panperitonitis caused by perforation of the appendix. The patient was a 35-year-old woman who was hospitalized with an acute abdomen. She was diagnosed with panperitonitis and underwent urgent laparotomy. When perforation of the appendix was detected, appendectomy and intraperitoneal drainage were performed. Pathological examination revealed endometriosis extending from the muscularis propria to the subserosa, and a diagnosis of endometriosis of the appendix was made. We consider the relevant literature describing the mechanism by which endometriosis of the appendix occurs, and the association between endometriosis of the appendix and acute appendicitis.
Endometriosis; Appendix; Perforated appendicitis
Appendicitis and incarcerated hernia are frequently encountered reasons of emergency surgery for acute abdomen. The treatment in early stages of each condition is generally simple, but when these conditions are combined, the symptoms become slightly complicated, obscuring specific symptoms. Especially the lack of symptoms for appendicitis leads to delayed diagnosis, resulting in high morbidity. Amyand hernia, which contains appendix in its inguinal hernia sac, is perhaps more familiar to the general surgeons than De Garengeot hernia, which is an incarcerated femoral hernia with an appendix in its sac. We report the case of a 90-year-old female with incarcerated femoral hernia who underwent emergency hernioplasty only to reveal an inflamed appendix in its sac. The patient underwent both appendectomy and hernia repair simultaneously with synthetic mesh and was discharged on postoperative day 7 without any complications. We will also discuss the physical and radiological findings of De Garengeot hernia.
Femoral hernia; Incarceration; Appendicitis; De Garengeot hernia
We report a case of acute appendagitis in a patient who presented initially with typical features of acute appendicitis. The diagnosis of acute appendagitis was made on pathognomonic signs on computed tomography (CT) scan. Abdominal pain is a common surgical emergency. CT is not always done if there are clear features of acute appendicitis. The rare but important differential diagnosis of acute appendagitis must be borne in mind when dealing with patients with suspected acute appendicitis. A CT scan of the abdomen may avoid unnecessary surgery in these patients.
Appendagitis; Appendicitis; CT scan
Common complications of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) that lead to surgical intervention include intussusception, perforation, necrosis, and massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Acute appendicitis is rarely seen as a complication of HSP. A seven-year-old boy was admitted for arthralgia, abdominal pain, hematochezia, melena, and purpuric rash on the lower extremities. On admission day abdominal ultrasonography was normal, but on day 5, he became pyrexial and developed right iliac fossa pain and tenderness with guarding. Ultrasonography showed distended appendix surrounded by hyperechoic inflamed fat. On exploration an acutely inflamed, necrotic appendix was removed and grossly there was an appendiceal perforation in the appendiceal tip. Microscopically some of the small blood vessels in the submucosa showed fibrinoid necrosis with neutrophilic infiltrations. The authors report the case of a child who developed acute perforative appendicitis requiring appendectomy while on treatment for HSP.
Purpura, Henoch-Schoenlein; Appendicitis; complications
Female genital tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is an asymptomatic disease usually diagnosed during the search for causes of infertility. However, it can present with a number of abdominopelvic symptoms. Herein we report a case of tubo-ovarian tuberculosis mimicking acute appendicitis.
A 17-year-old single Turkish woman presented to our hospital with complaints of right lower quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Her physical examination findings, ultrasonogram, and leukocyte count were consistent with acute appendicitis. A cystic mass (15 cm × 6 cm) was detected on the right tubo-ovarian structure by laparotomy. The mass was excised while the tubo-ovarian structures were preserved and the need for an appendectomy was avoided. No microbiological evaluation was performed. The histopathological examination of the cystic mass revealed a granuloma with central caseating necrosis surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculosis therapy for six months. No recurrence was observed during a 10-month follow-up period.
Genital tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain in women who live in tuberculosis-endemic regions.
Patients presenting with symptoms from unknown metastatic breast carcinoma are becoming increasingly uncommon. Perforated appendicitis from metastatic breast carcinoma is a rare entity with only a few published reports in the literature.
The case of a 76-year-old female patient who developed perforated appendicitis from previously unknown metastatic breast cancer is presented. During physical examination in the emergency department, a large left breast mass was palpated. The patient underwent an appendectomy and had no gross evidence of disease elsewhere in the intra-peritoneal cavity. Subsequent pathologic examination of the appendix revealed a lobular carcinoma.
The factors that influence the site of metastasis from breast cancer include estrogen receptor status and the subtype of carcinoma – ductal versus lobular.
Breast cancer; metastasized; Appendicitis