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1.  Solvated Crystalline Forms of Nevirapine: Thermoanalytical and Spectroscopic Studies 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2010;11(3):1328-1339.
The study is aimed at exploring the utility of thermoanalytical methods in the solid-state characterization of various crystalline forms of nevirapine. The different forms obtained by recrystallization of nevirapine from various solvents were identified using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The appearance of desolvation peak accompanied by weight loss in TGA indicated the formation of solvates: hemi-ethanolate (Form I), hemi-acetonitrilate (Form II), hemi-chloroformate (Form III), hemi-THF solvate (Form IV), mixed hemi-ethanolate hemi-hydrate (Form V), and hemi-toluenate (Form VI). The higher desolvation temperatures of all the solvates except toluenate than their respective boiling point indicate tighter binding of solvent. Emphasis has been laid on the determination of heat capacity and heat of solution utilizing microreaction calorimeter to further distinguish the various forms. The enthalpy of solution (ΔHsol), an indirect measure of the lattice energy of a solid, was well correlated with the crystallinity of all the solid forms obtained. The magnitude of ΔHsol was found to be −14.14 kJ/mol for Form I and −2.83 kJ/mol for Form V in phosphate buffer of pH 2, exhibiting maximum ease of molecular release from the lattice in Form I. The heat capacity for solvation (ΔCp) was found to be positive, providing information about the state of solvent molecules in the host lattice. The solubility and dissolution rate of the forms were also found to be in agreement with their enthalpy of solution. Form (I), being the most exothermic, was found to be the most soluble of all the forms.
PMCID: PMC2974108  PMID: 20737259
calorimetry; enthalpy of solution; heat capacity; recrystallization; solvates
2.  Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride 
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin  2013;3(1):147-152.
Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER). Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*), enthalpy (∆H*), entropy (∆S*) and Gibbs free energy change of the decomposition (∆G*) were calculated using different kinetic models. Results: The purity of the used drug was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (99.97%) and specialized official method (99.85%) indicating to satisfactory values of the degree of purity. Thermal analysis technique gave satisfactory results to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point (273 ºC), water content (7.49%) and ash content (zero) in comparison to what were obtained using official method: (272 ºC), (8.0%) and (0.02%) for melting point, water content and ash content, respectively. Conclusion: Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs. DSC data indicated that the degree of purity of terazosin hydrochloride is similar to that found by official method.
PMCID: PMC3846028  PMID: 24312828
Terazosin hydrochloride; Thermal analysis; Differential scanning calorimetry; Purity
3.  Influence of Position and Size of Substituents on the Mechanism of Partitioning: A Thermodynamic Study on Acetaminophens, Hydroxybenzoic Acids, and Parabens 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2008;9(1):205-216.
The objective of the present investigation was to study the influence of size, nature, and topology of substituents on the thermodynamic characteristics of sublimation, fusion, solubility, solvation, and partitioning processes of some drug and druglike molecules. Thermodynamic functions of sublimation process 2-acetaminophen and 3-acetaminophen were obtained on the basis of temperature dependencies of vapor pressure by the transpiration method. Thermodynamic characteristics of solubility processes in water, n-octanol, and n-hexane were calculated from the temperature dependencies of solubility using the solubility saturation method. For evaluation of fusion parameters, differential scanning calorimetry was used. A new approach to distinguishing specific and nonspecific energetic terms in the crystal lattice was developed. Specific and nonspecific solvation terms were distinguished using the transfer from the “inert” n-hexane to the other solvents. For the acetaminophen compounds and for some related drug molecules, the correlation between melting points and a parameter describing the ratio between specific and nonspecific interaction in the crystal lattices was obtained. A diagram enabling analysis of the mechanism of the partitioning process was applied. It was found that for isomers of benzoic acids and for acetaminophens, the position of substituents affects the mechanism of the partitioning process but not the extent of partitioning (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\Delta G_{{\text{tr}}}^{\text{0}}$$\end{document} values). In contrast to this, an increased size of substituents (parabens) leads to essential changes in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\Delta G_{{\text{tr}}}^{\text{0}}$$\end{document} values, but the mechanism of the partitioning process stays the same.
PMCID: PMC2976908  PMID: 18446483
partitioning; solubility; solvation; sublimation; thermodynamics; transfer
4.  What Drives Proteins into the Major or Minor Grooves of DNA? 
Journal of molecular biology  2006;365(1):1-9.
The energetic profiles of a significant number of protein-DNA systems at 20°C reveal that, despite comparable Gibbs free energies, association with the major groove is primarily an enthalpy driven process, whereas binding to the minor groove is characterized by an unfavorable enthalpy that is compensated by favorable entropic contributions. These distinct energetic signatures for major versus minor groove binding are irrespective of the magnitude of DNA bending and/or the extent of binding-induced protein refolding. The primary determinants of their different energetic profiles appear to be the distinct hydration properties of the major and minor grooves, namely that the water in the AT-rich minor groove is in a highly ordered state and its removal results in a substantial positive contribution to the binding entropy. Since the entropic forces driving protein binding into the minor groove are a consequence of displacing water ordered by the regular arrangement of polar contacts, they cannot be regarded as hydrophobic.
PMCID: PMC1934558  PMID: 17055530
DNA binding; DNA grooves; hydration; thermodynamics; electrostatics
5.  Preparation and physicochemical characterization of 5 niclosamide solvates and 1 hemisolvate 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2004;5(1):86-95.
The purpose of the study was to characterize the physicochemical, structural, and spectral properties of the 1∶1 niclosamide and methanol, diethyl ether, dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N' dimethylformamide, and tetrahydrofuran solvates and the 2∶1 niclosamide and tetraethylene glycol hemisolvate prepared by recrystallization from these organic solvents. Structural, spectral, and thermal analysis results confirmed the presence of the solvents and differences in the structural properties of these solvates. In addition, differences in the activation energy of desolvation, batch solution calorimetry, and the aqueous solubility at 25°C, 24 hours, showed the stability of the solvates to be in the order: anhydrate > diethyl ether solvate > tetraethylene glycol hemisolvate > methanol solvate > dimethyl sulfoxide solvate > N,N' dimethylformamide solvate. The intrinsic and powder dissolution rates of the solvates were in the order: anhydrate > diethyl ether solvate > tetraethylene glycol hemisolvate > N,N' dimethylformamide solvate > methanol solvate > dimethyl sulfoxide solvate. Although these nonaqueous solvates had higher solubility and dissolution rates than the monohydrous forms, they were unstable in aqueous media and rapidly transformed to one of the monohydrous forms.
PMCID: PMC2784863  PMID: 15198533
niclosamide; solvates; solubility; physical stability
6.  Lipophilicity Assessment of Ruthenium(II)-Arene Complexes by the Means of Reversed-Phase Thin-Layer Chromatography and DFT Calculations 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:862796.
The lipophilicity of ten ruthenium(II)-arene complexes was assessed by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) on octadecyl silica stationary phase. The binary solvent systems composed of water and acetonitrile were used as mobile phase in order to determine chromatographic descriptors for lipophilicity estimation. Octanol-water partition coefficient, logKOW, of tested complexes was experimentally determined using twenty-eight standard solutes which were analyzed under the same chromatographic conditions as target substances. In addition, ab initio density functional theory (DFT) computational approach was employed to calculate logKOW values from the differences in Gibbs' free solvation energies of the solute transfer from n-octanol to water. A good overall agreement between DFT calculated and experimentally determined logKOW values was established (R2 = 0.8024–0.9658).
PMCID: PMC3919081  PMID: 24587761
7.  Some Binding-Related Drug Properties are Dependent on Thermodynamic Signature 
Chemical biology & drug design  2011;77(3):161-165.
The binding affinity is determined by the Gibbs energy of binding (ΔG) which is the sum of enthalpic (ΔH) and entropic (-TΔS) contributions. Because the enthalpy and entropy contribute in an additive way to the binding energy, the same binding affinity can be achieved by many different combinations of enthalpic and entropic contributions; however, do compounds with similar binding affinities but different thermodynamic signatures (i.e. different ΔH, -TΔS combinations) exhibit the same functional effects? Are there characteristics of compounds that can be modulated by modifying their thermodynamic signatures? In this paper, we consider the minimization of unwanted conformational effects arising during the development of CD4/gp120 inhibitors, a new class of HIV-1 cell entry inhibitors. Competitive inhibitors of protein/protein interactions run the risk of triggering the very same signals that they are supposed to inhibit. Here, we show that for CD4/gp120 inhibitors the magnitude of those unwanted effects is related to the proportion in which the enthalpy and entropy changes contribute to the binding affinity. The thermodynamic optimization plot (TOP) previously proposed to optimize binding affinity can also be used to obtain appropriate enthalpy/entropy combinations for drug candidates.
PMCID: PMC3079564  PMID: 21288305
Binding Affinity; Enthalpy; Entropy; Thermodynamic Optimization; Isothermal Titration Calorimetry
8.  DNA Plasticity Is a Key Determinant of the Energetics of Binding of Jun-Fos Heterodimeric Transcription Factor to Genetic Variants of TGACGTCA Motif† 
Biochemistry  2009;48(51):12213-12222.
The Jun-Fos heterodimeric transcription factor is a target of a diverse array of signaling cascades that initiate at the cell surface and converge in the nucleus and ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in a multitude of cellular processes central to health and disease. Here, using isothermal titration calorimetry in conjunction with circular dichroism, we report the effect of introducing single nucleotide variations within the TGACGTCA canonical motif on the binding of bZIP domains of Jun-Fos heterodimer to DNA. Our data reveal that the Jun-Fos heterodimer exhibits differential energetics in binding to such genetic variants in the physiologically relevant micromolar-submicromolar range with the TGACGTCA canonical motif affording the highest affinity. Although binding energetics are largely favored by enthalpic forces and accompanied by entropic penalty, neither the favorable enthalpy nor the unfavorable entropy correlate with overall free energy of binding in agreement with enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon widely observed in biological systems. However, a number of variants including the TGACGTCA canonical motif bind to the Jun-Fos heterodimer with high affinity through having overcome such enthalpy-entropy compensation barrier, arguing strongly that better understanding of the underlying invisible forces driving macromolecular interactions may be the key to future drug design. Our data also suggest that the Jun-Fos heterodimer has a preference for binding to TGACGTCA variants with higher AT content, implying that the DNA plasticity may be an important determinant of protein-DNA interactions. This notion is further corroborated by the observation that the introduction of genetic variations within the TGACGTCA motif allows it to sample a much greater conformational space. Taken together, these new findings further our understanding of the role of DNA sequence and conformation on protein-DNA interactions in thermodynamic terms.
PMCID: PMC2807364  PMID: 19921846
AP1-DNA thermodynamics; Jun-Fos heterodimer; bZIP domain; Single nucleotide variants; DNA plasticity
9.  Membrane Partitioning: “Classical” and “Nonclassical” Hydrophobic Effects 
The Journal of Membrane Biology  2010;239(1-2):5-14.
The free energy of transfer of nonpolar solutes from water to lipid bilayers is often dominated by a large negative enthalpy rather than the large positive entropy expected from the hydrophobic effect. This common observation has led to the idea that membrane partitioning is driven by the “nonclassical” hydrophobic effect. We examined this phenomenon by characterizing the partitioning of the well-studied peptide melittin using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and circular dichroism (CD). We studied the temperature dependence of the entropic (−TΔS) and enthalpic (ΔH) components of free energy (ΔG) of partitioning of melittin into lipid membranes made of various mixtures of zwitterionic and anionic lipids. We found significant variations of the entropic and enthalpic components with temperature, lipid composition and vesicle size but only small changes in ΔG (entropy–enthalpy compensation). The heat capacity associated with partitioning had a large negative value of about −0.5 kcal mol−1 K−1. This hallmark of the hydrophobic effect was found to be independent of lipid composition. The measured heat capacity values were used to calculate the hydrophobic-effect free energy ΔGhΦ, which we found to dominate melittin partitioning regardless of lipid composition. In the case of anionic membranes, additional free energy comes from coulombic attraction, which is characterized by a small effective peptide charge due to the lack of additivity of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions in membrane interfaces [Ladokhin and White J Mol Biol 309:543–552, 2001]. Our results suggest that there is no need for a special effect—the nonclassical hydrophobic effect—to describe partitioning into lipid bilayers.
PMCID: PMC3030945  PMID: 21140141
Heat capacity; Hydrophobic effect; “Nonclassical” hydrophobic effect
10.  Interpreting protein/DNA interactions: distinguishing specific from non-specific and electrostatic from non-electrostatic components 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(7):2483-2491.
We discuss the effectiveness of existing methods for understanding the forces driving the formation of specific protein–DNA complexes. Theoretical approaches using the Poisson–Boltzmann (PB) equation to analyse interactions between these highly charged macromolecules to form known structures are contrasted with an empirical approach that analyses the effects of salt on the stability of these complexes and assumes that release of counter-ions associated with the free DNA plays the dominant role in their formation. According to this counter-ion condensation (CC) concept, the salt-dependent part of the Gibbs energy of binding, which is defined as the electrostatic component, is fully entropic and its dependence on the salt concentration represents the number of ionic contacts present in the complex. It is shown that although this electrostatic component provides the majority of the Gibbs energy of complex formation and does not depend on the DNA sequence, the salt-independent part of the Gibbs energy—usually regarded as non-electrostatic—is sequence specific. The CC approach thus has considerable practical value for studying protein/DNA complexes, while practical applications of PB analysis have yet to demonstrate their merit.
PMCID: PMC3074165  PMID: 21071403
11.  Entropy-Driven Folding of an RNA Helical Junction: An Isothermal Titration Calorimetric Analysis of the Hammerhead Ribozyme† 
Biochemistry  2004;43(19):5870-5881.
Helical junctions are extremely common motifs in naturally occurring RNAs, but little is known about the thermodynamics that drive their folding. Studies of junction folding face several challenges: non-two-state folding behavior, superposition of secondary and tertiary structural energetics, and drastically opposing enthalpic and entropic contributions to folding. Here we describe a thermodynamic dissection of the folding of the hammerhead ribozyme, a three-way RNA helical junction, by using isothermal titration calorimetry of bimolecular RNA constructs. By using this method, we show that tertiary folding of the hammerhead core occurs with a highly unfavorable enthalpy change, and is therefore entropically driven. Furthermore, the enthalpies and heat capacities of core folding are the same whether supported by monovalent or divalent ions. These properties appear to be general to the core sequence of bimolecular hammerhead constructs. We present a model for the ion-induced folding of the hammerhead core that is similar to those advanced for the folding of much larger RNAs, involving ion-induced collapse to a structured, non-native state accompanied by rearrangement of core residues to produce the native fold. In agreement with previous enzymological and structural studies, our thermodynamic data suggest that the hammerhead structure is stabilized in vitro predominantly by diffusely bound ions. Our approach addresses several significant challenges that accompany the study of junction folding, and should prove useful in defining the thermodynamic determinants of stability in these important RNA motifs.
PMCID: PMC2465462  PMID: 15134461
12.  Towards Accurate Microscopic Calculation of Solvation Entropies: Extending the Restraint Release Approach to Studies of Solvation Effects 
The journal of physical chemistry. B  2009;113(20):7372-7382.
The evaluation of the solvation entropies is a major conceptual and practical challenge. On the one hand, it is interesting to quantify the factors that are responsible for the solvation entropies in solutions, while on the other, it is essential to be able to assess the contributions of the solvation entropies to the binding free energies and related properties. In fact, the solvation entropies are neglected in almost all the studies of the binding entropies. The main problem is that widely used approaches, such as the quasiharmonic (QH) approximation do not provide reliable results particularly, in cases of shallow potential and multidimensional surfaces while brute force evaluations of the entropic effects by simulating temperature dependence of the free energy converges very slowly. This paper addresses the above issue by starting with an analysis of the factors that are responsible for the negative solvation entropy of ions, showing that it is not due to the change in the solvent vibration modes or to the solvent force constant but to the changes in the solvent configurational space upon change in the solute charges. We begin by clarifying that when one deals with aqueous solutions, it is easy to evaluate the corresponding entropic effect by the Langevin dipole(LD) treatment. However, in this work we are interested in developing a general microscopic tool that can be used to study similar effects in the proteins. To this end, we explore the ability of our restraint release (RR) approach to evaluate the solvation entropy. We start this analysis by reviewing the foundation of this approach and in particular, the requirements of minimizing the enthalpy contribution to the RR free energy. We then establish that our approach is not a specialized harmonic treatment but a rather powerful approach. Moving to the main topic of this work, we demonstrate that the RR approach provides quantitative results for the solvation entropies of monovalent and divalent ions and effectively captures the physics of these entropic effects. The success of the current approach indicates that it should be applicable to the studies of the solvation entropies in the proteins and also, in examining hydrophobic effects. Thus, we believe that the RR approach provides a powerful tool for evaluating the corresponding contributions to the binding entropies and eventually, to the binding free energies. This holds promise for extending the information theory modeling to proteins and protein-ligand complexes in aqueous solutions and consequently, facilitating computer-aided drug design.
PMCID: PMC2738853  PMID: 19402609
Langevin dipole; Restraint release; Molecular dynamics; Quasiharmonic approximation; Drug design
13.  Thermoanalytical Investigation of Some Sulfone-Containing Drugs 
The thermal behavior of some sulfone-containing drugs, namely, dapsone (DDS), dimethylsulfone (MSM), and topiramate (TOP) in drug substances, and products were investigated using different thermal techniques. These include thermogravimetry (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermogravimetric data allowed the determination of the kinetic parameters: activation energy (E a), frequency factor (A), and reaction order (n). The thermal degradation of dapsone and topiramate was followed a first-order kinetic behavior. The calculated data evidenced a zero-order kinetic for dimethylsulfone. The relative thermal stabilities of the studied drugs have been evaluated and follow the order DDS > TOP > MSM. The purity was determined using DSC for the studied compounds, in drug substances and products. The results were in agreement with the recommended pharmacopoeia and manufacturer methods. DSC curves obtained from the tablets suggest compatibility between the drugs, excipients and/or coformulated drugs. The fragmentation pathway of dapsone with mass spectrometry was taken as example, to correlate the thermal decomposition with the resulted MS-EI. The decomposition modes were investigated, and the possible fragmentation pathways were suggested by mass spectrometry.
PMCID: PMC3389717  PMID: 22792516
14.  The Influence of Concentration and Temperature on the Formation of γ-Oryzanol + β-Sitosterol Tubules in Edible Oil Organogels 
Food Biophysics  2010;6(1):20-25.
The gelation process of mixtures of γ-oryzanol and sitosterol structurants in sunflower oil was studied using light scattering, rheology, and micro-scanning calorimetry (Micro-DSC). The relation between temperature and the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of tubule formation of γ-oryzanol and sitosterol was determined using these techniques. The temperature dependence of the CAC was used to estimate the binding energy and enthalpic and entropic contribution to the tubular formation process. The binding energy calculated at the corresponding temperatures and CACs were relatively low, in order of 2 RT (4.5 kJ mol−1), which is in accord with the reversibility of the tubular formation process. The formation of the tubules was associated with negative (exothermic) enthalpy change (ΔH0) compared with positive entropy term (−T ΔS0 >0), indicating that the aggregation into tubules is an enthalpy-driven process. The oryzanol–sitosterol ratio affected the aggregation process; solutions with ratio of (60 oryzanol–40 sitosterol) started aggregation at higher temperature compared with other ratios.
PMCID: PMC3034889  PMID: 21423326
Organogels; Critical aggregation concentration; γ-Oryzanol and sitosterol; Tubules; Light scattering; Binding energy; Enthalpy; Entropy
15.  Water-Membrane Partition Thermodynamics of an Amphiphilic Lipopeptide: An Enthalpy-Driven Hydrophobic Effect 
Biophysical Journal  2008;95(7):3269-3277.
To shed light on the driving force for the hydrophobic effect that partitions amphiphilic lipoproteins between water and membrane, we carried out an atomically detailed thermodynamic analysis of a triply lipid modified H-ras heptapeptide anchor (ANCH) in water and in a DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer. Combining molecular mechanical and continuum solvent approaches with an improved technique for solute entropy calculation, we obtained an overall transfer free energy of ∼−13 kcal mol−1. This value is in qualitative agreement with free energy changes derived from a potential of mean force calculation and indirect experimental observations. Changes in free energies of solvation and ANCH conformational reorganization are unfavorable, whereas ANCH-DMPC interactions—especially van der Waals—favor insertion. These results are consistent with an enthalpy-driven hydrophobic effect, in accord with earlier calorimetric data on the membrane partition of other amphiphiles. Furthermore, structural and entropic analysis of molecular dynamics-generated ensembles suggests that conformational selection may play a hitherto unappreciated role in membrane insertion of lipid-modified peptides and proteins.
PMCID: PMC2547422  PMID: 18621822
16.  Physicochemical characterization and in vitro dissolution studies of solid dispersions of ketoprofen with PVP K30 and d-mannitol 
Aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble, BCS class-II drug Ketoprofen (KETO) by solid-dispersion approach. Solid dispersions were prepared by using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) and d-mannitol in different drugs to carrier ratios. Dispersions with PVP K30 were prepared by kneading and solvent evaporation techniques, whereas solid dispersions containing d-mannitol were prepared by kneading and melting techniques. These formulations were characterized in the liquid state by phase-solubility studies and in the solid state by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The aqueous solubility of KETO was favored by the presence of both carriers. The negative values of Gibbs free energy illustrate the spontaneous transfer from pure water to the aqueous polymer environment. Solid state characterization indicated KETO was present as fine particles in d-mannitol solid dispersions and entrapped in carrier matrix of PVP K30 solid dispersions. In contrast to the very slow dissolution rate of pure KETO, dispersions of drug in carriers considerably improved the dissolution rate. This can be attributed to increased wettability and dispersibility, as well as decreased crystallinity and increase in amorphous fraction of drug. Solid dispersions prepared with PVP K30 showed the highest improvement in dissolution rate of KETO. Even physical mixtures of KETO prepared with both carriers also showed better dissolution profiles than those of pure KETO.
PMCID: PMC3792622  PMID: 24109206
Ketoprofen; Solid dispersion; PVP K30; d-Mannitol; Kneading; Melting; Solvent evaporation
17.  Sublimation characterization and vapor pressure estimation of an HIV nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor using thermogravimetric analysis 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2003;4(2):99-108.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the sublimation process of DPC 963, a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for HIV-1 retrovirus, and to better understant the effect of sublimation during active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacture and formulation development, especially the drying processes. Sublimation of DPC 963 at 150°C and above was determined by thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR). The rates of sublimation at different temperatures were measured using isothermal TGA. Condensed material was collected and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and infrared (IR) spectrometry. Benzoic acid was used as a reference standard to derive a linear logarithmic relationship between sublimation/evaporation rate and vapor pressure specific to the TGA system used in this study. Sublimation and evaporation of DPC 963 were found to follow apparent zero-order kinetics. Using the Eyring equation, the enthalpy and entropy of the sublimation and evaporation processes were obtained. The enthalpies of sublimation and evaporation were found to be 29 and 22 kcal/mol, respectively. The condensed material from the vapor phase was found to exist in 2 physical forms, amorphous and crystalline. Using benzoic acid as a reference standard, vapor pressure of DPC 963 at different temperatures was calculated using the linear logarithmic relationship obtained. DPC 963 undergoes sublimation at appreciable rates at 150°C and above but this is not likely to pose a serious issue during the manufacturing process. Vapor pressure estimation using thermogravimetric analysis provided sufficient accuracy to be used as a fast, simple, and safe alternative to the traditional methods of vapor pressure determination.
PMCID: PMC2750601  PMID: 12916905
sublimation; vapor pressure; thermogravimetric analysis-infrared (TGA-IR)
18.  Vapor Pressure of Solid Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Determined via Knudsen Effusion Method 
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in a variety of consumer products. The solid vapor pressures of BDE15 and BDE209 were determined by use of the Knudsen effusion method, and the values measured extrapolated to 298.15 K are 3.12×10−3 and 9.02×10−13 Pa, respectively. The enthalpies of sublimation for these compounds have also been estimated by using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and are 102.0 ± 3.5 and 157.1 ± 3.5 kJ/mol, respectively. Additionally, the melting points and enthalpies of fusion were measured by differential scanning calorimetry.
PMCID: PMC3634866  PMID: 21766320
PBDE; Solid vapor pressure; Knudsen effusion; Enthalpy of sublimation; Enthalpy of fusion
19.  Characterisation and evaluation of pharmaceutical solvates of Atorvastatin calcium by thermoanalytical and spectroscopic studies 
Atorvastatin calcium (ATC), an anti-lipid biopharmaceutical class II drug, is widely prescribed as a cholesterol-lowering agent and is presently the world’s best-selling medicine. A large number of crystalline forms of ATC have been published in patents. A variety of solid forms may give rise to different physical properties. Therefore, the discovery of new forms of this unusual molecule, ATC, may still provide an opportunity for further improvement of advantageous properties.
In the present work, eight new solvates (Solvate I-VIII) have been discovered by recrystallization method. Thermal behaviour of ATC and its solvates studied by DSC and TGA indicate similar pattern suggesting similar mode of entrapment of solvent molecules. The type of solvent present in the crystal lattice of the solvates is identified by GC-MS analysis and the stoichiometric ratio of the solvents is confirmed by 1HNMR. The high positive value of binding energy determined from thermochemical parameters indicates deep inclusion of the solvent molecules into the host cavity. The XRPD patterns point towards the differences in their crystallanity, however, after desolvation solvate II, III, IV, V and VIII transform to isostructral amorphous desolvated solvates. The order of crystallinity was confirmed by solution calorimetric technique as the enthalpy of solution is an indirect measure of lattice energy. All the solvates behaved endothermically following the order solvate-VIII (1-butanol solvate) < solvate-I (isoproplyate) < solvate-V (methanol solvate) < solvate-III (ethonalate) < solvate-VI (acetone ethanol solvate) < solvate-IV (t-butanol solvate) < solvate-II (THF solvate) < solvate-VII (mixed hemi-ethanol hydrate). The positive value of the heat capacity of the solvate formation provides information about the state of solvent molecules in the host lattice. The solvents molecules incorporated in the crystal lattice induced local chemical environment changes in the drug molecules which are observed in 13CP/MAS NMR spectral changes.
Aqueous solubility of solvate-VIII was found to be maximum, however, solvate-I and VIII showed better reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels as compared to atorvastatin against triton-induced dyslipidemia.
PMCID: PMC3547732  PMID: 23039933
Solvate; Recrystalliztion; Heat capacity; Calorimetry; 13C /MAS solid state NMR
20.  Refinement of non-calorimetric determination of the change in heat capacity, ΔCp, of protein unfolding and validation across a wide temperature range 
Proteins  2008;71(4):1607-1616.
The change in heat capacity, ΔCp, upon protein unfolding has been usually determined by calorimetry. A non-calorimetric method which employs the Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship to determine ΔCp has seen some use. Generally, the free energy change upon unfolding of the protein is determined at a variety of temperatures and the temperature at which ΔG is zero, Tm, and change in enthalpy at Tm are determined by thermal denaturation and ΔCp is then calculated using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. We show here that an abbreviated method with stability determinations at just two temperatures gives values of ΔCp consistent with values from free energy change upon unfolding determination at a much wider range of temperatures. Further, even the free energy change upon unfolding from a single solvent denaturation at the proper temperature, when coupled with the melting temperature, Tm, and the van’t Hoff enthalpy, ΔHvH, from a thermal denaturation, gives a reasonable estimate of ΔCp, albeit with greater uncertainty than solvent denaturations at two temperatures. We also find that non-linear regression of the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation as a function of stability and temperature while simultaneously fitting ΔCp, Tm, and ΔHvH gives values for the last two parameters that are in excellent agreement with experimental values.
PMCID: PMC2630543  PMID: 18384147
protein stability; cold denaturation
21.  A Molecular Dynamics Approach to Ligand-Receptor Interaction in the Aspirin-Human Serum Albumin Complex 
Journal of Biophysics  2012;2012:642745.
In this work, we present a study of the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, C9H8O4) by molecular dynamics simulations (MD). Starting from an experimentally resolved structure of the complex, we performed the extraction of the ligand by means of the application of an external force. After stabilization of the system, we quantified the force used to remove the ASA from its specific site of binding to HSA and calculated the mechanical nonequilibrium external work done during this process. We obtain a reasonable value for the upper boundary of the Gibbs free energy difference (an equilibrium thermodynamic potential) between the complexed and noncomplexed states. To achieve this goal, we used the finite sampling estimator of the average work, calculated from the Jarzynski Equality. To evaluate the effect of the solvent, we calculated the so-called “viscous work,” that is, the work done to move the aspirin in the same trajectory through the solvent in absence of the protein, so as to assess the relevance of its contribution to the total work. The results are in good agreement with the available experimental data for the albumin affinity constant for aspirin, obtained through quenching fluorescence methods.
PMCID: PMC3512314  PMID: 23251150
22.  Enthalpy-Entropy contributions to the potential of mean force of nanoscopic hydrophobic solutes 
The journal of physical chemistry. B  2006;110(16):8459-8463.
Entropic and enthalpic contributions to the hydrophobic interaction between nanoscopic hydrophobic solutes, modeled as graphene plates in water have been calculated using molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensemble and with free energy perturbation methodology. We find the stabilizing contribution to the free energy of association (contact pair formation) to be the favorable entropic part, the enthalpic contribution being highly unfavorable. The desolvation barrier is dominated by the unfavorable enthalpic contribution in spite of a fairly large favorable entropic compensation. The enthalpic contributions, incorporating the Lennard-Jones solute-solvent terms, largely determine the stability of the solvent separated configuration. We decompose the enthalpy into a direct solute-solute term, the solute-solvent interactions and the remainder that contains pressure-volume work as well as contributions due to solvent reorganization. The enthalpic contribution due to changes in water-water interactions arising from solvent reorganization around the solute molecules is shown to have major contribution in the solvent induced enthalpy change.
PMCID: PMC2538449  PMID: 16623532
23.  Implicit Solvation Parameters Derived from Explicit Water Forces in Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations 
Implicit solvation is a mean force approach to model solvent forces acting on a solute molecule. It is frequently used in molecular simulations to reduce the computational cost of solvent treatment. In the first instance, the free energy of solvation and the associated solvent–solute forces can be approximated by a function of the solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) of the solute and differentiated by an atom–specific solvation parameter σiSASA. A procedure for the determination of values for the σiSASA parameters through matching of explicit and implicit solvation forces is proposed. Using the results of Molecular Dynamics simulations of 188 topologically diverse protein structures in water and in implicit solvent, values for the σiSASA parameters for atom types i of the standard amino acids in the GROMOS force field have been determined. A simplified representation based on groups of atom types σgSASA was obtained via partitioning of the atom–type σiSASA distributions by dynamic programming. Three groups of atom types with well separated parameter ranges were obtained, and their performance in implicit versus explicit simulations was assessed. The solvent forces are available at
PMCID: PMC3503459  PMID: 23180979
24.  Thermodynamic properties of liquid Au–Cu–Sn alloys determined from electromotive force measurements 
Thermochimica Acta  2011;525(1-2):183-189.
► A full thermodynamic description of the liquid ternary Au–Cu–Sn system is reported. ► The electromotive force method with a liquid electrolyte was used to determine the activity of tin in the alloys. ► The partial free energies of tin in this system were calculated from the obtained EMF values. ► The Gibbs–Duhem integration was used to calculate the integral Gibbs free energy and integral enthalpy of the entire system.
The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Au–Cu–Sn system were determined with the electromotive force (EMF) method using a liquid electrolyte. Three different cross-sections with constant Au:Cu ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 were applied to measure the thermodynamic properties of the ternary system in the temperature range between the liquidus temperature of the alloys and 1023 K. The partial free energies of Sn in liquid Au–Cu–Sn alloys were obtained from EMF data. The integral Gibbs free energy and the integral enthalpy at 900 K were calculated by Gibbs–Duhem integration. The ternary interaction parameters were evaluated using the Redlich–Kister–Muggianu polynomial.
PMCID: PMC3192941  PMID: 22039311
Au–Cu–Sn alloys; Activity; Thermodynamic properties; Electromotive force
25.  High-Definition Self-Assemblies driven by the Hydrophobic Effect: Synthesis and Properties of a Supramolecular Nano-Capsule 
High definition self-assemblies, those that possess order at the molecular level, are most commonly made from subunits possessing metals and metal coordination sites, or groups capable of partaking in hydrogen bonding. In other words, enthalpy is the driving force behind the free energy of assembly. The hydrophobic effect engenders the possibility of (nominally) relying not on enthalpy but entropy to drive assembly. Towards this idea, we describe how template molecules can trigger the dimerization of a cavitand in aqueous solution, and in doing so are encapsulated within the resulting capsule. Although not held together by (enthalpically) strong and directional non-covalent forces, these capsules possess considerable thermodynamic and kinetic stability. As a result, they display unusual and even unique properties. We discuss some of these, including the use of the capsule as a nano-scale reaction chamber and how they can bring about the separation of hydrocarbon gases.
PMCID: PMC2614893  PMID: 18685753

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