Nanotechnology plays a remarkable role in the field of the treatment of Lymphomas associated with tumor.
The purpose of this study is to determine and to compare the tumor uptake, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled etoposide and etoposide loaded nanoparticles in Dalton's Lymphoma tumor bearing mice and healthy mice.
Materials and Methods:
Etoposide loaded nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation technique using the poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) in the presence of Pluronic F 68 (F 68) as a stabilizer and characterized by particle size analyzer, zeta potential and transmission electron microscope. Etoposide and etoposide loaded nanoparticles were labeled with Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) by the direct method and various quality control tests were carried out. The labeling parameters like labeling efficiency, stability, etc., were optimized to get high labeling efficiency as well as stability of the labeled formulations. Tc-99m labeled formulations were administered intravenously in Balb C mice and their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics were determined.
Mean size of the etoposide loaded PLGA nanoparticles was found to be 105.1 nm. The concentration of both free etoposide and nanoparticles increased with time and showed higher tumor concentrations of both free etoposide and nanoparticles increased with time and showed higher retention, indicating their applicability in effective and prolonged tumor therapy. Nuclear scintigraphic images confirm the presence of labeled complexes at the site of tumor for 24 h at higher concentration than in the normal muscles.
This study indicated higher tumor affinity and targeting properties of etoposide loaded nanoparticles than free etoposide.
Biodistribution; etoposide; pharmacokinetics; polymeric nanoparticles; tumor uptake
PEGylated liposomes are important drug carriers for nanomedicine cancer therapy. PEGylated liposomes can encapsulate radio- and chemo-drugs and passively target tumor sites via enhanced permeability and retention effect. This study estimated the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry after administration of radio-chemotherapeutics (111In-labeled vinorelbine [VNB]-encapsulated liposomes, InVNBL, and 188Re-labeled doxorubicin [DXR]-encapsulated liposomes, ReDXRL) for radionuclide therapy in two colon carcinoma-bearing mouse models. A C26 colon carcinoma tumor/ascites mouse model and a subcutaneous solid tumor-bearing mouse model were employed. Biodistribution studies of InVNBL and ReDXRL after intraperitoneal administration in tumor/ascites-bearing mice (protocol A) and intravenous administration in subcutaneous solid tumor-bearing mice (protocol B) were performed. The radiation dose to normal tissues and tumors were calculated based on the results of distribution studies in mice, using the OLINDA/EXM program. The cumulated activities in most organs after administration of InVNBL in either the tumor/ascites-bearing mice (protocol A) or the subcutaneous solid tumor-bearing mice (protocol B) were higher than those of ReDXRL. Higher tumor-to-normal-tissues absorption dose ratios (T/NTs) were observed after administration of InVNBL than those of ReDXRL for protocol A. The T/NTs for the liver, spleen, and red marrow after injection of InVNBL for protocol B were similar to those of ReDXRL. The critical organ was found to be red marrow, and thus the red marrow absorption dose defined the recommended maximum administration activity of these liposomal drugs. Characterization of pharmacokinetics and dosimetry is needed to select the appropriate radiotherapeutics for specific tumor treatment applications. The results suggest that InVNBL is a promising therapeutic agent, which is as good as ReDXRL, in two mouse tumor models.
C26; dosimetry; doxorubicin; PEGylated liposomes; radionuclide therapy; vinorelbine
Vincristine pharmacokinetic, tumour uptake and therapeutic characteristics were investigated here in order to elucidate the processes underlying the enhanced efficacy observed for vincristine entrapped in small (120 nm) distearoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes. Plasma vincristine levels after intravenous (i.v.) injection are elevated more than 100-fold in the liposomal formulation compared with free drug in tumour-bearing as well as non-tumour-bearing mice over 24 h. Biodistribution studies demonstrate that the extent and duration of tumour exposure to vincristine is dramatically improved when the drug is administered i.v. in liposomal form. Specifically, 72 h trapezoidal area under the curve values for liposomal vincristine in the murine L1210 ascitic and B16/BL6 solid tumours are 12.9- to 4.1-fold larger, respectively, than observed for free drug. Similar to previous results with the L1210 model, increased drug delivery to the B16 tumour results in significant inhibition of tumour growth, whereas no anti-tumour activity is observed with free vincristine. Comparisons of drug and liposomal lipid accumulation in tumour and muscle tissue indicate that the enhanced efficacy of liposomal vincristine is related predominantly to drug delivered by liposomes to the tumour site rather than drug released from liposomes in the circulation. Consequently, improvements in liposomal vincristine formulations must focus on factors that increase uptake of liposomes into tumour sites as well as enhance liposomal drug retention in the circulation.
The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in tumour-bearing nude mice was studied to examine possible applications of pegylated liposome-targeted anti-cancer therapies. Nude mice received an intravenous injection of 100 μl of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes, containing 0.37–0.74 MBq of activity. The t 1/2α and t 1/2β of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes were 1.1 and 10.3 h, respectively. Tumour uptake was maximal at 24 h at 5.5 ± 3.0% ID g–1. Significant reticuloendothelial system uptake was demonstrated with 19.3 ± 2.8 and 18.8 ± 4.2% ID g–1at 24 h in the liver and spleen, respectively. Other sites of appreciable deposition were the kidney, skin, female reproductive tract and to a lesser extent the gastrointestinal tract. There was no indication of cumulative deposition of pegylated liposomes in the lung, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, heart or adrenal glands. In contrast, the t 1/2α and t 1/2β of unencapsulated111In-DTPA were 5 min and 1.1 h, respectively, with no evidence of accumulation in tumour or normal tissues. Incubation of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in human serum for up to 10 days confirmed that they are very stable, with only minor leakage of their contents. The potential applications of pegylated liposomes in the arena of targeted therapy of solid cancers are discussed. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
biodistribution; head and neck cancer; pegylated liposomes; pharmacokinetics; tumour targeting; xenograft tumour
Mucoadhesive liposomes offer a potential for improved residence time of liposomal systems targeting contact with mucosal tissues, such as in buccal, oral, colon, and vaginal drug delivery. Most of the currently available methods rely on the coating of preformed liposomes by various mucoadhesive polymers. The aim of this study was to develop novel mucoadhesive system by the one-pot preparation method. The pectin- and chitosan-containing liposomes, namely pectosomes and chitosomes, were prepared by the modified solvent injection method. In order to optimize this novel delivery system, we used pectins and chitosans of both high and low degree of esterification/deacetylation (DE/DD), respectively. Sonication was applied to reduce the original vesicle size. All vesicles were characterized for their size, zeta potential, metronidazole entrapment, and stability. Both pectosomes and chitosomes were found to entrap more metronidazole than conventional plain liposomes. Preliminary data indicate that the polymer is present on the liposomal surface, embedded within inner liposomal bilayers, and entrapped inside the aqueous compartment. The next step in the evaluation of this system is the testing of its mucoadhesiveness.
liposomes; pectosomes; chitosomes; metronidazole; mucoadhesion; polymer-coating; vaginal therapy
Background and methods
Paclitaxel, a widely used antitumor agent, has limited clinical application due to its hydrophobicity and systemic toxicity. To achieve sustained and targeted delivery of paclitaxel to tumor sites, liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG2000) were prepared by a lipid film method. In addition, the liposomes also contained truncated fibroblast growth factor fragment-PEG-cholesterol as a ligand targeting the tumor marker fibroblast growth factor receptor. Physicochemical characteristics, such as particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and release profiles were investigated. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were evaluated in C57BL/6 J mice bearing B16 melanoma after intravenous injection of paclitaxel formulated in Cremophor EL (free paclitaxel), conventional liposomes (CL-PTX), or in targeted PEGylated liposomes (TL-PTX).
Compared with CL-PTX and free paclitaxel, TL-PTX prolonged the half-life of paclitaxel by 2.01-fold and 3.40-fold, respectively, in plasma and improved the AUC0→t values of paclitaxel by 1.56-fold and 2.31-fold, respectively, in blood. Biodistribution studies showed high accumulation of TL-PTX in tumor tissue and organs containing the mononuclear phagocyte system (liver and spleen), but a considerable decrease in other organs (heart, lung, and kidney) compared with CL-PTX and free paclitaxel.
The truncated fibroblast growth factor fragment-conjugated PEGylated liposome has promising potential as a long-circulating and tumor-targeting carrier system.
paclitaxel; truncated fibroblast growth factor fragment; poly(ethylene glycol); liposomes; targeted drug delivery
Since regional drug administration enables to maintain a high drug concentration within tumors, we compared the plasma concentration and biodistribution of doxorubicin (Dox) from drug-loaded conventional liposomes by local or systemic administration. The results demonstrated that drug concentration was substantially improved in liver as well as a decrease in blood and other organs by spleen injection mimicking portal vein perfusion (regional administration). To further investigate the targeted therapeutic effect of galactosylated liposome encapsulated doxorubicin (Dox) by regional administration, liver targeting liposomes were prepared by incorporating galactosylated-DPPE to conventional liposomes. Liposome uptake and targeting were verified in vitro and in vivo by fluorescence microscopy and xenogen IVIS imaging system, respectively. The results showed that galactose targeted liposomes presented a stronger specific cell uptake by human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells compared to the non-targeted liposomes. In vivo fluorescence imaging showed that the intra-hepatic deposition of conventional and galactosylated liposomes via spleen injection was more than that via tail vein administration, and galactosylated liposomes had higher fluorescent intensity over conventional liposomes in the liver post spleen administration. The anti-tumor effect of various drug administration routes for both liposomal formulations was evaluated using a murine liver metastasis model of colon cancer. The results indicated that tumor progression in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly suppressed by Dox-loaded galactosylated liposomes via spleen injection, while no significance was observed in non-targeted formulations. Our data indicated that local perfusion of galactosylated liposomal doxorubicin had a great promise for the treatment of liver metastasis from colon cancer.
PEGylated liposomes are important drug carriers that can passively target tumor by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in neoplasm lesions. This study demonstrated that tumor burden determines the tumor uptake, and also the tumor response, in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs in a C26/tk-luc colon carcinoma-bearing mouse model.
Empty PEGylated liposomes (NanoX) and those encapsulated with VNB (NanoVNB) were labeled with In-111 to obtain InNanoX and InVNBL in high labeling yield and radiochemical purity (all >90%). BALB/c mice bearing either small (58.4±8.0 mm3) or large (102.4±22.0 mm3) C26/tk-luc tumors in the right dorsal flank were intravenously administered with NanoVNB, InNanoX, InVNBL, or NanoX as a control, every 7 days for 3 times. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by body weight loss, tumor growth inhibition (using calipers and bioluminescence imaging) and survival fraction. The scintigraphic imaging of tumor mouse was performed during and after treatment.
The biodistribution study of InVNBL revealed a clear inverse correlation (r2 = 0.9336) between the tumor uptake and the tumor mass ranged from 27.6 to 623.9 mg. All three liposomal drugs showed better therapeutic efficacy in small-tumor mice than in large-tumor mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with InVNBL (a combination drug) showed the highest tumor growth inhibition rate and survival fraction compared to those treated with NanoVNB (chemodrug only) and InNanoX (radionuclide only). Specific tumor targeting and significantly increased tumor uptake after periodical treatment with InVNBL were evidenced by scintigraphic imaging, especially in mice bearing small tumors.
The significant differences in the outcomes of cancer treatment and molecular imaging between animals bearing small and large tumors revealed that tumor burden is a critical and discriminative factor in cancer therapy using PEGylated liposomal drugs.
The pharmacokinetics and distribution in tissue of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) encapsulated in sterically stabilized liposomes have been evaluated in rats. Most of the sterically stabilized liposomes concentrated in the spleen with a peak level at 24 h after their intravenous injection. An extended half-life in plasma was observed for sterically stabilized liposomes (14.5 h) compared with that of conventional liposomes (3.9 h). The systemic clearance of ddI incorporated in sterically stabilized liposomes was 180 times lower than that of the free drug. The levels of in vitro and in vivo protein binding on both conventional and sterically stabilized liposomes were also evaluated. Results suggest that the amount of proteins associated with liposomes might not be the only factor involved in the in vivo clearance of liposomes, as this process may also be influenced by the nature of the bound blood proteins.
Tumor specific delivery of anti-cancer drugs is one of the major challenges faced by drug development processes. In this study, we prepared a doxorubicin (DOX)-conjugated liposome (DCL) by incorporating the newly synthesized DSPE-PEG2000-DOX (DPD) into liposomes as a lipid component and tested its anti-tumor activity in vivo. DPD was synthesized by coupling DOX to DSPE-PEG2000-COOH via amide linkage and the chemical structure of resulting DPD was confirmed by 1H-NMR analysis. DCL having liposome size of 130 nm was prepared through thin film cast-hydration method. DCL was found to have significantly higher cellular uptake than conventional liposomes as confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. Anti-tumor activity of DCL against murine B16F10 melanoma tumor-bearing mice revealed that DCL inhibits tumor growth more efficiently than the conventional liposomes, presumably attributed to DOX mediated endocytosis process.
cancer; chemotheraphy; doxorubicin; liposomes; targeting
Nanoliposomes are designed as carriers capable of packaging drugs through passive targeting tumor sites by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects. In the present study the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, micro single-photon emission computed tomography (micro-SPECT/CT) image, dosimetry, and therapeutic efficacy of 188Re-labeled nanoliposomes (188Re-liposomes) in a C26 colonic peritoneal carcinomatosis mouse model were evaluated.
Colon carcinoma peritoneal metastatic BALB/c mice were intravenously administered 188Re-liposomes. Biodistribution and micro-SPECT/CT imaging were performed to determine the drug profile and targeting efficiency of 188Re-liposomes. Pharmacokinetics study was described by a noncompartmental model. The OLINDA|EXM® computer program was used for the dosimetry evaluation. For therapeutic efficacy, the survival, tumor, and ascites inhibition of mice after treatment with 188Re-liposomes and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), respectively, were evaluated and compared.
In biodistribution, the highest uptake of 188Re-liposomes in tumor tissues (7.91% ± 2.02% of the injected dose per gram of tissue [%ID/g]) and a high tumor to muscle ratio (25.8 ± 6.1) were observed at 24 hours after intravenous administration. The pharmacokinetics of 188Re-liposomes showed high circulation time and high bioavailability (mean residence time [MRT] = 19.2 hours, area under the curve [AUC] = 820.4%ID/g*h). Micro-SPECT/CT imaging of 188Re-liposomes showed a high uptake and targeting in ascites, liver, spleen, and tumor. The results were correlated with images from autoradiography and biodistribution data. Dosimetry study revealed that the 188Re-liposomes did not cause high absorbed doses in normal tissue but did in small tumors. Radiotherapeutics with 188Re-liposomes provided better survival time (increased by 34.6% of life span; P < 0.05), tumor and ascites inhibition (decreased by 63.4% and 83.3% at 7 days after treatment; P < 0.05) in mice compared with chemotherapeutics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).
The use of 188Re-liposomes for passively targeted tumor therapy had greater therapeutic effect than the currently clinically applied chemotherapeutics drug 5-FU in a colonic peritoneal carcinomatosis mouse model. This result suggests that 188Re-liposomes have potential benefit and are safe in treating peritoneal carcinomatasis of colon cancer.
biodistribution; dosimetry; 5-fluorouracil; micro-SPECT/CT; 188Re-liposomes
The purpose of the present study was to formulate effective and controlled release albendazole liposomal formulations. Albendazole, a hydrophobic drug used for the treatment of hydatid cysts, was encapsulated in nanosize liposomes. Rapid evaporation method was used for the preparation of albendazole-encapsulated conventional and PEGylated liposomes consisting of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH) in the molar ratios of (6:4) and PC:CH: polyethylene glycol (PEG) (5:4:1), respectively. In this study, PEGylated and conventional liposomes containing albendazole were prepared and their characteristics, such as particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release were investigated. The drug encapsulation efficiency of PEGylated and conventional liposomes was 81% and 72%, respectively. The biophysical characterization of both conventional and PEG-coated liposomes were done by transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Efforts were made to study in vitro release of albendazole. The drug release rate showed decrease in albendazole release in descending order: free albendazole, albendazole-loaded conventional liposomes, and least with albendazole-loaded PEG-liposomes. Biologically relevant vesicles were prepared and in vitro release of liposome-entrapped albendazole was determined.
albendazole; PEGylated; in vitro release; liposomes; nanosize
The objective of this study was to develop an efficient tumor vasculature targeted liposome delivery system for combretastatin A4, a novel antivascular agent. Liposomes composed of hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol, distearoyl phosphoethanolamine-polyethylene-glycol-2000 conjugate (DSPE-PEG), and DSPE-PEG-maleimide were prepared by the lipid film hydration and extrusion process. Cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides with affinity for αvβ3-integrins expressed on tumor vascular endothelial cells were coupled to the distal end of PEG on the liposomes sterically stabilized with PEG (long circulating liposomes, LCL). The liposome delivery system was characterized in terms of size, lamellarity, ligand density, drug loading, and leakage properties. Targeting nature of the delivery system was evaluated in vitro using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Electron microscopic observations of the formulations revealed presence of small unilamellar liposomes of ∼120 nm in diameter. High performance liquid chromatography determination of ligand coupling to the liposome surface indicated that more than 99% of the RGD peptides were reacted with maleimide groups on the liposome surface. Up to 3 mg/mL of stable liposomal combretastatin A4 loading was achieved with ∼80% of this being entrapped within the liposomes. In the in vitro cell culture studies, targeted liposomes showed significantly higher binding to their target cells than non-targeted liposomes, presumably through specific interaction of the RGD with its receptors on the cell surface. It was concluded that the targeting properties of the prepared delivery system would potentially improve the therapeutic benefits of combretastatin A4 compared with nontargeted liposomes or solution dosage forms.
targeted liposome delivery system; combretastatin A4; tumor vasculature targeting; liposome characterization
Staudinger ligation was evaluated as a strategy for synthesizing receptor targeted liposomes. First, an activated lipid derivative was synthesized by reacting dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and 2-(diphenylphosphino) terephthalic acid 1-methyl 4-penta-fluorophenyldiester. Second, transferrin (Tf) was activated with p-azidophenyl isothiocyanate. Third, liposomes containing the activated lipid were prepared and then coupled to the activated Tf via the Staudinger reaction. These liposomes were evaluated in KB cells for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, and in mice for pharmacokinetic properties. Tf-derivatized liposomes encapsulating calcein prepared by this conjugation method effectively targeted Tf receptor expressing KB cells. In addition, the Tf-targeted liposomes entrapping doxorubicin showed greatly enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity relative to non-targeted control liposomes. Pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that these liposomes retained long circulating properties relative to the free drug. In summary, Staudinger ligation is an effective method for the synthesis of receptor targeted liposomes.
Staudinger Ligation; Liposome; Doxorubicin; Transferrin; Drug targeting
This study focuses on the effect of different flexible liposomes containing sodium cholate, Tween 80, or cineol on skin deposition of carboxyfluorescein (CF). Size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, and stability of the prepared vesicles were evaluated. The influence of these systems on the skin deposition of CF utilizing rat skin as membrane model was investigated. Results showed that all of the investigated liposomes had almost spherical shapes with low polydispersity (PDI < 0.3) and particles size range from 83 to 175 nm. All liposomal formulations exhibited negative zeta potential, good drug entrapment efficiency, and stability. In vitro skin deposition data showed that flexible liposomes gave significant deposition of CF on the skin compared to conventional liposomes and drug solutions. This study revealed that flexible liposomes, containing cineole, were able to deliver higher amount of CF suggesting that the hydrophilic drugs delivery to the skin was strictly correlated to the vesicle composition.
Liposomes are intensively being developed for biomedical applications including drug and gene delivery. However, targeted liposomal delivery in cancer treatment is a very complicated multi-step process. Unfavorable liposome biodistribution upon intravenous administration and membrane destabilization in blood circulation could result in only a very small fraction of cargo reaching the tumors. It would therefore be desirable to develop new quantitative strategies to track liposomal delivery systems to improve the therapeutic index and decrease systemic toxicity. Here, we developed a simple and non-radiative method to quantify the tumor uptake of targeted and non-targeted control liposomes as well as their encapsulated contents simultaneously. Specifically, four different chelated lanthanide metals were encapsulated or surface-conjugated onto tumor-targeted and non-targeted liposomes, respectively. The two liposome formulations were then injected into tumor-bearing mice simultaneously and their tumor delivery was determined quantitatively via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), allowing for direct comparisons. Tumor uptake of the liposomes themselves and their encapsulated contents were consistent with targeted and non-targeted liposome formulations that were injected individually.
This project aims to formulate and characterize a drug-eluting contact lens to provide controlled release of drug for a longer period of time, using liposomes as drug delivery system.
Materials and Methods:
Drug delivering contact lenses were created by coating disposable soft contact lenses with ciprofloxacin entrapped in the liposomes. Reverse phase evaporation and lipid film hydration methods were used for the preparation of ciprofloxacin trapping reverse phase evaporation vesicles, that is, unilamellar vesicles (REVs) and multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), respectively. Soya lecithin and cholesterol (CH) were used in the molar ratios of 7:4 and 7:2. The spherical structure of the liposomes, the mean diameter, and their purity were determined by photomicroscopic, transmission electron microscope, and chromatographic analysis, respectively. The prepared liposomes were evaluated for their entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, stability, and toxicity.
MLVs were larger than REVs with their mean diameter 338.32 nm and also entrapped greater amount of ciprofloxacin. Drug loading and its release from the liposomal vesicles was dependent on CH content. Ciprofloxacin released from the liposomes coated on the contact lenses not only inhibited both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on an agar plate but also showed an enhanced antibacterial effect as determined by minimal inhibitory concentrations. Approximately 40% of ciprofloxacin was retained up to a period of 3 months at 4°C. Furthermore, the formulation was found to be nontoxic and also a reduction in toxicity of ciprofloxacin was observed after entrapment when assessed by lymphocyte toxicity assay and chick embryo inoculation.
An innovative drug delivery system consisting of drug-loaded liposomes coated onto the surface of contact lenses has been developed. This system is highly specific in terms of localized and sustained application of the drug.
Ciprofloxacin; disposable soft contact lenses; ocular infection; targeted drug delivery
Liposomes have been prepared loaded with DNA (plasmid encoding for the green fluorescent protein, GFP) and additionally modified with TATp and PEG, with PEG being attached to the liposome surface via both pH-sensitive hydrazone and non-pH-sensitive bonds. The pGFP-loaded liposomal preparations have been administered intratumorarly in tumor-bearing mice and the efficacy of tumor cell transfection was followed after 72 h. The administration of pGFP–TATp–liposomes with non-pH-sensitive PEG coating has resulted in only minimal transfection of tumor cells because of steric hindrances for the liposome-to-cell interaction created by the PEG coat, which shielded the surface-attached TATp. At the same time, the administration of pGFP–TATp–liposomes with the low pH-detachable PEG resulted in at least three times more efficient transfection since the removal of PEG under the action of the decreased intratumoral pH leads to the exposure of the liposome-attached TATp residues, enhanced penetration of the liposomes inside tumor cells and more effective intracellular delivery of the pGFP. This result can be considered as an important step in the development of tumor-specific stimuli-sensitive drug and gene delivery systems.
Pharmaceutical nanocarriers; liposomes; pH-sensitive PEG–PE conjugates; green fluorescent protein; in vivo transfection; cancer cells
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate liposomes containing a bile salt, sodium deoxycholate (SDC), as oral drug delivery systems to enhance the oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble and poorly permeable drug, cyclosporine A (CyA). Liposomes composed of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and SDC were prepared by a thin-film dispersion method followed by homogenization. Several properties of the liposomes including particle size, polydispersity index, and entrapment efficiency were characterized. The in vitro release of CyA from these liposomes was less than 5% at 12 hours as measured by a dynamic dialysis method. The pharmacokinetic results in rats showed improved absorption of CyA in SPC/SDC liposomes, compared with CyA-loaded conventional SPC/cholesterol (Chol) liposomes and microemulsion-based Sandimmune Neoral®. The relative oral bioavailability of CyA-loaded SPC/SDC and SPC/Chol liposomes was 120.3% and 98.6%, respectively, with Sandimmun Neoral as the reference. The enhanced bioavailability of CyA was probably due to facilitated absorption by the liposomes containing SDC rather than improved release rate.
liposomes; bile salt; sodium deoxycholate; cyclosporine A; oral bioavailability
Previously we reported that fusogenic liposomes, prepared by fusing simple liposomes with Sendai virus particles, could introduce their contents directly and efficiently into the cytoplasm. In this study, we examined the anti-tumour activity of fusogenic liposomes containing fragment A of diphtheria toxin (DTA). Fusogenic liposomes containing DTA showed high cytotoxicity against sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells in vitro. When these liposomes were administered into the abdominal cavity of ddY mice carrying S-180, tumour cells completely disappeared in four of six tumour-bearing mice without decrease in body weight. Neither simple liposomes containing DTA nor empty fusogenic liposomes had any effect on tumour suppression. We conclude that fusogenic liposomes containing DTA are new and potentially effective tools for the treatment of ascites tumours without any severe side-effects.
Fluconazole-entrapped multilamellar liposomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration method. The effects of cholesterol molar ratio, charge-inducing agents, and α-tocopherol acetate on encapsulation efficiency values and in vitro drug release of multilamellar liposomes were studied. Freeze-dried liposomal products were prepared with or without cryoprotectants. Results showed that incorporation of stearylamine resulted in an increased entrapment of fluconazole, whereas incorporation of dicetyl phosphate decreased the drug entrapment efficiency. The incorporation of α-tocopherol acetate into fluconazole multilamellar liposomes resulted in the increase of entrapment efficiency of fluconazole liposomes. In vitro release studies revealed that incorporation of cholesterol into multilamellar liposomal formulations decreased drug permeability from formulations. Positively charged fluconazole multilamellar liposomes gave rise to a slow release rate compared to neutral liposomes whereas negatively charged fluconazole liposomes showed a rapid release rate. Physical stability studies showed that lyophilized cake of liposomes without cryoprotectants was compact and difficult to reconstitute compared to fluffy easily reconstituted cakes upon using cryoprotectants. Fluconazole retained in freeze-dried liposomes without cryoprotectants was 63.452% compared to 91.877% using three grams of trehalose as a cryoprotectant per gram lipid in positively charged multilamellar liposomes. Physical stability studies showed superior potentials of the lyophilized product after reconstitution in comparison with those of a solution product.
Fluconazole; Multilamellar liposomes; Ophthalmic; Freeze-drying; Stability
Liposomes are recognized drug delivery systems with tumor-targeting capability. In addition, therapeutic or diagnostic radionuclides can be efficiently loaded into liposomes. This study investigated the feasibility of utilizing radiotherapeutic liposomes as a new post-lumpectomy radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer by determining the locoregional retention and systemic distribution of liposomes radiolabeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) in an orthotopic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft nude rat model. To test this new brachytherapy approach, a positive surgical margin lumpectomy model was set up by surgically removing the xenograft and deliberately leaving a small tumor remnant in the surgical cavity. Neutral, anionic, and cationic surface-charged fluorescent liposomes of 100 and 400 nm diameter were manufactured and labeled with 99mTc-BMEDA. Locoregional retention and systemic distribution of 99mTc-liposomes injected into the post-lumpectomy cavity were determined using non-invasive nuclear imaging, ex vivo tissue gamma counting and fluorescent stereomicroscopic imaging. The results indicated that 99mTc-liposomes were effectively retained in the surgical cavity (average retention was 55.7 ± 24.2% of injected dose for all rats at 44 h post-injection) and also accumulated in the tumor remnant (66.9 ± 100.4%/g for all rats). The majority of cleared 99mTc was metabolized quickly and excreted into feces and urine, exerting low radiation burden on vital organs. In certain animals 99mTc-liposomes significantly accumulated in the peripheral lymph nodes, especially 100 nm liposomes with anionic surface charge. The results suggest that post-lumpectomy intracavitary administration of therapeutic radionuclides delivered by 100-nm anionic liposome carrier is a potential therapy for the simultaneous treatment of the surgical cavity and the draining lymph nodes of early-stage breast cancer.
Breast cancer; Radioactive liposomes; Intracavitary; Brachytherapy; Locoregional retention; Lymph node
The purpose of this study was to formulate topically effective controlled release ophthalmic acetazolamide liposomal formulations. Reverse-phase evaporation and lipid film hydration methods were used for the preparation of reversephase evaporation (REVs) and multilamellar (MLVs) acetazolamide liposomes consisting of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH) in the molar ratios of (7∶2), (7∶4), (7∶6), and (7∶7) with or without stearylamine (SA) or dicetyl phosphate (DP) as positive and negative charge inducers, respectively. The prepared liposomes were evaluated for their entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. Multilamellar liposomes entrapped greater amounts of drug than REVs liposomes. Drug loading was increased by increasing CH content as well as by inclusion of SA. Drug release rate showed an order of negatively charged > neutral > positively charged liposomes, which is the reverse of the data of drug loading efficiency. Physical stability study indicated that approximately 89%, 77%, and 69% of acetazolamide was retained in positive, negative, and neutral MLVs liposomal formulations up to a period of 3 months at 4°C. The intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering activity of selected acetazolamide liposomal formulations was determined and compared with that of plain liposomes and acetazolamide solution. Multilamellar acetazolamide liposomes revealed more prolonged effect than REVs liposomes. The positively charged and neutral liposomes exhibited greater lowering in IOP and a more prolonged effect than the negatively charged ones. The positive multilamellar liposomes composed of PC:CH:SA (7:4:1) molar ratio showed the maximal response, which reached a value of −7.8±1.04 mmHg after 3 hours of topical administration.
Acetazolamide; multilamellar liposomes; reverse-phase evaporation liposomes
The effect produced by antibody specific to Candida albicans when attached to liposomes containing amphotericin B was studied in vivo. Liposomal amphotericin B bearing specific immunoglobulin (LAMB-Ab) was compared with the unencapsulated drug (fAMB) and other liposomal amphotericin B formulations in the short-term survival (21 days) of mice with disseminated candidiasis. Both the treatment and prophylaxis of the murine model of candidiasis were explored in these trials. LAMB-Ab increased survival rates in the model more than other liposomal preparations containing amphotericin B. Liposomal amphotericin B compounds as a group prolonged survival over fAMB. Liposomal preparations used for comparison included liposomes with attached nonspecific antibody (LAMB-Ab-), liposomes without antibody (LAMB), and liposomes with unattached specific antibody (LAMB+).
A major challenge in the application of a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for anticancer agents is the knowledge of the critical properties that influence their in vivo behavior and the therapeutic performance of the drug. The effect of a liposomal formulation, as an example of a widely-used delivery system, on all aspects of the drug delivery process, including the drug’s behavior in blood and in the tumor, has to be considered when optimizing treatment with liposomal drugs, but that is rarely done. This article presents a comparison of conventional (Foslip®) and polyethylene glycosylated (Fospeg®) liposomal formulations of temoporfin (meta-tetra[hydroxyphenyl]chlorin) in tumor-grafted mice, with a set of comparison parameters not reported before in one model. Foslip® and Fospeg® pharmacokinetics, drug release, liposome stability, tumor uptake, and intratumoral distribution are evaluated, and their influence on the efficacy of the photodynamic treatment at different light–drug intervals is discussed. The use of whole-tumor multiphoton fluorescence macroscopy imaging is reported for visualization of the in vivo intratumoral distribution of the photosensitizer. The combination of enhanced permeability and retention-based tumor accumulation, stability in the circulation, and release properties leads to a higher efficacy of the treatment with Fospeg® compared to Foslip®. A significant advantage of Fospeg® lies in a major decrease in the light–drug interval, while preserving treatment efficacy.
mTHPC; liposomes; drug release; liposomal pharmacokinetics; biodistribution; photodynamic therapy