Retinoic acids regulate the reverse cholesterol transport by inducing the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) dependent cholesterol efflux in macrophages, neuronal as well as intestine cells. In the present study, we aim to test the effect of all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on ABCA1 expression in human CD4+ T cells and the involvement of cholesterol in ATRA mediated anti-HIV effect.
Treatment with ATRA dramatically up-regulated ABCA1 expression in CD4+ T cells in a time and dose dependent manner. The expression of ABCA1 paralleled with increased ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux. This induction was dependent on T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and ATRA failed to induce ABCA1 expression in resting T cells. Moreover, ATRA and liver X receptor (LXR) agonist-TO-901317 together had synergistic effect on ABCA1 expression as well as cholesterol efflux. Increased ABCA1 expression was associated with lower cellular cholesterol staining. Cells treated with either ATRA or TO-901317 were less vulnerable to HIV-1 infection. Combination of retinoic acid and TO-901317 further inhibited HIV-1 entry and their inhibitory effects could be reversed by cholesterol replenishment.
ABCA1 RNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and immuno blot methods in cells treated with ATRA. Cholesterol efflux rate was measured in cells treated with ATRA and TO-901317.
ATRA up-regulates ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in CD4+ T cells and combination of ATRA and liver X receptor (LXR) agonist further enhanced these effects. Increased cholesterol efflux contributed to reduced HIV-1 entry, suggesting that anti-HIV effect of ATRA is mediated through ABCA1.
ABCA1; ATRA; retinoic acid; TO-901317; RAR; RXR; LXR; cholesterol efflux; HIV-1; CD4+ T cells
Nanodisks are nanoscale, disk-shaped phospholipid bilayers whose edge is stabilized by association of apolipoprotein molecules. Self assembled ND particles enriched with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) [phospholipid:ATRA molar ratio = 5.5:1] were generated wherein all reaction components were solubilized. ATRA-ND migrated as a single band (Stokes’ diameter ∼20 nm) on native gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ATRA, phospholipid and apolipoprotein co-eluted from a Sepharose 6B gel filtration column, consistent with stable integration of ATRA into the ND particle milieu. Spectroscopic analysis of ATRA-ND in buffer yielded an absorbance spectrum characteristic of ATRA. ATRA-ND mediated time-dependent inhibition of cultured HepG2 cell growth more effectively than free ATRA. The nanoscale size of the formulation particles and the stable integration of biologically active ATRA suggest ND represent a potentially useful vehicle for solubilization and in vivo delivery of ATRA.
all-trans-retinoic acid; apolipoprotein; nanodisk; phospholipid; cell culture; drug delivery
The objective of the proposed study was to determine the distribution in plasma lipoprotein of free all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and liposomal ATRA (Atragen; composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and soybean oil) following incubation in human, rat, and dog plasma. When ATRA and Atragen at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, and 25 μg/ml were incubated in human and rat plasma for 5, 60, and 180 min, the majority of the tretinoin was recovered in the lipoprotein-deficient plasma fraction. However, when ATRA and Atragen were incubated in dog plasma, the majority of the tretinoin (>40%) was recovered in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction. No differences in the plasma distribution between ATRA and Atragen were found. These data suggest that a significant percentage of tretinoin associates with plasma lipoproteins (primarily the HDL fraction) upon incubation in human, dog, and rat plasma. Differences between the lipoprotein lipid and protein profiles in human plasma and in dog and rat plasma influenced the plasma distribution of ATRA and Atragen. Differences in lipoprotein distribution between ATRA and Atragen were not observed, suggesting that the drug’s distribution in plasma is not influenced by its incorporation into these liposomes.
Objective: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth by restoration of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) via upregulation of connexin (Cx) expression in some solid tumors. However, the relationship between ATRA and GJIC remains unclear in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ATRA on the GJIC function of OSCC.
Study design: We measured the effects of ATRA on the viability and cell cycle distribution of SCC9 and Tca8113 OSCC cells. The GJIC function was observed using the scrape-loading dye transfer technique, and the mRNA and protein levels of Cx32 and Cx43 were detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays.
Results: ATRA inhibited the growth of OSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P <0.05) and caused cell cycle arrest. ATRA-treated cells showed a 2.69-fold and 2.06-fold enhancement of GJIC in SCC9 and Tca8113 cells, respectively (P <0.05). Moreover, ATRA induced upregulation of Cx32 and Cx43 at both the mRNA and protein levels in OSCC cells.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that restoration of GJIC via enhanced Cx32 and Cx43 expression might serve as a novel mechanism for the anti-tumor effect of ATRA in OSCC.
Key words:All-trans retinoic acid, oral squamous cell carcinoma, connexin, gap junctional intercellular communication.
Objective: To investigate the apoptotic gene expression of placenta in an all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induced fetus congenital clubfoot pregnant rat model. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into ATRA-exposed group and control group. On day 10 of pregnancy, a dose of 120 mg/kg ATRA dissolved in mineral oil was given intragastrically to the rats in the ATRA-exposed group and equivalent volume of mineral oil was given intragastrically to the control rats. Fetuses were delivered on day 20 of pregnancy, the placenta was collected for the pathological and biochemical analysis. Results: Clubfoot-like deformity fetuses were observed in the ATRA-exposed group and none with deformity was found in the control group. The pro-apoptosis in placenta of ATRA-exposed group was measured by flow cytometry. Moreover, compared with the control group, lower expression of Bcl-2 and higher expression of BAX were found in the ATRA-exposed group in both mRNA and protein level. Immunohistochemical labeling of Bcl-2 in the control group was more intense while BAX labeling in the ATRA-exposed group was more intense. Additionally, the caspase-3 activity was also significantly increased in the ATRA-exposed group than control group. Conclusion: In our research, we found a pro-apoptosis in placenta in the ATRA-exposed pregnant rats, indicating a possible association between placental apoptosis and congenital clubfoot.
Animal model; apoptosis; placenta; clubfoot
Background. Vitamin A derivative all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is considered as a potent chemotherapeutic drug for its capability of regulating cell growth and differentiation. We studied the effect of ATRA on MMP-2 in MCF-7, human breast cancer cells, and the probable signaling pathways which are affected by ATRA on regulating pro-MMP-2 activity and expression. Methods. Gelatin zymography, RT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot, Immunoprecipitation, and Cell adhesion assay are used. Results. Gelatin zymography showed that ATRA caused a dose-dependent inhibition of pro-MMP-2 activity. ATRA treatment downregulates the expression of MT1-MMP, EMMPRIN, FAK, NF-kB, and p-ERK. However, expression of E-cadherin, RAR, and CRABP increased upon ATRA treatment. Binding of cells to extra cellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin reduced significantly after ATRA treatment. Conclusions. The experimental findings clearly showed the inhibition of MMP-2 activity upon ATRA treatment. This inhibitory effect of ATRA on MMP-2 activity in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) may result due to its inhibitory effect on MT1-MMP, EMMPRIN, and upregulation of TIMP-2. This study is focused on the effect of ATRA on MMP, MMP-integrin-E-cadherin interrelationship, and also the effect of the drug on different signaling molecules which may involve in the progression of malignant tumor development.
Our previous data demonstrated that folate receptor β (FR-β) targeted liposomal doxorubicin (FT-L-DOX) showed enhanced cytotoxicity relative to non-targeted liposomal doxorubicin (CON-L-DOX), and the effect was enhanced by selective FR-β upregulation by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in AML blast cells. In this study, the enhanced cytotoxicity was investigated in the proliferating human AML clonogenic cells by combining FT-L-DOX with ATRA. Also, pharmacokinetic properties by pretreatment of ATRA were evaluated using FR-targeted liposomal calcein (FT-L-Calcein). Pharmacokinetic study showed that the area under the concentration curve (AUC) of FT-L-Calcein was decreased and total clearance was increased by pretreatment with ATRA. Meanwhile, the volume of distribution was significantly increased by pretreatment of ATRA. Moreover, calcein level in the liver, spleen and kidney was increased following intravenous administration of FT-L-Calcein by pretreatment of ATRA. In vitro cytotoxicity of FT-L-DOX was higher than that of CON-L-DOX and was increased by pretreatment with ATRA. Colony formation in AML cells was lower due to treatment with FT-L-DOX compared with CON-L-DOX and colony formation further decreased upon pretreatment with ATRA. Moreover, FT-L-DOX was more toxic to AML clonogenic cells than to AML blast cells. The results demonstrate that the efficiency of FR-mediated targeting of FT-L-DOX was preferentially enhanced by ATRA induced FR-β upregulation in AML clonogenic cells.
Folate receptor; liposomes; doxorubicin; all-trans retinoic acid; acute myeloid leukemia; clonogenic cell; targeted drug delivery
The clinical use of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in the treatment of cancer is significantly hampered by the prompt emergence of resistance, believed to be caused by increased ATRA catabolism. Inhibitors of ATRA catabolism may therefore prove valuable for cancer therapy. Liarozole-fumarate is an anti-tumour drug that inhibits the cytochrome P450-dependent catabolism of ATRA. ATRA, but also its naturally occurring catabolites, 4-oxo-ATRA and 5,6-epoxy-ATRA, as well as its stereoisomers, 9-cis-RA and 13-cis-RA, show significant antiproliferative activity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. To further elucidate its mechanism of action, we investigated whether liarozole-fumarate was able to enhance the antiproliferative activity of ATRA catabolites and isomers. Liarozole-fumarate alone up to a concentration of 10(-6) M had no effect on MCF-7 cell proliferation. However, in combination with ATRA or the ATRA catabolites, liarozole-fumarate (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced their antiproliferative activity. On the contrary, liarozole-fumarate (10(-6) M) was not able to potentiate the antiproliferative activity of the ATRA stereoisomers, most probably because of the absence of cytochrome P450-dependent catabolism. Together, these findings show that liarozole-fumarate acts as a versatile inhibitor of retinoid catabolism in that it not only blocks the breakdown of ATRA, but also inhibits the catabolic pathway of 4-oxo-ATRA and 5,6-epoxy-ATRA, thereby enhancing their antiproliferative activity.
Our recent results show that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, induces COX-dependent hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats. This effect was mediated by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and was associated with increased COX-2 expression in the spinal cord. Since ATRA also up-regulated COX-2 expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, the current study was undertaken to analyze in these cells the mechanism through which ATRA increases COX activity.
Cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with ATRA. COX expression and kinase activity were analyzed by western blot. Transcriptional mechanisms were analyzed by RT-PCR and promoter assays. Pharmacological inhibitors of kinase activity and pan-antagonists of RAR or RXR were used to assess the relevance of these signaling pathways. Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was quantified by enzyme immunoabsorbent assay. Statistical significance between individual groups was tested using the non-parametric unpaired Mann-Whitney U test.
ATRA induced a significant increase of COX-2 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, while COX-1 expression remained unchanged. Morphological features of differentiation were not observed in ATRA-treated cells. Up-regulation of COX-2 protein expression was followed by increased production of PGE2. ATRA also up-regulated COX-2 mRNA expression and increased the activity of a human COX-2 promoter construct. We next explored the participation of RARs and mitogen-activated peptide kinases (MAPK). Pre-incubation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with either RAR-pan-antagonist LE540 or MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEK-1) inhibitor PD98059 resulted in the abolition of ATRA-induced COX-2 promoter activity, COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 production whereas the retinoid X receptor pan-antagonist HX531, the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the c-Jun kinase inhibitor SP600125 did not have any effect. The increase in RAR-β expression and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) phosphorylation in ATRA-incubated cells suggested that RARs and ERK1/2 were in fact activated by ATRA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.
These results highlight the importance of RAR-dependent and kinase-dependent mechanisms for ATRA-induced COX-2 expression and activity.
Background. All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is effective for many proliferative diseases. We investigated the protective effects of atRA against atherosclerosis. Methods. Rabbits were randomly allocated to receive basal diet or an HFD for 4 weeks. HFD group then received rosuvastatin (3 mg/day), atRA (5 mg/kg/day), or the same volume of vehicle, respectively, for next 8 weeks. Results. HFD group showed increases in plasma lipids and aortic plaque formation. P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding on platelets or deposition on the intima of the aorta also increased significantly as did the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and fibrinogen in plasma. After 8 weeks of treatment with atRA, there was a significant decrease in plasma lipids and improvement in aortic lesions. AtRA also inhibited the expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen binding on platelets and deposition on the intima of the aorta. Conclusion. AtRA can ameliorate HFD-induced AS in rabbits by inhibiting platelet activation and inflammation.
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of rosiglitazone (RSG) in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of the HCT-15 human colorectal cancer cell line. HCT-15 cells were divided into a blank control group, a vehicle control group and experimental groups (RSG only or ATRA only or RSG plus ATRA). Growth inhibition was examined using the MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle progression were examined by flow cytometry. The expression of COX-2, MMP-7 and TIMP-1 was examined by immunocytochemistry. RSG alone inhibited HCT-15 cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). The combination of RSG and ATRA exhibited significant synergy (q>1.15). RSG or ATRA alone effectively increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase and decreased the proportion of cells in the S phase, thus inducing apoptosis (P<0.05). The combination of RSG and ATRA resulted in even stronger G1 cell cycle arrest (P<0.05). HCT-15 cells expressed COX-2, MMP-7 and TIMP-1, with positive expression rates in the control group of 66.79, 73.21 and 64.08%, respectively. After the combined application of RSG and ATRA, the positive rates significantly declined to only 19.33, 20.58 and 13.13%, respectively (P<0.01). In conclusion, the combination of RSG and ATRA reduced the expression of COX-2, MMP-7 and TIMP-1, caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and induced apoptosis, which resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation in the HCT-15 human colorectal cancer cell line.
rosiglitazone; all-trans retinoic acid; proliferation; apoptosis
Abnormal dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and accumulation of immature myeloid suppressor cells (ImC) is one of the major mechanisms of tumor escape. We tested the possibility of pharmacological regulation of myeloid cell differentiation using all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Eighteen patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were treated with ATRA followed by subcutaneous IL-2. Eight healthy individuals comprised a control group. As expected, the cancer patients had substantially elevated levels of ImC. We observed that ATRA dramatically reduced the number of ImC. This effect was observed only in patients with high plasma concentration of ATRA (>150 ng/ml), but not in patients with lower ATRA concentrations (<135 ng/ml). Effects of ATRA on the proportions of different DC populations were minor. However, ATRA significantly improved myeloid/lymphoid DC ratio and the ability of patients’ mononuclear cells to stimulate allogeneic T cells. This effect was associated with significant improvement of tetanus-toxoid (T-T) specific T-cell response. During the IL-2 treatment, the ATRA effect was completely eliminated. To assess the role of IL-2, specimens from 15 patients with metastatic RCC who had been treated with intravenous IL-2 alone were analyzed. In this group also, IL-2 significantly reduced the number and function of DCs as well as T-cell function. These data indicate that ATRA at effective concentrations eliminated ImC, improved myeloid/lymphoid DC ratio, DC function, and antigen-specific T-cell response. ATRA treatment did not result in significant toxicity and it could be tested in therapeutic combination with cancer vaccines.
All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) provides essential support to diverse biological systems and physiological processes. Epithelial differentiation and its relationship to cancer and embryogenesis have typified intense areas of interest into atRA function. Recently, however, interest in atRA action in the nervous system, the immune system, energy balance and obesity has increased considerably, especially concerning postnatal function. atRA action depends on atRA biosynthesis: defects in retinoid-dependent processes increasingly relate to defects in atRA biogenesis. Considerable evidence indicates that physiological atRA biosynthesis occurs via a regulated process, consisting of a complex interaction of retinoid binding-proteins and retinoid recognizing enzymes. An accrual of biochemical, physiological and genetic data have identified specific functional outcomes for the retinol dehydrogenases, RDH1, RDH10, and DHRS9, as physiological catalysts of the first step in atRA biosynthesis, and for the retinal dehydrogenases RALDH1, RALDH2, and RALDH3, as catalysts of the second and irreversible step. Each of these enzymes associates with explicit biological processes mediated by atRA. Redundancy occurs, but seems limited. Cumulative data supports a model of interactions among these enzymes with retinoid binding-proteins, with feedback regulation and/or control by atRA via modulating gene expression of multiple participants. The ratio apo-CRBP1/holo-CRBP1 participates by influencing retinol flux into and out of storage as retinyl esters, thereby modulating substrate to support atRA biosynthesis. atRA biosynthesis requires presence of both an RDH and an RALDH: conversely, absence of one isozyme of either step does not indicate lack of atRA biosynthesis at the site.
retinol; retinoic acid; aldehyde dehydrogenase; cellular retinoic acid binding-protein; cellular retinol binding-protein; lecithin:retinol acyltransferase; retinol dehydrogenase; retinyl ester; retinal reductase; short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been previously shown to inhibit the proliferation of some human ovarian carcinoma cell lines, and this inhibition was accompanied by cellular changes that were indicative of differentiation (Caliaro et al, 1994). In this work, a pretreatment of these adenocarcinoma cells with ATRA, for their respective doubling time, enhanced cisplatin (CDDP) cytotoxicity in the cell ines that were sensitive to its antiproliferative effect, but not in the ATRA-resistant ones. Results were assessed using median effect analysis in two ATRA-sensitive cell lines (OVCCR1 and NIHOVCAR3 cells) and in one ATRA-insensitive cell line (IGROV1 cells). Synergy between these two agents was observed only in cells sensitive to ATRA, regardless of their relative sensitivity to CDDP. Potential mechanisms for this synergy were investigated. ATRA did not increase the cellular platinum content, did not decrease the cellular glutathione and had no influence on the metallothionein IIA mRNA levels in NIHOVCAR3 cells. Moreover, the protein kinase C (PKC) activity was modulated by this differentiating agent in all cell lines tested, indicating that this activity was not directly involved in this potentiation. However, an ATRA inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase activity associated with an increase in the total DNA adducts formation could explain the potentiation of the CDDP cytotoxicity observed in NIHOVCAR3 cells. Finally, the ATRA modulation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor mRNA level could also be implicated in this synergy.
Cyclic adenosine diphospho-ribose (cADPR) triggers Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and is therefore proposed to function as a second messenger in cellular signaling; however, an extracellular stimulus, i.e., first messenger (hormone or autacoid) that modulates cADPR metabolism has not been identified. We discovered that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is a potent stimulus to increase cADPR synthesis by cultured LLC-PK1 cells. The stimulation of cADPR synthesis by atRA is dose dependent between 0.1 nM and 1 microM (maximum increase approximately delta + 600%), while atRA does not alter the rate of cADPR hydrolysis by LLC-PK1 cells. The activity of other intrinsic apical membrane enzymes was not significantly altered. The stimulation of cADPR synthesis by atRA occurs after a lag period of 6-8 h, and the stimulation is inhibited by actinomycin D and by cycloheximide. Our results therefore demonstrate that atRA in physiological concentrations is a potent extracellular stimulus, first messenger, that enhances cADPR synthesis, and the effect of atRA requires de novo protein synthesis. We suggest that some of the diverse biologic actions of atRA such as morphogenetic and cell differentiation may be mediated via cADPR.
We report that all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) enhanced the toxicity of docetaxel against DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, and that the nature of the interaction between ATRA and docetaxel was highly synergistic. Docetaxel-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with phosphorylation and hence inactivation of Bcl-2. ATRA enhanced docetaxel-induced apoptosis and combined treatment with ATRA and docetaxel resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-2. Docetaxel caused phosphorylation and hence inactivation of cdc2 kinase result ing in G2/M arrest. ATRA inhibited docetaxel-induced phosphorylation of cdc2 resulting in activation of cdc2 kinase and partial reversal of the G2/M arrest. ATRA also inhibited docetaxel-induced activation of MAPK indicating that the effects of docetaxel and ATRA on cdc2 phosphorylation are dependent on MAPK. We conclude that ATRA synergistically enhances docetaxel toxicity by down-regulating Bcl-2 expression and partially reverses the docetaxel-induced G2/M arrest by inhibiting docetaxel-induced cdc2 phosphorylation in a pathway that is dependent on MAPK. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
docetaxel; all- trans retinoic acid; prostate cancer; apoptosis; cell cycle
All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is well known to inhibit the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Much less is known about the antiproliferative activity of the naturally occurring metabolites and isomers of ATRA. In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of ATRA, its physiological catabolites 4-oxo-ATRA and 5,6-epoxy-ATRA and isomers 9-cis-RA and 13-cis-RA in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. MCF-7 cells were grown in steroid- and retinoid-free medium supplemented with growth factors. Under these culture conditions, ATRA and its naturally occurring catabolites and isomers showed significant antiproliferative activity in MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (10[-11] M to 10[-6] M). The antiproliferative activity of ATRA catabolites and isomers was equal to that of the parent compound ATRA at concentrations of 10(-8) M and 10(-7) M. Only at 10(-6) M were the catabolites and the stereoisomer 13-cis-RA less potent. The stereoisomer 9-cis-RA was as potent as ATRA at all concentrations tested (10[-11] M to 10[-6] M). In addition, we show that the catabolites and isomers were formed from ATRA to only a limited extent. Together, our findings suggest that in spite of their high antiproliferative activity the catabolites and isomers of ATRA cannot be responsible for the observed growth inhibition induced by ATRA.
Retinoids are signaling molecules that are involved in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during development. Retinoids exert their effects, in part, by binding to nuclear receptors, thereby altering gene expression. Clinical use of retinoids in the treatment of neuroblastoma is of interest due to their success in management of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Using the SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cell line we investigated the effect of the differentiation agent, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression, an enzyme previously shown to enhance differentiation in vitro. Manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA, protein and activity levels increased in a time dependent manner upon treatment with ATRA. Nuclear levels of the NFκB proteins, p50 and p65, increased within 24 h of ATRA administration. This increase paralleled the degradation of the cytoplasmic inhibitor, IκB-β. Furthermore an increase in DNA binding activity to a NFκB element occurred within a 342 base pair enhancer (I2E) of the SOD2 gene with 10 μM ATRA treatment. Reporter analysis showed that ATRA-mediated I2E dependent luciferase expression was attenuated upon mutation of the NFκB element, suggesting a contribution of this transcription factor in retinoid-mediated upregulation of MnSOD. This study identifies SOD2 to be a retinoid responsive gene and demonstrates activation of the NFκB pathway in response to ATRA treatment of SK-N-SH cells. These results suggest signaling events involving NFκB and SOD2 may contribute to the effects of retinoids used in cancer therapy.
Retinoids; reactive oxygen species; antioxidants; differentiation; chemoresistance
Pigs infected with Ascaris suum or controls were given 100 μg (low-dose) or 1,000 μg (high-dose) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)/kg body weight in corn oil or corn oil alone per os on days after inoculation (DAI) −1, +1, and +3 with infective eggs. Treatment with ATRA increased interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL12p70 in plasma of infected pigs at 7 DAI and augmented bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia observed at 7 and 14 DAI. To explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying these observations, a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR array was used to examine mRNA expression in tissue. Ascaris-infected pigs had increased levels of liver mRNA for T-helper-2 (Th2)-associated cytokines, mast cell markers, and T regulatory (Treg) cells, while infected pigs given ATRA had higher IL4, IL13, CCL11, CCL26, CCL17, CCL22, and TPSB1 expression. Gene expression for Th1-associated markers (IFNG, IL12B, and TBX21), the CXCR3 ligand (CXCL9), IL1B, and the putative Treg marker TNFRSF18 was also increased. Expression of IL4, IL13, IL1B, IL6, CCL11, and CCL26 was increased in the lungs of infected pigs treated with ATRA. To determine a putative cellular source of eosinophil chemoattractants, alveolar macrophages were treated with IL4 and/or ATRA in vitro. IL4 induced CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 mRNA, and ATRA increased the basal and IL4-stimulated expression of CCL17 and CCL22. Thus, ATRA augments a diverse Th1-, Th2-, Treg-, and inflammation-associated response in swine infected with A. suum, and the increased BAL eosinophilia may be related to enhanced induction of eosinophil chemokine activity by alveolar macrophages.
We report here four cases of genital ulcers that developed after the administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Between October 2007 and March 2010, three males and one female (age range 19-35 years) were identified to have genital ulcers after being prescribed all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as a part of chemotherapy for APL. This is the first series of cases describing genital ulcers, as a unique and rare complication of ATRA used for treatment of APL in these patients, with no other cause identified. Following temporary cessation of ATRA for a few days in these three cases, improvement of the ulcers was noted.
Acute promyelocytic leukaemia; All-trans retinoic acid; Fever; Scrotal ulcers; ATRA
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is currently used in adjuvant differentiation-based treatment of residual or relapsed neuroblastoma (NB). It has been reported that short-term ATRA treatment induces migration and invasion of SH-SY5Y via transglutaminase-2 (Tgase-2). However, the detailed mechanism of Tgase-2's involvement in NB cell invasion remains unclear. Therefore we investigated the role of Tgase-2 in invasion of NB cells using SH-SY5Y cells. ATRA dose-dependently induced the invasion of SH-SY5Y cells. Cystamine (CTM), a well known tgase inhibitor suppressed the ATRA-induced invasion of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2, well known genes involved in invasion of cancer cells were induced in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SH5Y cells. Treatment of CTM suppressed the MMP-9 and MMP-2 enzyme activities in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SY5Y cells. To confirm the involvement of Tgase-2, gene silencing of Tgase-2 was performed in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SH5Y cells. The siRNA of Tgase-2 suppressed the MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity of the SH-SY5Y cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are well known target genes of NF-κB. Therefore the relationship of Tgase-2 and NF-κB in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SY5Y cells was examined using siRNA and CTM. ATRA induced the activation of NF-κB in the SH-SY5Y cells and CTM suppressed the activation of NF-κB. Gene silencing of Tgase-2 suppressed the MMP expression by ATRA. These results suggested that Tgase-2 might be a new target for controlling the ATRA-induced invasion of NBs.
All-trans retinoic acid; Transglutaminase-2; Invasion; Neuroblastoma; NF-κB; Matrix metalloproteinase
All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand whether interference with atRA biosynthesis and/or action may explain (in part) pathology associated with excess ethanol consumption. Ethanol affects many aspects of retinoid metabolism and mechanisms of action site-specifically, but no robust data support inhibition of vitamin A metabolism, resulting in decreased atRA in vivo during normal vitamin A nutriture. Actually, ethanol either has no effect on or increases atRA at select sites. Despite this realization, insight into whether interactions between ethanol and retinoids represent cause vs. effect requires additional research.
retinol dehydrogenase; ethanol; fetal alcohol spectrum disorder; retinoic acid; vitamin A
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. Differentiated human NBs are associated with better outcome and lower stage; induction of differentiation is considered to be therapeutically advantageous. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been shown to induce the differentiation of neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib inhibits cell growth and angiogenesis in NBs. Here, we investigated the synergistic effect between bortezomib and ATRA in inducing NB cell differentiation in different NB cell lines. Bortezomib combined with ATRA had a significantly enhanced antiproliferative effect. This inhibition was characterized by a synergistic increase in neuronal differentiation. At the same time, the combination therapy showed little neuronal toxicity which was assessed in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells by the MTT assay, PI staining. The combination of bortezomib and ATRA triggered increased differentiation through the activation of proteins, including RARα, RARβ, RARγ, p-JNK and p21, compared with ATRA treatment alone. Using JNK inhibitor SP600125 to block JNK-dependent activity, the combination therapy-induced neuronal differentiation was partially attenuated. In addition, p21 shRNA had no effect on the combination therapy-induced neuronal differentiation. The in vivo antitumor activities were examined in human NB cell xenografts and GFP-labeled human NB cell xenografts. Treatment of human NB cell CHP126-bearing nude mice with ATRA plus bortezomib resulted in more significant tumor growth inhibition than mice treated with either drug alone. These findings provide the rationale for the development of a new therapeutic strategy for NB based on the pharmacological combination of ATRA and bortezomib.
Isomerisation to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is widely accepted as the key mechanism underlying the favourable clinical properties of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cisRA). As intracellular metabolism of ATRA by CYP26 may result in clinical resistance to 13cisRA, an increase in efficacy may be achieved through modulation of this metabolic pathway. We have evaluated the effect of the CYP26 inhibitor R116010 on retinoid metabolism in neuroblastoma cell lines and a xenograft model. In neuroblastoma cells, which showed a high level of CYP26 induction in response to ATRA, R116010 selectively inhibited ATRA metabolism. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CYP26 selectively increased ATRA levels and the expression of retinoid-responsive marker genes was potentiated by R116010. Treatment of mice bearing SH-SY5Y xenografts with 13cisRA (100 mg kg−1) revealed substantial levels (16%) of intratumoral ATRA after 6 h, despite plasma ATRA levels representing only 1% total retinoids under these conditions. Co-administration of R116010 with 13cisRA in this mouse model resulted in significant increases in plasma ATRA and 13cisRA concentrations. Furthermore, R116010 induced significant decreases in levels of 4-oxo metabolites in hepatic tissue after co-administration with either ATRA or 13cisRA. These data suggest considerable potential for CYP26 inhibitors in the future treatment of neuroblastoma with 13cisRA.
retinoic acid; CYP26; R116010; neuroblastoma
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a derivative of vitamin A, is an essential component in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Though considered to be a relatively safe drug, use of ATRA can lead to several side effects such as retinoic acid syndrome and pseudotumor cerebri (PC). PC is a rare disorder characterized by neurologic and ocular signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid composition and normal brain imaging. Most of the previous studies suggest that PC, as a complication of ATRA therapy, occurs predominantly in the pediatric age group. Herein, we report a rare case of ATRA-induced PC in a 38-year-old woman undergoing induction treatment for APL. Symptoms improved with discontinuation of ATRA and treatment with acetazolamide. Concomitant administration of medications such as triazole antifungals which influence the cytochrome P-450 system can exacerbate this potential complication of ATRA. In this paper, we also review the current literature, provide a descriptive analysis of clinical features, and discuss the principles of management of ATRA-induced PC.