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1.  Preparation and Characterization of Pioglitazone Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes 
Pioglitazone, a class II Biopharmaceutical Classification System drug having poor water solubility and slow dissolution rate may have a negative impact on its subtherapeutic plasma drug levels leading to therapeutic failure. In order to improve its water solubility and thus dissolution, cyclodextrin complexation technique was followed. The phase solubility studies were carried using three different types of cyclodextrins viz., β, methyl-β and γ-cyclodextrins. The Gibbs free energy was calculated in order to determine ease of the complexation. Binary systems of pioglitazone with cyclodextrins were prepared by kneading method and spray drying method. The phase solubility profiles with all the three cyclodextrins were classified as AL-type, indicating the formation of 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. The complexation capability of cyclodextrins with pioglitazone increased in the order of methyl-β > β > γ-cyclodextrin. The Gibbs free energy was found to be in the order γ > methyl-β > β cyclodextrin. Characterization of inclusion complexes was done by solubility studies, in vitro dissolution studies, Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry studies. Inclusion complexes exhibited higher rates of dissolution than the corresponding physical mixtures and pure drug. Greater solubility was observed with spray-dried methyl-β cyclodextrin complexes (2.29 ± 0.001 mg/ml) in comparison to the kneaded methyl-β cyclodextrin complexes (1.584 ± 0.053 mg/ml) and pure drug (0.0714 ± 0.0018 mg/ml).
PMCID: PMC3249738  PMID: 22224032
Inclusion complexes; methyl-β cyclodextrin; phase solubility; pioglitazone; solubility; spray drying
2.  Influence of hydrophilic polymers on celecoxib complexation with hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2006;7(3):E184-E189.
Complexation of celecoxib with hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) in the presence and absence of 3 hydrophilic polymers—polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and polyethylene glycol (PEG)—was investigated with an objective of evaluating the effect of hydrophilic polymers on the complexation and solubilizing efficiencies of HPβCD and on the dissolution rate of celecoxib from the HPβCD complexes. The phase solubility studies indicated the formation of celecoxib-HPβCD inclusion complexes at a 1∶1M ratio in solution in both the presence and the absence of hydrophilic polymers. The complexes formed were quite stable. Addition of hydrophilic polymers markedly enhanced the complexation and solubilizing efficiencies of HPβCD. Solid inclusion complexes of celecoxib-HPβCD were prepared in 1∶1 and 1∶2 ratios by the kneading method, with and without the addition of hydrophilic polymers. The solubility and dissolution rate of celecoxib were significantly improved by complexation with HPβCD. The celecoxib-HPβCD (1∶2) inclusion complex yielded a 36.57-fold increase in the dissolution rate of celecoxib. The addition of hydrophilic polymers also markedly enhanced the dissolution rate of celecoxib from HPβCD complexes: a 72.60-, 61.25-, and 39.15-fold increase was observed with PVP, HPMC, and PEG, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry indicated stronger drug amorphization and entrapment in HPβCD because of the combined action of HPβCD and the hydrophilic polymers.
PMCID: PMC2750521  PMID: 17025259
Celecoxib; complexation; hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin; hydrophilic polymers; dissolution rate
3.  Preparation, characterization and in vitro dissolution study of Nitrazepam: Cyclodextrin inclusion complex 
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences  2012;4(Suppl 1):S106-S107.
The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD) to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of Nitrazepam, a water-insoluble drug. The phase solubility profile of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin was an AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature Nitrazepam solubilization and their value decreased with increase in the cyclodextrin concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of Nitrazepam were prepared with cyclodextrin using various methods such as physical mixing, kneading, spray-drying and lyophilization. The complexes were characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction studies. These studies indicated that a complex prepared by lyophilization had successful inclusion of the Nitrazepam molecule into the cyclodextrin cavity. Complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility and wettability of Nitrazepam. Among all the samples, a complex prepared with Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin by lyophilization had the greatest improvement in the in vitro rate of Nitrazepam dissolution. The mean dissolution time for Nitrazepam decreased significantly after preparing complexes. The similarity factor indicated a significant difference between the release profiles of Nitrazepam from complexes, physical mixtures and plain Nitrazepam. To conclude that, the tablets containing complexes prepared with Cyclodextrins had significant improvement in the release profile of Nitrazepam as compared to tablets containing Nitrazepam without cyclodextrin.
PMCID: PMC3467855  PMID: 23066180
Inclusion complexes; hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin; nizatriptam
4.  Physico-Chemical Characterization and In Vitro Dissolution Assessment of Clonazepam—Cyclodextrins Inclusion Compounds 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2009;10(4):1301-1312.
The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of clonazepam with β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of clonazepam, a water-insoluble lipid-lowering drug. The phase-solubility profiles with both cyclodextrins were classified as AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \left( {\Delta {G_{tr}}^o} \right) $$\end{document} values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature of clonazepam solubilization, and they decreased with increase in the cyclodextrins concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of clonazepam were prepared with cyclodextrins by various methods such as kneading, coevaporation, and physical mixing. The complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies. These studies indicated that complex prepared kneading and coevaporation methods showed successful inclusion of the clonazepam molecule into the cyclodextrins cavity. The complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility and wettability of clonazepam. Among all the samples, complex prepared with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin by kneading method showed highest improvement in in vitro dissolution rate of clonazepam. Mean dissolution time of clonazepam decreased significantly after preparation of complexes and physical mixture of clonazepam with cyclodextrins. Similarity factor indicated significant difference between the release profiles of clonazepam from complexes and physical mixture and from plain clonazepam. Tablets containing complexes prepared with cyclodextrins showed significant improvement in the release profile of clonazepam as compared to tablet containing clonazepam without cyclodextrins.
PMCID: PMC2799587  PMID: 19885735
β-cyclodextrin; clonazepam; hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; inclusion complexation; in vitro dissolution studies; mean dissolution time
5.  Studies on the Preparation, Characterization, and Solubility of 2-HP-β-Cyclodextrin-Meclizine HCl Inclusion Complexes 
Meclizine HCl is a poorly water-soluble drug having a very slow-onset of action. The effect of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins and β-cyclodextrins on its aqueous solubility and dissolution rate was investigated. The phase solubility profile indicated that the solubility of Meclizine HCl was significantly increased in the presence of both 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and β- cyclodextrin; an extend of increase being more for 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. It was classified as AL-type, indicating the 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. The complexes formed were quite stable. The solid complexes prepared by physical mixtures, kneading methods, and co-precipitation methods were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and FTIR. An in vitro study showed that the solubility and dissolution rate of Meclizine HCl were significantly improved by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Tablet formulation using 1:1 kneading complex of Meclizine HCl and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with drug equivalent to 25 mg was prepared by a direct compression method. A dissolution study of prepared tablets was performed in 0.5% SLS in water (pH 7.0). Almost 96% drug was released from the formulation at the end of 30min. A comparison study of prepared tablets was done with marketed a Meclizine HCl 25 mg conventional tablet. From the results of dissolution study, it was found that the prepared formulation was showing better release, which was statistically significant P < 0.01 than a marketed tablet (paired t-test). Only 54% drug release was observed from the marketed tablet at the end of 30 min. Hence this study concludes that the solubility enhancement of Meclizine HCl could be successfully achieved using the inclusion complexation technique.
PMCID: PMC3573373  PMID: 23493156
2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; β-cyclodextrin; co-precipitation method; kneading method; phase solubility profile; Meclizine HCl
6.  Physicochemical Properties and Dissolution Studies of Dexamethasone Acetate-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes Produced by Different Methods 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2008;9(1):314-321.
Inclusion complexes between dexamethasone acetate (DMA), a poorly water soluble drug, and β-cyclodextrin (βCD) were obtained to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of this drug. Phase-solubility profile indicated that the solubility of DMA was significantly increased in the presence of βCD (33-fold) and was classified as AL-type, indicating the 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Solid complexes prepared by different methods (kneading, coevaporation, freeze drying) and physical mixture were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, infrared absorption and optical microscopy. Preparation methods influenced the physicochemical properties of the products. The dissolution profiles of solid complexes were determined and compared with those DMA alone and their physical mixture, in three different mediums: simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2), simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4) and distilled water. The dissolution studies showed that in all mediums DMA presented an incomplete dissolution even in four hours. In contrast, the complexes formed presented a higher dissolution rate in simulated gastric fluid (SGF pH 1.2), which indicate that these have different ionization characteristics. According to the results, the freeze–dried and kneaded products exhibited higher dissolution rates than the drug alone, in all the mediums.
PMCID: PMC2976901  PMID: 18446497
β-cyclodextrin; dexamethasone acetate; dissolution rate; inclusion complexes; phase-solubility; physicochemical characterization
7.  Physicochemical Characterization of Efavirenz–Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2009;10(1):81-87.
Efavirenz (EFV) is an oral antihuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug with extremely poor aqueous solubility. Thus, its gastrointestinal absorption is limited by the dissolution rate of the drug. The objective of this study was to characterize the inclusion complexes of EFV with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl β-CD (HPβCD), and randomly methylated β-CD (RMβCD) to improve the solubility and dissolution of EFV. The inclusion complexation of EFV with cyclodextrins in the liquid state was characterized by phase solubility studies. The solid-state characterization of various EFV and CD systems was performed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Dissolution studies were carried out in distilled water using US Pharmacopeia dissolution rate testing equipment. Phase solubility studies provided an AL-type solubility diagram for β-CD and AP-type solubility diagram for HPβCD and RMβCD. The phase solubility data enabled calculating stability constants (Ks) for EFV-βCD, EFV-HPβCD, and EFV-RMβCD systems which were 288, 469, and 1,073 M−1, respectively. The physical and kneaded mixtures of EFV with CDs generally provided higher dissolution of EFV as expected. The dissolution of EFV was substantially higher with HPβCD and RMβCD inclusion complexes prepared by the freeze drying method. Thus, complexation with HPβCD and RMβCD could possibly improve the dissolution rate-limited absorption of EFV.
PMCID: PMC2663670  PMID: 19148759
cyclodextrins; dissolution rate; efavirenz; inclusion complexes; solubility
8.  Solid State Characterization of Domperidone: Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex 
The purpose of the present study was to prepare inclusion complex of domperidone with hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin in order improved the solubility and hence to increase dissolution of domperidone. An effect of concentration of hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the aqueous solubility of domperidone was determined by phase-solubility method. The aqueous solubility of domperidone increased as a function of hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin concentration, showing AL type diagram. Solid domperidone/hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex was prepared in ratio 1:1 by ultrasonication and kneading method. Solid state inclusion complex was characterized by FTIR, powder X-ray diffraction and differential-scanning calorimetry techniques. FTIR studies showed intactness of drug in complex whereas powder diffraction studies showed that hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex was amorphous. Solubility studies showed that complexation increased domperidone solubility as compared to pure drug in 0.1M hydrochloric acid and distilled water. Drug content confirms that ultrasonication is one of the efficient methods to prepare inclusion complex. Dissolution data of inclusion complexes also indicated that there is 1.4 folds increase in dissolution as compared to pure drug and was observed in case of inclusion complexes prepared by ultrasonication.
PMCID: PMC2929788  PMID: 20838533
Domperidone; HP-β-CD; inclusion complex
9.  Improvement of Solubility and Dissolution Properties of Clotrimazole by Solid Dispersions and Inclusion Complexes 
Solid dispersions of a slightly water-soluble drug, clotrimazole, were prepared in different weight ratios using polyethyleneglycol 4000 and different molecular weight polyvinyl pyrrolidones as carriers. Moreover, binary and ternary β-cyclodextrin complexes were prepared in different molar ratios. Both solid dispersions and β-cyclodextrin complexes were prepared by solvent evaporation technique. A phase solubility method was used to evaluate the effect of the tested carriers on the aqueous solubility of clotrimazole. The dissolution of all the preparations was tested using the USP paddle method. The selected solid dispersions and inclusion complexes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry studies, and results clarified the role of the tested carriers in decreasing the crystallinity of clotrimazole and complexing abilities. Based on physical characters and in vitro drug release pattern, polyvinylpyrrolidone solid dispersions (1:1 weight ratio) and ternary cyclodextrin complexes (clotrimazole-β-cyclodextrin complexes with either polymer, 1:1 molar ratio) were selected as ideal batches for suppositories. Suppocire AM/50 mg carbopol 940, was chosen as a suppository base and the suppositories were prepared by molding technique. The prepared suppositories were characterized for weight variation, softening time and drug content. All these properties were found to be ideal. The in vitro drug release pattern was determined in citrate buffer (pH 4.5) containing 1% sodium lauryl sulfate. The in vitro release of clotrimazole from its solid dispersions and inclusion complexes incorporated suppositories was markedly improved when compared to the intact drug incorporated suppositories. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone solid dispersions incorporated suppositories were found to possess excellent antifungal activity.
PMCID: PMC3425063  PMID: 22923864
Clotrimazole; polyethyleneglycol; polyvinylpyrrolidone; suppository; β-cyclodextrin
10.  Danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system: A potential application in emergency contraception by the oral route 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2007;8(2):E61-E70.
This study explored the potential of β-cyclodextrin to improve the aqueous solubility and dissolution of danazol, investigated a simple and less expensive method for preparation of a danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system, and explored the potential application of a danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system as a single-dose emergency contraceptive. Phase solubility analysis indicated formation of a first-order soluble complex with stability constant 972.03 M−1, while Job's plot affirmed 1∶1 stoichiometry. The hyperchromic shift in the UV-Vis spectrum of danazol in the presence of β-cyclodextrin indicated solubilization capability of β-cyclodextrin for danazol. The extrinsic Cotton effect with a negative peak at 280.7 nm confirmed the inclusion of danazol in the asymmetric locus of β-cyclodextrin.1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis suggested that the protons of the steroidal skeleton of danazol display favorable interactions with the β-cyclodextrin cavity. The danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system was prepared by kneading, solution, freeze-drying, and milling methods. The extent of the enhancement of dissolution rate was found to be dependent on the preparation method. Dissolution studies showed a similar relative dissolution rate (2.85) of the danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system prepared by the freeze-drying and milling (in the presence of 13% moisture) methods. In a mouse model, the danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system at 51.2 mg/kg (equivalent to a 400-mg human dose) showed 100% inhibition of implantation when given postcoitally. Moreover, the danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system is safe up to 2000 mg/kg in the mouse (15.52 g/70 kg human) as a single oral dose. Thus, the danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system could serve as a new therapeutic application: an oral emergency contraceptive at a physiologically acceptable single dose.
PMCID: PMC2750374  PMID: 17622113
Danazol; β-cyclodextrin; solubility; dissolution studies; anti-implantation activity
11.  Diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin binary systems: Physicochemical characterization and in vitro dissolution and diffusion studies 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2005;6(3):E464-E472.
The aim of this work was to study the influence of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the biopharmaceutic properties of diclofenac (DCF). To this purpose the physicochemical characterization of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin binary systems was performed both in solution and solid state. Solid phase characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder x-ray diffractometry (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Phase solubility analyses, and in vitro permeation experiments through a synthetic membrane were performed in solution. Moreover, DCF/β-CD interactions were studied in DMSO by1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effects of different preparation methods and drug-to-β-CD molar ratios were also evaluated. Phase solubility studies revealed 1∶1 M complexation of DCF when the freeze-drying method was used for the preparation of the binary system. The true inclusion for the freeze-dried binary system was confirmed by1H NMR spectroscopy, DSC, powder XRD, and IR studies. The dissolution study revealed that the drug dissolution rate was improved by the presence of CDs and the highest and promptest release was obtained with the freeze-dried binary system. Diffusion experiments through a silicone membrane showed that DCF diffusion was higher from the saturated drug solution (control) than the freeze-dried inclusion complexes, prepared using different DCF-β-CD molar ratios. However, the presence of the inclusion complex was able to stabilize the system giving rise to a more regular diffusion profile.
PMCID: PMC2750392  PMID: 16354006
diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex; dissolution; permeation
12.  Triamterene-β-cyclodextrin systems: Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2004;5(1):142-150.
The purpose of this research was to improve the solubility and therefore dissolution and bioavailability of triamterene, a poorly water soluble diuretic, by complexation with β-cyclodextrin. Triamterene has been reported to show low bioavailability after oral administration, with wide intersubject variation. This study presents the formulation of solid dispersions of triamterene with β-cyclodextrin—by cogrinding, kneading, and coevaporation, using low pH conditions—and their characterizations, evaluation of improvement in dissolution profiles, and in vivo advantage. Phase solubility studies indicated complex with possible stoichiometry of 1∶1 and a stability constant of 167.67M−1. The solid dispersions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. The characterization studies confirmed inclusion of the phenyl ring of triamterene within the nonpolar cavity of β-cyclodextrin in the coevaporate. Remarkable improvement in in vitro drug release profiles in 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was observed with all dispersions, especially the coevaporate. The coevaporate, when administered orally in rats, also exhibited improved in vivo activity, as measured by net sodium ion excretion, as compared with triamterene powder. Thus, coevaporation of the drug and β-cyclodextrin from acidified alcohol provide the optimum condition for inclusion complexation to give a binary system with remarkable improvement in in vitro drug release profile and in vivo performance.
PMCID: PMC2784853  PMID: 15198540
triamterene; β-cyclodexrin; coevaporate
13.  Enhancement of Oral Bioavailability of Cilostazol by Forming its Inclusion Complexes 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2009;10(2):660-669.
The study was designed to investigate the effect of cyclodextrins (CDs) on the solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability of cilostazol by forming inclusion complexes. Natural CDs like β-CD, γ-CD, and the hydrophilic β-CD derivatives, DM-β-CD and HP-β-CD, were used to prepare inclusion complexes with cilostazol. Phase solubility study was carried out and the stability constants were calculated assuming a 1:1 stoichiometry. Solid cilostazol complexes were prepared by coprecipitation and kneading methods and compared with physical mixtures of cilostazol and cyclodextrins. Prepared inclusion complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. In vitro dissolution study was performed using phosphate buffer pH 6.4, distilled water, and HCl buffer pH 1.2 as dissolution medium. The optimized inclusion complex was studied for its bioavailability in rabbit and the results were compared with those of pure cilostazol and Pletoz-50. Phase solubility study showed dramatic improvement in the solubility of drug by formation of complexes, which was further increased by pH adjustment. The dissolution rate of cilostazol was markedly augmented by the complexation with DM-β-CD. DSC and XRD curves showed sharp endothermic peaks indicating the reduction in the microcrystallinity of cilostazol. Selected inclusion complex was also stable at ambient temperature up to 6 months. The in vivo study revealed that DM-β-CD increased the bioavailability of cilostazol with low variability in the absorption. Among all cilostazol–cyclodextrins complexes, cilostazol–DM-β-CD inclusion complex (1:3) prepared by coprecipitation method showed 1.53-fold and 4.11-fold increase in absorption along with 2.1-fold and 2.97-fold increase in dissolution rate in comparison with Pletoz-50 and pure cilostazol, respectively.
PMCID: PMC2690812  PMID: 19459053
bioavailability; cilostazol–CD inclusion complex; dissolution; solubility; stability study
14.  Characterization of β-lapachone and methylated β-cyclodextrin solid-state systems 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2007;8(3):E68-E77.
The purpose of this research was to explore the utility of β cyclodextrin (βCD) and β cyclodextrin derivatives (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin [HPβCD], sulfobutylether-β-CD [SB\CD], and a randomly methylated-β-CD [RMβCD]) to form inclusion complexes with the antitumoral drug, β-lapachone (βLAP), in order to overcome the problem of its poor water solubility. RMβCD presented the highest efficiency for βLAP solubilization and was selected to develop solid-state binary systems. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and optical and scanning electron microscopy results suggest the formation of inclusion complexes by both freeze-drying and kneading techniques with a dramatic improvement in drug dissolution efficiency at 20-minute dissolution efficiency (DE20-minute 67.15% and 88.22%, respectively) against the drug (DE20-minute 27.11%) or the βCD/drug physical mixture (DE20-minute 27.22%). However, the kneading method gives a highly crystalline material that together with the adequate drug dissolution profile make it the best procedure in obtaining inclusion complexes of RMβCD/βLAP convenient for different applications of βLAP.
PMCID: PMC2750556  PMID: 17915818
β-lapachone; antitumoral; cyclodextrin; inclusion complex; crystallinity; dissolution rate
15.  Preparation and Evaluation of Silymarin β-cyclodextrin Molecular Inclusion Complexes 
Silymarin is a hepatoprotective agent, having poor water solubility and oral absorption of about 23 – 47%, leading to low bioavailability of the drug. The aim of the present study is to improve the solubility and dissolution rate and in turn the hepatoprotective activity of the drug, by formulating its inclusion complex with beta (β)-cyclodextrin, using different methods. The phase solubility analysis indicates the formation of 1:1 molar inclusion complex of the drug with beta cyclodextrin. Apparent stability constant for Silymarin (Kc) was 722 K-1 with β-cyclodextrin complex. The inclusion complexes were prepared by four different methods, namely, physical mixing, kneading, co-precipitation, and solvent evaporation. The prepared complexes were characterized using differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffractometry. The inclusion complex prepared by the co-precipitation methods exhibits an overall best result, with respect to the formulation of sustained release formulations.
PMCID: PMC3159273  PMID: 21897659
Bioavailability; inclusion complexes; silymarin; β-cyclodextrin
16.  Aripiprazole-Cyclodextrin Binary Systems for Dissolution Enhancement: Effect of Preparation Technique, Cyclodextrin Type and Molar Ratio 
Objective(s): The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the natural and the chemically modified form of cyclodextrins namely; β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) respectively on the solubility and dissolution rate of aripiprazole; an antipsychotic medication showing poor aqueous solubility.
Materials and Methods: Phase solubility of aripiprazole with the studied CDs and the complexation efficiency values (CE) which reflect the solubilizing power of the CDs towards the drug was performed. Solid binary systems of aripiprazole with CDs were prepared by kneading, microwave irradiation and freeze-drying techniques at 1:1 and 1:2 (drug to CD) molar ratios. Drug-CD physical mixtures were also prepared in the same molar ratios for comparison. The dissolution of aripiprazole-binary systems was carried out to select the most appropriate CD type, molar ratio and preparation technique.
Results: Phase solubility study indicated formation of higher order complexes and the complexation efficiency values was higher for HP-β-CD compared to β-CD. Drug dissolution study revealed that aripiprazole dissolution was increased upon increasing the CD molar ratio and, the freeze-drying technique was superior to the other studied methods especially when combined with the HP-β-CD. The cyclodextrin type, preparation technique and molar ratio exhibited statistically significant effect on the drug dissolution at P≤ 0.05.
Conclusion: The freeze-dried system prepared at molar ratio 1:2 (drug: CD) can be considered as efficient tool for enhancing aripiprazole dissolution with the possibility of improving its bioavailability.
PMCID: PMC3933798  PMID: 24570827
Aripiprazole; Binary systems; Cyclodextrin;  In vitro dissolution phase-solubility
17.  Improvement of Aripiprazole Solubility by Complexation with (2-Hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin Using Spray Drying Technique 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2012;13(2):623-631.
Due to the fact that the number of new poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients is increasing, it is important to investigate the possibilities of improvement of their solubility in order to obtain a final pharmaceutical formulation with enhanced bioavailability. One of the strategies to increase drug solubility is the inclusion of the APIs in cyclodextrins. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of aripiprazole solubility improvement by inclusion in (2-hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and simultaneous manipulation of pH of the medium and addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone. Aripiprazole–HPBCD complexes were prepared by spray drying aqueous drug–HPBCD solutions, and their properties were compared with those prepared by solvent-drop co-grinding and physical mixing. The obtained powders were characterized by thermoanalytical methods (TGA and DSC), FTIR spectroscopy, their dissolution properties were assessed, while the binding of aripiprazole into the cavity of HPBCD was studied by molecular docking simulations. The solubilization capacity was found to be dependent on pH as well as the buffer solution’s ionic composition. The presence of PVP in the formulation could affect the solubilization capacity significantly, but further experimentation is required before its effect is fully understood. On the basis of solubility studies, the drug/HPBCD stoichiometry was found to be 1:3. The spray-dried products were free of crystalline aripiprazole, they possessed higher solubility and dissolution rate, and were stable enough over a prolonged period of storage. Spray drying of cyclodextrin solutions proved to be an appropriate and efficient technique for the preparation of highly soluble inclusion compounds of aripiprazole and HPBCD.
PMCID: PMC3364370  PMID: 22535520
complexation; cyclodextrin; dissolution; physical characterization; spray drying
18.  Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization and In-vitro Dissolution Studies of Diosmin-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes 
Diosmin, a vascular-protecting agent, is practically insoluble in water, and its oral absorption is limited by its extremely low dissolution rate. In this study, β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) were obtained to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of diosmin. Phase solubility studies of diosmin with βCD and HPβCD in distilled water were conducted to characterize the complexes in liquid state. The solid-state characterization of the complexes prepared with different methods was performed by fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy analyses, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dissolution studies were carried out in distilled water using US pharmacopeia dissolution rate testing equipment. The complexation of diosmin with βCD and HPβCD both indicated an AL type of phase-solubility diagrams, and the apparent stability constants (Kc) was found to be 222.13 and 200.08 M−1, respectively. The Kc values indicated the βCD and HPβCD showed the similar equal complexation ability with diosmin, HPβCD provided higher solubility for diosmin due to its higher water solubility. The dissolution studies suggest that the inclusion complexes provide higher dissolution rate compared with the physical mixtures and the drug alone. Furthermore, the inclusion complex prepared by freeze drying method presented higher dissolution rate than kneading method.
PMCID: PMC4232776  PMID: 25587299
Diosmin; Cyclodextrins; Solubility; Inclusion complex; Dissolution rate
19.  Preformulation Study of the Inclusion Complex Irbesartan-β-Cyclodextrin 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2009;10(1):276-281.
The aim of the present work was to improve the solubility and dissolution profile of Irbesartan (IRB), a poorly water-soluble drug by formation of inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (βCD). Phase solubility studies revealed increase in solubility of the drug upon cyclodextrin addition, showing AL—type of graph with slope less than one indicating formation of 1:1 stoichiometry inclusion complex. The stability constant (Ks) was found to be 104.39 M−1. IRB–βCD binary systems were prepared by cogrinding, kneading using alcohol, kneading using aqueous alcohol, and coevaporation methods. Characterization of the binary systems were carried out by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The dissolution profiles of inclusion complexes were determined and compared with those of IRB alone and physical mixture. Among the various methods, coevaporation was the best in which the solubility was increased and dissolution rate of the drug was the highest. The study indicated the usefulness of cyclodextrin technology to overcome the solubility problem of IRB.
PMCID: PMC2663696  PMID: 19283492
β-cyclodextrin; dissolution; inclusion complex; Irbesartan; solubility
20.  A Study on Improvement of Solubility of Rofecoxib and its effect on Permeation of Drug from Topical Formulations 
Rofecoxib, a practically insoluble cox-2 selective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent was subjected to improvement in solubility by preparing its binary mixtures with β cyclodextrin using various methods such as physical mixing, co-grinding, kneading with aqueous methanol and co-evaporation from methanol-water mixture. Characterization of the resulting binary mixtures by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies indicated partial amorphization of the drug in its binary mixtures. In vitro dissolution studies exhibited remarkable increase in rate and extent of dissolution of the drug from its complexes with β -cyclodextrin. Pure rofecoxib as well as its co-ground binary mixture were formulated as aqueous gels for topical application. In vitro skin permeation of rofecoxib from formulation containing rofecoxib-cyclodextrin complex was significantly higher (p<0.05) at 1, 2, 12, 18 and 24 hr as compared to formulation containing pure rofecoxib. This could be attributed to better solubility of binary mixture in the aqueous gel vehicle leading to greater concentration gradient between the vehicle and skin and hence higher flux of the drug.
PMCID: PMC2792560  PMID: 20046772
Rofecoxib; β-cyclodextrin; binary mixture; in vitro skin permeation
21.  Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Intestinal Permeability Evaluation of Thalidomide–Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Complexes 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2011;13(1):118-124.
Thalidomide is emerging as a therapeutic agent with renewed clinical importance, presenting anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antineoplasic properties. In this work, we studied the complexation of thalidomide with cyclodextrins as a strategy to circumvent the poor aqueous solubility of the drug. Thalidomide–hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes were obtained by kneading method and were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electronic microscopy. The aqueous solubility and in vitro dissolution of thalidomide were significantly improved through the complexation. Physicochemical analysis of the complexes in solid state revealed a decreased crystallinity of the complexed drug in comparison with free thalidomide. Thalidomide was able to dissociate from the complexes and permeates across intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells with a favorable high permeability profile equivalent to that of the free drug. In summary, the present results suggest that thalidomide–hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes could be regarded as a promising strategy for improving the gastrointestinal absorption of thalidomide.
PMCID: PMC3299449  PMID: 22160886
cyclodextrin; dissolution; intestinal permeability; solubility; thalidomide
22.  Formulation and In Vivo Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of Clozapine/Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2013;14(2):854-860.
The aim of this study was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of clozapine (CLZ), a poorly water-soluble drug subjected to substantial first-pass metabolism, employing cyclodextrin complexation technique. The inclusion complexes were prepared by an evaporation method. Phase solubility studies, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to evaluate the complexation of CLZ with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and the formation of true inclusion complexes. Characterization and dissolution studies were carried out to evaluate the orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing CLZ/HP-β-CD complexes prepared by direct compression. Finally, the bioavailability studies of the prepared ODTs were performed by oral administration to rabbits. The ODTs showed a higher in vitro dissolution rate and bioavailability compared with the commercial tablets. It is evident from the results herein that the developed ODTs provide a promising drug delivery system in drug development, owing to their excellent performance of a rapid onset of action, improved bioavailability, and good patient compliance.
PMCID: PMC3666014  PMID: 23649995
bioavailability; clozapine; hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; inclusion complexes; orally disintegrating tablets
23.  Influence of Microcrystal Formulation on In Vivo Absorption of Celecoxib in Rats 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2013;14(2):719-726.
The objective of this study was to prepare celecoxib microcrystals using different stabilizers in order to evaluate the influence of microcrystal formulation on the in vitro dissolution rate and in vivo absorption after oral administration of celecoxib in rats. Three celecoxib microcrystals (MC1, MC2, and MC3) were prepared using solvent change method. Microcrystals were evaluated for morphology, particle size, crystallinity, solubility, in vitro dissolution, and in vivo absorption in rats. Scanning electron microscopy images showed distinct differences in the morphologies and dimensions of various celecoxib microcrystals. The particle size of all microcrystals was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced relative to plain celecoxib. The DSC and XRD results revealed that MC1 retain drug crystallinity relative to control crystals, MC2, and MC3. All microcrystals showed marked increase in the drug dissolution parameters particularly MC1 that exhibited a prompt drug release and significantly (P < 0.05) higher values of % dissolution efficiency as compared to control celecoxib and the other microcrystals. The influence of microcrystals on the in vivo absorption of celecoxib was studied in rats in comparison to plain drug. The results of in vivo absorption study in rats indicated that MC1 significantly improved the rate and extent of celecoxib absorption than plain celecoxib. The mean relative bioavailability of MC1 formulation to plain celecoxib was 157.55 ± 20.18%. In conclusion, microcrystal formulation of celecoxib results not only in an enhancement of dissolution parameters but also improves the bioavailability of celecoxib in rats.
PMCID: PMC3666008  PMID: 23543607
celecoxib; dissolution; in vivo absorption; microcrystals; particle size
24.  Dissolution behavior of β-cyclodextrin molecular inclusion complexes of aceclofenac 
The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the in vitro dissolution of aceclofenac (AF) from molecular inclusion complexes. Aceclofenac molecular inclusion complexes in 1:1 and 1:2 M ratio were prepared using a kneading method. The in vitro dissolution of pure drug, physical mixtures, and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes was carried out. Molecular inclusion complexes of AF with β-CD showed a considerable increase in the dissolution rate in comparison with the physical mixture and pure drug in 0.1 N HCl, pH 1.2, and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Inclusion complexes with a 1:2 M ratio showed the maximum dissolution rate in comparison to other ratios. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated no interaction between AF and β-CD in complexes in solid state. Molecular modeling results indicated the relative energetic stability of the β-CD dimer-AF complex as compared to β-CD monomer-AF. Dissolution enhancement was attributed to the formation of water soluble inclusion complexes with β-CD. The in vitro release from all the formulations was best described by first-order kinetics (R2 = 0.9826 and 0.9938 in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer, respectively) followed by the Higuchi release model (R2 = 0.9542 and 0.9686 in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer, respectively). In conclusion, the dissolution of AF can be enhanced by the use of a hydrophilic carrier like β-CD.
PMCID: PMC3178950  PMID: 21966164
Aceclofenac; complexes; cyclodextrin; solubility; β-CD
25.  Enhanced Dissolution and Stability of Lansoprazole by Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexation: Preparation, Characterization, and Molecular Modeling 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2012;13(4):1222-1229.
In this study, lansoprazole (LSP)/cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes were prepared using a fluid bed coating technique, with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) as the host molecules, respectively, to simultaneously improve the dissolution and stability of LSP. The dissolution rate and stability of LSP was dramatically enhanced by inclusion complexation regardless of CD type. LSP/HPCD inclusion complex was more stable under illumination than LSP/β-CD inclusion complex. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry proved the absence of crystallinity in both LSP/CD inclusion complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy together with molecular modeling indicated that the benzimidazole of LSP was included in the cavity of both CDs, while LSP was more deeply included in HPCD than β-CD. The enhanced photostability was due to the inclusion of the sulfinyl moiety into the HPCD cavity. CD inclusion complexation could improve the dissolution and stability of LSP.
PMCID: PMC3513431  PMID: 22968546
cyclodextrin; dissolution; inclusion complex; lansoprazole; molecular modeling; stability

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