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1.  Stump Appendicitis: An Uncompleted Surgery, a Rare but Important Entity with Potential Problems 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:972596.
Appendicectomy for appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical procedures performed worldwide. The residual appendiceal stump left after an initial appendectomy risks the development of stump appendicitis. Stump appendicitis is a real recognized entity but not often considered when evaluating patients with right lower quadrant abdominal pain, especially those with past history of appendectomy. It remains a clinical challenge with the result that its diagnosis and effective treatment are often delayed with possible attendant morbidity or mortality. Stump appendicitis results from obstruction of the lumen of the remaining appendix stump, usually by a faecolith. This increases intraluminal pressure, impairing venous drainage and allowing subsequent bacterial infection. We present the case of a twenty-five (25)-year-old female who underwent laparoscopic appendicectomy and presented four and half (4(1/2)) months later with fever, right lower quadrant abdominal pain, and tenderness associated with repeated vomiting. Exploratory laparotomy was carried out after clinical and imaging studies which revealed big inflammatory mass with abscess at the right iliac fossa and recurrent appendicitis of the appendiceal stump. Surgical treatment is easy but recognition of this important entity but potentially dangerous condition should always be borne in mind in order to avoid delay in its diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.1155/2013/972596
PMCID: PMC3638532  PMID: 23691424
2.  An unsuspected clinical condition: Appendicitis of appendicular residual, three cases report 
INTRODUCTION
Stump appendicitis is a rare complication of appendectomy unusually included in the differential diagnosis. This is found in appendectomized patients with similar symptoms to those of a previous appendicitis.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present three cases, two women and a man of 67, 30 and 24 years old, respectively. They underwent surgery at our centre and their appendectomies presented technical difficulties: problems when identifying the appendicular base or the complete appendicular structure. In the first case, diagnosis and therapy were performed with laparoscopy. The second case was diagnosed by an abdominal ultrasound (US) which revealed a tubular structure with thickened walls. An abscess was observed in the computed tomography (CT) scan for the third case and a laparotomy revealed the retained appendix.
DISCUSSION
Although there are several factors that can contribute to this rare pathology, the main cause of stump appendicitis is the persistence of a large appendicular remnant. CT and US are very useful diagnosis tools. Treatment consists to a completion appendectomy of the stump which can be carried out by an open or a laparoscopic approach.
CONCLUSION
In this rare pathology a prior history of appendicectomy can delay the diagnosis and increase its associated morbidity and even mortality. In patients with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant and previous appendectomy, it is important to include this pathology in the differential diagnosis, in order to not delay the treatment and thus avoid complications.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.01.026
PMCID: PMC3605474  PMID: 23474976
Stump appendicitis; Appendicular remanent; Incomplete appendectomy
3.  A stump appendicitis in a child: a case report 
Background
Stump appendicitis is a delayed complication of appendectomy. It is rare and few cases reported in the paediatric literature. The authors report on another case in a child and focus on the diagnostic peculiarities of this entity.
Case
A 9-year-old boy with previous history of open appendectomy was admitted for a right lower quadrant pain with bilious vomiting and fever. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness in the right lower quadrant and guarding over the appendectomy scar. The white blood cell count was 23.500 cells/mm3. Plain abdominal radiograph and ultrasonography revealed fecalith localized in the right iliac fossa. The diagnosis of stump appendicitis was advocated and confirmed at laparotomy. A gangrenous and perforated appendiceal stump was found and completely removed. The post-operative course was uneventful after 18 months follow-up period.
Conclusion
Stump appendicitis is rare and should be considered in any patient with right lower quadrant pain even if there is a history of appendectomy. Complete removal of the appendix is the only mean to prevent the occurrence of this complication.
doi:10.1186/1824-7288-35-35
PMCID: PMC2784782  PMID: 19919712
4.  A Case of Endoscopic Removal of a Giant Appendicolith Combined with Stump Appendicitis 
Clinical Endoscopy  2014;47(1):112-114.
Stump appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the residual appendix and is a rare complication after appendectomy. The physician should be aware of the possibility of stump appendicitis in patients with right lower abdominal pain after appendectomy so that delayed diagnosis and treatment can be prevented. Stump appendicitis is usually treated by surgical resection, and endoscopic treatment has not been reported previously. A 48-year-old man who had undergone appendectomy 35 years earlier presented to the hospital because of right lower quadrant discomfort. A computed tomography scan showed a large stone in the residual appendix. Colonoscopic findings revealed a large, smooth, protruding lesion at the cecum with a stone inside the appendiceal orifice. Endoscopic removal after incision of the appendiceal orifice was performed successfully.
doi:10.5946/ce.2014.47.1.112
PMCID: PMC3928483  PMID: 24570893
Appendicolith; Stump appendicitis; Endoscopic removal
5.  Appendiceal stump closure by metal endoclip in the management of complicated acute appendicitis 
Background
Closure of appendicular stump has been performed in different ways; however, the use of the metal endoclip in complicated grades of acute appendicitis, has not been evaluated yet in a prospective way.
Objective
To establish the effectiveness of appendiceal stump closure by metal endoclip for complicated appendicitis.
Method
From January 2009 to January 2011 were evaluated 131 consecutive patients who underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated acute appendicitis. From those, 118 underwent appendiceal stump closure by metal endoclip. The patient’s age ranged from 12 to 75 years old (31.7 ± 13.3) and 52.7% were male. Complicated appendicitis refers to gangrenous and/or perforated appendix, which may lead to abscess formation and degrees of peritonitis. The outcomes viability, operative time, infection complication, operative complications, and conversion rate were chosen to evaluate the procedure.
Results
The appendiceal stump closure by metal endoclip was used in 90% of cases. The presence of appendix base necrosis was the most important factor involved in failure of the procedure. Laparoscopic knot (1.5%), laparoscopic endo-suture (3.8%) and video assisted laparotomy (4.7%) were the alternatives used in difficult cases. The mean operative time was (67.54 ± 28.13 minutes). The wound and intra-abdominal infection rates were 2.54% and 5.08%, respectively. There were no operative complications and the conversion rate was 0.85%.
Conclusion
The appendiceal stump closure by metal endoclip, in complicated grades of acute appendicitis, is a safe and effective procedure. In patients with appendix base necrosis it should be avoided in favor of other alternatives.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-8-35
PMCID: PMC3874646  PMID: 24047531
Complicated appendicitis; Appendectomy; Laparoscopy; Appendiceal stump
6.  Clinical significance of de Garengeot's hernia: A case of acute appendicitis and review of the literature 
Introduction
The presence of the appendix in a femoral hernia sac is known as de Garengeot's hernia. We report a rare case of an elderly woman with femoral hernia appendicitis and discuss the surgical pitfalls and considerations through a literature review.
Presentation of case
An 83-year-old woman presented with fever and right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Clinical examination revealed a femoral hernia. Ultrasonography confirmed bowel was present in the hernia sac. In the operation room, an acutely inflamed appendix was recognized within the sac. The patient underwent appendectomy and hernia repair with sutures.
Discussion
Acute appendicitis within a femoral hernia is rare and multiple dilemmas exist regarding its treatment. An incision below the inguinal ligament is a reasonable choice in order to access the hernia sac. A mesh should be placed in non-infectious appendectomy while herniorrhaphy is preferred in cases of appendicitis.
Conclusion
The presence of the vermiform appendix in a femoral hernia sac is rare but the surgeon should be aware of this clinical entity. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate surgical treatment is the key to avoid complications.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.12.003
PMCID: PMC3267278  PMID: 22288062
de Garengeot hernia; Appendicitis; Femoral hernia; Groin hernia
7.  The NOTA study: non-operative treatment for acute appendicitis: prospective study on the efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) in patients with right sided lower abdominal pain 
BMJ Open  2011;1(1):e000006.
Background
Case control studies that randomly assign patients with diagnosis of acute appendicitis to either surgical or non-surgical treatment yield a relapse rate of approximately 14% at one year. It would be useful to know the relapse rate of patients who have, instead, been selected for a given treatment based on a thorough clinical evaluation, including physical examination and laboratory results (Alvarado Score) as well as radiological exams if needed or deemed helpful. If this clinical evaluation is useful, the investigators would expect patient selection to be better than chance, and relapse rate to be lower than 14%. Once the investigators have established the utility of this evaluation, the investigators can begin to identify those components that have predictive value (such as blood analysis, or US/CT findings). This is the first step toward developing an accurate diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm which will avoid risks and costs of needless surgery.
Methods/design
This will be a single-cohort prospective observational study. It will not interfere with the usual pathway, consisting of clinical examination in the Emergency Department (ED) and execution of the following exams at the physician's discretion: full blood count with differential, C reactive protein, abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT. Patients admitted to an ED with lower abdominal pain and suspicion of acute appendicitis and not needing immediate surgery, are requested by informed consent to undergo observation and non operative treatment with antibiotic therapy (Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid). The patients by protocol should not have received any previous antibiotic treatment during the same clinical episode. Patients not undergoing surgery will be physically examined 5 days later. Further follow-up will be conducted at 7, 15 days, 6 months and 12 months. The study will conform to clinical practice guidelines and will follow the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved on November 2009 by Maggiore Hospital Ethical Review Board (ID CE09079).
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01096927.
Article summary
Article focus
Acute appendicitis can have severe complications including perforation and generalised peritonitis.
The appendix is found to be free of disease in 15–30% of appendectomies.
As surgery carries various risks, conservative non-surgical treatment with antibiotics for suspected appendix inflammation may avoid needless surgery, in particular as the relapse rate is low and the rate of complications is similar.
Key messages
Case control studies that randomly assign patients with acute appendicitis to either surgical or non-surgical treatment show a relapse rate of approximately 14% at 1 year.
The relapse rate of patients who are treated based on a thorough clinical evaluation should be below 14%.
Once factors predictive of outcome and/or the need of surgery are identified, an accurate diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm which will help avoid the risks and costs of needless surgery can be developed.
Strengths and limitations of this study
This non-randomised controlled study will evaluate the effectiveness and short and long term outcomes of non-operative antibiotic treatment of acute appendicitis.
Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid are common and easily managed low cost drugs, available both for intravenous and oral use.
Better analysis of clinical data might lead to better decision-making in patients with right iliac fossa pain and suspected acute appendicitis.
The study also aims to evaluate the Alvarado score, which is used to diagnose acute appendicitis and discriminate patients needing immediate surgery from patients who may safely undergo observation and antibiotic treatment.
A large sample of patients undergoing non-operative antibiotic treatment will allow a statistically powerful evaluation of safety, efficacy and cost.
An additional objective is to identify clinical, laboratory and imaging findings that are predictive of failure of conservative treatment and/or relapse of appendicitis and need for appendectomy within 1 year.
As efficacy can not be reliably determined in the absence of a control group, a case series observation determining ‘efficacy’ has limited value.
The Alvarado score is used to separate those with acute appendicitis from those with similar symptoms but no appendicitis and there is no evidence that this score can identify those who would benefit from antibiotic treatment.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2010-000006
PMCID: PMC3191386  PMID: 22021722
Lower abdominal Pain; right iliac fossa pain; acute appendicitis; antibiotic therapy; conservative Management; appendectomy; recurrence; length of hospital stay; sick leave time; short and long Term abdominal pain evaluation; study protocol; case control study
8.  Case of an appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma presenting as a left adnexal mass☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms represent an exceptionally rare form of pathology with an incidence rate ranging between 0.2 and 0.3% of all appendectomies.1,2 The most common presentation is right lower quadrant pain with a palpable abdominal mass present in 50% of cases.8–12 Patients may also present with nausea, vomiting, change in bowel habits, weight loss, appendicitis, intestinal obstruction, ureteral compression, or lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Early diagnosis and proper surgical precautions must be implemented to prevent iatrogenic rupture of the appendix and the widespread seeding of potentially malignant mucin-producing cells throughout the peritoneal cavity.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 50-year-old African-American female presented with complaints of left-sided pelvic pain. Pelvic examination revealed adnexal fullness with thickening behind the cervix. An adnexal mass was revealed on ultrasound and MRI. The patient was subsequently taken to the operating room for a planned robotic salpingectomy. During the procedure, she was unexpectedly found to have an abnormally large appendix displaced to the left lower quadrant. General surgery was consulted intra-operatively to perform an appendectomy. The final pathology report revealed a low-grade mucinous adenocarcinoma with mucin dissecting into the wall of the appendix.
DISCUSSION
Appendiceal mucinous cystadenomas are characterized by hyperplasia of glandular epithelium along with hypersecretion of mucous resulting in a grossly dilated appendix. The clinical manifestation of appendiceal mucoceles is often non-specific. The prevalence is higher in women than men (4:1) with the average age at the time of diagnosis being 54 years-old.14–17 Appendiceal mucinous cystadenomas can be particularly problematic for women as these tumors are commonly misdiagnosed pre-operatively as right-sided adnexal masses due to commonalities in clinical presentation and diagnostic findings.8–12 It is estimated that based on imaging studies only 15–29% of appendiceal mucinous cystadenomas are correctly diagnosed prior to surgical intervention.13
CONCLUSION
To the best of our knowledge, only one other case of appendiceal adenocarcinoma with left-sided presentation has been reported. Appendiceal carcinomas can create a diagnostic dilemma due to non-specific clinical findings and inadequate imaging studies. Early recognition and careful intra-operative precautions must be taken to maintain the integrity of the appendix to prevent iatrogenic rupture and the spread of potentially malignant mucin-producing cells throughout the peritoneal cavity.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.12.008
PMCID: PMC3955234  PMID: 24568943
Appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma; Appendiceal neoplasm; Appendectomy; Left-lower quadrant pain; Left-sided mass; Adnexal mass
9.  Acute appendicitis in a duplicated appendix 
INTRODUCTION
Double appendix represents an extremely rare and commonly “missed” diagnosis, often with life threatening consequences.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
In this case report we present an interesting case of operative treatment of acute appendicitis in a doubled vermiform appendix stemming operative pitfalls. A 23-year-old female was admitted to the emergency room department complaining of diffuse abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting over the past 36 h. As soon as the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established a laparotomy via a McBurney incision was decided. Intraoperative findings included the presence of mild quantity of free fluid and surprisingly a thin non-inflamed appendiceal process. It was the preoperative ultrasound findings suggestive of acute appendicitis that dictated a more thorough investigation of the lower abdomen that led to the discovery of a second retrocecal inflamed appendix. Formal appendectomy was then performed for both processes. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the fourth postoperative day.
DISCUSSION
Double appendix represents a challenging clinical scenario in cases of right lower quadrant pain.
CONCLUSION
Life threatening consequences with legal extensions can arise from the incomplete removal of both stumps.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.08.004
PMCID: PMC3437396  PMID: 22922359
Double appendix; Acute appendicitis; Appendectomy; Ultrasonography; Abdominal pain
10.  Acute Appendicitis following Laparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy 
Acute abdominal pain following laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LLDN) might be a diagnostic dilemma, and prompt diagnosis and management is of paramount importance. Herein, we describe a case of acute appendicitis in a 62-year-old kidney donor who presented with acute abdominal pain 16 days following LLDN with features inconsistent with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. An ultrasound scan suggested strangulated Spigelian hernia unrelated to the operative wound. Exploration of the wound and mini-laparotomy showed no evidence of wound dehiscence or a hernia, but revealed an inflamed appendix wrapped up with omentum. Appendectomy led to complete recovery of the patient. It is imperative to maintain a high index of suspicion for acute appendicitis in this situation to avoid septic complications that might adversely affect the residual renal function and cause negative impact on kidney donation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute appendicitis following LLDN.
PMCID: PMC4089221  PMID: 25013574
Appendicitis; Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy; Kidney donor
11.  Stump Appendicitis: A Surgeon's Dilemma 
The authors make the point that completion appendectomy in cases of stump appendicitis should be performed laparoscopically when possible guided by CT scan findings.
Background:
Stump appendicitis is defined by the recurrent inflammation of the residual appendix after the appendix has been only partially removed during an appendectomy for appendicitis. Forty-eight cases of stump appendicitis were identified in the English literature.
Database:
The institutional CPT codes were evaluated for multiple hits of the appendectomy code, yielding a total of 3 patients. After appropriate approval from an internal review board, a retrospective chart review was completed and all available data extracted. All 3 patients were diagnosed with stump appendicitis, ranging from 2 months to 20 years after the initial procedure. Two patients underwent a laparoscopic and the one an open completion appendectomy. All patients did well and were discharged home in good condition.
Conclusion:
Surgeons need a heightened awareness of the possibility of stump appendicitis. Correct identification and removal of the appendiceal base without leaving an appendiceal stump minimizes the risk of stump appendicitis. If a CT scan has been obtained, it enables exquisite delineation of the surrounding anatomy, including the length of the appendiceal remnant. Thus, we propose that unless there are other mitigating circumstances, the completion appendectomy in cases of stump appendicitis should also be performed laparoscopically guided by the CT findings.
doi:10.4293/108680811X13125733356954
PMCID: PMC3183543  PMID: 21985727
Appendicitis; Stump appendicitis; Laparoscopic appendectomy
12.  Treatment options of inflammatory appendiceal masses in adults 
At present, the treatment of choice for uncomplicated acute appendicitis in adults continues to be surgical. The inflammation in acute appendicitis may sometimes be enclosed by the patient’s own defense mechanisms, by the formation of an inflammatory phlegmon or a circumscribed abscess. The management of these patients is controversial. Immediate appendectomy may be technically demanding. The exploration often ends up in an ileocecal resection or a right-sided hemicolectomy. Recently, the conditions for conservative management of these patients have changed due to the development of computed tomography and ultrasound, which has improved the diagnosis of enclosed inflammation and made drainage of intra-abdominal abscesses easier. New efficient antibiotics have also given new opportunities for nonsurgical treatment of complicated appendicitis. The traditional management of these patients is nonsurgical treatment followed by interval appendectomy to prevent recurrence. The need for interval appendectomy after successful nonsurgical treatment has recently been questioned because the risk of recurrence is relatively small. After successful nonsurgical treatment of an appendiceal mass, the true diagnosis is uncertain in some cases and an underlying diagnosis of cancer or Crohn’s disease may be delayed. This report aims at reviewing the treatment options of patients with enclosed appendiceal inflammation, with emphasis on the success rate of nonsurgical treatment, the need for drainage of abscesses, the risk of undetected serious disease, and the need for interval appendectomy to prevent recurrence.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i25.3942
PMCID: PMC3703180  PMID: 23840138
Appendicitis; Phlegmon; Abscess; Computed tomography; Antibiotics; Percutaneous drainage; Surgery
13.  The usefulness and safety of Hem-o-lok clips for the closure of appendicular stump during laparoscopic appendectomy 
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and usefulness of the Hem-o-lok clip for the closure of appendicular stumps and limitations of the Hem-o-lok clip.
Methods
From May 2010 to August 2011, 105 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomies by three surgeons. XL size Hem-o-lok clips were used for the closure of appendicular stumps by one surgeon. The remaining surgeons used double endoloop ligatures. Prospectively collected data from patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy due to acute appendicitis were retrospectively reviewed.
Results
A total of 105 laparoscopic appendectomies were performed. The endoloop group consisted of 66 patients (mean age, 34.6 years; range, 16 to 82 years), while the Hem-o-lok group consisted of 39 patients (mean age, 43.5 years; range, 11 to 88 years). In three cases, the Hem-o-lok clip was not used due to enlargement and severe inflammation of the appendix base. No specific intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed in either group.
Conclusion
The use of Hem-o-lok clips for the closure of appendicular stumps in laparoscopic appendectomy is a feasible, safe, fast and cost-effective procedure in patients with a mildly to moderately inflamed appendix base of less than 10 mm in diameter.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.84.1.27
PMCID: PMC3539106  PMID: 23323232
Appendicitis; Laparoscopic appendectomy; Hem-o-lok clip; Appendicular stump
14.  Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting as Acute Appendicitis 
Case Reports in Hematology  2013;2013:815365.
Appendicitis in leukemic patients is uncommon but associated with increased mortality. Additionally, leukemic cell infiltration of the appendix is extremely rare. While appendectomy is the treatment of choice for these patients, diagnosis and management of leukemia have a greater impact on remission and survival. A 59-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to the surgical service with acute right lower quadrant pain, nausea, and anorexia. She was noted to have leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal imaging demonstrated appendicitis with retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymphadenopathy for which she underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Peripheral smear, bone marrow biopsy, and surgical pathology of the appendix demonstrated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with nonsuppurative appendicitis. In the setting of AML, prior cases described the development of appendicitis with active chemotherapy. Of these cases, less than ten patients had leukemic infiltration of the appendix, leading to leukostasis and nonsuppurative appendicitis. Acute appendicitis with leukemic infiltration as the initial manifestation of AML has only been described in two other cases in the literature with an average associated morbidity of 32.6 days. The prompt management in this case of appendicitis and AML resulted in an overall survival of 185 days.
doi:10.1155/2013/815365
PMCID: PMC3693109  PMID: 23840984
15.  Acute appendicitis secondary to Enterobius vermicularis infection in a middle-aged man: a case report 
Introduction
Acute appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis is very rare, affecting mostly children. Whether pinworms cause inflammation of the appendix or just appendiceal colic has been a matter of controversy.
Case presentation
A Caucasian 52-year-old man was referred to our Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain in his right lower quadrant. The physical and laboratory examination revealed right iliac fossa tenderness and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. An open appendectomy was performed. The pathological examination showed the lumen containing pinworms. Two oral doses of mebendazole were administered postoperatively. The follow-up to date was without incident and he was free of symptoms one year after the operation.
Conclusion
The finding of E. vermicularis in appendectomy pathological specimens is infrequent. Parasitic infections rarely cause acute appendicitis, especially in adults.
One should keep in mind that the clinical signs of intestinal parasite infection may mimic acute appendicitis, although rare. A careful evaluation of symptoms such as pruritus ani, or eosinophilia on laboratory examination, could prevent unnecessary appendectomies.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-559
PMCID: PMC3245485  PMID: 22128765
16.  Stump appendicitis: A rare clinical entity 
Stump appendicitis is one of the rare delayed complications after appendectomy with reported incidence of 1 in 50,000 cases. Stump appendicitis can present as a diagnostic dilemma if the treating clinician is unfamiliar with this rare clinical entity. We report an 18-year-old patient with Stump appendicitis, who underwent completion appendectomy laparoscopically.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.118835
PMCID: PMC3830137  PMID: 24250064
Completion appendicectomy; laparoscopic appendectomy; stump appendicitis
17.  The “BASE-FIRST” technique in laparoscopic appendectomy 
BACKGROUND:
Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen, and appendectomy is the most frequent surgical procedure performed in the world. In recent times, laparoscopic appendectomy has been gaining increasing consensus, although comparison with traditional open surgery is still debated. Recent reports seem to agree in recognizing laparoscopy as the favourable approach in cases of non-complicated appendicitis, in women and in obese patients. The use of a linear stapler to close the appendiceal stump also seems to guarantee a dramatic decrease of complications and this observation could be the rationale for considering the laparoscopic approach to also be safe in complicated appendicitis. In these cases, dissection of the mesoappendix and isolation of the viscum could be very difficult and could cause complications. By proposing this technique using a laparoscopic approach, we try to permit a simple and safe section of the appendix leaving the detachment from vessels and from the neighbourhood to a second moment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We report our initial experience including the first 50 cases and proposing our personal technique of laparoscopic appendectomy.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
We recorded only one intraoperative haemorrhage, one bladder perforation due to trocar insertion and no conversion. Our goal is to standardize and simplify the laparoscopic approach in order to give any surgeon, even non-expert ones, a simple way to remove the viscum especially in complicated pictures.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.91772
PMCID: PMC3267335  PMID: 22303081
Appendicitis; endoscopic stapler; laparoscopy
18.  Unusual cause of a painful right testicle in a 16-year-old man: a case report 
Introduction
Urgent surgical exploration of the scrotum of a child or teenager who presents with a painful and swollen testicle is paramount if testicular torsion is not to be missed. It is extremely rare for a non-scrotal pathology to present with acute scrotal signs. Here we present such a rare case and emphasize the importance of being aware of this potential clinical pitfall.
Case presentation
A 16-year-old Caucasian man presented as a surgical emergency with a five to six hour history of a painful, red, and swollen right hemiscrotum. He also complained of vague lower abdominal pain, vomiting, and watery diarrhea. He had a temperature of 38.5°C and a tender, red, and swollen right hemiscrotum. The right testicle appeared elevated. He was mildly tender in his central and upper abdomen and less so in the lower abdomen. No convincing localizing abdominal signs were noted. He had an increased white cell count (15 × 109/L) and C-reactive protein (CRP; 300 mg/L). Urgent right hemiscrotal exploration revealed about 5 ml of pus in the tunica vaginalis and a normal testicle. A right iliac fossa incision identified the cause: a perforated retrocecal appendix. Appendectomy was performed, and both the abdomen and scrotum washed copiously with saline before closure. The patient made an uneventful recovery.
Conclusion
Acute appendicitis presenting with scrotal signs due to a patent processus vaginalis is an extremely rare clinical entity. To date, fewer than five such cases have been reported in the medical literature. It is, therefore, extremely important to be aware of this unusual clinical scenario, as only a high index of suspicion will enable prompt, successful management of both the appendicitis and the scrotal abscess.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-27
PMCID: PMC3032707  PMID: 21255387
19.  A Retrospective Study of Two-port Appendectomy and its Comparison with Open Appendectomy and Three-port Appendectomy 
Background/Aims:
To establish the efficacy of two-port appendectomy as an alternative to standard laparoscopic and open appendectomy in the management of acute appendicitis.
Materials and Methods:
Of the 151 patients included in the study, 47 patients were in the open group, 61 in two-port and 43 patients were included in the three-port group. Only patients with uncomplicated acute appendicitis were included in the study. Patients with complicated appendicitis like perforated appendix, appendicular lump and appendicular abscess were excluded from the study. Patients converted to open procedure after initial diagnosis and patients with other pathology in addition to appendicitis were also excluded. Patients with recurrent appendicitis and chronic appendicitis were excluded. The total number of excluded cases was 50. Data were compared with cases of open and three-port appendectomy.
Results:
The mean operative time was 43.94, 35.74, and 59.65 min (SD: 18.91, 11.06, 19.29) for open, two-port, and three-port appendectomy groups respectively. Mean length of stay in days was 3.02, 1.93, and 2.26 (SD: 1.27, 1.04,1.09) for open, two-port, and three-port appendectomy groups respectively. Surgical site infection was significantly lower (P = 0.03) in laparoscopy group as compared to that in open appendectomy group. Seven patients (4.63%) developed surgical site infection, 5 (10.63%) in the open and 2 (1.92%) in the laparoscopy group. Surgical site infection was 1.63% and 2.32% in two-port and three-port appendectomy groups respectively.
Conclusions:
For uncomplicated appendicitis, the two-port appendectomy technique significantly reduces operative time as well as length of hospital stay. It also reduces surgical site infection as compared to open appendectomy group.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.70611
PMCID: PMC2995095  PMID: 20871191
Laparoscopy; appendectomy; two-port technique
20.  Duodenal fistula associated with a peri-appendiceal abscess: A case report☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Retroperitoneal abscess is an unusual presentation of perforated appendicitis. A fistula between the duodenum and an abscess resulting from appendicitis has not been previously reported.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 53-year-old Japanese man with a past medical history of hypertension and iron deficiency anemia presented with a 10-day history of fever and right lower abdominal pain, and was diagnosed with a retroperitoneal abscess secondary to perforated appendicitis. He was then treated with piperacillin and tazobactam after undergoing ultrasound-guided drainage, after which his overall condition improved. Due to iron deficiency anemia, we performed further evaluation for gastrointestinal bleeding and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed an elevated lesion with granulomatous tissue in the duodenum, without an associated ulcer. At 10 days after abscess drainage, duodenography with contrast showed continuity between the abscess cavity and the duodenum. At 74 days after drainage, we performed laparoscopic appendectomy. Pathological examination showed granulomatous tissue inside the appendix with an inflammatory background and fecaliths infiltrated by macrophages.
DISCUSSION
Perforated appendicitis has various presentations and many unusual fistulae have been reported, however, a fistula between a peri-appendiceal abscess and the duodenum has not yet been reported. A retroperitoneal abscess around the duodenum and appendix should be checked to differentiate it from Valentino's syndrome.
CONCLUSION
We present the rare complication of a duodenal fistula during the treatment of perforated appendicitis. The possibility of fistula formation should be considered in patients with complicated appendicitis.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.09.014
PMCID: PMC3860027  PMID: 24240079
Retroperitoneal abscess; Complicated appendicitis; Duodenal fistula
21.  Metastasis from prostatic carcinoma causing acute appendicitis: Report of a case 
INTRODUCTION
Metastasis induced acute appendicitis is extremely rare.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present a 72-year-old man who presented with typical signs of acute appendicitis. He underwent appendectomy and was successfully discharged without any complication. Histopathological examination diagnosed the metastasis to appendix from prostatic cancer.
DISCUSSION
Cancers of the appendix are rare and usually diagnosed incidentally in approximately 1% of all appendectomies. The rate of perforation was found to be higher in metastasis induced acute appendicitis in comparison with simple acute appendicitis in the literature. Tumors other than primary appendix tumors when present in the appendix are easily recognized as metastatic, requiring immunohistochemical studies.
CONCLUSION
Metastasis induced acute appendicitis should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis when a oncologic patient presents with signs of acute appendicitis.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.01.011
PMCID: PMC3604713  PMID: 23500745
Appendix; Cancer; Metastasis; Prostate
22.  Primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma alongside with situs inversus totalis: a unique clinical case 
Introduction
Mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract and one of the three major histological subtypes of the primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma. The most common type of presentation is that of acute appendicitis and the diagnosis is usually occurred after appendectomy. The accurate preoperative diagnosis and management of the above condition represents a real challenge when uncommon anatomic anomalies such intestinal malrotation and situs inversus take place. Situs inversus totalis with an incidence of 0.01% is an uncommon condition caused by a single autosomal recessive gene of incomplete penetration in which the major visceral organs are mirrored from their normal positions.
Case presentation
We present an unusual case of a 59 years old, previously healthy man presented with a left lower quadrant abdominal pain, accompanied with low fever, leukocytosis, anorexia and constipation. A chest radiograph demonstrated dextrocardia with a right side positioned stomach bubble. Both preoperative US and CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis declared situs inversus, with a characteristic thickening in its wall, appendix situated in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. These findings reached to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with situs inversus and a standard appendicectomy was performed. Pathologic evaluation established primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and three months afterwards the patient underwent a subsequent extended left hemicolectomy.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the occurrence of primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma along with situs inversus, definitely accounts as a unique clinical case. Even synchronous manifestation of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and situs inversus totalis represents an unusual anatomo-pathological entity, all physicians should be familiar having the knowledge to make an appropriate and accurate diagnosis that will lead to prompt and correct treatment.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-8-49
PMCID: PMC2894825  PMID: 20525349
23.  Left-sided appendicitis in a patient with situs inversus totalis 
Situs inversus totalis is a rare inherent disease in which the thoracic and abdominal organs are transposed. Symptoms of appendicitis in situs inversus (SI) may appear in the left lower quadrant, and the diagnosis of appendicitis is very difficult. We report a case of left-sided appendicitis diagnosed preoperatively after dextrocardia that was detected by chest X-ray, although the chief complaint of the patient was left lower-quadrant pain. The patient underwent an emergent laparoscopic appendectomy under the diagnosis of appendicitis after abdominal computed tomography (CT). In patients with left lower quadrant pain, if the chest X-ray shows dextrocardia, one should suspect left-sided appendicitis. A strong suspicion of appendicitis and an emergency laparoscopic operation after confirmation of the diagnosis by imaging modalities including abdominal CT or sonography can reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosis and complications including perforation and abscess. Laparoscopic appendectomy in SI was technically more challenging because of the mirror nature of the anatomy.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.3.175
PMCID: PMC3433555  PMID: 22977765
Situs inversus; Appendicitis; Laparoscopic; Appendectomy
24.  Ovarian vein thrombosis mimicking acute abdomen: a case report and literature review 
Background
Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a rare, but serious condition that affects mostly postpartum women. A high index of suspicion is required in order to diagnose this unusual cause of abdominal pain.
Case presentation
A 19-year-old woman at three days postpartum was admitted to our hospital because of severe right lower quandrant abdominal pain and fever 38.5'C. Physical examination revealed an acutely ill patient and right lower quadrant tenderness with positive rebound and Giordano signs. The patient underwent appendectomy which proved to be negative for acute appendicitis. Postoperatively fever and pain persisted and abdominal CT-scan with intravenous contrast agent demonstrated a thrombosed right ovarian vein. The patient was initiated on low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and antibiotic treatment and a month later a new abdominal CT-scan showed a patent right ovarian vein.
Discussion
Pathophysiologically, OVT is explained by Virchow's triad, because pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state, venous stasis due to compression of the inferior vena cava by the uterus and endothelial trauma during delivery or from local inflammation. Common symptoms and signs of OVT include lower abdomen or flank pain, fever and leukocytosis usually within the first ten days after delivery. The reported incidence of OVT ranges 0,05-0,18% of pregnancies and in most cases the right ovarian vein is the one affected. Anticoagulation and antibiotics is the mainstay of treatment of OVT. Complications of OVT include sepsis, extension of the thrombus to the inferior vena cava and renal veins, and pulmonary embolism. The incidence of pulmonary embolism is reported to be 13.2% and represents the main source of mortality due to OVT.
Conclusions
OVT is a rare condition, usually in the postpartum period. A high index of suspicion is required for the prompt diagnosis and management especially in cases that mimic acute abdomen.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-6-45
PMCID: PMC3257196  PMID: 22196690
ovarian vein; thrombosis; postpartum; appendicitis; appendectomy
25.  Laparoscopic vs. open appendectomy: systematic review of medical efficacy and health economic analysis 
Scientific background
Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix of the blind intestine. Appendicitis remains the most frequent cause for an acute abdomen. Both interventions, the open surgical (through opening of the abdominal cavity) as well as the laparoscopic approach (via insertion of an optic system and instruments into the abdominal cavity through three small incisions), are used for the excision of the inflamed appendix (appendectomy).
Research questions
The performed evaluation addresses questions on the medical effectiveness of the use of laparoscopic appendectomy in comparison with the classical open appendix excision as well as on its cost-effectiveness based on the German health system.
Methods
A literature search was conducted in October 2005 in the most important medical electronic databases. The medical analysis was performed on the basis of the most up to date systematic review (basic review) of randomized controlled studies (RCT), newly published RCT and on our own quantitative information synthesis of all studies as well as of selected methodologically high-value RCT. In the health economic analysis, relevant publications were evaluated and cost differences of both interventions were calculated.
Results
One systematic review and 56 primary studies were included in the medical evaluation, 24 of these studies were included in the conducted subanalysis on the basis of methodologically high-value studies. In total, a relation of three avoided wound infections per one additional intraabdominal abscess has to be expected by the use of laparoscopic appendectomy in com-parison with the open operation. Diagnostic laparoscopy reduces the rate of unclear diagnoses within the scope of planned appendectomy in fertile women. By routine, leaving the macroscopically bland appendix in situ, the rate of negative appendectomy is reduced significantly and profound. The results speak for a small advantage of the laparoscopic appendec-tomy with regard to pain intensity, the time until reintroduction of liquid and solid diet, time until first stool as well as for a slightly better cosmetic result and slightly better quality of life.
In the contemporary practice in Germany, a longer operation time, a reduced length of hospital stay and a similar time to return to work have to be expected by the use of laparoscopic appendectomy in comparison with open appendectomy. In the current health care situation in Germany, the use of laparoscopic appendectomy is associated with additional operation costs of approximately 150 to 200 Euro compared with the open appendectomy. By approximately 200 Euro costs savings due to the shorter length of hospital stay, the total (direct and indirect) costs of in-patient care of both interventions seem to be similar. Due to similar indirect costs, the total costs of both interventions lie also in the same range and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of both technologies are driven to zero.
Discussion
The use of the results of the performed medical analysis in the cost calculations supports the conclusions of the health-economic evaluation on the same evidence level as in the medical analysis.
Conclusions
Laparoscopic appendectomy shows both small advantages (diagnostics, wound infections, pain intensity, cosmetic result and quality of life) and disadvantages (intraabdominal abscesses) when compared with open appendectomy. From a health-economic view, laparoscopic and open appendectomies are generally similar with respect to the direct in-patient and indirect costs. Therefore, the decision between the two alternatives should be made by the physicians individually.
PMCID: PMC3011343  PMID: 21289973

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