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1.  Pharmacogenomic analysis of retinoic-acid induced dyslipidemia in congenic rat model 
Background
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, tretinoin) is a vitamin A derivative commonly used in the treatment of diverse conditions ranging from cancer to acne. In a fraction of predisposed individuals, the administration of ATRA is accompanied by variety of adverse metabolic effects, particularly by the induction of hyperlipidemia. We have previously derived a minimal congenic SHR.PD-(D8Rat42-D8Arb23)/Cub (SHR-Lx) strain sensitive to ATRA-induced increase of triacylglycerols and cholesterol under condition of high-sucrose diet. SHR-Lx differs only by 7 genes of polydactylous rat (PD/Cub) origin from its spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) progenitor strain.
Methods
Adult male rats of SHR and SHR-Lx strains were fed standard diet (STD) and experimental groups were subsequently treated with ATRA (15 mg/kg) via oral gavage for 16 days, while still on STD. We contrasted the metabolic profiles (including free fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TG) and cholesterol (C) in 20 lipoprotein fractions) between SHR and SHR-Lx under conditions of standard diet and standard diet + ATRA. We performed transcriptomic analysis of muscle tissue (m. soleus) in all groups using Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Gene 2.0 ST Arrays followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and real-time PCR validation.
Results
In response to ATRA, SHR-Lx reacted with substantially greater rise in TG and C concentrations throughout the lipoprotein spectrum (two-way ANOVA strain * RA interaction significant for C content in chylomicrons (CM), VLDL and LDL as well as total, CM and HDL-TG).
Conclusions
According to our modeling of metabolic and signalization pathways using differentially expressed genes we have identified a network with major nodes (including Sirt3, Il1b, Cpt1b and Pparg) likely to underlie the observed strain specific response to ATRA.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-172) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-172
PMCID: PMC4247747  PMID: 25403085
Pharmacogenomics; Metabolic syndrome; Animal model; Muscle transcriptome; All-trans retinoic acid; Zbtb16
2.  All-trans-retinoic acid stimulates synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose in renal LLC-PK1 cells. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(5):2385-2390.
Cyclic adenosine diphospho-ribose (cADPR) triggers Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and is therefore proposed to function as a second messenger in cellular signaling; however, an extracellular stimulus, i.e., first messenger (hormone or autacoid) that modulates cADPR metabolism has not been identified. We discovered that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is a potent stimulus to increase cADPR synthesis by cultured LLC-PK1 cells. The stimulation of cADPR synthesis by atRA is dose dependent between 0.1 nM and 1 microM (maximum increase approximately delta + 600%), while atRA does not alter the rate of cADPR hydrolysis by LLC-PK1 cells. The activity of other intrinsic apical membrane enzymes was not significantly altered. The stimulation of cADPR synthesis by atRA occurs after a lag period of 6-8 h, and the stimulation is inhibited by actinomycin D and by cycloheximide. Our results therefore demonstrate that atRA in physiological concentrations is a potent extracellular stimulus, first messenger, that enhances cADPR synthesis, and the effect of atRA requires de novo protein synthesis. We suggest that some of the diverse biologic actions of atRA such as morphogenetic and cell differentiation may be mediated via cADPR.
PMCID: PMC295865  PMID: 7537765
3.  Targeting human clonogenic acute myelogenous leukemia cells via folate conjugated liposomes combined with receptor modulation by all-trans retinoic acid 
Our previous data demonstrated that folate receptor β (FR-β) targeted liposomal doxorubicin (FT-L-DOX) showed enhanced cytotoxicity relative to non-targeted liposomal doxorubicin (CON-L-DOX), and the effect was enhanced by selective FR-β upregulation by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in AML blast cells. In this study, the enhanced cytotoxicity was investigated in the proliferating human AML clonogenic cells by combining FT-L-DOX with ATRA. Also, pharmacokinetic properties by pretreatment of ATRA were evaluated using FR-targeted liposomal calcein (FT-L-Calcein). Pharmacokinetic study showed that the area under the concentration curve (AUC) of FT-L-Calcein was decreased and total clearance was increased by pretreatment with ATRA. Meanwhile, the volume of distribution was significantly increased by pretreatment of ATRA. Moreover, calcein level in the liver, spleen and kidney was increased following intravenous administration of FT-L-Calcein by pretreatment of ATRA. In vitro cytotoxicity of FT-L-DOX was higher than that of CON-L-DOX and was increased by pretreatment with ATRA. Colony formation in AML cells was lower due to treatment with FT-L-DOX compared with CON-L-DOX and colony formation further decreased upon pretreatment with ATRA. Moreover, FT-L-DOX was more toxic to AML clonogenic cells than to AML blast cells. The results demonstrate that the efficiency of FR-mediated targeting of FT-L-DOX was preferentially enhanced by ATRA induced FR-β upregulation in AML clonogenic cells.
doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2010.09.019
PMCID: PMC2982872  PMID: 20883757
Folate receptor; liposomes; doxorubicin; all-trans retinoic acid; acute myeloid leukemia; clonogenic cell; targeted drug delivery
4.  Molecular targeting of retinoic acid metabolism in neuroblastoma: the role of the CYP26 inhibitor R116010 in vitro and in vivo 
British Journal of Cancer  2007;96(11):1675-1683.
Isomerisation to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is widely accepted as the key mechanism underlying the favourable clinical properties of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cisRA). As intracellular metabolism of ATRA by CYP26 may result in clinical resistance to 13cisRA, an increase in efficacy may be achieved through modulation of this metabolic pathway. We have evaluated the effect of the CYP26 inhibitor R116010 on retinoid metabolism in neuroblastoma cell lines and a xenograft model. In neuroblastoma cells, which showed a high level of CYP26 induction in response to ATRA, R116010 selectively inhibited ATRA metabolism. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CYP26 selectively increased ATRA levels and the expression of retinoid-responsive marker genes was potentiated by R116010. Treatment of mice bearing SH-SY5Y xenografts with 13cisRA (100 mg kg−1) revealed substantial levels (16%) of intratumoral ATRA after 6 h, despite plasma ATRA levels representing only 1% total retinoids under these conditions. Co-administration of R116010 with 13cisRA in this mouse model resulted in significant increases in plasma ATRA and 13cisRA concentrations. Furthermore, R116010 induced significant decreases in levels of 4-oxo metabolites in hepatic tissue after co-administration with either ATRA or 13cisRA. These data suggest considerable potential for CYP26 inhibitors in the future treatment of neuroblastoma with 13cisRA.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603779
PMCID: PMC2359919  PMID: 17486130
retinoic acid; CYP26; R116010; neuroblastoma
5.  Murine toxicology and pharmacokinetics evaluation of Retinoic Acid Metabolism Blocking Agent (RAMBA), VN/12-1 
Purpose
Novel retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent (RAMBA), VN/12-1, is a highly potent anti-cancer agent which induces autophagy. Its combination with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CHL) has been shown to synergistically enhance apoptosis in breast cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity and pharmacokinetic profile of VN/12-1 and its combination with CHL.
Methods
Preliminary toxicology of VN/12-1 was determined using female SCID mice (n=4 for each group). ATRA was used for comparison. We selected four different doses of VN/12-1 and ATRA. Two of the doses were low and less frequent (2.5 and 5 mg/kg twice a week) and the remaining doses were high and more frequent (10 and 20 mg/kg every day). The dose of CHL was 50 mg/kg twice a week. For pharmacokinetic (PK) study, 20 mg/kg of VN/12-1 was injected subcutaneously (s.c.) into the mice and their plasma was collected at various intervals (n=2) and analyzed by HPLC.
Results
The lower and less frequent doses of VN/12-1 and ATRA were found to be least toxic. However, high and more frequent doses of these compounds were toxic to the mice. PK results showed that VN/12-1 has a half-life of 6 hours. The area under the curve (AUC) for VN/12-1 was 83.78 hr*μg/ml.
Conclusions
VN/12-1 and ATRA are non-toxic when used as 5 mg/kg twice a week as single agents or in combination with CHL. The favorable PK properties of VN/12-1 can potentially be used for its further advanced pre-clinical and clinical development.
doi:10.1007/s00280-012-1877-z
PMCID: PMC3959742  PMID: 22580781
VN/12-1; toxicology; pharmacokinetics; chloroquine; RAMBAs
6.  All-trans retinoic acid induces COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 synthesis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells: involvement of retinoic acid receptors and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 
Background
Our recent results show that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, induces COX-dependent hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats. This effect was mediated by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and was associated with increased COX-2 expression in the spinal cord. Since ATRA also up-regulated COX-2 expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, the current study was undertaken to analyze in these cells the mechanism through which ATRA increases COX activity.
Methods
Cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with ATRA. COX expression and kinase activity were analyzed by western blot. Transcriptional mechanisms were analyzed by RT-PCR and promoter assays. Pharmacological inhibitors of kinase activity and pan-antagonists of RAR or RXR were used to assess the relevance of these signaling pathways. Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was quantified by enzyme immunoabsorbent assay. Statistical significance between individual groups was tested using the non-parametric unpaired Mann-Whitney U test.
Results
ATRA induced a significant increase of COX-2 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, while COX-1 expression remained unchanged. Morphological features of differentiation were not observed in ATRA-treated cells. Up-regulation of COX-2 protein expression was followed by increased production of PGE2. ATRA also up-regulated COX-2 mRNA expression and increased the activity of a human COX-2 promoter construct. We next explored the participation of RARs and mitogen-activated peptide kinases (MAPK). Pre-incubation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with either RAR-pan-antagonist LE540 or MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEK-1) inhibitor PD98059 resulted in the abolition of ATRA-induced COX-2 promoter activity, COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 production whereas the retinoid X receptor pan-antagonist HX531, the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the c-Jun kinase inhibitor SP600125 did not have any effect. The increase in RAR-β expression and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) phosphorylation in ATRA-incubated cells suggested that RARs and ERK1/2 were in fact activated by ATRA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.
Conclusion
These results highlight the importance of RAR-dependent and kinase-dependent mechanisms for ATRA-induced COX-2 expression and activity.
doi:10.1186/1742-2094-4-1
PMCID: PMC1769480  PMID: 17204142
7.  Vitamin A Enhances Antitumor Effect of a Green Tea Polyphenol on Melanoma by Upregulating the Polyphenol Sensing Molecule 67-kDa Laminin Receptor 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(6):e11051.
Background
Green tea consumption has been shown to have cancer preventive qualities. Among the constituents of green tea, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) is the most effective at inhibiting carcinogenesis. However, the concentrations of EGCG that are required to elicit the anticancer effects in a variety of cancer cell types are much higher than the peak plasma concentration that occurs after drinking an equivalent of 2–3 cups of green tea. To obtain the anticancer effects of EGCG when consumed at a reasonable concentration in daily life, we investigated the combination effect of EGCG and food ingredient that may enhance the anticancer activity of EGCG on subcutaneous tumor growth in C57BL/6N mice challenged with B16 melanoma cells.
Methodology/Principal Findings
All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) enhanced the expression of the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) and increased EGCG-induced cell growth inhibition in B16 melanoma cells. The cell growth inhibition seen with the combined EGCG and ATRA treatment was abolished by treatment with an anti-67LR antibody. In addition, the combined EGCG and ATRA treatment significantly suppressed the melanoma tumor growth in mice. Expression of 67LR in the tumor increased upon oral administration of ATRA or a combined treatment of EGCG and ATRA treatment. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated silencing of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α attenuated the ATRA-induced enhancement of 67LR expression in the melanoma cells. An RAR agonist enhanced the expression levels of 67LR and increased EGCG-induced cell growth inhibition.
Conclusions/Significance
Our findings provide a molecular basis for the combination effect seen with dietary components, and indicate that ATRA may be a beneficial food component for cancer prevention when combined with EGCG.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011051
PMCID: PMC2883578  PMID: 20548792
8.  Role of Pregnane X Receptor in Control of All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) Metabolism and Its Potential Contribution to ATRA Resistance 
Although all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is an effective treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia and several solid tumors, its use is limited by resistance due to increased metabolism. The most studied mechanism for ATRA resistance is the autoinduced metabolism regulated by the retinoic acid receptor-CYP26 pathway. However, treatment of cancer is usually not done with a single antineoplastic agent, but with a variety of combined chemotherapy regimens, including several anticancer drugs, and other concomitantly administered supportive drugs. Pregnane X receptor (PXR), an orphan nuclear receptor that functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor, serves as an important xenobiotic sensor regulating metabolism and elimination. Many prescription drugs are PXR ligands, which can activate PXR target genes, including phase I enzyme, phase II enzyme, and transporter genes. The present study was designed to examine the role of PXR in ATRA metabolism. Due to the marked species differences in response to PXR ligands, Pxr-null, wild-type, and PXR-humanized transgenic mouse models were used. In addition to pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile, several clinically relevant PXR ligands (rifampicin and dexamethasone) all increased ATRA metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, which was PXR-dependent, and up-regulation of Cyp3a was the major contributor. Furthermore, induction of the Mdr1a, Mrp3, and Oatp2 genes was also observed. This study suggested that coadministration of PXR ligands can increase ATRA metabolism through activation of the PXR-CYP3A pathway, which might be a mechanism for some form of ATRA resistance. Other PXR target transporters might also be involved.
doi:10.1124/jpet.107.131045
PMCID: PMC2268525  PMID: 17962516
9.  Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Bencycloquidium Bromide, a Novel Selective Muscarinic M1/M3 Receptor Antagonist, After Single and Multiple Intranasal Doses in Healthy Chinese Subjects 
Drugs in R&d  2012;12(1):17-28.
Background: Bencycloquidium bromide (BCQB) is a novel, potent and selective muscarinic M1/M3 receptor antagonist under development for the treatment of rhinorrhea in rhinitis. The pharmacokinetics and safety of BCQB in animals have been established in preclinical studies. However, no clinical pharmacokinetic data are available for BCQB in humans.
Objective: The aim of this first-in-human study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of BCQB following single and multiple intranasal doses in healthy Chinese subjects.
Methods: The clinical trial was comprised of the following four studies: (i) an open-label, single-dose escalation study to evaluate the safety and tolerability in healthy subjects after intranasal doses of BCQB ranging from 45 to 450 mg (total of six doses); (ii) an open-label, multiple-dose escalation study to assess the safety and tolerability in healthy subjects after intranasal administration with 120 and 150 mg doses of BCQB (360 and 450 μg/day) administered three times daily for 15 days; (iii) a randomized, open-label and parallel-group design to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetics of BCQB after intranasal dosing (45, 90, and 180 μg); and (iv) ten subjects received 120 μg of BCQB by intranasal administration, three times daily for 5 days with a final single dose on day 7 to assess its multiple-dose pharmacokinetics. Safety and tolerability of BCQB were evaluated by monitoring adverse events (AEs), ECG recordings, vital signs and clinical laboratory parameters. The pharmacokinetic parameters for BCQB were calculated by software using noncompartmental methods.
Results: All AEs were mild, of limited duration and no more frequent at higher doses. There was no serious adverse event, death or withdrawal. No clinically significant change was noted in clinical laboratory parameters, cardiac parameters or vital signs. Following single intranasal dosing, BCQB was rapidly absorbed with a median time to maximum concentration (tmax) of 8 minutes for 45, 90, and 180 mg dose groups; the plasma concentration of BCQB decreased in a biphasic manner with the mean half-life (t1/2) of 8.5 hours; the maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of BCQB increased linearly across the examined dose range of 45–180 μg. During the multiple dosing, the steady state was achieved within 3 days of 120 μg three times daily dosing of BCQB. A slightly greater AUC was observed after 5 days of multiple dosing, with the mean accumulation ratio of 1.26; however, the half-life was unchanged.
Conclusion: BCQB was safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects when administered intranasally with single and multiple doses across the doses studied. The mean Cmax and AUC increased proportionally to the studied doses, and the steady state was achieved within 3 days after three times daily dosing. A slight accumulation of BCQB following multiple dosing was observed. The pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability profiles of BCQB pose it as a good candidate for further development in the treatment of rhinorrhea in rhinitis.
doi:10.2165/11599330-000000000-00000
PMCID: PMC3585954  PMID: 22339483
10.  Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Bencycloquidium Bromide, a Novel Selective Muscarinic M1/M3 Receptor Antagonist, After Single and Multiple Intranasal Doses in Healthy Chinese Subjects 
Drugs in R&D  2012;12(1):17-28.
Background: Bencycloquidium bromide (BCQB) is a novel, potent and selective muscarinic M1/M3 receptor antagonist under development for the treatment of rhinorrhea in rhinitis. The pharmacokinetics and safety of BCQB in animals have been established in preclinical studies. However, no clinical pharmacokinetic data are available for BCQB in humans.
Objective: The aim of this first-in-human study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of BCQB following single and multiple intranasal doses in healthy Chinese subjects.
Methods: The clinical trial was comprised of the following four studies: (i) an open-label, single-dose escalation study to evaluate the safety and tolerability in healthy subjects after intranasal doses of BCQB ranging from 45 to 450 mg (total of six doses); (ii) an open-label, multiple-dose escalation study to assess the safety and tolerability in healthy subjects after intranasal administration with 120 and 150 mg doses of BCQB (360 and 450 μg/day) administered three times daily for 15 days; (iii) a randomized, open-label and parallel-group design to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetics of BCQB after intranasal dosing (45, 90, and 180 μg); and (iv) ten subjects received 120 μg of BCQB by intranasal administration, three times daily for 5 days with a final single dose on day 7 to assess its multiple-dose pharmacokinetics. Safety and tolerability of BCQB were evaluated by monitoring adverse events (AEs), ECG recordings, vital signs and clinical laboratory parameters. The pharmacokinetic parameters for BCQB were calculated by software using noncompartmental methods.
Results: All AEs were mild, of limited duration and no more frequent at higher doses. There was no serious adverse event, death or withdrawal. No clinically significant change was noted in clinical laboratory parameters, cardiac parameters or vital signs. Following single intranasal dosing, BCQB was rapidly absorbed with a median time to maximum concentration (tmax) of 8 minutes for 45, 90, and 180 mg dose groups; the plasma concentration of BCQB decreased in a biphasic manner with the mean half-life (t1/2) of 8.5 hours; the maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of BCQB increased linearly across the examined dose range of 45–180 μg. During the multiple dosing, the steady state was achieved within 3 days of 120 μg three times daily dosing of BCQB. A slightly greater AUC was observed after 5 days of multiple dosing, with the mean accumulation ratio of 1.26; however, the half-life was unchanged.
Conclusion: BCQB was safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects when administered intranasally with single and multiple doses across the doses studied. The mean Cmax and AUC increased proportionally to the studied doses, and the steady state was achieved within 3 days after three times daily dosing. A slight accumulation of BCQB following multiple dosing was observed. The pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability profiles of BCQB pose it as a good candidate for further development in the treatment of rhinorrhea in rhinitis.
doi:10.2165/11599330-000000000-00000
PMCID: PMC3585954  PMID: 22339483
11.  Metabolism and Disposition of Tribendimidine and Its Metabolites in Healthy Chinese Volunteers 
Drugs in R&d  2012;10(2):83-90.
Background: Tribendimidine is a new anthelmintic agent synthesized by Chinese scientists. It is a broad spectrum agent with high activity against parasites. However, its disposition and metabolism remain unknown.
Objective: To investigate the metabolism, disposition, and metabolites of tribendimidine in healthy human volunteers.
Methods: Twelve healthy Chinese volunteers were chosen after clinical assessment of health status and laboratory tests. They received single oral doses of tribendimidine 400mg enteric-coated tablets. Blood and urine samples were collected at scheduled timepoints. Samples were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, respectively.
Results: Tribendimidine was rapidly and completely broken down to p-(1-dimethylamino ethylimino) aniline (dADT) and terephthalaldehyde (TPAL). Furthermore, dADT was partially transformed to acetylated dADT, and TPAL completely transformed to terephalic acid (TPAC). The main pharmacokinetic parameters (± SD) of dADT were as follows: elimination half life (t1/2) 4.74 ± 1.80 h; elimination rate constant (Ke) 0.16 ± 0.06 h−1; apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) 12.23 ± 8.69L • kg−1; apparent total clearance of the drug from plasma (CL/F) 1.63 ± 0.58L • h−1 • kg−1; area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to time 24 hours (AUC24) 4.29 ± 1.88 μg • mL−1 • h; AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) 4.45 ± 1.81 μg • mL−1 • h; maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) 0.64 ± 0.27 μg • mL−1; and time to Cmax (tmax) 4.20 ± 0.71 h. A total of 35.28% dADT and 28.50% TPAC were excreted through the urine within 24 hours after tribendimidine administration.
Conclusion: These results reveal the disposition, metabolism, and main metabolites of tribendimidine in healthy Chinese volunteers.
doi:10.2165/11539320-000000000-00000
PMCID: PMC3585841  PMID: 20698716
12.  Metabolism and Disposition of Tribendimidine and Its Metabolites in Healthy Chinese Volunteers 
Drugs in R&D  2012;10(2):83-90.
Background: Tribendimidine is a new anthelmintic agent synthesized by Chinese scientists. It is a broad spectrum agent with high activity against parasites. However, its disposition and metabolism remain unknown.
Objective: To investigate the metabolism, disposition, and metabolites of tribendimidine in healthy human volunteers.
Methods: Twelve healthy Chinese volunteers were chosen after clinical assessment of health status and laboratory tests. They received single oral doses of tribendimidine 400mg enteric-coated tablets. Blood and urine samples were collected at scheduled timepoints. Samples were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, respectively.
Results: Tribendimidine was rapidly and completely broken down to p-(1-dimethylamino ethylimino) aniline (dADT) and terephthalaldehyde (TPAL). Furthermore, dADT was partially transformed to acetylated dADT, and TPAL completely transformed to terephalic acid (TPAC). The main pharmacokinetic parameters (± SD) of dADT were as follows: elimination half life (t1/2) 4.74 ± 1.80 h; elimination rate constant (Ke) 0.16 ± 0.06 h−1; apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) 12.23 ± 8.69L • kg−1; apparent total clearance of the drug from plasma (CL/F) 1.63 ± 0.58L • h−1 • kg−1; area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to time 24 hours (AUC24) 4.29 ± 1.88 μg • mL−1 • h; AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) 4.45 ± 1.81 μg • mL−1 • h; maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) 0.64 ± 0.27 μg • mL−1; and time to Cmax (tmax) 4.20 ± 0.71 h. A total of 35.28% dADT and 28.50% TPAC were excreted through the urine within 24 hours after tribendimidine administration.
Conclusion: These results reveal the disposition, metabolism, and main metabolites of tribendimidine in healthy Chinese volunteers.
doi:10.2165/11539320-000000000-00000
PMCID: PMC3585841  PMID: 20698716
13.  Differences in the Lipoprotein Distribution of Free and Liposome-Associated All-trans-Retinoic Acid in Human, Dog, and Rat Plasma Are Due to Variations in Lipoprotein Lipid and Protein Content 
The objective of the proposed study was to determine the distribution in plasma lipoprotein of free all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and liposomal ATRA (Atragen; composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and soybean oil) following incubation in human, rat, and dog plasma. When ATRA and Atragen at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, and 25 μg/ml were incubated in human and rat plasma for 5, 60, and 180 min, the majority of the tretinoin was recovered in the lipoprotein-deficient plasma fraction. However, when ATRA and Atragen were incubated in dog plasma, the majority of the tretinoin (>40%) was recovered in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction. No differences in the plasma distribution between ATRA and Atragen were found. These data suggest that a significant percentage of tretinoin associates with plasma lipoproteins (primarily the HDL fraction) upon incubation in human, dog, and rat plasma. Differences between the lipoprotein lipid and protein profiles in human plasma and in dog and rat plasma influenced the plasma distribution of ATRA and Atragen. Differences in lipoprotein distribution between ATRA and Atragen were not observed, suggesting that the drug’s distribution in plasma is not influenced by its incorporation into these liposomes.
PMCID: PMC105660  PMID: 9660998
14.  All-trans retinoic acid restores gap junctional intercellular communication between oral cancer cells with upregulation of Cx32 and Cx43 expressions in vitro 
Objective: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth by restoration of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) via upregulation of connexin (Cx) expression in some solid tumors. However, the relationship between ATRA and GJIC remains unclear in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ATRA on the GJIC function of OSCC. Study design: We measured the effects of ATRA on the viability and cell cycle distribution of SCC9 and Tca8113 OSCC cells. The GJIC function was observed using the scrape-loading dye transfer technique, and the mRNA and protein levels of Cx32 and Cx43 were detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays. Results: ATRA inhibited the growth of OSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P <0.05) and caused cell cycle arrest. ATRA-treated cells showed a 2.69-fold and 2.06-fold enhancement of GJIC in SCC9 and Tca8113 cells, respectively (P <0.05). Moreover, ATRA induced upregulation of Cx32 and Cx43 at both the mRNA and protein levels in OSCC cells. Conclusion: Our results indicated that restoration of GJIC via enhanced Cx32 and Cx43 expression might serve as a novel mechanism for the anti-tumor effect of ATRA in OSCC.
Key words:All-trans retinoic acid, oral squamous cell carcinoma, connexin, gap junctional intercellular communication.
doi:10.4317/medoral.18693
PMCID: PMC3731083  PMID: 23524428
15.  The ATRA-induced differentiation of medulloblastoma cells is enhanced with LOX/COX inhibitors: an analysis of gene expression 
Background
A detailed analysis of the expression of 440 cancer-related genes was performed after the combined treatment of medulloblastoma cells with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and inhibitors of lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX). The combinations of retinoids and celecoxib as a COX-2 inhibitor were reported to be effective in some regimens of metronomic therapy of relapsed solid tumors with poor prognosis. Our previous findings on neuroblastoma cells using expression profiling showed that LOX/COX inhibitors have the capability of enhancing the differentiating action of ATRA. Presented study focused on the continuation of our previous work to confirm the possibility of enhancing ATRA-induced cell differentiation in these cell lines via the application of LOX/COX inhibitors. This study provides more detailed information concerning the mechanisms of the enhancement of the ATRA-induced differentiation of medulloblastoma cells.
Methods
The Daoy and D283 Med medulloblastoma cell lines were chosen for this study. Caffeic acid (an inhibitor of 5-LOX) and celecoxib (an inhibitor on COX-2) were used in combined treatment with ATRA. The expression profiling was performed using Human Cancer Oligo GEArray membranes, and the most promising results were verified using RT-PCR.
Results
The expression profiling of the selected cancer-related genes clearly confirmed that the differentiating effects of ATRA should be enhanced via its combined administration with caffeic acid or celecoxib. This effect was detected in both cell lines. An increased expression of the genes that encoded the proteins participating in induced differentiation and cytoskeleton remodeling was detected in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was also observed for the CDKN1A gene encoding the p21 protein, which is an important regulator of the cell cycle, and for the genes encoding proteins that are associated with proteasome activity. Furthermore, our results showed that D283 Med cells are significantly more sensitive to treatment with ATRA alone than Daoy cells.
Conclusions
The obtained results on medulloblastoma cell lines are in accordance with our previous findings on neuroblastoma cells and confirm our hypothesis concerning the common mechanism of the enhancement of ATRA-induced cell differentiation in various types of pediatric solid tumors.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-14-51
PMCID: PMC4066709  PMID: 24959102
All-trans retinoic acid; Caffeic acid; Celecoxib; Medullobastoma; LOX and COX inhibitors
16.  Effects of the Antifungals Voriconazole and Fluconazole on the Pharmacokinetics of S-(+)- and R-(−)-Ibuprofen 
Our objective was to study the effects of the antifungals voriconazole and fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of S-(+)- and R-(−)-ibuprofen. Twelve healthy male volunteers took a single oral dose of 400 mg racemic ibuprofen in a randomized order either alone, after ingestion of voriconazole at 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily on the second day, or after ingestion of fluconazole at 400 mg on the first day and 200 mg on the second day. Ibuprofen was ingested 1 h after administration of the last dose of voriconazole or fluconazole. Plasma concentrations of S-(+)- and R-(−)-ibuprofen were measured for up to 24 h. In the voriconazole phase, the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of S-(+)-ibuprofen was 205% (P < 0.001) of the respective control value and the mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 122% (P < 0.01) of the respective control value. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was prolonged from 2.4 to 3.2 h (P < 0.01) by voriconazole. In the fluconazole phase, the mean AUC of S-(+)-ibuprofen was 183% of the control value (P < 0.001) and its mean Cmax was 116% of the control value (P < 0.05). The mean t1/2 of S-(+)-ibuprofen was prolonged from 2.4 to 3.1 h (P < 0.05) by fluconazole. The geometric mean S-(+)-ibuprofen AUC ratios in the voriconazole and fluconazole phases were 2.01 (90% confidence interval [CI], 1.80 to 2.22) and 1.82 (90% CI, 1.72 to 1.91), respectively, i.e., above the bioequivalence acceptance upper limit of 1.25. Voriconazole and fluconazole had only weak effects on the pharmacokinetics of R-(−)-ibuprofen. In conclusion, voriconazole and fluconazole increased the levels of exposure to S-(+)-ibuprofen 2- and 1.8-fold, respectively. This was likely caused by inhibition of the cytochrome P450 2C9-mediated metabolism of S-(+)-ibuprofen. A reduction of the ibuprofen dosage should be considered when ibuprofen is coadministered with voriconazole or fluconazole, especially when the initial ibuprofen dose is high.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01483-05
PMCID: PMC1479148  PMID: 16723553
17.  Enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells with LOX/COX inhibitors: an expression profiling study 
Background
We performed expression profiling of two neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-BE(2) and SH-SY5Y, after combined treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and inhibitors of lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX). This study is a continuation of our previous work confirming the possibility of enhancing ATRA-induced cell differentiation in these cell lines by the application of LOX/COX inhibitors and brings more detailed information concerning the mechanisms of the enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells.
Methods
Caffeic acid, as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and celecoxib, as an inhibitor on cyclooxygenase-2, were used in this study. Expression profiling was performed using Human Cancer Oligo GEArray membranes that cover 440 cancer-related genes.
Results
Cluster analyses of the changes in gene expression showed the concentration-dependent increase in genes known to be involved in the process of retinoid-induced neuronal differentiation, especially in cytoskeleton remodeling. These changes were detected in both cell lines, and they were independent of the type of specific inhibitors, suggesting a common mechanism of ATRA-induced differentiation enhancement. Furthermore, we also found overexpression of some genes in the same cell line (SK-N-BE(2) or SH-SY5Y) after combined treatment with both ATRA and CA, or ATRA and CX. Finally, we also detected that gene expression was changed after treatment with the same inhibitor (CA or CX) in combination with ATRA in both cell lines.
Conclusions
Obtained results confirmed our initial hypothesis of the common mechanism of enhancement in ATRA-induced cell differentiation via inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolic pathway.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-29-45
PMCID: PMC2874523  PMID: 20459794
18.  Rosiglitazone and retinoic acid inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in the HCT-15 human colorectal cancer cell line 
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of rosiglitazone (RSG) in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of the HCT-15 human colorectal cancer cell line. HCT-15 cells were divided into a blank control group, a vehicle control group and experimental groups (RSG only or ATRA only or RSG plus ATRA). Growth inhibition was examined using the MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle progression were examined by flow cytometry. The expression of COX-2, MMP-7 and TIMP-1 was examined by immunocytochemistry. RSG alone inhibited HCT-15 cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). The combination of RSG and ATRA exhibited significant synergy (q>1.15). RSG or ATRA alone effectively increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase and decreased the proportion of cells in the S phase, thus inducing apoptosis (P<0.05). The combination of RSG and ATRA resulted in even stronger G1 cell cycle arrest (P<0.05). HCT-15 cells expressed COX-2, MMP-7 and TIMP-1, with positive expression rates in the control group of 66.79, 73.21 and 64.08%, respectively. After the combined application of RSG and ATRA, the positive rates significantly declined to only 19.33, 20.58 and 13.13%, respectively (P<0.01). In conclusion, the combination of RSG and ATRA reduced the expression of COX-2, MMP-7 and TIMP-1, caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and induced apoptosis, which resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation in the HCT-15 human colorectal cancer cell line.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.227
PMCID: PMC3440746  PMID: 22977519
rosiglitazone; all-trans retinoic acid; proliferation; apoptosis
19.  Ameliorating Adriamycin-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats by Orally Administrated Cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom 
Previous studies reported the oral administration of Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) reduced adriamycin-induced chronic kidney damage. This study investigated the effects of intragastric administrated cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra venom on chronic kidney disease in rats. Wistar rats were injected with adriamycin (ADR; 6 mg/kg body weight) via the tail vein to induce chronic kidney disease. The cardiotoxin was administrated daily by intragastric injection at doses of 45, 90, and 180 μg/kg body weight until the end of the protocol. The rats were placed in metabolic cages for 24 hours to collect urine, for determination of proteinuria, once a week. After 6 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to determine serum profiles relevant to chronic kidney disease, including albumin, total cholesterol, phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine. Kidney histology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson's trichrome staining. The levels of kidney podocin were analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. We found that cardiotoxin reduced proteinuria and can improve biological parameters in the adriamycin-induced kidney disease model. Cardiotoxin also reduced adriamycin-induced kidney pathology, suggesting that cardiotoxin is an active component of NNAV for ameliorating adriamycin-induced kidney damage and may have a potential therapeutic value on chronic kidney disease.
doi:10.1155/2014/621756
PMCID: PMC4021839  PMID: 24876873
20.  Pharmacokinetics of Telbivudine following Oral Administration of Escalating Single and Multiple Doses in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: Pharmacodynamic Implications 
The pharmacokinetics of telbivudine were evaluated in adult patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection following once-daily oral administration at escalating doses of 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/day for 4 weeks. Telbivudine was rapidly absorbed after oral administration, with the median times Tmax to the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) ranging from 0.8 to 3.0 h postdosing across cohorts. Single-dose and steady-state maximum Cmaxs and the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time t (AUC0-ts) increased proportionally with dose. At steady-state, the values of Cmax and AUC0-t were higher than those obtained after the administration of a single dose, indicative of a slight accumulation, with the ratios of the steady-state value to the value after the administration of a single dose ranging from 1.14 to 1.49 for Cmax and from 1.40 to 1.70 for AUC0-t. While the elimination of telbivudine from plasma was apparently monophasic over the 8-h sampling period, the substantial steady-state trough plasma levels observed in the groups receiving doses of 100 to 800 mg were clearly indicative of the presence of a second slower elimination phase, with the mean estimated half-lives ranging from 29.5 to 41.3 h by compartmental modeling analysis. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses by using maximum-effect modeling established a quantitative relationship between a reduction in serum HBV DNA levels and parameters of drug exposure, in particular, the steady-state Cmax and AUC0-t. In summary, this study showed that telbivudine exhibits dose-proportional plasma pharmacokinetics with sustained steady-state drug exposure and exposure-related antiviral activity, supporting the need for further clinical studies by use of a once-daily regimen in patients with chronic HBV infection.
doi:10.1128/AAC.50.3.874-879.2006
PMCID: PMC1426427  PMID: 16495245
21.  Retinoic Acid Exerts Dual Regulatory Actions on the Expression and Nuclear Localization of Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 
Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), a transcription factor and tumor suppressor involved in cell growth regulation and immune responses, has been shown to be induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, the factors controlling the cellular location and activity of IRF-1 are not well understood. In this study, we examined the expression of IRF-1 and its nuclear localization, DNA-binding activity, and target gene expression in human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells, a model of breast epithelial cell differentiation and carcinogenesis. Following initial treatment with ATRA, IRF-1 mRNA and protein were induced within 2 hrs, reached a peak (>30-fold induction) at 8 hrs, and declined afterwards. IRF-1 protein was predominantly cytoplasmic during this treatment. Although a second dose of ATRA or Am580 (a related retinoid selective for retinoic acid receptor-α [RARα]), given 16 hrs after the first dose, restimulated IRF-1 mRNA and protein levels to a similar level to that obtained by the first dose, IRF-1 was predominantly concentrated in the nucleus after restimulation. ATRA and Am580 also increased nuclear RARα, whereas retinoid × receptor-α (RXRα)—a dimerization partner for RARα, was localized to the nucleus upon second exposure to ATRA. However, ATRA and Am580 did not regulate the expression or activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1), a transcription factor capable of inducing the expression of IRF-1, indicating an STAT-1–independent mechanism of regulation by ATRA and Am580. The increase in nuclear IRF-1 after retinoid restimulation was accompanied by enhanced binding to an IRF-E DNA response element, and elevated expression of an IRF-1 target gene, 2′ ,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase-2. The dual effect of retinoids in increasing IRF-1 mRNA and protein and in augmenting the nuclear localization of IRF-1 protein may be essential for maximizing the tumor suppressor activity and the immunosurveillance functions of IRF-1 in breast epithelial cells.
PMCID: PMC3843134  PMID: 16636311
retinoic acid; IRF-1; nuclear localization; restimulation; breast cancer
22.  Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of TMC207 and Its N-Desmethyl Metabolite in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis 
TMC207 is a first-in-class diarylquinoline with a new mode of action against mycobacteria targeting the ATP synthase. It is metabolized to an active derivative, N-desmethyl TMC207, and both compounds are eliminated with long terminal half-lives (50 to 60 h in mice) reflecting slow release from tissues such as lung and spleen. In vitro, TMC207 is 5-fold more potent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis than N-desmethyl TMC207, and the effects of the two compounds are additive. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) response was investigated in the murine model of tuberculosis (TB) infection following oral administration of different doses of TMC207 or N-desmethyl TMC207 at 5 days per week for 4 weeks starting the day after intravenous infection with M. tuberculosis and following administration of different doses of TMC207 at various dosing frequencies for 6 weeks starting 2 weeks after infection. Upon administration of N-desmethyl TMC207, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 168 h postdose (AUC168h), and minimum plasma concentration (Cmin) were approximately dose proportional between 8 and 64 mg/kg, and the lung CFU counts were strongly correlated with these pharmacokinetic parameters using an inhibitory sigmoid maximum effect (Emax) model. Administration of the highest dose (64 mg/kg) produced a 4.0-log10 reduction of the bacillary load at an average exposure (average concentration [Cavg] or AUC168h divided by 168) of 2.7 μg/ml. Upon administration of the highest dose of TMC207 (50 mg/kg) 5 days per week for 4 weeks, the total reduction of the bacillary load was 4.7 log10. TMC207 was estimated to contribute to a 1.8-log10 reduction and its corresponding exposure (Cavg) was 0.5 μg/ml. Optimal bactericidal activity with N-desmethyl TMC207 was reached at a high exposure compared to that achieved in humans, suggesting a minor contribution of the metabolite to the overall bactericidal activity in TB-infected patients treated with TMC207. Following administration of TMC207 at a total weekly dose of 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg fractionated for either 5 days per week, twice weekly, or once weekly, the bactericidal activity was correlated to the total weekly dose and was not influenced by the frequency of administration. Exposures (AUC168h) to TMC207 and N-desmethyl TMC207 mirrored this dose response, indicating that the bactericidal activity of TMC207 is concentration dependent and that AUC is the main PK-PD driver on which dose optimization should be based for dosing frequencies up to once weekly. The PK-PD profile supports intermittent administration of TMC207, in agreement with its slow release from tissues.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00720-11
PMCID: PMC3294950  PMID: 22155815
23.  Localized Th1-, Th2-, T Regulatory Cell-, and Inflammation-Associated Hepatic and Pulmonary Immune Responses in Ascaris suum-Infected Swine Are Increased by Retinoic Acid▿ †  
Infection and Immunity  2009;77(6):2576-2587.
Pigs infected with Ascaris suum or controls were given 100 μg (low-dose) or 1,000 μg (high-dose) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)/kg body weight in corn oil or corn oil alone per os on days after inoculation (DAI) −1, +1, and +3 with infective eggs. Treatment with ATRA increased interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL12p70 in plasma of infected pigs at 7 DAI and augmented bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia observed at 7 and 14 DAI. To explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying these observations, a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR array was used to examine mRNA expression in tissue. Ascaris-infected pigs had increased levels of liver mRNA for T-helper-2 (Th2)-associated cytokines, mast cell markers, and T regulatory (Treg) cells, while infected pigs given ATRA had higher IL4, IL13, CCL11, CCL26, CCL17, CCL22, and TPSB1 expression. Gene expression for Th1-associated markers (IFNG, IL12B, and TBX21), the CXCR3 ligand (CXCL9), IL1B, and the putative Treg marker TNFRSF18 was also increased. Expression of IL4, IL13, IL1B, IL6, CCL11, and CCL26 was increased in the lungs of infected pigs treated with ATRA. To determine a putative cellular source of eosinophil chemoattractants, alveolar macrophages were treated with IL4 and/or ATRA in vitro. IL4 induced CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 mRNA, and ATRA increased the basal and IL4-stimulated expression of CCL17 and CCL22. Thus, ATRA augments a diverse Th1-, Th2-, Treg-, and inflammation-associated response in swine infected with A. suum, and the increased BAL eosinophilia may be related to enhanced induction of eosinophil chemokine activity by alveolar macrophages.
doi:10.1128/IAI.00827-07
PMCID: PMC2687331  PMID: 19332534
24.  Analysis of Follicular Fluid Retinoids in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization 
Reproductive Sciences  2013;20(9):1116-1124.
Retinol (ROL) and its biologically active metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), are essential for a number of reproductive processes. However, there is a paucity of information regarding their roles in ovarian folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, and early embryogenesis. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare peripheral plasma (PP) and follicular fluid (FF) retinoid levels, including ATRA in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and to investigate the relationship between retinoid levels and embryo quality. Retinoid levels were evaluated in PP and FF from 79 women undergoing IVF at the time of oocyte retrieval and corresponding embryo quality assessed on a daily basis after retrieval for 3 days until uterine transfer. Analysis compared the retinoid levels with day 3 embryo grades and between endometriosis versus control patients. Results demonstrated distinctive levels of retinoid metabolites and isomers in FF versus PP. There was a significantly larger percentage of high-quality grade I embryos derived from the largest versus smallest follicles. An increase in follicle size also correlated with a >50% increase in FF ROL and ATRA concentrations. Independent of follicle size, FF yielding grade I versus nongrade I embryos showed higher mean levels of ATRA but not ROL. In a nested case–control analysis, control participants had 50% higher mean levels of ATRA in their FF and PP than women with endometriosis. These findings strongly support the proposition that ATRA plays a fundamental role in oocyte development and quality, and that reduced ATRA synthesis may contribute to decreased fecundity of participants with endometriosis.
doi:10.1177/1933719113477487
PMCID: PMC3745715  PMID: 23427183
retinoic acid; follicular fluid; embryo quality; in vitro fertilization
25.  Retinoic acid and liver X receptor agonist synergistically inhibit HIV infection in CD4+ T cells by up-regulating ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux 
Background
Retinoic acids regulate the reverse cholesterol transport by inducing the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) dependent cholesterol efflux in macrophages, neuronal as well as intestine cells. In the present study, we aim to test the effect of all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on ABCA1 expression in human CD4+ T cells and the involvement of cholesterol in ATRA mediated anti-HIV effect.
Results
Treatment with ATRA dramatically up-regulated ABCA1 expression in CD4+ T cells in a time and dose dependent manner. The expression of ABCA1 paralleled with increased ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux. This induction was dependent on T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and ATRA failed to induce ABCA1 expression in resting T cells. Moreover, ATRA and liver X receptor (LXR) agonist-TO-901317 together had synergistic effect on ABCA1 expression as well as cholesterol efflux. Increased ABCA1 expression was associated with lower cellular cholesterol staining. Cells treated with either ATRA or TO-901317 were less vulnerable to HIV-1 infection. Combination of retinoic acid and TO-901317 further inhibited HIV-1 entry and their inhibitory effects could be reversed by cholesterol replenishment.
Methods
ABCA1 RNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and immuno blot methods in cells treated with ATRA. Cholesterol efflux rate was measured in cells treated with ATRA and TO-901317.
Conclusions
ATRA up-regulates ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in CD4+ T cells and combination of ATRA and liver X receptor (LXR) agonist further enhanced these effects. Increased cholesterol efflux contributed to reduced HIV-1 entry, suggesting that anti-HIV effect of ATRA is mediated through ABCA1.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-69
PMCID: PMC3391983  PMID: 22676378
ABCA1; ATRA; retinoic acid; TO-901317; RAR; RXR; LXR; cholesterol efflux; HIV-1; CD4+ T cells

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