Urachus anomalies are remnants of the urachus, an embryonic connection between the fetal bladder and umbilicus. These anomalies usually remain asymptomatic but can cause symptoms in case of infection. An extremely rare complication of symptomatic urachal remnants is fistulizing to adjacant viscera. We describe the first case of diverticulitis associated sigmoid-urachal-cutaneous fistula.
An 88-year-old male visited the outpatient clinic with intermittent bleeding and gassy discharge from his umbilicus. Examination showed a normal looking umbilicus with a small fissure at the bottom in which a 10 cm probe could be inserted. Laparotomy revealed a fistula extending from the umbilicus to a pus filled cyst superior to the bladder. A second fistula between the cyst and a mid-sigmoid diverticulum was identified. The involved sigmoid segment was resected. Pathological examination demonstrated no malignancy.
Urachal remnants are extremely rare in adults. They typically present with abdominal pain or palpable masses. Additional imaging can aid the diagnostic process.
Due to the risk of recurrence and malignant transformation complete surgical excision of urachal anomalies is the treatment of choice. This can be done in a 1-step or 2-step procedure.
Cyst; Diverticulitis; Fistula; Sigmoid; Urachus; Laparatomic surgery
Omphalolith is a hard, smooth, almost black bolus found in the umbilicus, resembling a malignant melanoma. It is often accompanied by seborrhea which may lead to abscess formation. It may be related to poor hygiene. Patient is usually complaining of umbilical discharge and pain. This report describes a rare case of omphalolith (umbilical stone) induced peritonitis, in a patient who presented as acute appendicitis. In our case the two umbilical stones found their way to the peritoneal cavity and induced peritonitis.
Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition and presents mainly with involvement of the pelvic organs. Extrapelvic presentations in almost all parts of the body have been reported in the literature. However, umbilical endometriosis that is spontaneous or secondary to surgery is uncommon and accounts for only 0.5% to 1% of all endometriosis cases.
A 35-year-old Caucasian woman presented with umbilical bleeding during periods of menstruation. Her umbilicus had a small nodule with bloody discharge. An ultrasound was performed and a diagnosis of possible umbilical endometriosis was thus made. The nodule shrunk in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues but continued to persist. The patient underwent a wide local excision of the nodule with a corresponding umbilical reconstruction. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of umbilical endometriosis. The patient was asymptomatic at follow-up, but nevertheless warned of the risk of recurrence.
Pelvic endometriosis is a common condition, but the diagnosis of primary umbilical endometriosis is difficult and differentials should be considered. This case strongly suggests that a differential diagnosis of endometriosis should be considered when an umbilical swelling presents in a woman of reproductive age.
The incidence of hernias is increased in patients with alcoholic liver disease with ascites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an acute rise in intra-abdominal pressure from straining for stool as the cause of a ruptured umbilical hernia.
An 81-year-old Caucasian man with a history of alcoholic liver disease presented to our emergency department with an erythematous umbilical hernia and clear, yellow discharge from the umbilicus. On straining for stool, after initial clinical assessment, our patient noted a gush of fluid and evisceration of omentum from the umbilical hernia. An urgent laparotomy was performed with excision of the umbilicus and devitalized omentum.
We report the case of a patient with a history of alcoholic liver disease with ascites. Ascites causes a chronic increase in intra-abdominal pressure. A sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure, such as coughing, vomiting, gastroscopy or, as in this case, straining for stool can cause rupture of an umbilical hernia. The presence of discoloration, ulceration or a rapid increase in size of the umbilical hernia signals impending rupture and should prompt the physician to reduce the intra-abdominal pressure.
A necrotic lung ball is a rare radiological feature that is sometimes seen in cases of pulmonary aspergillosis. This paper reports a rare occurrence of a necrotic lung ball in a young male caused by Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
A 28-year-old male with pulmonary candidiasis was found to have a lung ball on computed tomography (CT) of the chest. The patient was treated with β-lactams and itraconazole and then fluconazole, which improved his condition (as found on a following chest CT scan) and serum β-D-glucan level. The necrotic lung ball was suspected to have been caused by coinfection with Candida and S. pneumoniae.
A necrotic lung ball can result from infection by Candida and/or S. pneumoniae, indicating that physicians should be aware that patients may still have a fungal infection of the lungs that could result in a lung ball, even when they do not have either Aspergillus antibodies or antigens.
lung ball; necrotic lung ball; Candida; Streptococcus pneumoniae
Cutaneous or umbilical endometriosis is a rare entity that is often overlooked because of chronic abdominal pain. We present a case of umbilical hernia that presented to the general surgeons due to chronic abdominal pain and nodule in the umbilicus, which was clinically diagnosed as umbilical papilloma.
A 48-year old multiparous Caucasian woman presented with painful nodule in the umbilicus for two and half years. The nodule was excised and the histopathological diagnosis was umbilicus endometriosis.
Umbilical endometriosis is a very rare disease but should be considered as a differential diagnosis in women presenting with umbilical swelling.
Endometriosis; Umbilical endometriosis; Papilloma
The aim of this paper is to stay a very rare umbilico-inguinal fistula (UIF) resulting from a delayed suture reaction after the use of silk suture to repair an inguinal hernia. A 3-year-old boy presented with persistent umbilical discharge. The initial diagnosis was omphalitis and he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics but a UIF was subsequently diagnosed. Surgery was performed to ascertain the cause of the UIF. This case demonstrates that silk suture used in inguinal hernia repair can lead to a UIF, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with persistent umbilical discharge.
Trichogerminoma is a rare neoplasm which was first described in 1992 and there is still controversy over its inclusion into the spectrum of trichoblastoma. A 79-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of an asymptomatic nodule on the left posterior neck. Histologically, the lesion revealed a well-demarcated deep dermal nodule surrounded by a pseudocapsule. The tumor was composed of lobules with basophilic cells and some of the lobules displayed a distinctive pattern of densely packed 'cell balls' with peripheral condensation. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed zonal CK5/6 immunoactivity in contrast with the negatively stained 'cell balls'. These characteristics were compatible with the diagnosis of trichogerminoma. We report here on a rare case of a hair germ tumor called trichogerminoma.
Cell ball; Hair germ tumor; Trichoblastoma; Trichogerminoma
The authors suggest that laparoscopic right colectomy utilizing a single port may be performed with excellent cosmetic results.
We present an approach to laparoscopic right colon resection utilizing a single port placed through the umbilicus. The technique described is performed through a single small umbilical incision with a virtually scar-free result.
A 77-year-old woman with a tubulovillous adenoma in her cecum underwent a laparoscopic right colectomy using a single port placed through the umbilicus. Straight and reticulating laparoscopic instruments were utilized.
The total operative time was 112 minutes. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. The patient was discharged home on day 5 postoperatively with normal bowel function and tolerance of a solid diet.
Laparoscopic right colectomy can be safely performed through a single incision through the umbilicus with an excellent cosmetic result.
Laparoscopy; Single-site surgery; Transumbilical colectomy; Single laparoscopic incision transabdominal surgery
We report a rare case of a giant ovarian tumor presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia. A 61-yr-old woman was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain, an umbilical mass, nausea and vomiting. On examination, a large, irreducible umbilical hernia was found. The woman underwent an urgent operation for a possible strangulated hernia. A large, multilocular tumor was found. The tumor was excised, and a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy were performed. The woman was discharged 6 days after her admission. This is the first report of incarcerated umbilical hernia containing a giant ovarian tumor within the sac.
Granulosa Cell Tumor; Hernia, Umbilical; Surgery
Introduction. An antrolith is a calcified mass within the maxillary sinus. The origin of the nidus of calcification may be extrinsic (foreign body in sinus) or intrinsic (stagnant mucus and fungal ball). Most antroliths are small and asymptomatic. Larger ones may present as sinusitis with symptoms like pain and discharge. Case Report. We report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with heaviness on the left side of the face and loosening of the left 2nd molar tooth since two months. CT scan of the osteomeatal complex and paranasal sinuses showed an opacification of bilateral maxillary sinus and an amorphous area of bone density in the left maxillary sinus. Because of the size of the mass, benign neoplasms were considered in the differential diagnosis. During an endoscopic sinus surgery, it was found to be an antrolith, which was successfully managed by antrostomy and Caldwell-Luc Surgery. Discussion. Antrolith is a rare condition. Rhinoliths are known to invade into the maxillary antrum, but a localised lesion in the antrum is very unusual. A case of an isolated antrolith is presented for its rarity and for differential diagnosis of localised antral disease. Conclusion. Antrolith should be considered as differential diagnosis of unilateral radio-opaque paranasal sinus lesions.
During the 3rd week of intrauterine life there is a communication between the intraembryonic gut and the yolk sac. As the development proceeds this communication narrows into a tube known as the vitellointestinal duct (VID). With the establishment of placental nutrition this duct usually becomes obliterated by the end of the 7th week of intrauterine life. In about 2% of humans this duct persists and gives rise to a group of anomalies of which Meckel's diverticulum is the commonest and complete patency of the duct is the rarest.1
We report a case of a 4-month-old infant who presented with umbilical polyp, discharge from the umbilicus, significant dehydration and failure to thrive because of complete patency of the VID
Urachal diseases are rare and may develop from a congenital anomaly in which a persistent or partial reopening of the fetal communication between the bladder and the umbilicus persists. The most frequently reported urachal anomalies in adults are infected urachal cyst and urachal carcinoma. The diagnosis of this entity is not always easy because of the rarity of these diseases and the atypical symptoms at presentation. Imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography and computed tomography have a significant role in recognizing the presence of urachus-derived lesions.
Case presentation 1: A 25-year-old Arab-Berber man presented with a 10-day history of progressive lower abdominal pain accompanied by fever, vomiting, and low urinary tract symptoms to our emergency department. Laboratory data revealed leucocytosis. The diagnosis of an acute peritonitis was made initially. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic tract from the umbilicus to the abdominal wall, and the diagnosis was rectified (infected urachal remnants). The patient was initially treated with intravenous antibiotics in combination with a percutaneous drainage. Afterwards an extraperitoneal excision of the urachal remnant including a cuff of bladder was performed. The histological analysis did not reveal a tumor of the urachal remnant. Follow-up examinations a few months later showed no abnormality.
Case presentation 2: A 35-year-old Arab-Berber man, without prior medical history with one week of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, associated with fever but without lower urinary tract symptoms visited our emergency department. Laboratory data revealed leucocytosis. Abdominal ultrasonography was not conclusive. Computed tomography of the abdomen was the key to the investigation and the diagnosis of an abscess of urachal remnants was made. The patient underwent the same choice of medical-surgical treatment as previously described for case one, with a good follow-up result.
Case presentation 3: A 22-year-old Arab-Berber man, with no relevant past medical history, presented to our emergency department because of suspected acute surgical abdomen. Physical examination revealed umbilical discharge with erythema and a tender umbilical mass. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis of infected urachal sinus. Initial management was intravenous antibiotics associated with a percutaneous drainage with a good post-operative result, but a few days later, he was readmitted with the same complaint and the decision was made for surgical treatment consisting of excision of the infected urachal sinus. The clinical course was uneventful. Histological examination did not reveal any signs of malignancy.
We describe our clinical observations and an analysis of the existing literature to present the various clinical, radiological, pathological and therapeutic aspects of an abscess of urachal remnants. To the best of our knowledge, this manuscript is an original case report because this atypical presentation is rarely reported in the literature and only a few cases have been described.
Urachus; Bladder; Neoplasms; Urachal cyst; Urachal remnant; Urachal sinus; Abcess
We describe the very unusual case of a patient with a large, free-floating left-atrial thrombus secondary to severe mitral stenosis, in whom the peculiar symptoms and complications of a ball thrombus were absent. The patient's only symptom before the episode reported here was mild dyspnea, which was attributed to mitral stenosis. She experienced neither embolism nor syncope. While even her clinical signs did not indicate a left-atrial ball thrombus, both echocardiography and angiography showed a free-floating thrombus. Because of the risk of stroke and acute obstruction of the mitral valve, emergency surgery was performed upon diagnosis of the ball thrombus. The surgery, which consisted of removing the thrombus and replacing the mitral valve with a mechanical prosthesis, was uneventful. A computed tomographic brain scan prior to discharge did not detect any cerebral infarction.
Alloimmunization to granulocyte-specific antigens can occur during pregnancy. Maternal antibodies of IgG class can cross the placenta to result in alloimmune neonatal neutropenia. Antibodies to human neutrophil antigens anti-HNA-1a, HNA-1b, and HNA-2a have been most commonly reported to cause alloimmune neonatal neutropenia. Isoantibodies to Fc gamma RIIIb (CD16) if mother is a HNA-null phenotype are rarely involved in neonatal neutropenia. We report on a case of severe neutropenia (440 neutrophils/μL) due to anti-Fc gamma RIIIb (CD16) isoimmunization. On day 14 severe omphalitis developed, which was treated for 7 days by an antibiotic (ceftriaxone in a dose of 80 mg/kg/d) according to umbilical swab finding. Omphalitis persisted for 10 days in spite of antibiotic therapy and only resolved upon the introduction of rhG-CSF therapy. Therapy with rh-GCSF proved efficient and led to neutrophil count increase to 1970/μL and cure of omphalitis. However, therapeutic effect on granulocyte count was of transient nature, as granulocyte count fell to 760 n/μL on day 4 of therapy discontinuation. Neutropenia persisted for 2 months. The newborn was discharged from the hospital on day 26 with normal clinical status with clinical and laboratory control examinations at 2-week intervals. No additional infections were observed during the course of neutropenia.
Congenital talonavicular coalition is reported less frequently than talocalcaneal or calcaneonavicular coalition and represent approximately 1% of all tarsal coalitions. Although reportedly transmitted as an autosomal-dominant disorder, tarsal coalition may be inherited as an autosomal-recessive trait. It has been associated with various orthopaedic anomalies, including symphalangism, clinodactyly, a great toe shorter than the second toe, clubfoot, calcaneonavicular coalition, talocalcaneal coalition, and a ball-and-socket ankle. Patients with talonavicular coalitions are usually asymptomatic and rarely undergo surgical treatment. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with symptomatic bilateral talonavicular coalitions and previously unreported associated anomalies (nail hypoplasia and metatarsus primus elevatus) and review the relevant literature. The patient underwent surgery (calcaneocuboid joint distraction arthrodesis and a proximal plantar flexion osteotomy with a dorsal open wedge of the first metatarsal). At 1-year followup, she was pain-free with better alignment of both feet and showed radiographic consolidation of the arthrodesis. Although this condition is less likely to be clinically important than other tarsal fusions, it sometimes can be painful enough for the patient to undergo surgery.
Endosalpingiosis describes the ectopic growth of Fallopian tube epithelium. Pathology confirms the presence of a tube-like epithelium containing three types of cells: ciliated, columnar cells; non-ciliated, columnar secretory mucous cells; and intercalary cells.
We report the case of a woman with umbilical endosalpingiosis and examine the nature and characteristics of cutaneous endosalpingiosis by reviewing and combining the other four cases existing in the international literature.
A 50-year-old Caucasian, Greek woman presented with a pale brown nodule in her umbilicus. The nodule was asymptomatic, with no cyclical discomfort or variation in size. Her personal medical, surgical and gynecologic history was uneventful. An excision within healthy margins was performed under local anesthesia. A cystic formation measuring 2.7×1.7×1 cm was removed. Histological examination confirmed umbilical endosalpingiosis.
Umbilical endosalpingiosis is a very rare manifestation of the non-neoplasmatic disorders of the Müllerian system. It appears with cyclic symptoms of pain and swelling of the umbilicus, but not always. The disease is diagnosed using pathologic findings and surgical excision is the definitive treatment.
Carcinomas rarely arise from the urethral diverticulum. In this report, we present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from the urethral diverticulum. A 42-year-old woman complained of bloody discharge and lower back pain. Imaging studies showed a tumor involving the region surrounding the urethra and cystourethroscopy showed papillary and villous tumors in the urethral diverticula. Cytology of the urine sediment showed papillary or spherical clusters of atypical cells, some of which had clear abundant cytoplasm and formed mirror ball-like clusters, suggesting adenocarcinoma. Although histological diagnosis was indeterminate by biopsy and transurethral resection (TUR) because of absence of stromal invasion, surgically resected specimen via cysturethrectomy revealed that the tumor was clear cell carcinoma. Urinary cytological findings and immunohistochemical analysis for CD15, Ki-67, and p53 might be useful for accurate diagnosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma that arises from the urethral diverticulum when sufficient materials are not available by biopsy and TUR.
Clear cell adenocarcinoma; Ki-67; nephrogenic adenoma; p53; urethral diverticulum
Illthrift was observed in 20/60 lambs aged 40–45 days in a dairy sheep flock in Greece. Cryptosporidiosis had been diagnosed and successfully treated with halofuginone lactate a month earlier. Parasitological examinations were negative for endoparasites while hematology and biochemistry were unremarkable. Necropsy of 5 lambs revealed lung and liver abscessation, presumably secondary to umbilical infections due to poor farm hygiene, though umbilical lesions were not observed. No new cases were observed following treatment of the umbilicus of newborn lambs with chlorexidine. Although umbilical infections are common, this is the first reported case of illthrift in lambs attributed to umbilical infection; illthrift may be the only clinical manifestation of such infections. The prior presence of cryptosporidiosis may have contributed to the severity of the infection through the reduction of local immunity. Recognition of this possibly underdiagnosed or underappreciated condition may improve medical, production, and welfare standards in the sheep industry.
Urachal disease, a disorder where embryonic remnant of the cloaca and the allantois present after birth as a midline fibrous cord, is usually detected in infancy and childhood. But urachal disease in adults is rare. We report a case of a huge abscess derived from a urachal cyst in an adult. A 52-year-old man presented with peri-umbilical distension and abdominal pain for 2 weeks. Ultrasonography and abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a huge abscess derived from the abdominal wall. After prompt incision and drainage, the remaining abscess cavity was removed completely under general anesthesia. Pathologic report was consistent with urachal duct cyst, and the patient was discharged in a week without complication.
Urachal cyst; Adult
Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called ‘termite balls’, are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus) were all very similar, with no significant molecular differences among host species or geographical locations. I found no significant effect of termite balls on egg survivorship. The termite-ball fungus rarely kills termite eggs in natural colonies. Even a termite species (Reticulitermes okinawanus) with no natural association with the fungus tended termite balls along with its eggs when it was experimentally provided with termite balls. Dummy-egg bioassays using glass beads showed that both morphological and chemical camouflage were necessary to induce tending by termites. Termites almost exclusively tended termite balls with diameters that exactly matched their egg size. Moreover, scanning electron microscopic observations revealed sophisticated mimicry of the smooth surface texture of eggs. These results provide clear evidence that this interaction is beneficial only for the fungus, i.e. termite balls parasitically mimic termite eggs.
egg recognition; mimicry; termites; sclerotia; insect–fungus interaction
Decorative crystal gel balls are used for decoration purpose. Due to their attractive appearance they may be ingested by children. This may result in grave complications. A case of decorative crystal ball ingestion is being reported in a 6 months old infant who presented with sub acute intestinal obstruction and was operated. Crystal gel balls were causing obstruction of jejunum. Enterotomy and removal of the mass of jelly balls was done with primary closure. The patient was re-operated for anastomotic disruption on 6th postoperative day. Baby developed septicemia, and succumbed after 2 days of second operation.
Crystal balls; Jelly balls; Mortality
Urachal affections are rare. Their variable ways of presentation may represent a diagnostic challenge. Urachal sinuses are a rare type of these abnormalities. They are usually incidental findings and remain asymptomatic unless a complication (most commonly the infection) occurs. Infection of the urachal sinus would clinically present as purulent umbilical discharge, abdominal pain, and periumbilical mass. We report herein a case of infected urachal sinus in male adult. The diagnosis was suspected clinically and confirmed with ultrasonography and computed tomography scan. A preoperative cysto-fibroscopy showed normal aspect of the bladder and excluded sinus communication. An initial broad spectrum antibiotic therapy followed by complete excision of the sinus and fibrous tract without cuff of bladder has been therefore performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. No recurrence was observed after 18 months of followup. Histological examination did not reveal any sign of malignancy.
In developing countries, newborn omphalitis may contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Community-based identification and management of omphalitis will require standardised clinical sign-based definitions. This study aimed to identify optimal sign-based algorithms to define omphalitis in the community and to evaluate the reliability and validity of cord assessments by non-specialist health workers for clinical signs of omphalitis.
Within a trial of the impact of topical antiseptics on umbilical cord infection in rural Nepal, digital images of the umbilical cord were collected. Workers responsible for in-home examinations of the umbilical cord evaluated the images for signs of infection (pus, redness, swelling). Intra- and inter-worker agreement was evaluated, and sensitivity and specificity compared to a physician-generated gold standard ranking was estimated.
Sensitivity and specificity of worker evaluations were high for pus (90%, 96% respectively) and moderate for redness (57%, 95% respectively). Swelling was the least reliably identified sign. Measures of observer agreement were similar to that previously recorded between experts evaluating subjective skin conditions. A composite definition for omphalitis that combined pus and redness without regard to swelling was the most sensitive and specific.
Two sign-based algorithms for defining omphalitis are recommended for use in the community. Focusing on redness extending to the skin around the base of the stump will identify cases of moderate and high severity. Requiring both the presence of pus and redness will result in a definition with very high specificity and moderate to high sensitivity.
Omphalitis; neonatal infection; umbilical cord infection; validation; Nepal
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most dangerous human cancers and will continue to be a major unsolved health problem as we enter the 21st century. This is the case despite advances in imaging technology and surgical management. Indeed, 80% to 90% of pancreatic cancers are diagnosed either at the locally advanced or metastatic stage. Cutaneous metastases originating from pancreatic cancer are relatively rare. The most common site of cutaneous metastasis is the umbilicus, and this is known as the Sister Joseph's nodule. Very few patients have been reported with cutaneous lesions disclosing a pancreatic carcinoma at sites other than the umbilical area. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on cutaneous pancreatic metastasis in Egypt. This is a report on a patient with cutaneous pancreatic metastases at the neck and review of reported non-umbilical cutaneous metastases from pancreatic carcinoma in the literatures.
Pancreas cancer; skin metastases; nodules