Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) was originally shown to confer resistance of human tumor cells to a broad range of natural product anticancer drugs. MRP1 has also been shown to mediate efflux transport of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates of drugs and endogenous substrates. An ortholog of MRP1 in the mouse has been cloned and characterized. Significant functional differences between murine and human MRP1 have been noted. Since drug disposition and pharmacology studies often are conducted in rats, there is a need to clone and characterize the rat ortholog of MRP1. We isolated a rat MRP1 (rMRP1) cDNA from rat brain astrocytes, characterized its coding sequences, and verified the transport activity of the protein expressed in MRP1 cDNA-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Our results showed that rMRP1 has a coding sequence of 4599 bp, which predicts a polypeptide of 1533 amino acids with an apparent molecular weight of 190 kd by Western immunoblot analysis. rMRP1-transfected MDCK cells are capable of efflux transport of a fluorescent MRP1 marker-calcein-that is inhibitable by known MRP1 inhibitors, indomethacin, and MK571. Sequence analysis indicates that rMRP1 is more closely related to mouse MRP1 than human MRP1.
multidrug resistance gene; ABC transporter; MRP1; cloning; functional characterization
Resistance to cytotoxic drugs is thought to be a major cause of treatment failure in childhood neuroblastoma, and members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily may contribute to this phenomenon by active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. As a member of the C subfamily of ABC transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP4/ABCC4 has the ability to export a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances across the plasma membrane. In light of its capacity for chemotherapeutic drug efflux, MRP4 has been studied in the context of drug resistance in a number of cancer cell types. However, MRP4 also influences cancer cell biology independently of chemotherapeutic drug exposure, which highlights the potential importance of endogenous MRP4 substrates in cancer biology. Furthermore, MRP4 is a direct transcriptional target of Myc family oncoproteins and expression of this transporter is a powerful independent predictor of clinical outcome in neuroblastoma. Together, these features suggest that inhibition of MRP4 may be an attractive therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma and other cancers that rely on MRP4. In this respect, existing options for MRP4 inhibition are relatively non-selective and thus development of more specific anti-MRP4 compounds should be a major focus of future work in this area.
neuroblastoma; MRP4/ABCC4; ATP-binding cassette transporter protein
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are able to efflux their substrate drugs from the cells. We compared expression of efflux proteins in normal human corneal epithelial tissue, primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCEpiC), and corneal epithelial cell culture model (HCE model) based on human immortal cell line. Expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1–6 (MRP1–6) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was studied using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Only MRP1, MRP5, and BCRP were expressed in the freshly excised human corneal epithelial tissue. Expression of MRP1 and MRP5 was localized predominantly in the basal cells of the central cornea and limbus. Functional efflux activity was shown in the cell models, but they showed over-expression of most efflux transporters compared to that of normal corneal epithelium. In conclusion, MRP1, MRP5, and BCRP are expressed in the corneal epithelium, but MDR1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, and MRP6 are not significantly expressed. HCE cell model and commercially available primary cells deviate from this expression profile.
corneal epithelium; cell model; primary cells; HCE; ABC transporters; multidrug resistance transporters; efflux pumps; cell culture; multidrug resistance-associated proteins; P-glycoprotein
The human multidrug transporter MDR1 P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2 transport a range of cytotoxic drugs, resulting in multidrug resistance in tumour cells. To overcome this form of drug resistance in patients, several inhibitors (reversal agents) of these transporters have been isolated. Using polarized cell lines stably expressing human MDR1, MRP1 or MRP2 cDNA, and 2008 ovarian carcinoma cells stably expressing MRP1 cDNA, we have investigated in this study the specificity of the reversal agents V-104 (a pipecolinate derivative), GF120918 (an acridone carboxamide derivative also known as GG918), and Pluronic L61 (a (poly)oxypropethylene and (poly)oxypropylene block copolymer). Transport experiments with cytotoxic drugs with polarized cell lines indicate that all three compounds efficiently inhibit MDR1 Pgp. Furthermore, V-104 partially inhibits daunorubicin transport by MRP1 but not vinblastine transport by MRP2. V-104 reverses etoposide resistance of 2008/MRP1 cells, whereas GF120918 does not reverse resistance due to MRP1. V-104 partially inhibits the export of the organic anion dinitrophenyl S -glutathione by MDCKII-MRP1 but not by MDCKII-MRP2 cells. Unexpectedly, export of the organic anion calcein by MDCKII-MRP1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells is stimulated by Pluronic L61, probably because it relieves the block on entry of calcein AM into the cell by endogenous MDR1 Pgp. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
multidrug resistance; reversal agent; MRP1; multispecific organic anion transporter; MDR1 Pgp; polarized cell
Overexpression of plasma membrane multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) can lead to multidrug resistance. In this study, we describe for the first time the expression of mitochondrial MRP-1 in untreated human normal and cancer cells and tissues.
MRP-1 expression and subcellular localisation in normal and cancer cells and tissues was examined by differential centrifugation and western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Viable mitochondria were isolated and MRP-1 efflux activity measured using the calcein-AM functional assay. MRP-1 expression was increased using retroviral infection and specific overexpression confirmed by RNA array. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion and annexin V-propidium iodide labelling of cells.
MRP-1 was detected in the mitochondria of cancer and normal cells and tissues. The efflux activity of mitochondrial MRP-1 was more efficient (55–64%) than that of plasma membrane MRP-1 (11–22% P<0.001). Induced MRP-1 expression resulted in a preferential increase in mitochondrial MRP-1, suggesting selective targeting to this organelle. Treatment with a non-lethal concentration of doxorubicin (0.85 n, 8 h) increased mitochondrial and plasma membrane MRP-1, increasing resistance to MRP-1 substrates. For the first time, we have identified MRP-1 with efflux activity in human mitochondria.
Mitochondrial MRP-1 may be an exciting new therapeutic target where historically MRP-1 inhibitor strategies have limited clinical success.
MRP-1; mitochondria; human; multi-drug resistance; Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours
Nucleotide efflux (especially cyclic nucleotides) from a variety of mammalian tissues, bacteria, and lower eukaryotes has been studied for several decades. However, the molecular identity of these nucleotide efflux transporters remained elusive, despite extensive knowledge of their kinetic properties and inhibitor profiles. Identification of the subfamily of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporters, multidrug resistance protein (MRP) subfamily, permitted rapid advances because some recently identified MRP family members transport modified nucleotide analogs (ie, chemotherapeutic agents). We first identified, MRP4, based on its ability to efflux antiretroviral compounds, such as azidothymidine monophosphate (AZT-MP) and 9-(2-phosphonyl methoxyethyl) adenine (PMEA), in drug-resistant and also in transfected cell lines. MRP5, a close structural homologue of MRP4 also transported PMEA. MRP4 and MRP5 confer resistance to cytotoxic thiopurine nucleotides, and we demonstrate MRP4 expression varies among acute lymphoblastic leukemias, suggesting this as a factor in response to chemotherapy with these agents. The ability of MRP4 and MRP5 to transport 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3,5-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) suggests they may play a biological role in cellular signaling by these nucleotides. Finally, we propose that MRP4 may also play a role in hepatic bile acid homeostasis because loss of the main bile acid efflux transporter, sister of P-glycoprotein (SPGP) aka bile-salt export pump (BSEP), leads to a strong compensatory upregulation in MRP4 expression. Cumulatively, these studies reveal that the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters MRP4 and MRP5 have a unique role in biology and in chemotherapeutic response.
Cyclic Nucleotides; Transporters; MRP4; MRP5; Physiology; Chemotherapy
Polarized epithelial non-human (canine) cell lines stably transfected with human or murine complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding for various efflux transporters (P-gp/MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and Bcrp1) were used to study transepithelial transport of Lopinavir (LVR) and compare results with the MDCKII-Wild type cells. These transmembrane proteins cause multidrug resistance by decreasing the total intracellular accumulation of drugs. Lopinavir efflux was directional and was completely inhibited by MK-571, a selective MRP family inhibitor in the MDCKII-MRP2 cell line. Similarly, LVR efflux was also inhibited by P-gp inhibitors P-gp 4008 and GF120918 in the MDCKII-MDR1 cell line. The efflux ratios (Efflux rate/ Influx rate) of LVR in the absence of any efflux inhibitors in the MDCK-Wild type, MDCKII-MDR1, MDCKII-MRP1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cell monolayers were 1.32, 4.91, 1.26 and 2.89 respectively. The MDCKII-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells have significantly increased LVR efflux ratio relative to the parental cells due to the apically directed transport by MDR1 and MRP2 respectively. The efflux ratios in MRP2 and MDR1 transfected cell lines were close to unity in the presence of MK-571 and P-gp 4008 respectively; indicating that LVR efflux by MRP2 and P-gp was completely inhibited by their selective inhibitors. MDCKII-MRP1 cells did not exhibit a significant reduction in the LVR efflux relative to the parental cells, indicating that LVR is not a good substrate for MRP1. Transport studies across MDCKII-Bcrp1 cells indicated that LVR is not transported by Bcrp1 and is not a substrate for this efflux protein. In conclusion, this study presents direct evidence that LVR is effluxed by both P-gp and MRP2 which may contribute to its poor oral bioavailability and limited penetration into the CNS.
MDCKII-MDR1; MDCKII-MRP2; MDCKII-MRP1; MDCKII-Bcrp1; MDCKII-WT; P-glycoprotein (P-gp); multidrug resistance protein (MRP); breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); Lopinavir (LVR); uptake; transport; permeability; efflux ratio (ER)
To investigate interactions between the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and antimicrobial agents, we examined the effects of 12 agents on vincristine sensitivity and efflux of the calcein acetoxy-methyl ester (calcein-AM) of a MRP substrate in MRP-overexpressing cells. Only ofloxacin and erythromycin enhanced sensitivity with increased intracellular vincristine accumulation and inhibited the calcein-AM efflux. Our findings suggest that the two agents are possible MRP substrates and may competitively inhibit MRP function as a drug efflux pump.
We have previously reported a strong correlation between poor prognosis in childhood neuroblastoma (NB) patients and high-level expression of the transmembrane efflux pump, Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein (MRP1), in NB tumour tissue. In this study, we inhibited the endogenous expression of MRP1 in 2 different NB tumour cell lines by stably transfecting an MRP1 antisense expression vector (MRP-AS). Compared with control cells, MRP-AS transfectant cells demonstrated a higher proportion of dead and morphologically apoptotic cells, spontaneous neuritogenesis, and, increased synaptophysin and neurofilament expression. Bcl-2 protein expression was markedly reduced in MRP-AS cells compared to controls. Conversely, we found that the same NB tumour cell line overexpressing the full-length MRP1 cDNA in sense orientation (MRP-S) demonstrated resistance to the neuritogenic effect of the differentiating agent, all-trans-retinoic acid. Taken together, the results suggest that the level of MRP1 expression in NB tumour cells may influence the capacity of NB cells for spontaneous regression in vivo through cell differentiation and death. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
MRP1; neuroblastoma; apoptosis; neuritic differentiation; Bcl-2
Incubation of the drug-sensitive H69, a small cell lung cancer cell line, with increased concentrations of adriamycin yielded multidrug resistant (MDR) H69AR cells that over-express multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1). MRP1 co-transports its substrate with glutathione (GSH), leading to lower intracellular GSH. In this report we tested whether depleting intracellular GSH in MRP1-expressing cells could hyper-sensitize them to anticancer drugs or not. We have found that the GSH contents in MRP1-expressing cells are significantly lower than their corresponding control cells. The treatment with MRP1 substrate verapamil or the GSH synthetase inhibitor buthionine sulfoxi-mine significantly reduced the intracellular GSH contents in MRP1-expressing cells. Interestingly, depleting intracellular GSH contents can hyper-sensitize the MRP1-cDNA transfected BHK cells to daunomycin, but not the adriamycin-selected H69AR cells. Further analyses indicated that anti-apoptotic factor Bcl2 might be a factor responsible for the fact that depleting intracellular GSH could not hyper-sensitize H69AR cells to daunomycin. We hypothesized that knocking down the expression of Bcl2 could hyper-sensitize H69AR cells to daunomycin. Interestingly, infection of H69AR cells with retroviral particles harboring Bcl2 interfering RNAi not only reduced the expression of Bcl2, but also many factors that contribute to MDR, such as Bcl-xl, MRP1 and ABCC3, etc., leading to the MDR H69AR cells more sensitive to daunomycin than the parental H69 cell. Thus, although the mechanisms of the down-regulation of the genes contributing to MDR remain to be elucidated, retroviral particles harboring Bcl2 interfering RNAi could be used as an alternative way to sensitize the MDR cancer cells to anticancer drugs.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC),; Multidrug resistance (MDR),; MRP1; Glutathione (GSH),; Bcl2,; Small interfering RNAi,; PCR array
Multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 2 and 4 are localized in proximal tubular epithelial cells and participate in the renal elimination of xenobiotics. MRP2 has also been implicated in the renal and hepatic elimination of mercury. The current study tested the hypothesis that MRP2 and MRP4 are involved in renal and hepatic handling of inorganic mercury (Hg2+). We examined the disposition of Hg2+ in Mrp2−/− mice and assessed the transport of mercuric conjugates in inside-out membrane vesicles containing human MRP4. Since MRP2 has been shown to utilize glutathione (GSH) for transport of select substrates, we examined renal concentrations of GSH and cysteine and the expression of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) in Mrp2−/− and FVB mice. The effect of Hg2+ exposure on renal GSH levels was also assessed in these mice. Our data suggest that MRP2, but not MRP4, is involved in proximal tubular export of Hg2+. In addition, GSH levels are greater in Mrp2−/− mice and exposure to Hg2+ reduced renal levels of GSH. Expression of GCL was also altered in Mrp2−/− mice under normal conditions and following exposure to HgCl2. This study provides important novel data regarding the transport of Hg2+ and the effect of Hg2+ exposure on GSH levels.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) is an organic anion efflux pump capable of transporting nucleoside, nucleotide analogs, and cyclic nucleotide. MRP4 could have an influence on the resistance and transport of the two oxazaphosphorines, cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF). V/HepG2 (HepG2, hepatoma cells stably transfected with an empty vehicle plasmid) and MRP4/HepG2 (HepG2 cells stably expressing MRP4) were exposed to CP and IF in the absence or presence of various MRP4 inhibitors. HepG2 and HEK293 human kidney cells were also used to investigate the inducing potency of oxazaphosphorines on the MRP4 expression. In this study, insertion of MRP4 gene in HepG2 cells was found to confer significant resistance to CP and IF in the 48-h drug-exposure assays. In the presence of various MRP4 inhibitors, the resistance to CP and IF was then partially reversed. These indicate that CP and IF are highly possible substrates of MRP4. In addition, CP and clofibrate (CFB), a reported MRP4 inducer, in vivo significantly increased the MRP4 expression at both protein level and mRNA level in HEK293 cells at higher concentrations, while IF significantly decreased the MRP4 expression at mRNA level at lower concentration and had no effect at higher concentrations. However, all tested compounds (CP, IF, and CFB) did not change the MRP4 protein expression in HepG2 cells. CP and CFB are cell-specific and concentration-dependent MRP4 inducers. The finding may have implications in the CP- or IF-based chemotherapy.
cyclophosphamide; cytotoxicity; drug transporter; ifosfamide; multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Tenofovir (TFV) undergoes renal elimination by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While transporter-mediated uptake of TFV from the blood into proximal-tubule cells has been well characterized, comparatively little is known about the efflux system responsible for transporting TFV into the lumen during active tubular secretion. Therefore, members of the ATP-binding cassette family of efflux pumps expressed at the apical side of proximal-tubule cells were studied for the ability to transport TFV. Studies in multiple independent in vitro systems show TFV not to be a substrate for P glycoprotein (Pgp) or multidrug resistance protein type 2 (MRP2). In contrast to Pgp and MRP2, TFV was observed to be a substrate for MRP4. TFV accumulated to fivefold lower levels in MRP4-overexpressing cells, and its accumulation could be increased by an MRP inhibitor. Furthermore, MRP4-overexpressing cells were found to be 2.0- to 2.5-fold less susceptible to cytotoxicity caused by TFV. ATP-dependent uptake of TFV was observed in membrane vesicles containing MRP4 but not in vesicles lacking the transporter. On the basis of these and previous results, the molecular transport pathway for the active tubular secretion of TFV through renal proximal-tubule cells involves uptake from the blood mediated by human organic anion transporters 1 and 3 and efflux into urine by MRP4. A detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism of TFV active tubular secretion will facilitate the assessment of potential renal drug-drug interactions with coadministered agents.
The second messengers cAMP and cGMP can be degraded by specific members of the phosphodiesterase superfamily or by active efflux transporters, namely the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) MRP4 and MRP5. To determine the role of MRP4 and MRP5 in cell signaling, we studied arterial SMCs, in which the effects of cyclic nucleotide levels on SMC proliferation have been well established. We found that MRP4, but not MRP5, was upregulated during proliferation of isolated human coronary artery SMCs and following injury of rat carotid arteries in vivo. MRP4 inhibition significantly increased intracellular cAMP and cGMP levels and was sufficient to block proliferation and to prevent neointimal growth in injured rat carotid arteries. The antiproliferative effect of MRP4 inhibition was related to PKA/CREB pathway activation. Here we provide what we believe to be the first evidence that MRP4 acts as an independent endogenous regulator of intracellular cyclic nucleotide levels and as a mediator of cAMP-dependent signal transduction to the nucleus. We also identify MRP4 inhibition as a potentially new way of preventing abnormal VSMC proliferation.
The role of the multidrug resistance protein MRP4/ABCC4 in vivo remains undefined. To explore this role, we generated Mrp4-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, these mice showed enhanced accumulation of the anticancer agent topotecan in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Further studies demonstrated that topotecan was an Mrp4 substrate and that cells overexpressing Mrp4 were resistant to its cytotoxic effects. We then used new antibodies to discover that Mrp4 is unique among the anionic ATP-dependent transporters in its dual localization at the basolateral membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium and in the apical membrane of the endothelial cells of the brain capillaries. Microdialysis sampling of ventricular CSF demonstrated that localization of Mrp4 at the choroid epithelium is integral to its function in limiting drug penetration into the CSF. The topotecan resistance of cells overexpressing Mrp4 and the polarized expression of Mrp4 in the choroid plexus and brain capillary endothelial cells indicate that Mrp4 has a dual role in protecting the brain from cytotoxins and suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of central nervous system-directed drugs that are Mrp4 substrates may be improved by developing Mrp4 inhibitors.
Multidrug-resistance Protein-3 (MRP3), a membrane bound transporter, facilitates efflux of toxic compounds, including certain chemotherapies, out of cells. Aberrant MRP3 expression has been linked to drug resistance in NSCLC. We sought to determine if tumor MRP3 expression patterns correlate with the mutational status of upstream regulators, including nuclear factor erythroid-2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its functional repressor Keap1 in NSCLC cell lines and patient samples.
To identify putative Nrf2 binding sites in the MRP3 promoter and to evaluate Keap1, Nrf2, and p53 mutations status in 4 cell lines and 33 NSCLC surgically resected tumor specimens with regard to their impact on MRP3 levels.
ChIP analysis of the MRP3 promoter revealed an almost threefold increase in Nrf2 binding to the third putative Nrf2 binding sequence distal to the start site, demonstrating direct regulation of MRP3 by Nrf2. In NSCLC cell lines elevated Nrf2 protein was observed in cell lines with increased MRP3 RNA expression. In patient tumor specimens, the presence of mutations in Keap1/Nrf2 correlated with MRP3 RNA levels (p<0.05). p53 mutations were observed in 33% of cases, and all Keap1 mutant-positive tumors possessed a p53 mutation (n=5; p=0.0019).
We demonstrate direct involvement between the transcription factor Nrf2 and the MRP3 promoter, which leads to the upregulation of the MRP3 gene. Additionally, we found a statistically significant correlation between the presence of Keap1/Nrf2 mutations and increased MRP3 mRNA levels in our NSCLC patient samples.
Keap1; Nrf2; p53; MRP3; NSCLC
The purpose of this manuscript is to investigate the presence of nucleoside/nucleotide efflux transporter in cornea and to evaluate the role in ocular drug efflux.
RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis and immunostaining were employed to establish molecular presence of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea. Corneal efflux by MRP5 was studied with bis(POM)-PMEA and acyclovir using rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MRP5 over expressing cells (MDCKII-MRP5). Ex vivo studies using excised rabbit cornea and in vivo ocular microdialysis in male New Zealand white rabbits were used to further evaluate the role of MRP5 in conferring ocular drug resistance.
RT-PCR confirms the expression of MRP5 in both rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis using a rat (M511–54) monoclonal antibody that reacts with human epitope confirms the expression of MRP5 protein in human corneal epithelial cells and MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunostaining performed on human cornea indicates the localization of this efflux pump on both epithelium and endothelium. Efflux studies reveal that depletion of ATP decreased PMEA efflux significantly. MRP5 inhibitors also diminished PMEA and acyclovir efflux. However, depletion of glutathione did not alter efflux. MDR1 and MRP2 did not contribute to PMEA efflux. However, MRP2 is involved in acyclovir efflux while MDR1 do not participate in this process. TLC/autoradiography suggested the conversion of bis(POM)-PMEA to PMEA in rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells. Two well known antiglaucoma drugs, bimatoprost and latanoprost were rapidly effluxed by MRP5. Ex vivo study on intact rabbit corneas demonstrated accumulation of PMEA in cornea in the presence of ATP-depleting medium. In vivo ocular pharmacokinetics also revealed a significant increase in maximum aqueous humor concentration (Cmax) and area under the aqueous humor time curve (AUC) of acyclovir in the presence of MK-571, a specific MRP inhibitor.
Taken together immunolocalization on human cornea, in vitro efflux in human, rabbit corneal and MRP5 over expressing cells, ex vivo and in vivo studies in intact rabbit cornea suggest that MRP5 on cornea can significantly lower the permeability of antiviral and glaucoma drugs. These findings may be valuable in developing formulation strategies to optimize ocular bioavailability of topically administered ocular agents.
In several liver diseases the biliary transport is disturbed, resulting in, for example, jaundice and cholestasis. Many of these symptoms can be attributed to altered regulation of hepatic transporters. Organic anion transport, mediated by the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cmoat), has been extensively studied. The regulation of intracellular vesicular sorting of cmoat by protein kinase C and protein kinase A, and the regulation of cmoat-mediated transport in endotoxemic liver disease, have been examined. The discovery that the multidrug resistance protein (MRP), responsible for multidrug resistance in cancers, transports similar substrates as cmoat led to the cloning of a MRP homologue from rat liver, named mrp2. Mrp2 turned out to be identical to cmoat. At present there is evidence that at least two mrp's are present in hepatocytes, the original mrp (mrp1) on the lateral membrane, and mrp2 (cmoat) on the canalicular membrane. The expression of mrp1 and mrp2 in hepatocytes appears to be cell-cycle-dependent and regulated in a reciprocal fashion. These findings show that biliary transport of organic anions and possibly other canalicular transport is influenced by the entry of hepatocytes into the cell cycle. The cloning of the gene for cmoat opens up new possibilities to study the regulation of hepatic organic anion transport.
P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) are membrane transporter proteins which function as efflux pumps at cell membranes and are considered to exert a protective function against the entry of xenobiotics. While evidence for Pgp and MRP transporter activity is reported for olfactory tissue, their possible interaction and participation in the olfactory response has not been investigated.
Functional activity of putative MDR transporters was assessed by means of the fluorometric calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) accumulation assay on acute rat and mouse olfactory tissue slices. Calcein-AM uptake was measured as fluorescence intensity changes in the presence of Pgp or MRP specific inhibitors. Epifluorescence microscopy measured time course analysis in the olfactory epithelium revealed significant inhibitor-dependent calcein uptake in the presence of each of the selected inhibitors. Furthermore, intracellular calcein accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons was also significantly increased in the presence of either one of the Pgp or MRP inhibitors. The presence of Pgp or MRP1 encoding genes in the olfactory mucosa of rat and mouse was confirmed by RT-PCR with appropriate pairs of species-specific primers. Both transporters were expressed in both newborn and adult olfactory mucosa of both species. To assess a possible involvement of MDR transporters in the olfactory response, we examined the electrophysiological response to odorants in the presence of the selected MDR inhibitors by recording electroolfactograms (EOG). In both animal species, MRPs inhibitors induced a marked reduction of the EOG magnitude, while Pgp inhibitors had only a minor or no measurable effect.
The findings suggest that both Pgp and MRP transporters are functional in the olfactory mucosa and in olfactory receptor neurons. Pgp and MRPs may be cellular constituents of olfactory receptor neurons and represent potential mechanisms for modulation of the olfactory response.
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of proteins comprises several ATP-dependent efflux pumps involved in transport of toxins and xenobiotics from cells. These transporters are essential components of normal physiology, and a subset is associated with development of multidrug resistance. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) represent two classes of these multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. MRP1 is one type of mammalian MRP, which preferentially transports anionic compounds and compounds detoxified by cellular enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase. It also transports signaling molecules, including immunomodulators. In schistosomes, both Pgp and MRP substrates localize to the excretory system, a potentially attractive target for new antischistosomals. We have previously shown that expression of schistosome Pgp (SMDR2) is altered in worms exposed to praziquantel (PZQ), the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis, and is expressed at higher levels in worms from isolates with reduced PZQ susceptibility. We have also shown that PZQ interacts directly with SMDR2. Here, we examine the relationship between PZQ and SmMRP1, a Schistosoma mansoni homolog of mammalian MRP1. SmMRP1 RNA is differentially expressed in adult males and females, and levels increase transiently following exposure of adult worms to sub-lethal concentrations of PZQ. A corresponding, though delayed, increase in anti-MRP1 immunoreactive protein also occurs following exposure to PZQ. PZQ-insensitive juvenile worms express higher levels of both SmMRP1 and SMDR2 RNA than mature adults, consistent with the hypothesis that increases in levels of schistosome multidrug transporters may be involved in development or maintenance of reduced susceptibility to PZQ.
Schistosoma mansoni; multidrug resistance-associated protein; multidrug resistance; praziquantel; ABC transporter; ABCC1
Human erythrocyte membranes express the multidrug resistance-associated proteins, MRP1, MRP4 and MRP5, that collectively can efflux oxidised glutathione, glutathione conjugates and cyclic nucleotides. It is already known that the quinoline derivative, MK-571, is a potent inhibitor of MRP-mediated transport. We here examine whether the quinoline-based antimalarial drugs, amodiaquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, primaquine, quinidine and quinine, also interact with erythrocyte MRPs with consequences for their access to the intracellular parasites or for efflux of oxidised glutathione from infected cells. Using inside-out vesicles prepared from human erythrocytes we have shown that mefloquine and MK-571 inhibit transport of 3 μM [3H]DNP-SG known to be mediated by MRP1 (IC50 127 μM and 1.1 μM respectively) and of 3.3 μM [3H]cGMP thought but not proven to be mediated primarily by MRP4 (IC50 21 μM and 0.41 μM). They also inhibited transport in membrane vesicles prepared from tumour cells expressing MRP1 or MRP4 and blocked calcein efflux from MRP1 overexpressing cells and BCECF efflux from MRP4 overexpressing cells. Both stimulated ATPase activity in membranes prepared from MRP1 and MRP4 overexpressing cells and inhibited activity stimulated by quercetin or PGE1 respectively. Neither inhibited [α-32P]8-azidoATP binding confirming that the interactions are not at the ATP binding site. These results demonstrate that mefloquine and MK-571 both inhibit transport of other substrates and stimulate ATPase activity and thus may themselves be substrates for transport. But at concentrations achieved clinically mefloquine is unlikely to affect the MRP1-mediated transport of GSSG across the erythrocyte membrane.
ATP hydrolysis; mefloquine; multidrug resistance associated proteins 1 and 4; MK-571; erythrocyte membranes; BCECF2′-7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein; BCECF-AM BCECF acetoxy-methyl ester; BeFx Beryllium fluoride; calcein-AM calcein acetoxy-methyl ester; DNP-SG dinitrophenyl S-glutathione conjugate; GSH reduced glutathione; GSSG oxidised glutathione; MK-571 (3-(3-(2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl)phenyl) ((3-(dimethyl amino-3-oxo propyl)thio)methyl)thio)propanoic acid; MRP multidrug resistance associated protein
Decreased accumulation of the fluorescent dye BCECF [2', 7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(6)- carboxyfluorescein] characterized murine and human multidrug-resistant cell lines overexpressing the multidrug resistance protein (MRP). Indomethacin (10 microM), a known cyclo-oxygenase and glutathione-S-transferase inhibitor as well as a modulator of anion transport, increased accumulation and blocked efflux of BCECF in MRP-expressing murine and human cells. The drug did not affect P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated export of rhodamine 123. The indomethacin effect on BCECF efflux was not reversed by the addition of exogenous prostaglandins, suggesting that the drug acts by a mechanism other than decreasing prostaglandin synthesis. Indomethacin also increased multidrug susceptibility of both murine and human cell lines overexpressing MRP, but not those displaying P-gp-associated resistance. In addition, indomethacin modulated the decreased vincristine accumulation in cells expressing MRP, but not in those expressing P-gp. These data suggest that indomethacin is a specific inhibitor of MRP, possibly functioning by inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase or, alternatively, by direct competition with the drug at the transport site.
The human multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP confers resistance to various cytotoxic drugs by lowering the intracellular drug concentration. Recent evidence indicates that MRP can also transport glutathione S-conjugates across membranes. To study the transport properties of MRP in intact cells, we have expressed human MRP cDNA in the polarized pig kidney epithelial cell line LLC-PK1. MRP mainly localized to the basolateral plasma membrane of these cells, and not to the apical membrane, as determined by immunocytochemistry using confocal laser scanning and electron microscopy. In accordance with this localization, MRP caused increased transport of the glutathione S-conjugate S-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl)-glutathione and of the anticancer drug daunorubicin to the basal side of the epithelial cell layer. Sulfinpyrazone and probenecid, known inhibitors of multispecific organic anion transport, inhibited this basolateral transport, but not the apical transport of daunorubicin mediated by the apically localized human MDR1 P-glycoprotein in MDR1-transfected LLC-PK1 cells. Probenecid and sulfinpyrazone may therefore be useful lead compounds for the development of clinical reversal agents specific for MRP-mediated drug resistance.
Several studies have shown that the multidrug resistant protein MRP2 mediates the transport of chemotherapeutic drugs and normal cell metabolites, including Leukotriene C (LTC4); however direct binding of the LTC4 to MRP2 has not been demonstrated. In this study, a photoreactive analog of LTC4 (IAALTC4) was used to demonstrate its direct binding to MRP2. Our results show specific photoaffinity labeling of MRP2 with IAALTC4 in plasma membranes from MDCKIIMRP2 cells. The photoaffinity labeling signal of MRP2 with IAALTC4 was much lower than that of MRP1, consistent with previous studies whereby the measured Km values of MRP1 and MRP2 for LTC4 were 1 μM and 0.1 μM LTC4, respectively. Competition of IAALTC4 photoaffinity labeling to MRP2 with MK571, a well characterized inhibitor of MRP2 function, showed ~75% reduction in binding in the presence of 50 μM excess MK571. Interestingly, unmodified LTC4 enhanced the photoaffinity labeling of IAALTC4 to MRP2, whereas excess GSH and Quercetin had no significant effect. Mild tryptic digestion of photoaffinity labeled MRP2 revealed several photoaffinity labeled peptides that localized the IAALTC4 binding to a 15 kDa amino acid sequence that contains transmembrane 16 and 17. Together these results provide the first demonstration of direct LTC4 binding to MRP2.
Multi-drug resistance; multi-drug resistance protein 2; leukotriene C4; drug binding; photoaffinity labeling
The human multidrug resistance protein (MRP1) confers resistance of cells to a number of different cytostatic drugs and functions as an export pump for glutathione S-conjugates, glucuronides and other amphiphilic anions. The present study details for the first time MRP1-mediated ATP-dependent transport of various glutathione S-conjugates of the bifunctional alkylating agents chlorambucil and melphalan. In membrane vesicles prepared from cells expressing recombinant MRP1, the conjugates were transported at rates in the following order: monoglutathionyl chlorambucil > bisglutathionyl chlorambucil > monohydroxy monoglutathionyl chlorambucil and monoglutathionyl melphalan > monohydroxy monoglutathionyl melphalan. In addition, we show that membranes from chlorambucil-resistant GST-alpha-overexpressing CHO cells as well as from their parental cells express the hamster homologue of MRP1. With both CHO cell membrane preparations, we observed ATP-dependent transport of monoglutathionyl chlorambucil and of leukotriene C4, a glutathione S-conjugate and high-affinity substrate of MRP1. The transport rates measured in the resistant cells were only two- to three-fold higher than those measured in the control cells. These results together with cytotoxicity assays comparing MRP1-overexpressing cell pairs with the CHO cell pair indicate that, although MRP1-mediated transport is active, it may not be the rate-limiting step in chlorambucil resistance in these cell lines.