D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, contains a mixture of fatty acids—mainly oleic, lauric, palmitic, and myristic acids, with oleic acid being among the most abundant—that has been found to reduce the risk for prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in rats. The pharmacokinetic profile of D-004 has not been reported.
The objective of this study in rats was to assess plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of total radioactivity (TR) after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid, as a surrogate for the pharmacokinetics of D-004.
This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Single doses of suspensions of (3H)-oleic acid 0.16 μCi/mg mixed with D-004 400 mg/kg (radioactive dose/animal 7.2 μCi) were given orally to male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g assigned to the treated or control group. Three rats were euthanized at each of the following times: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours after study drug administration. After administration, the rats euthanized at the last experimental time point were housed individually in metabolism cages. Urine and feces samples were collected daily. At each time point, blood samples were drawn and plasma samples were obtained using centrifugation. After euthanization, tissue samples (liver, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys, adipose tissue, muscle, stomach, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, heart, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles) were quickly removed, washed, blotted, and homogenized. Plasma (100 μL), tissue aliquots (100 mg), feces (10 mg), and urine (100μL) were dissolved and TR was measured. Samples were assayed in duplicate. Results were expressed in μgEq of radio-labeled oleic acid per milliliter of plasma or urine or gram of tissue or feces. Plasma, tissue, feces, and urine samples of rats that did not receive (3H)-oleic acid were used as controls. Excretion was expressed as the percentage of the radioactivity excreted via each route with respect to the total radioactive dose administered to each rat.
A total of 50 rats were included in the experiment (mean age, 4 weeks; mean weight, 310 g). Absorption was rapid; mean Cmax was 195.56 (31.12) μgEq/mL, and mean Tmax was 2 hours. Thereafter, a biphasic decay of TR was found: a rapid first phase (t1/2α, 1.33 hours), followed by a slower second elimination phase (t1/2β, 36.07 hours). Radioactivity was rapidly and broadly distributed throughout the tissues, with more accumulating in the prostate than elsewhere. In the first 8 hours, accumulation of TR was greatest in the prostate, followed by the liver, small intestine, and plasma. Subsequently, TR increased in the small intestine, while it decreased in the liver and plasma. In contrast, over the periods of 24 and 144 hours after administration, TR increased in the adipose tissue, while it decreased in the other tissues and plasma. During those intervals, TR was greatest in the prostate, followed by adipose tissue. Mean peak radioactivity in the prostate (562.41 μgEq/g) was reached at 4 hours and decreased slowly thereafter. The prostate had the highest values of t1/2β and cumulative AUC compared with the other tissues and plasma. Mean (SD) TR was similar in feces (33.48% [4.90%]) and urine (28.96% [5.32%]), with total excretion being 62.40% (5.90%) of the administered dose.
In this experimental study, after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid in rats, TR was rapidly and widely distributed across the tissues, with the prostate having the highest accumulation of radioactivity. Excretion of TR was limited, with similar amounts being excreted in feces and urine. The broad distribution of radiolabeled oleic acid and/or its metabolites suggests (SD) pharmacokinetic rationale for the effectiveness of D-004 in reducing the risk for PH induced with T in rats.