In the present study aceclofenac-gelatin micropellets were prepared by the cross linking technique using gluteraldehyde as cross linking agent and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of drug: polymer ratio, temperature of oil phase, amount of gluteraldehyde and stirring time was studied with respect to entrapment efficiency, micropellet size and drug release characteristics. Spherical micropellets having an entrapment efficiency of 57% to 97% were obtained. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis confirmed the absence of any drug-polymer interaction. The micromeritic studies of micropellets show improved flow property. The entrapment efficiency, micropellet size and drug release profile was altered significantly by changing various processing parameters.
Aceclofenac; micropellets; gelatin; cross linking; process variables
Furosemide-loaded alginate microspheres were prepared by the ionic cross-linking technique using CaCl2, Al2(SO4)3 and BaCl2. The process induced the formation of microspheres with the incorporation efficiency of 65% to 93%. The effect of sodium alginate concentration, cross-linking agents and drying conditions was evaluated with respect to entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface characteristics and in vitro release behaviors. Infrared spectroscopic study confirmed the absence of any drug-polymer interaction. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis revealed that the drug was molecularly dispersed in the alginate microspheres matrices showing rough surface, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy study. The mean particle size and entrapment efficiency were found to be varied by changing various formulation parameters. The in vitro release profile could be altered significantly by changing various formulation parameters to give a sustained release of drug from the microspheres. The kinetic modeling of the release data indicate that furosemide release from the alginate microspheres follow anomalous transport mechanism after an initial lag period when the drug release mechanism was found to be fickian diffusion controlled.
Sodium alginate; microspheres; furosemide; ionic cross-linking technique; anomalous transport mechanism; fickian diffusion controlled
Objective. Frusemide loaded calcium alginate micropellets, an oral microparticulate delivery system, was statistically optimized exhibiting prolonged therapeutic action minimizing its adverse effects. Methods. Ionotropic Gelation technique was adopted employing 32 Factorial designs and keeping the entire process free from organic solvents. Physicochemical and the release characteristics of the prepared formulations were studied, keeping variations only in sodium alginate (primary polymer) and Acrycoat E30D (copolymer) dispersion. Result. Sodium alginate was predominant over Acrycoat E30D in all batches. Nonadditives or interaction was observed to be insignificant. Multiple regressions produced second-order polynomial equation, and the predictive results obtained were validated with high degree of correlation. The in vivo study applauded that optimized calcium alginate micropellets of frusemide can produce a much greater diuretic effect over an extended period of 24 hours. Conclusion. This study reveals that the potential of a single dose of the mathematically optimized micro pellets of frusemide formulation is sufficient in the management of peripheral edema and ascites in congestive heart failure and as well in the treatment of chronic hypertension, leading to better patient compliance, and can be produced with minimum experimentation and time, proving far more cost-effective formulation than the conventional methods of formulating dosage forms.
The objective of this study was to microencapsulate the anti-inflammatory drug (naproxen) to provide controlled release and minimizing or eliminating local side effect by avoiding the drug release in the upper gastrointestinal track. Naproxen was microencapsulated with lipid-like carnauba wax, hydrogenated castor oil using modified melt dispersion (modified congealable disperse phase encapsulation) technique. Effect of various formulation and process variables such as drug-lipid ratio, concentration of modifier, concentration of dispersant, stirring speed, stirring time, temperature of external phase, on evaluatory parameters such as size, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release of naproxen were studied. The microspheres were characterized for particle size, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro release studies, for in vitro release kinetics. The shape of microspheres was found to be spherical by SEM. The drug entrapment efficiency of various batches of microspheres was found to be ranging from 60 to 90 %w/w. In vitro drug release studies were carried out up to 24 h in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer showing 50-65% drug release. In vitro drug release from all the batches showed better fitting with the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, indicating the possible mechanism of drug release to be by diffusion and erosion of the lipid matrix.
Carnauba wax; hydrogenated castor oil; lipid microspheres; modified melt dispersion technique; naproxen; release kinetics
Present study aims to prepare and evaluate niacin microspheres. Niacin-ethyl cellulose microspheres were prepared by water-in-oil-in-oil double emulsion solvent diffusion method. Spherical, free flowing microspheres having an entrapment efficiency of 72% were obtained. The effect of polymer-drug ratio, surfactant concentration for secondary emulsion process and stirring speed of emulsification process were evaluated with respect to entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release behavior and particle size. FT-IR and DSC analyses confirmed the absence of drug-polymer interaction. The in vitro release profile could be altered significantly by changing various processing and formulation parameters to give a controlled release of drug from the microspheres. The percentage yield was 85%, particle size range was 405 to 560 μm. The drug release was controlled for 10 h. The in vitro release profiles from optimized formulations were applied on various kinetic models. The best fit with the highest correlation coefficient was observed in Higuchi model, indicating diffusion controlled principle. The in vitro release profiles of optimized formulation was studied and compared with commercially available niacin extended release formulation.
Encapsulation; ethyl cellulose; in vitro; microspheres; niacin; w/o/o double emulsion
Pilocarpine nitrate loaded egg albumin microspheres were prepared by thermal denaturation process in the size range of 1-12 μm. A series of batches were prepared to study factors, which may affect the size and entrapment efficiency of drug in microspheres and optimized the process. Drug loaded microspheres so obtained were evaluated for their size, entrapment efficiency, release rate and biological response. Electron photomicrographs were taken (8000X) to study the morphological characteristics of microspheres. The entrapment and encapsulation of pilocarpine after process optimization was found to be 82.63% and 62.5% respectively. In vitro dissolution rate studies revealed that the release of drug from the microspheres followed spherical matrix mechanism. Biological response of microspheric suspension was measured by reduction in intraocular pressure in albino rabbit eyes and compared with marketed eye drops. Various pharmacokinetic parameters viz. onset of action, duration of action, Tmax and AUC were studied. A measurable difference was found in the mean miotic response, duration and AUC of pilocarpine nitrate microspheric suspension.
Egg albumin; microspheres; pilocarpine nitrate; intraoccular pressure
The starch was isolated from jackfruit seeds and evaluated for its preformulation properties, like tapped density, bulk density, and particle size. The fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was done and compared with that of the commercially available starch which confirmed the properties. Using the various concentrations of jackfruit seed starch, the microspheres were prepared, combining with gelatin by ionotropic gelation technique. The developed microspheres were subjected to analysis of particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, and percentage yield. The spectral analysis confirmed the presence of drug and absence of interactions. Scanning electron microscope image showed that the particles were in spherical shape with a rough surface. The in vitro drug release in water for 12 hours proved to be in the range of 89 to 100%. The various kinetic models were applied using release data to confirm the mechanism of drug. It was concluded that the jackfruit starch-gelatin microspheres gave satisfactory results and met pharmacopieal limits.
FTIR; ionotropic gelation technique; jackfruit seed starch; microsphere
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of type of cross-linking method used on the properties of ambroxol hydrochloride microspheres such as encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and drug release. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using chitosan as a matrix-forming agent and cross-linked using formaldehyde and heat treatment. Morphological and physicochemical properties of microspheres were then investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. The cross-linking of chitosan takes place at the free amino group because of formation of imine bond as evidenced by FTIR. The DSC, XRD, and FTIR analysis showed that chitosan microspheres cross linked by heating were superior in properties and performance as compared to the microspheres cross-linked using formaldehyde. SEM results revealed that heat-treated microspheres were spherical, discrete having smooth, and porous structure. The particle size and encapsulation efficiencies of the prepared chitosan microspheres ranged between 10.83–24.11 μm and 39.73μ80.56%, respectively. The drug release was extended up to 12 h, and the kinetics of the drug release was obeying Higuchi kinetic proving diffusion-controlled drug release.
Ambroxol hydrochloride; chitosan microspheres; cross-linking agents
The present work was aimed at development and evaluation of zidovudin (AZT) loaded gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) by simple desolvation method and further couple it with mannose.
Material and Methods:
Total seven batches of GNPs (A1-A7) were formulated by changing the concentration of polymer gelatin. Various parameters such as particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, % entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release of plain and mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles (M-GNPs) were studied.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that the average particle size of GNPs and M-GNPs were found to be 394 ± 3.21 and 797.2 ± 2.89 nm respectively (optimised batch A3). It was interesting to note that the average particle size of M-GNPs was more due to anchored mannose, whereas drug entrapment was lesser compared to plain GNPs. Studies have showed drug loading for GNPs and M-GNPs to be 66.56% and 58.85% respectively. Zeta potential studies demonstrated little reduction in solution stability of M-GNPs compared to GNPs. In-vitro drug release studies showed almost 80% release (bimodal) up to 24 h, following Korsmeyer-Peppas release kinetics model (GNPs, r = 0.9760; M-GNPs, r = 0.9712).
Hence, it can be concluded that, development of GNPs and M-GNPs will pave the way for reticuloendothelial system uptake of AZT; thus, achieving targeted delivery, selectivity and reduction in associated side effect reduction in acquired immuno defficiency syndrome.
Desolvation; mannosylation; particle size; release; reticuloendothelial system uptake; zidovudine nanoparticles.
The purpose of the present investigation was to encapsulate pure prednisolone (PRD) and PRD–hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) complex in cellulose-based matrix microspheres. The system simultaneously exploits complexation technique to enhance the solubility of low-solubility drug (pure PRD) and subsequent modulation of drug release from microspheres (MIC) at a predetermined time. The microspheres of various compositions were prepared by an oil-in-oil emulsion–solvent evaporation method. The effect of complexation and presence of cellulose polymers on entrapment efficiency, particle size, and drug release had been investigated. The solid-state characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The morphology of MIC was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro drug release profiles from these microspheres showed the desired biphasic release behavior. After enhancing the solubility of prednisolone by inclusion into HPβCD, the drug release was easily modified in the microsphere formulation. It was also demonstrated that the CDs in these microspheres were able to modulate several properties such as morphology, drug loading, and release properties. The release kinetics of prednisolone from microspheres followed quasi-Fickian and first-order release mechanisms. In addition to this, the f2-metric technique was used to check the equivalency of dissolution profiles of the optimized formulation before and after stability studies, and it was found to be similar. A good outcome, matrix microspheres (coded as MIC5) containing PRD–HPβCD complex, showed sustained release of drug (95.81%) over a period of 24 h.
drug release; ethylcelluose; hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose; prednisolone; solubility
Microspheres of tramadol hydrochloride (TM) for oral delivery were prepared by complex coacervation method without the use of chemical cross-linking agents such as glutaraldehyde to avoid the toxic reactions and other undesirable effects of the chemical cross-linking agents. Alternatively, ionotropic gelation was employed by using sodium-tripolyphosphate as cross-linking agent. Chitosan and gelatin B were used as polymer and copolymer, respectively. All the prepared microspheres were subjected to various physicochemical studies, such as drug–polymer compatibility by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy, frequency distribution, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release characteristics and release kinetics. The physical state of drug in the microspheres was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TLC and FTIR studies indicated no drug–polymer incompatibility. All the microspheres showed initial burst release followed by a fickian diffusion mechanism. DSC and XRD analysis indicated that the TM trapped in the microspheres existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. From the preliminary trials, it was observed that it may be possible to formulate TM microspheres by using biodegradable natural polymers such as chitosan and gelatin B to overcome the drawbacks of TM and to increase the patient compliance.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12249-010-9537-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
chitosan; complex coacervation; gelatin B; microspheres; tramadol hydrochloride
The objective of this study is to formulate ketoprofen loaded microspheres of Acrycoat S100 by an o/w emulsion solvent evaporation method. It potently inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase resulting in prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. Ketoprofen causes an irritation in the gastrointestinal mucous membrane and possesses a bitter taste and aftertaste. The half-life in plasma is about 1-2hrs. This makes ketoprofen a very good candidate for the formulation of controlled release dosage forms. Ketoprofen microspheres help to protect the gastric mucous membrane from drug irritation and to mask its taste. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for micromeritic properties, particle size, effect of surfactant concentration, percentage yield, incorporation efficiency, drug polymer compatibility (IR and DSC study), scanning electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. The microspheres produced exhibited good encapsulation efficiencies and micromeritic properties. Encapsulation efficiency of microsphere is around 78%. The mean diameters of microspheres were found in required micrometer range. The results of optimized formulations showed a narrow size distribution and smooth surface. The DSC and the FTIR analysis showed the absence of any potent incompatibility between the drug and the polymer. In-vitro release showed 86.4% drug release after 12 hours. Results of present study suggest that Acrycoat S100 loaded microsphere of ketoprofen can be successfully designed to develop sustained drug delivery system. The solvent evaporation method is a suitable technique for the preparation of Acrycoat S100 microspheres for controlling the release of Ketoprofen for a prolonged duration.
Ketoprofen; Acrycoat S100; solvent evaporation method
The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate microencapsulated controlled release preparations of a highly water/soluble drug, salbutamol sulphate by (water in oil) in oil emulsion technique using ethyl cellulose as the retardant material. Various processing and formulation parameters such as drug/polymer ratio, stirring speed, volume of processing medium were optimized to maximize the entrapment. The release of salbutamol sulphate from ethyl cellulose microsphere was compared and possible release mechanism proposed. Microspheres were prepared by water in oil emulsion technique using acetonitrile/dichloromethane (1:1 ratio) solvent system. Span 80 was used as the dispersing agent and n-hexane was added to harden the microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized for their micromeritic properties and drug loading, as well as compatibility by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in-vitro release studies were carried out in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The prepared microspheres were white, free flowing and spherical in shape. The drug-loaded microspheres showed 55.7 - 76.6 % of entrapment and release was extended up to 10 h. Various processing and formulation parameters such as drug/polymer ratio, stirring speed, volume of processing medium, etc. significantly affect the drug release from the microspheres. The best/fit release kinetics was achieved with Higuchi plot followed by zero order and first order. The release of salbutamol sulphate was influenced by altering the drug to polymer ratio and the drug release was found to be diffusion controlled.
Salbutamol sulphate; Ethyl cellulose; Emulsion solvent evaporation method; Microspheres; Higuchi model
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of formulation and process variables on the properties of niosomes formed from Span 40 as nonionic surfactant. A variety of formulations encapsulating Paclitaxel, a hydrophobic model drug, were prepared using different dicetyl phosphate (DCP) and Span 40-cholesterol (1:1) amounts. Formulations were optimized by multiple regression analysis to evaluate the changes on niosome characteristics such as entrapment efficiency, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and in vitro drug release. Multiple regression analysis revealed that as Span 40-cholesterol amounts in the formulations were increased, zeta potential and percent of drug released at 24th hour were decreased. Besides, DCP was found to be effective on increasing niosome size. As a process variable, the effect of sonication was observed and findings revealed an irreversible size reduction on Span 40 niosomes after probe sonication. Monodisperse small sized (133 ± 6.01 nm) Span 40 niosomes entrapping 98.2% of Paclitaxel with a weight percentage of 3.64% were successfully prepared. The drug–excipient interactions in niosomes were observed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Both techniques suggest the conversion of PCTs’ crystal structure to amorphous form. The thermal analyses demonstrate the high interaction between drug and surfactant that explains high entrapment efficiency. After 3-month storage, niosomes preserved their stability in terms of drug amount and particle size. Overall, this study showed that Span 40 niosomes with desired properties can be prepared by changing the content and production variables.
drug delivery systems; drug release; multiple regression; niosomes; paclitaxel
The purpose of this research was to prepare floating microspheres consisting of (1) calcium silicate as porous carrier; (2) orlistat, an oral anti-obesity agent; and (3) Eudragit S as polymer, by solvent evaporation method and to evaluate their gastro-retentive and controlled-release properties. The effect of various formulation and process variables on the particle morphology, micromeritic properties, in vitro floating behavior, percentage drug entrapment, and in vitro drug release was studied. The gamma scintigraphy of the optimized formulation was performed in albino rabbits to monitor the transit of floating microspheres in the gastrointestinal tract. The orlistat-loaded optimized formulation was orally administered to albino rabbits, and blood samples collected were used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of orlistat from floating microspheres. The microspheres were found to be regular in sphae and highly porous. Microsphere formulation CS4, containing 200 mg calcium silicate, showed the best floating ability (88%±4% buoyancy) in simulated gastric fluid as compared with other formulations. Release pattern of orlistat in simulated gastric fluid from all floating microspheres followed Higuchi matrix model and Peppas-Korsmeyer model. Prolonged gastric residence time of over 6 hours was achieved in all rabbits for calcium silicate-based floating microspheres of orlistat. The enhanced elimination half-life observed after pharmacokinetic investigations in the present study is due to the floating nature of the designed formulations.
Orlistat; calcium silicate; floating drug delivery; microspheres; gamma scintigraphy; pharmacokinetic study
The purpose of this research was to mask the bitter taste of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (DPH) using cation exchange resins. Indion 234 and Tulsion 343 that contained crosslinked polyacrylic backbone were used. The drug resin complexes (DRC) were prepared by batch process by taking drug: resin ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The optimum drug: resin ratio and the time required for maximum complexation was determined. The drug resinates were evaluated for the drug content, taste, micromeritic properties drug release and X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Effervescent and dispersible tablets were developed from optimum drug: resin ratios of 1:2 and 1:1. The formulations were evaluated for uniformity of dispersion, disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution. The X-ray diffraction study confirmed the monomolecularity of entrapped drug in the resin beads. The taste evaluation depicted the successful taste masking of DPH with drug resin complexes. The drug release of 95% in 15 min was observed for effervescent and dispersible tablets.
diphenhydramine hydrochloride; ion exchange resins
Oral pH sensitive drug delivery systems are of utmost importance as these systems deliver the drug at specific part of the gastrointestine (GI) as per the pH of GI, resulting in improved patient therapeutic efficacy and compliance. The pH range of fluids in various segments of the GI tract may provide environmental stimuli for drug release. The aim of this study was to design buoyant beads containing amoxicillin (Am) and to evaluate its potential for the eradication of Helicobacter
pylori (H. pylori). The gel bead of gellan, wherein the oil was entrapped, was blended with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose or Carbopol 934. Buoyant beads of gellan were prepared through ionotropic gellation technique to achieve the controlled and pH-sensitive drug release in stomach. The effects of processing variables such as particle size, buoyancy, percent encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro antimicrobial activity were evaluated. The scanning electron micrograph indicated that prepared beads were spherical in shape and all the beads showed satisfactory floating efficiency in the phthalate buffer solution. The diameter of the gel beads was increased through raising the gellan gum and calcium carbonate concentration. The formulation exhibited sustained release profile and was best fitted in the Peppas model with n < 0.45. Subsequent coating of microbeads exhibited zero-order sustained pattern of the drug release up to 8 h. In-vitro growth inhibition study showed complete eradication of the isolated H. pylori strain .These results provide evidence that the optimized formulation bearing antibiotics like amoxicillin should be useful in H. pylori treatment.
Amoxicillin; pH sensitive drug delivery system; Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); Gastric retention
Chondrogenesis is a process involving stem-cell differentiation through the coordinated effects of growth/differentiation factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were found within the cartilage, which constitutes a specific niche composed of ECM proteins with unique features. Therefore, we hypothesized that the induction of MSC differentiation towards chondrocytes might be induced and/or influenced by molecules from the microenvironment. Using microarray analysis, we previously identified genes that are regulated during MSC differentiation towards chondrocytes. In this study, we wanted to precisely assess the differential expression of genes associated with the microenvironment using a large-scale real-time PCR assay, according to the simultaneous detection of up to 384 mRNAs in one sample. Chondrogenesis of bone-marrow-derived human MSCs was induced by culture in micropellet for various periods of time. Total RNA was extracted and submitted to quantitative RT-PCR. We identified molecules already known to be involved in attachment and cell migration, including syndecans, glypicans, gelsolin, decorin, fibronectin, and type II, IX and XI collagens. Importantly, we detected the expression of molecules that were not previously associated with MSCs or chondrocytes, namely metalloproteases (MMP-7 and MMP-28), molecules of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); cef10/cyr61 and nov (CCN) family (CCN3 and CCN4), chemokines and their receptors chemokine CXC motif ligand (CXCL1), Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FlT3L), chemokine CC motif receptor (CCR3 and CCR4), molecules with A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase domain (ADAM8, ADAM9, ADAM19, ADAM23, A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5), cadherins (4 and 13) and integrins (α4, α7 and β5). Our data suggest that crosstalk between ECM components of the microenvironment and MSCs within the cartilage is responsible for the differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes.
Purpose: The purpose of this research was to established new polysaccharide for the colon targeted drug delivery system, its formulation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
Methods: Microspheres containing pectin and bora rice were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique using zinc acetate as cross linking agent and model drug used was glipizide. A 32 full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer to drug ratio (A), and concentration of cross linking agent (B) on dependent variables, particle size, swelling index, drug entrapment efficiency and percentage drug release.
Results: Results of trial batches indicated that polymer to drug ratio and concentration of cross linking agent affects characteristics of beads. Beads were discrete, spherical and free flowing. Beads exhibited small particle size and showed higher percentage of drug entrapment efficiency. The optimized batch P2 exhibited satisfactory drug entrapment efficiency 68% and drug release was also controlled for more than 24 hours. The polymer to drug ratio had a more significant effect on the dependent variables. In vivo gamma scintigraphy study of optimized pectin-bora rice beads demonstrated degradation of beads whenever they reached to the colon.
Conclusion: Bora rice is potential polysaccharide for colon targeted drug delivery system.
Bora Rice; Glipizide; Pectin; Factorial design; In Vivo study
The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate ketorolac tromethamine-loaded albumin microspheres using a factorial design. Albumin microspheres were prepared by emulsion cross-linking method. Selected formulations were characterized for their entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface morphology, and release behavior. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for entrapment efficiency indicated that entrapment efficiency is best fitted to a response surface linear model. From the statistical analysis it was observed that as the drug:polymer (D∶P) ratio and volume of glutaraldehyde increased, there was a significant increase in the encapsulation efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy of the microspheres revealed a spherical, nonporous and uniform appearance, with a smooth surface. Based on the entrapment efficiency and physical appearance, 9 formulations were selected for release study. The maximum particle size observed was below 40 μm. The release pattern was biphasic, characterized by an initial burst effect followed by a slow release. All selected microspheres, except those having less polymer proportion (D∶P ratio is 1∶1), exhibited a prolonged release for almost 24 hours. On comparingr2 values for Higuchi and Peppas kinetic models, different batches of microspheres showed Fickian, non-Fickian, and diffusion kinetics. The release mechanism was regulated by D∶P ratio and amount of cross-linking agent. From the experimental data obtained with respect to particle size and extent of drug relaase, it could be concluded that the prepared microspheres are useful for once-a-day intramuscular administration of ketorolac tromethamine.
Ketorolac tromethamine; albumin microspheres; intramuscular administration; Higuchi and Peppas kinetic models
Purpose: The purpose of this work was to preparation of vancomycin (VCM) biodegradable nanoparticles to improve the intestinal permeability, using water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion method. Methods: The vancomycin-loaded nanoparticles were created using double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. Using Eudragit RS100 as a coating material. The prepared nanoparticles were identifyed for their micromeritic and crystallographic properties, drug loading, particle size, drug release, Zeta potential, effective permeability (Peff) and oral fractional absorption. Intestinal permeability of VCM nanoparticles was figured out, in different concentrations using SPIP technique in rats. Results: Particle sizes were between 362 and 499 nm for different compositions of VCM-RS-100 nanoparticles. Entrapment efficiency expansed between 63%-94.76%. The highest entrapment efficiency 94.76% was obtained when the ratio of drug to polymer was 1:3. The in vitro release studies were accomplished in pH 7.4. The results showed that physicochemical properties were impressed by drug to polymer ratio. The FT-IR, XRPD and DSC results ruled out any chemical interaction betweenthe drug and RS-100. Effective intestinal permeability values of VCM nanoparticles in concentrations of 200, 300 and 400 μg/ml were higher than that of solutions at the same concentrations. Oral fractional absorption was achieved between 0.419-0.767. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that RS-100 nanoparticles could provide a delivery system for VCM, with enhanced intestinal permeability.
Vncomycin; Nanoparticles; Eudragit RS100; Physicochemical properties
The objective of the present investigation was to prepare colon targeted curcumin microspheres using Eudragit S100 and evaluate the same for in vitro/in vivo properties.
Materials and Methods:
A “O/O solvent evaporation” technique was used in the preparation of microspheres. The influence of various process variables including stirring speed, drug:polymer ratio and percentage of emulsifier on the fabrication were investigated and the formulation was optimized. Prepared microspheres were evaluated for in vitro and in vivo properties. Surface morphology, particle size, percentage drug entrapment, percentage yield, drug polymer interaction, in vitro drug release in simulated gastrointestinal transit conditions and stability were the in vitro parameters investigated. Using an optimized formulation, drug release into the systemic circulation and organ distribution were investigated as in vivo parameters. In vivo parameters were estimated in male albino rats.
Curcumin microspheres of Eudragit S100 were successfully prepared using o/o solvent evaporation method. Microspheres prepared using 1:2 drug:polymer ratio, with a stirring speed of 1000 rpm, and using 1.0% w/v concentration of emulsifying agent was selected as an optimized formulation. The release studies with optimized formulation demonstrated that aqueous solubility of curcumin was enhanced by 8 times with the formulation. FTIR studies demonstrated no change in drug characteristics upon microsphere fabrication. The enhancement in solubility is thus due to the increase in the surface area of the drug substance and not due to a change of drug to a different physical state. This was further confirmed by scanning electron microsphere pictures. Drug release followed Korsmeyer and Peppas release model. Accelerated stability studies indicated that the drug is stable in the formulation for a period of atleast 14 weeks at room temperature. In vivo studies demonstrated a sustained drug release into the systemic circulation after oral administration of the formulation. Further, colon target was affectively achieved using the optimized formulation. Eudragit microspheres delivered most of their drug load (79.0%) to the colon, whereas with plain drug suspension only 28.0% of the total dose reached the target site.
This study successfully developed curcumin microspheres that can be used effectively in the treatment of the colon cancer.
Colon targeting; curcumin; eudragit S100; microspheres; pH sensitive
Mebeverine hydrochloride is known to suffer from extensive first pass effect. In an attempt to improve its oral bioavailability and possibility to restrict its absorption only to the colon, mebeverine microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. Four formulations were prepared with varying drug and polymer ratio. These formulations were subjected to various evaluation parameters like percent practical yield, entrapment efficiency, particle size, in vitro drug release, in vivo activity. Practical yield of the microspheres was up to 89.59% with encapsulation efficiency up to 79.4%. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the microsphere structures were smooth, spherical, and discrete and the particles were of the size range 200 to 300 μm. In vitro release of the drug showed biphasic release pattern with non-Fickian diffusion release in 12 h. On the basis of drug content, particle size, in vitro release and in vivo studies, formulation F-3 was found to be optimal. Antiirritable bowel syndrome activity was performed in colorectal distention in rat, which is a model for constipation-induced irritable bowel syndrome. The formulations F-2 and F-3 showed significant effect in fecal output when compared to the control as well as the marketed preparation in the constipation-induced irritable bowel syndrome in rats.
pH-sensitive microspheres; mebeverine hydrochloride; emulsion solvent evaporation technique; Eudragit S100; Eudragit L100
Microspheres (MS) of Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT) for oral delivery were prepared by complex coacervation (method-1) and simple coacervation (method-2) methods without the use of chemical cross–linking agent (glutaraldehyde) to avoid the toxic reactions and other undesirable effects of the chemical cross-linking agents. Alternatively, ionotropic gelation was employed by using sodium-tripolyphosphate (Na-TPP) as cross linking agent. Chitosan and gelatin B were used as polymer and copolymer respectively. All the prepared microspheres were subjected to various physico-chemical studies, such as drug-polymer compatibility by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), frequency distribution, encapsulation efficiency, in-vitro drug release characteristics and release kinetics. The physical state of drug in the microspheres was determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder Diffractometry (XRD). TLC and FTIR studies indicated no drug-polymer incompatibility. All the MS showed release of drug by a fickian diffusion mechanism. DSC and XRD analysis indicated that the KT trapped in the microspheres existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. It is possible to design a controlled drug delivery system for the prolonged release of KT, improving therapy by possible reduction of time intervals between administrations.
Ketorolac tromethamine; Chitosan; Gelatin B; Complex coacervation; Microspheres
This work examines the influence of various process parameters (like sodium alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration, and hardening time) on papain entrapped in ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery to the small intestine using neural network modeling. A 33 full-factorial design and feed-forward neural network with multilayer perceptron was used to investigate the effect of process variables on percentage of entrapment, time required for 50% and 90% of the enzyme release, particle size, and angle of repose. Topographical characterization was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, and entrapment was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Times required for 50% (T50) and 90% (T90) of enzyme release were increased in all 3 of the process variables. Percentage entrapment and particle size were found to be directly proportional to sodium alginate concentration and inversely proportional to calcium chloride concentration and hardening time, whereas angle of repose and degree of cross-linking showed exactly opposite proportionality. Beads with >90% entrapment and T50 of <10 minutes could be obtained at the low levels of all 3 of the process variables. The inability of beads to dissolve in acidic environment, with complete dissolution in buffer of pH≥6.8, showed the suitability of beads to release papain into the small intestine. The shelf-life of the capsules prepared using the papain-loaded alginate beads was found to be 3.60 years compared with 1.01 years of the marketed formulation. It can be inferred from the above results that the proposed methodology can be used to prepare papain-loaded alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery.
alginate beads; neural network; multilayer perceptron; optimization; papain