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1.  Omphalolith presented with peritonitis: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8191.
Omphalolith is a hard, smooth, almost black bolus found in the umbilicus, resembling a malignant melanoma. It is often accompanied by seborrhea which may lead to abscess formation. It may be related to poor hygiene. Patient is usually complaining of umbilical discharge and pain. This report describes a rare case of omphalolith (umbilical stone) induced peritonitis, in a patient who presented as acute appendicitis. In our case the two umbilical stones found their way to the peritoneal cavity and induced peritonitis.
PMCID: PMC2769553  PMID: 19918359
2.  A colo-urachal-cutaneous fistula in an 88-year-old male 
Urachus anomalies are remnants of the urachus, an embryonic connection between the fetal bladder and umbilicus. These anomalies usually remain asymptomatic but can cause symptoms in case of infection. An extremely rare complication of symptomatic urachal remnants is fistulizing to adjacant viscera. We describe the first case of diverticulitis associated sigmoid-urachal-cutaneous fistula.
Case report
An 88-year-old male visited the outpatient clinic with intermittent bleeding and gassy discharge from his umbilicus. Examination showed a normal looking umbilicus with a small fissure at the bottom in which a 10 cm probe could be inserted. Laparotomy revealed a fistula extending from the umbilicus to a pus filled cyst superior to the bladder. A second fistula between the cyst and a mid-sigmoid diverticulum was identified. The involved sigmoid segment was resected. Pathological examination demonstrated no malignancy.
Urachal remnants are extremely rare in adults. They typically present with abdominal pain or palpable masses. Additional imaging can aid the diagnostic process.
Due to the risk of recurrence and malignant transformation complete surgical excision of urachal anomalies is the treatment of choice. This can be done in a 1-step or 2-step procedure.
PMCID: PMC3267281  PMID: 22288045
Cyst; Diverticulitis; Fistula; Sigmoid; Urachus; Laparatomic surgery
3.  Menstruating from the umbilicus as a rare case of primary umbilical endometriosis: a case report 
Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition and presents mainly with involvement of the pelvic organs. Extrapelvic presentations in almost all parts of the body have been reported in the literature. However, umbilical endometriosis that is spontaneous or secondary to surgery is uncommon and accounts for only 0.5% to 1% of all endometriosis cases.
Case presentation
A 35-year-old Caucasian woman presented with umbilical bleeding during periods of menstruation. Her umbilicus had a small nodule with bloody discharge. An ultrasound was performed and a diagnosis of possible umbilical endometriosis was thus made. The nodule shrunk in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues but continued to persist. The patient underwent a wide local excision of the nodule with a corresponding umbilical reconstruction. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of umbilical endometriosis. The patient was asymptomatic at follow-up, but nevertheless warned of the risk of recurrence.
Pelvic endometriosis is a common condition, but the diagnosis of primary umbilical endometriosis is difficult and differentials should be considered. This case strongly suggests that a differential diagnosis of endometriosis should be considered when an umbilical swelling presents in a woman of reproductive age.
PMCID: PMC2803849  PMID: 20062755
4.  Umbilical hernia rupture with evisceration of omentum from massive ascites: a case report 
The incidence of hernias is increased in patients with alcoholic liver disease with ascites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an acute rise in intra-abdominal pressure from straining for stool as the cause of a ruptured umbilical hernia.
Case presentation
An 81-year-old Caucasian man with a history of alcoholic liver disease presented to our emergency department with an erythematous umbilical hernia and clear, yellow discharge from the umbilicus. On straining for stool, after initial clinical assessment, our patient noted a gush of fluid and evisceration of omentum from the umbilical hernia. An urgent laparotomy was performed with excision of the umbilicus and devitalized omentum.
We report the case of a patient with a history of alcoholic liver disease with ascites. Ascites causes a chronic increase in intra-abdominal pressure. A sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure, such as coughing, vomiting, gastroscopy or, as in this case, straining for stool can cause rupture of an umbilical hernia. The presence of discoloration, ulceration or a rapid increase in size of the umbilical hernia signals impending rupture and should prompt the physician to reduce the intra-abdominal pressure.
PMCID: PMC3095553  PMID: 21539740
5.  Primary umbilical endometriosis. Case report and discussion on management options☆ 
We report a recently observed case of primary umbilical endometriosis (UE), with the main aim to discuss the management of this rare condition.
A 24-year-old woman complained of a painful nodule on her umbilical region, bleeding with her menstrual cycle. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic superficial mass in the umbilicus and no signs of intra-abdominal endometriosis. Excision of the nodule under local anesthesia was performed. Histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of umbilical endometriosis. Neither symptoms nor signs of local recurrence have been observed after 24 months.
UE should be taken into account in differential diagnosis of umbilical disorders even in young nulliparous women with no typical symptoms of pelvic endometriosis. Although there is a substantial agreement about the necessity of surgery, treatment options are either local excision of the lesion or removal of the whole umbilicus with or without laparoscopic exploration of the peritoneal cavity. The decision should be tailored for the individual patient, taking into consideration the size of the lesion, the duration of symptoms and the presence of possible pelvic endometriosis.
Local excision saving the umbilicus may be the treatment of choice in patients with small UE lesions.
PMCID: PMC3860025  PMID: 24291679
Endometriosis; Umbilicus; Treatment
6.  Umbilical endometriosis mimicking as papilloma to general surgeons: A case report 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(5):272-274.
Cutaneous or umbilical endometriosis is a rare entity that is often overlooked because of chronic abdominal pain. We present a case of umbilical hernia that presented to the general surgeons due to chronic abdominal pain and nodule in the umbilicus, which was clinically diagnosed as umbilical papilloma.
Case presentation
A 48-year old multiparous Caucasian woman presented with painful nodule in the umbilicus for two and half years. The nodule was excised and the histopathological diagnosis was umbilicus endometriosis.
Umbilical endometriosis is a very rare disease but should be considered as a differential diagnosis in women presenting with umbilical swelling.
PMCID: PMC3395284  PMID: 22848323
Endometriosis; Umbilical endometriosis; Papilloma
7.  Acquired Umbilico-Inguinal Fistula with Persistent Discharge due to Suture Reaction: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Medicine  2012;2012:216345.
The aim of this paper is to stay a very rare umbilico-inguinal fistula (UIF) resulting from a delayed suture reaction after the use of silk suture to repair an inguinal hernia. A 3-year-old boy presented with persistent umbilical discharge. The initial diagnosis was omphalitis and he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics but a UIF was subsequently diagnosed. Surgery was performed to ascertain the cause of the UIF. This case demonstrates that silk suture used in inguinal hernia repair can lead to a UIF, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with persistent umbilical discharge.
PMCID: PMC3471475  PMID: 23091496
8.  “Cannon Balls or Pus Balls” in Pap Smears: A Case Report 
A 50–year old female presented with the chief complaint of a discharge per vaginum, which was there for the past 15 days. A routine PAP smear was received in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Patiala, India. After its fixation and staining, it was examined under the microscope. It showed the Trichomonas vaginalis infection, with the neutrophils forming cannon balls at places. Neutrophils in the PAP smear are a nonspecific finding, particularly if they are low in numbers or if they are seen in the premenstrual and the menstrual phases. The neutrophils which are adherent to the squamous cells are called “cannon balls” or “pus balls”, which are common in the Chlamydia infection. This case is being presented because of the presence of these rare morphological structures i.e. “cannon balls” or “pus balls”.
PMCID: PMC3782945  PMID: 24086888
PAP; Cannon ball; Trichomonas vaginalis
9.  Spontaneous Colo-Umbilical Fistula Complicating Diverticulitis of the Sigmoid Colon 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:925041.
Colocutaneous fistula caused by diverticulitis is relatively uncommon with colo-umbilical fistulas being even rarer. We herein report a rare case of a spontaneous colo-umbilical fistula due to diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. The fistula developed from a diverticulum of the sigmoid colon that discharged through the umbilicus after two episodes of acute diverticulitis. The condition was successfully treated by resectional surgery.
PMCID: PMC3690254  PMID: 23841011
10.  A Case of Trichogerminoma 
Annals of Dermatology  2010;22(4):431-434.
Trichogerminoma is a rare neoplasm which was first described in 1992 and there is still controversy over its inclusion into the spectrum of trichoblastoma. A 79-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of an asymptomatic nodule on the left posterior neck. Histologically, the lesion revealed a well-demarcated deep dermal nodule surrounded by a pseudocapsule. The tumor was composed of lobules with basophilic cells and some of the lobules displayed a distinctive pattern of densely packed 'cell balls' with peripheral condensation. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed zonal CK5/6 immunoactivity in contrast with the negatively stained 'cell balls'. These characteristics were compatible with the diagnosis of trichogerminoma. We report here on a rare case of a hair germ tumor called trichogerminoma.
PMCID: PMC2991721  PMID: 21165214
Cell ball; Hair germ tumor; Trichoblastoma; Trichogerminoma
11.  A necrotic lung ball caused by co-infection with Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae 
A necrotic lung ball is a rare radiological feature that is sometimes seen in cases of pulmonary aspergillosis. This paper reports a rare occurrence of a necrotic lung ball in a young male caused by Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Case report
A 28-year-old male with pulmonary candidiasis was found to have a lung ball on computed tomography (CT) of the chest. The patient was treated with β-lactams and itraconazole and then fluconazole, which improved his condition (as found on a following chest CT scan) and serum β-D-glucan level. The necrotic lung ball was suspected to have been caused by coinfection with Candida and S. pneumoniae.
A necrotic lung ball can result from infection by Candida and/or S. pneumoniae, indicating that physicians should be aware that patients may still have a fungal infection of the lungs that could result in a lung ball, even when they do not have either Aspergillus antibodies or antigens.
PMCID: PMC3259690  PMID: 22259251
lung ball; necrotic lung ball; Candida; Streptococcus pneumoniae
12.  Angiomyxoma: a rare tumor of the umbilical cord 
Tumors of the umbilical cord are rare anomalies and should be considered when using prenatal ultrasound for detection of cystic lesions. Differential diagnosis of umbilical cord tumors should comprise umbilical cord teratoma, hemangioma and angiomyxoma. It can also be an umbilical cord polyp, umbilical cord cyst, hernia into the cord and omphalocele, which are mostly isolated findings, except omphalocele. Angiomyxoma is a rare tumor of the umbilical cord and is associated with incresaed perinatal morbidity and mortality. We present a 22-year-old woman with a large umbilical cord tumor who underwent a caesarean section. As in our case, neither chromosomal aberrations nor elevated alphafetoprotein were found after amniocentesis or chordocentesis. Macroscopical and microscopical pathological examinations of the mass after delivery revealed an angiomyxoma with cystic degenerations in myxoid stroma.
PMCID: PMC3939307  PMID: 24591896
Umbilical cord; angiomyxoma
13.  Single-Incision Laparoscopic-Assisted Right Colon Resection for Cancer 
The authors suggest that laparoscopic right colectomy utilizing a single port may be performed with excellent cosmetic results.
We present an approach to laparoscopic right colon resection utilizing a single port placed through the umbilicus. The technique described is performed through a single small umbilical incision with a virtually scar-free result.
A 77-year-old woman with a tubulovillous adenoma in her cecum underwent a laparoscopic right colectomy using a single port placed through the umbilicus. Straight and reticulating laparoscopic instruments were utilized.
The total operative time was 112 minutes. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. The patient was discharged home on day 5 postoperatively with normal bowel function and tolerance of a solid diet.
Laparoscopic right colectomy can be safely performed through a single incision through the umbilicus with an excellent cosmetic result.
PMCID: PMC3083049  PMID: 21605522
Laparoscopy; Single-site surgery; Transumbilical colectomy; Single laparoscopic incision transabdominal surgery
14.  Giant Ovarian Tumor Presenting as an Incarcerated Umbilical Hernia: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(3):539-541.
We report a rare case of a giant ovarian tumor presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia. A 61-yr-old woman was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain, an umbilical mass, nausea and vomiting. On examination, a large, irreducible umbilical hernia was found. The woman underwent an urgent operation for a possible strangulated hernia. A large, multilocular tumor was found. The tumor was excised, and a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy were performed. The woman was discharged 6 days after her admission. This is the first report of incarcerated umbilical hernia containing a giant ovarian tumor within the sac.
PMCID: PMC2698209  PMID: 19543424
Granulosa Cell Tumor; Hernia, Umbilical; Surgery
15.  Maxillary Antrolith: A Rare Cause of the Recurrent Sinusitis 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2013;2013:527152.
Introduction. An antrolith is a calcified mass within the maxillary sinus. The origin of the nidus of calcification may be extrinsic (foreign body in sinus) or intrinsic (stagnant mucus and fungal ball). Most antroliths are small and asymptomatic. Larger ones may present as sinusitis with symptoms like pain and discharge. Case Report. We report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with heaviness on the left side of the face and loosening of the left 2nd molar tooth since two months. CT scan of the osteomeatal complex and paranasal sinuses showed an opacification of bilateral maxillary sinus and an amorphous area of bone density in the left maxillary sinus. Because of the size of the mass, benign neoplasms were considered in the differential diagnosis. During an endoscopic sinus surgery, it was found to be an antrolith, which was successfully managed by antrostomy and Caldwell-Luc Surgery. Discussion. Antrolith is a rare condition. Rhinoliths are known to invade into the maxillary antrum, but a localised lesion in the antrum is very unusual. A case of an isolated antrolith is presented for its rarity and for differential diagnosis of localised antral disease. Conclusion. Antrolith should be considered as differential diagnosis of unilateral radio-opaque paranasal sinus lesions.
PMCID: PMC3580910  PMID: 23476856
16.  Patent vitellointestinal duct 
BMJ Case Reports  2010;2010:bcr1220092594.
During the 3rd week of intrauterine life there is a communication between the intraembryonic gut and the yolk sac. As the development proceeds this communication narrows into a tube known as the vitellointestinal duct (VID). With the establishment of placental nutrition this duct usually becomes obliterated by the end of the 7th week of intrauterine life. In about 2% of humans this duct persists and gives rise to a group of anomalies of which Meckel's diverticulum is the commonest and complete patency of the duct is the rarest.1
We report a case of a 4-month-old infant who presented with umbilical polyp, discharge from the umbilicus, significant dehydration and failure to thrive because of complete patency of the VID
PMCID: PMC3029414  PMID: 22778111
17.  Abscess of urachal remnants presenting with acute abdomen: a case series 
Urachal diseases are rare and may develop from a congenital anomaly in which a persistent or partial reopening of the fetal communication between the bladder and the umbilicus persists. The most frequently reported urachal anomalies in adults are infected urachal cyst and urachal carcinoma. The diagnosis of this entity is not always easy because of the rarity of these diseases and the atypical symptoms at presentation. Imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography and computed tomography have a significant role in recognizing the presence of urachus-derived lesions.
Cases presentations
Case presentation 1: A 25-year-old Arab-Berber man presented with a 10-day history of progressive lower abdominal pain accompanied by fever, vomiting, and low urinary tract symptoms to our emergency department. Laboratory data revealed leucocytosis. The diagnosis of an acute peritonitis was made initially. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic tract from the umbilicus to the abdominal wall, and the diagnosis was rectified (infected urachal remnants). The patient was initially treated with intravenous antibiotics in combination with a percutaneous drainage. Afterwards an extraperitoneal excision of the urachal remnant including a cuff of bladder was performed. The histological analysis did not reveal a tumor of the urachal remnant. Follow-up examinations a few months later showed no abnormality.
Case presentation 2: A 35-year-old Arab-Berber man, without prior medical history with one week of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, associated with fever but without lower urinary tract symptoms visited our emergency department. Laboratory data revealed leucocytosis. Abdominal ultrasonography was not conclusive. Computed tomography of the abdomen was the key to the investigation and the diagnosis of an abscess of urachal remnants was made. The patient underwent the same choice of medical-surgical treatment as previously described for case one, with a good follow-up result.
Case presentation 3: A 22-year-old Arab-Berber man, with no relevant past medical history, presented to our emergency department because of suspected acute surgical abdomen. Physical examination revealed umbilical discharge with erythema and a tender umbilical mass. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis of infected urachal sinus. Initial management was intravenous antibiotics associated with a percutaneous drainage with a good post-operative result, but a few days later, he was readmitted with the same complaint and the decision was made for surgical treatment consisting of excision of the infected urachal sinus. The clinical course was uneventful. Histological examination did not reveal any signs of malignancy.
We describe our clinical observations and an analysis of the existing literature to present the various clinical, radiological, pathological and therapeutic aspects of an abscess of urachal remnants. To the best of our knowledge, this manuscript is an original case report because this atypical presentation is rarely reported in the literature and only a few cases have been described.
PMCID: PMC3459711  PMID: 22846644
Urachus; Bladder; Neoplasms; Urachal cyst; Urachal remnant; Urachal sinus; Abcess
18.  Gossypiboma mimicking posterior urethral stricture 
Foreign bodies in the urogenital tract are not uncommon. Hairpins, glass rods, umbilical tapes, ball point pen are described in lower urogenital tract. Retained gauze piece (gossypiboma) in posterior urethra may cause diagnostic dilemma. Symptoms and investigations may mimic stricture of posterior urethra.
Two cases of retained gauze pieces in the urethra are described here. The micturating cystourethrogram was suggestive of posterior urethral stricture.
Two cases described here had retained gauze piece as a cause of filling defect and abnormal appearance in the micturating cystourethrogram. Gossypiboma may be a possibility where posterior urethral stricture are seen after previous surgery in paediatric age group.
In the setting of previous urogenital surgery gossypiboma should be kept in the differential diagnosis where posterior urethral stricture are seen in the paediatric age group.
PMCID: PMC3605478  PMID: 23500749
Gossypiboma; Posterior urethral stricture
19.  LED-Induced fluorescence and image analysis to detect stink bug damage in cotton bolls 
Stink bugs represent a major agricultural pest complex attacking more than 200 wild and cultivated plants, including cotton in the southeastern US. Stink bug feeding on developing cotton bolls will cause boll abortion or lint staining and thus reduced yield and lint value. Current methods for stink bug detection involve manual harvesting and cracking open of a sizable number of immature cotton bolls for visual inspection. This process is cumbersome, time consuming, and requires a moderate level of experience to obtain accurate estimates. To improve detection of stink bug feeding, we present here a method based on fluorescent imaging and subsequent image analyses to determine the likelihood of stink bug damage in cotton bolls.
Damage to different structures of cotton bolls including lint and carpal wall can be observed under blue LED-induced fluorescence. Generally speaking, damaged regions fluoresce green, whereas non-damaged regions with chlorophyll fluoresce red. However, similar fluorescence emission is also observable on cotton bolls that have not been fed upon by stink bugs. Criteria based on fluorescent intensity and the size of the fluorescent spot allow to differentiate between true positives (fluorescent regions associated with stink bug feeding) and false positives (fluorescent regions due to other causes). We found a detection rates with two combined criteria of 87% for true-positive marks and of 8% for false-positive marks.
The imaging technique presented herein gives rise to a possible detection apparatus where a cotton boll is imaged in the field and images processed by software. The unique fluorescent signature left by stink bugs can be used to determine with high probability if a cotton boll has been punctured by a stink bug. We believe this technique, when integrated in a suitable device, could be used for more accurate detection in the field and allow for more optimized application of pest control.
PMCID: PMC3663817  PMID: 23421982
20.  Umbilical endosalpingiosis: a case report 
Endosalpingiosis describes the ectopic growth of Fallopian tube epithelium. Pathology confirms the presence of a tube-like epithelium containing three types of cells: ciliated, columnar cells; non-ciliated, columnar secretory mucous cells; and intercalary cells.
We report the case of a woman with umbilical endosalpingiosis and examine the nature and characteristics of cutaneous endosalpingiosis by reviewing and combining the other four cases existing in the international literature.
Case presentation
A 50-year-old Caucasian, Greek woman presented with a pale brown nodule in her umbilicus. The nodule was asymptomatic, with no cyclical discomfort or variation in size. Her personal medical, surgical and gynecologic history was uneventful. An excision within healthy margins was performed under local anesthesia. A cystic formation measuring 2.7×1.7×1 cm was removed. Histological examination confirmed umbilical endosalpingiosis.
Umbilical endosalpingiosis is a very rare manifestation of the non-neoplasmatic disorders of the Müllerian system. It appears with cyclic symptoms of pain and swelling of the umbilicus, but not always. The disease is diagnosed using pathologic findings and surgical excision is the definitive treatment.
PMCID: PMC2936926  PMID: 20735830
21.  A case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from the urethral diverticulum: Utility of urinary cytology and immunohistochemistry 
CytoJournal  2012;9:11.
Carcinomas rarely arise from the urethral diverticulum. In this report, we present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from the urethral diverticulum. A 42-year-old woman complained of bloody discharge and lower back pain. Imaging studies showed a tumor involving the region surrounding the urethra and cystourethroscopy showed papillary and villous tumors in the urethral diverticula. Cytology of the urine sediment showed papillary or spherical clusters of atypical cells, some of which had clear abundant cytoplasm and formed mirror ball-like clusters, suggesting adenocarcinoma. Although histological diagnosis was indeterminate by biopsy and transurethral resection (TUR) because of absence of stromal invasion, surgically resected specimen via cysturethrectomy revealed that the tumor was clear cell carcinoma. Urinary cytological findings and immunohistochemical analysis for CD15, Ki-67, and p53 might be useful for accurate diagnosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma that arises from the urethral diverticulum when sufficient materials are not available by biopsy and TUR.
PMCID: PMC3352587  PMID: 22615710
Clear cell adenocarcinoma; Ki-67; nephrogenic adenoma; p53; urethral diverticulum
22.  Urachal cyst presenting with huge abscess formation in adults 
Urachal disease, a disorder where embryonic remnant of the cloaca and the allantois present after birth as a midline fibrous cord, is usually detected in infancy and childhood. But urachal disease in adults is rare. We report a case of a huge abscess derived from a urachal cyst in an adult. A 52-year-old man presented with peri-umbilical distension and abdominal pain for 2 weeks. Ultrasonography and abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a huge abscess derived from the abdominal wall. After prompt incision and drainage, the remaining abscess cavity was removed completely under general anesthesia. Pathologic report was consistent with urachal duct cyst, and the patient was discharged in a week without complication.
PMCID: PMC3467394  PMID: 23091800
Urachal cyst; Adult
23.  Chronic Umbilical Discharge 
Umbilical endometriosis is an important differential diagnosis of any umbilical lesion. A 35-year-old type 2 diabetic woman presented with intermittent umbilical discharge which failed to respond to various antibiotics. An ultrasound scan and MRI scan failed to show any obvious abnormality. The umbilicus was excised and histology confirmed endometriosis. Surgical excision provides a definitive diagnosis and curative treatment for isolated endometriosis.
PMCID: PMC3616781  PMID: 23573396
Endometriosis; Discharge, Umbilical; Case report; Great Britain
24.  Urachal Sinus Presenting with Abscess Formation 
ISRN Urology  2011;2011:820924.
Urachal affections are rare. Their variable ways of presentation may represent a diagnostic challenge. Urachal sinuses are a rare type of these abnormalities. They are usually incidental findings and remain asymptomatic unless a complication (most commonly the infection) occurs. Infection of the urachal sinus would clinically present as purulent umbilical discharge, abdominal pain, and periumbilical mass. We report herein a case of infected urachal sinus in male adult. The diagnosis was suspected clinically and confirmed with ultrasonography and computed tomography scan. A preoperative cysto-fibroscopy showed normal aspect of the bladder and excluded sinus communication. An initial broad spectrum antibiotic therapy followed by complete excision of the sinus and fibrous tract without cuff of bladder has been therefore performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. No recurrence was observed after 18 months of followup. Histological examination did not reveal any sign of malignancy.
PMCID: PMC3196200  PMID: 22084806
25.  Mortality in a Case of Crystal Gel Ball Ingestion: An Alert for Parents 
Decorative crystal gel balls are used for decoration purpose. Due to their attractive appearance they may be ingested by children. This may result in grave complications. A case of decorative crystal ball ingestion is being reported in a 6 months old infant who presented with sub acute intestinal obstruction and was operated. Crystal gel balls were causing obstruction of jejunum. Enterotomy and removal of the mass of jelly balls was done with primary closure. The patient was re-operated for anastomotic disruption on 6th postoperative day. Baby developed septicemia, and succumbed after 2 days of second operation.
PMCID: PMC3418032  PMID: 22953300
Crystal balls;  Jelly balls;  Mortality

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