In the present study aceclofenac-gelatin micropellets were prepared by the cross linking technique using gluteraldehyde as cross linking agent and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of drug: polymer ratio, temperature of oil phase, amount of gluteraldehyde and stirring time was studied with respect to entrapment efficiency, micropellet size and drug release characteristics. Spherical micropellets having an entrapment efficiency of 57% to 97% were obtained. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis confirmed the absence of any drug-polymer interaction. The micromeritic studies of micropellets show improved flow property. The entrapment efficiency, micropellet size and drug release profile was altered significantly by changing various processing parameters.
Aceclofenac; micropellets; gelatin; cross linking; process variables
Furosemide-loaded alginate microspheres were prepared by the ionic cross-linking technique using CaCl2, Al2(SO4)3 and BaCl2. The process induced the formation of microspheres with the incorporation efficiency of 65% to 93%. The effect of sodium alginate concentration, cross-linking agents and drying conditions was evaluated with respect to entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface characteristics and in vitro release behaviors. Infrared spectroscopic study confirmed the absence of any drug-polymer interaction. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis revealed that the drug was molecularly dispersed in the alginate microspheres matrices showing rough surface, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy study. The mean particle size and entrapment efficiency were found to be varied by changing various formulation parameters. The in vitro release profile could be altered significantly by changing various formulation parameters to give a sustained release of drug from the microspheres. The kinetic modeling of the release data indicate that furosemide release from the alginate microspheres follow anomalous transport mechanism after an initial lag period when the drug release mechanism was found to be fickian diffusion controlled.
Sodium alginate; microspheres; furosemide; ionic cross-linking technique; anomalous transport mechanism; fickian diffusion controlled
Objective. Frusemide loaded calcium alginate micropellets, an oral microparticulate delivery system, was statistically optimized exhibiting prolonged therapeutic action minimizing its adverse effects. Methods. Ionotropic Gelation technique was adopted employing 32 Factorial designs and keeping the entire process free from organic solvents. Physicochemical and the release characteristics of the prepared formulations were studied, keeping variations only in sodium alginate (primary polymer) and Acrycoat E30D (copolymer) dispersion. Result. Sodium alginate was predominant over Acrycoat E30D in all batches. Nonadditives or interaction was observed to be insignificant. Multiple regressions produced second-order polynomial equation, and the predictive results obtained were validated with high degree of correlation. The in vivo study applauded that optimized calcium alginate micropellets of frusemide can produce a much greater diuretic effect over an extended period of 24 hours. Conclusion. This study reveals that the potential of a single dose of the mathematically optimized micro pellets of frusemide formulation is sufficient in the management of peripheral edema and ascites in congestive heart failure and as well in the treatment of chronic hypertension, leading to better patient compliance, and can be produced with minimum experimentation and time, proving far more cost-effective formulation than the conventional methods of formulating dosage forms.
The objective of this study was to microencapsulate the anti-inflammatory drug (naproxen) to provide controlled release and minimizing or eliminating local side effect by avoiding the drug release in the upper gastrointestinal track. Naproxen was microencapsulated with lipid-like carnauba wax, hydrogenated castor oil using modified melt dispersion (modified congealable disperse phase encapsulation) technique. Effect of various formulation and process variables such as drug-lipid ratio, concentration of modifier, concentration of dispersant, stirring speed, stirring time, temperature of external phase, on evaluatory parameters such as size, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release of naproxen were studied. The microspheres were characterized for particle size, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro release studies, for in vitro release kinetics. The shape of microspheres was found to be spherical by SEM. The drug entrapment efficiency of various batches of microspheres was found to be ranging from 60 to 90 %w/w. In vitro drug release studies were carried out up to 24 h in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer showing 50-65% drug release. In vitro drug release from all the batches showed better fitting with the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, indicating the possible mechanism of drug release to be by diffusion and erosion of the lipid matrix.
Carnauba wax; hydrogenated castor oil; lipid microspheres; modified melt dispersion technique; naproxen; release kinetics
Present study aims to prepare and evaluate niacin microspheres. Niacin-ethyl cellulose microspheres were prepared by water-in-oil-in-oil double emulsion solvent diffusion method. Spherical, free flowing microspheres having an entrapment efficiency of 72% were obtained. The effect of polymer-drug ratio, surfactant concentration for secondary emulsion process and stirring speed of emulsification process were evaluated with respect to entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release behavior and particle size. FT-IR and DSC analyses confirmed the absence of drug-polymer interaction. The in vitro release profile could be altered significantly by changing various processing and formulation parameters to give a controlled release of drug from the microspheres. The percentage yield was 85%, particle size range was 405 to 560 μm. The drug release was controlled for 10 h. The in vitro release profiles from optimized formulations were applied on various kinetic models. The best fit with the highest correlation coefficient was observed in Higuchi model, indicating diffusion controlled principle. The in vitro release profiles of optimized formulation was studied and compared with commercially available niacin extended release formulation.
Encapsulation; ethyl cellulose; in vitro; microspheres; niacin; w/o/o double emulsion
Pilocarpine nitrate loaded egg albumin microspheres were prepared by thermal denaturation process in the size range of 1-12 μm. A series of batches were prepared to study factors, which may affect the size and entrapment efficiency of drug in microspheres and optimized the process. Drug loaded microspheres so obtained were evaluated for their size, entrapment efficiency, release rate and biological response. Electron photomicrographs were taken (8000X) to study the morphological characteristics of microspheres. The entrapment and encapsulation of pilocarpine after process optimization was found to be 82.63% and 62.5% respectively. In vitro dissolution rate studies revealed that the release of drug from the microspheres followed spherical matrix mechanism. Biological response of microspheric suspension was measured by reduction in intraocular pressure in albino rabbit eyes and compared with marketed eye drops. Various pharmacokinetic parameters viz. onset of action, duration of action, Tmax and AUC were studied. A measurable difference was found in the mean miotic response, duration and AUC of pilocarpine nitrate microspheric suspension.
Egg albumin; microspheres; pilocarpine nitrate; intraoccular pressure
The starch was isolated from jackfruit seeds and evaluated for its preformulation properties, like tapped density, bulk density, and particle size. The fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was done and compared with that of the commercially available starch which confirmed the properties. Using the various concentrations of jackfruit seed starch, the microspheres were prepared, combining with gelatin by ionotropic gelation technique. The developed microspheres were subjected to analysis of particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, and percentage yield. The spectral analysis confirmed the presence of drug and absence of interactions. Scanning electron microscope image showed that the particles were in spherical shape with a rough surface. The in vitro drug release in water for 12 hours proved to be in the range of 89 to 100%. The various kinetic models were applied using release data to confirm the mechanism of drug. It was concluded that the jackfruit starch-gelatin microspheres gave satisfactory results and met pharmacopieal limits.
FTIR; ionotropic gelation technique; jackfruit seed starch; microsphere
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of type of cross-linking method used on the properties of ambroxol hydrochloride microspheres such as encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and drug release. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using chitosan as a matrix-forming agent and cross-linked using formaldehyde and heat treatment. Morphological and physicochemical properties of microspheres were then investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. The cross-linking of chitosan takes place at the free amino group because of formation of imine bond as evidenced by FTIR. The DSC, XRD, and FTIR analysis showed that chitosan microspheres cross linked by heating were superior in properties and performance as compared to the microspheres cross-linked using formaldehyde. SEM results revealed that heat-treated microspheres were spherical, discrete having smooth, and porous structure. The particle size and encapsulation efficiencies of the prepared chitosan microspheres ranged between 10.83–24.11 μm and 39.73μ80.56%, respectively. The drug release was extended up to 12 h, and the kinetics of the drug release was obeying Higuchi kinetic proving diffusion-controlled drug release.
Ambroxol hydrochloride; chitosan microspheres; cross-linking agents
The objective of this study is to formulate ketoprofen loaded microspheres of Acrycoat S100 by an o/w emulsion solvent evaporation method. It potently inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase resulting in prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. Ketoprofen causes an irritation in the gastrointestinal mucous membrane and possesses a bitter taste and aftertaste. The half-life in plasma is about 1-2hrs. This makes ketoprofen a very good candidate for the formulation of controlled release dosage forms. Ketoprofen microspheres help to protect the gastric mucous membrane from drug irritation and to mask its taste. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for micromeritic properties, particle size, effect of surfactant concentration, percentage yield, incorporation efficiency, drug polymer compatibility (IR and DSC study), scanning electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. The microspheres produced exhibited good encapsulation efficiencies and micromeritic properties. Encapsulation efficiency of microsphere is around 78%. The mean diameters of microspheres were found in required micrometer range. The results of optimized formulations showed a narrow size distribution and smooth surface. The DSC and the FTIR analysis showed the absence of any potent incompatibility between the drug and the polymer. In-vitro release showed 86.4% drug release after 12 hours. Results of present study suggest that Acrycoat S100 loaded microsphere of ketoprofen can be successfully designed to develop sustained drug delivery system. The solvent evaporation method is a suitable technique for the preparation of Acrycoat S100 microspheres for controlling the release of Ketoprofen for a prolonged duration.
Ketoprofen; Acrycoat S100; solvent evaporation method
The purpose of the present investigation was to encapsulate pure prednisolone (PRD) and PRD–hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) complex in cellulose-based matrix microspheres. The system simultaneously exploits complexation technique to enhance the solubility of low-solubility drug (pure PRD) and subsequent modulation of drug release from microspheres (MIC) at a predetermined time. The microspheres of various compositions were prepared by an oil-in-oil emulsion–solvent evaporation method. The effect of complexation and presence of cellulose polymers on entrapment efficiency, particle size, and drug release had been investigated. The solid-state characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The morphology of MIC was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro drug release profiles from these microspheres showed the desired biphasic release behavior. After enhancing the solubility of prednisolone by inclusion into HPβCD, the drug release was easily modified in the microsphere formulation. It was also demonstrated that the CDs in these microspheres were able to modulate several properties such as morphology, drug loading, and release properties. The release kinetics of prednisolone from microspheres followed quasi-Fickian and first-order release mechanisms. In addition to this, the f2-metric technique was used to check the equivalency of dissolution profiles of the optimized formulation before and after stability studies, and it was found to be similar. A good outcome, matrix microspheres (coded as MIC5) containing PRD–HPβCD complex, showed sustained release of drug (95.81%) over a period of 24 h.
drug release; ethylcelluose; hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose; prednisolone; solubility
Microspheres of tramadol hydrochloride (TM) for oral delivery were prepared by complex coacervation method without the use of chemical cross-linking agents such as glutaraldehyde to avoid the toxic reactions and other undesirable effects of the chemical cross-linking agents. Alternatively, ionotropic gelation was employed by using sodium-tripolyphosphate as cross-linking agent. Chitosan and gelatin B were used as polymer and copolymer, respectively. All the prepared microspheres were subjected to various physicochemical studies, such as drug–polymer compatibility by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy, frequency distribution, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release characteristics and release kinetics. The physical state of drug in the microspheres was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TLC and FTIR studies indicated no drug–polymer incompatibility. All the microspheres showed initial burst release followed by a fickian diffusion mechanism. DSC and XRD analysis indicated that the TM trapped in the microspheres existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. From the preliminary trials, it was observed that it may be possible to formulate TM microspheres by using biodegradable natural polymers such as chitosan and gelatin B to overcome the drawbacks of TM and to increase the patient compliance.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12249-010-9537-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
chitosan; complex coacervation; gelatin B; microspheres; tramadol hydrochloride
The purpose of this research was to prepare floating microspheres consisting of (1) calcium silicate as porous carrier; (2) orlistat, an oral anti-obesity agent; and (3) Eudragit S as polymer, by solvent evaporation method and to evaluate their gastro-retentive and controlled-release properties. The effect of various formulation and process variables on the particle morphology, micromeritic properties, in vitro floating behavior, percentage drug entrapment, and in vitro drug release was studied. The gamma scintigraphy of the optimized formulation was performed in albino rabbits to monitor the transit of floating microspheres in the gastrointestinal tract. The orlistat-loaded optimized formulation was orally administered to albino rabbits, and blood samples collected were used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of orlistat from floating microspheres. The microspheres were found to be regular in sphae and highly porous. Microsphere formulation CS4, containing 200 mg calcium silicate, showed the best floating ability (88%±4% buoyancy) in simulated gastric fluid as compared with other formulations. Release pattern of orlistat in simulated gastric fluid from all floating microspheres followed Higuchi matrix model and Peppas-Korsmeyer model. Prolonged gastric residence time of over 6 hours was achieved in all rabbits for calcium silicate-based floating microspheres of orlistat. The enhanced elimination half-life observed after pharmacokinetic investigations in the present study is due to the floating nature of the designed formulations.
Orlistat; calcium silicate; floating drug delivery; microspheres; gamma scintigraphy; pharmacokinetic study
Chondrogenesis is a process involving stem-cell differentiation through the coordinated effects of growth/differentiation factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were found within the cartilage, which constitutes a specific niche composed of ECM proteins with unique features. Therefore, we hypothesized that the induction of MSC differentiation towards chondrocytes might be induced and/or influenced by molecules from the microenvironment. Using microarray analysis, we previously identified genes that are regulated during MSC differentiation towards chondrocytes. In this study, we wanted to precisely assess the differential expression of genes associated with the microenvironment using a large-scale real-time PCR assay, according to the simultaneous detection of up to 384 mRNAs in one sample. Chondrogenesis of bone-marrow-derived human MSCs was induced by culture in micropellet for various periods of time. Total RNA was extracted and submitted to quantitative RT-PCR. We identified molecules already known to be involved in attachment and cell migration, including syndecans, glypicans, gelsolin, decorin, fibronectin, and type II, IX and XI collagens. Importantly, we detected the expression of molecules that were not previously associated with MSCs or chondrocytes, namely metalloproteases (MMP-7 and MMP-28), molecules of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); cef10/cyr61 and nov (CCN) family (CCN3 and CCN4), chemokines and their receptors chemokine CXC motif ligand (CXCL1), Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FlT3L), chemokine CC motif receptor (CCR3 and CCR4), molecules with A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase domain (ADAM8, ADAM9, ADAM19, ADAM23, A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5), cadherins (4 and 13) and integrins (α4, α7 and β5). Our data suggest that crosstalk between ECM components of the microenvironment and MSCs within the cartilage is responsible for the differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of formulation and process variables on the properties of niosomes formed from Span 40 as nonionic surfactant. A variety of formulations encapsulating Paclitaxel, a hydrophobic model drug, were prepared using different dicetyl phosphate (DCP) and Span 40-cholesterol (1:1) amounts. Formulations were optimized by multiple regression analysis to evaluate the changes on niosome characteristics such as entrapment efficiency, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and in vitro drug release. Multiple regression analysis revealed that as Span 40-cholesterol amounts in the formulations were increased, zeta potential and percent of drug released at 24th hour were decreased. Besides, DCP was found to be effective on increasing niosome size. As a process variable, the effect of sonication was observed and findings revealed an irreversible size reduction on Span 40 niosomes after probe sonication. Monodisperse small sized (133 ± 6.01 nm) Span 40 niosomes entrapping 98.2% of Paclitaxel with a weight percentage of 3.64% were successfully prepared. The drug–excipient interactions in niosomes were observed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Both techniques suggest the conversion of PCTs’ crystal structure to amorphous form. The thermal analyses demonstrate the high interaction between drug and surfactant that explains high entrapment efficiency. After 3-month storage, niosomes preserved their stability in terms of drug amount and particle size. Overall, this study showed that Span 40 niosomes with desired properties can be prepared by changing the content and production variables.
drug delivery systems; drug release; multiple regression; niosomes; paclitaxel
The purpose of this research was to mask the bitter taste of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (DPH) using cation exchange resins. Indion 234 and Tulsion 343 that contained crosslinked polyacrylic backbone were used. The drug resin complexes (DRC) were prepared by batch process by taking drug: resin ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The optimum drug: resin ratio and the time required for maximum complexation was determined. The drug resinates were evaluated for the drug content, taste, micromeritic properties drug release and X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Effervescent and dispersible tablets were developed from optimum drug: resin ratios of 1:2 and 1:1. The formulations were evaluated for uniformity of dispersion, disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution. The X-ray diffraction study confirmed the monomolecularity of entrapped drug in the resin beads. The taste evaluation depicted the successful taste masking of DPH with drug resin complexes. The drug release of 95% in 15 min was observed for effervescent and dispersible tablets.
diphenhydramine hydrochloride; ion exchange resins
The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate ketorolac tromethamine-loaded albumin microspheres using a factorial design. Albumin microspheres were prepared by emulsion cross-linking method. Selected formulations were characterized for their entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface morphology, and release behavior. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for entrapment efficiency indicated that entrapment efficiency is best fitted to a response surface linear model. From the statistical analysis it was observed that as the drug:polymer (D∶P) ratio and volume of glutaraldehyde increased, there was a significant increase in the encapsulation efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy of the microspheres revealed a spherical, nonporous and uniform appearance, with a smooth surface. Based on the entrapment efficiency and physical appearance, 9 formulations were selected for release study. The maximum particle size observed was below 40 μm. The release pattern was biphasic, characterized by an initial burst effect followed by a slow release. All selected microspheres, except those having less polymer proportion (D∶P ratio is 1∶1), exhibited a prolonged release for almost 24 hours. On comparingr2 values for Higuchi and Peppas kinetic models, different batches of microspheres showed Fickian, non-Fickian, and diffusion kinetics. The release mechanism was regulated by D∶P ratio and amount of cross-linking agent. From the experimental data obtained with respect to particle size and extent of drug relaase, it could be concluded that the prepared microspheres are useful for once-a-day intramuscular administration of ketorolac tromethamine.
Ketorolac tromethamine; albumin microspheres; intramuscular administration; Higuchi and Peppas kinetic models
Mebeverine hydrochloride is known to suffer from extensive first pass effect. In an attempt to improve its oral bioavailability and possibility to restrict its absorption only to the colon, mebeverine microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. Four formulations were prepared with varying drug and polymer ratio. These formulations were subjected to various evaluation parameters like percent practical yield, entrapment efficiency, particle size, in vitro drug release, in vivo activity. Practical yield of the microspheres was up to 89.59% with encapsulation efficiency up to 79.4%. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the microsphere structures were smooth, spherical, and discrete and the particles were of the size range 200 to 300 μm. In vitro release of the drug showed biphasic release pattern with non-Fickian diffusion release in 12 h. On the basis of drug content, particle size, in vitro release and in vivo studies, formulation F-3 was found to be optimal. Antiirritable bowel syndrome activity was performed in colorectal distention in rat, which is a model for constipation-induced irritable bowel syndrome. The formulations F-2 and F-3 showed significant effect in fecal output when compared to the control as well as the marketed preparation in the constipation-induced irritable bowel syndrome in rats.
pH-sensitive microspheres; mebeverine hydrochloride; emulsion solvent evaporation technique; Eudragit S100; Eudragit L100
The objective of the present investigation was to prepare colon targeted curcumin microspheres using Eudragit S100 and evaluate the same for in vitro/in vivo properties.
Materials and Methods:
A “O/O solvent evaporation” technique was used in the preparation of microspheres. The influence of various process variables including stirring speed, drug:polymer ratio and percentage of emulsifier on the fabrication were investigated and the formulation was optimized. Prepared microspheres were evaluated for in vitro and in vivo properties. Surface morphology, particle size, percentage drug entrapment, percentage yield, drug polymer interaction, in vitro drug release in simulated gastrointestinal transit conditions and stability were the in vitro parameters investigated. Using an optimized formulation, drug release into the systemic circulation and organ distribution were investigated as in vivo parameters. In vivo parameters were estimated in male albino rats.
Curcumin microspheres of Eudragit S100 were successfully prepared using o/o solvent evaporation method. Microspheres prepared using 1:2 drug:polymer ratio, with a stirring speed of 1000 rpm, and using 1.0% w/v concentration of emulsifying agent was selected as an optimized formulation. The release studies with optimized formulation demonstrated that aqueous solubility of curcumin was enhanced by 8 times with the formulation. FTIR studies demonstrated no change in drug characteristics upon microsphere fabrication. The enhancement in solubility is thus due to the increase in the surface area of the drug substance and not due to a change of drug to a different physical state. This was further confirmed by scanning electron microsphere pictures. Drug release followed Korsmeyer and Peppas release model. Accelerated stability studies indicated that the drug is stable in the formulation for a period of atleast 14 weeks at room temperature. In vivo studies demonstrated a sustained drug release into the systemic circulation after oral administration of the formulation. Further, colon target was affectively achieved using the optimized formulation. Eudragit microspheres delivered most of their drug load (79.0%) to the colon, whereas with plain drug suspension only 28.0% of the total dose reached the target site.
This study successfully developed curcumin microspheres that can be used effectively in the treatment of the colon cancer.
Colon targeting; curcumin; eudragit S100; microspheres; pH sensitive
Microspheres (MS) of Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT) for oral delivery were prepared by complex coacervation (method-1) and simple coacervation (method-2) methods without the use of chemical cross–linking agent (glutaraldehyde) to avoid the toxic reactions and other undesirable effects of the chemical cross-linking agents. Alternatively, ionotropic gelation was employed by using sodium-tripolyphosphate (Na-TPP) as cross linking agent. Chitosan and gelatin B were used as polymer and copolymer respectively. All the prepared microspheres were subjected to various physico-chemical studies, such as drug-polymer compatibility by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), frequency distribution, encapsulation efficiency, in-vitro drug release characteristics and release kinetics. The physical state of drug in the microspheres was determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder Diffractometry (XRD). TLC and FTIR studies indicated no drug-polymer incompatibility. All the MS showed release of drug by a fickian diffusion mechanism. DSC and XRD analysis indicated that the KT trapped in the microspheres existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. It is possible to design a controlled drug delivery system for the prolonged release of KT, improving therapy by possible reduction of time intervals between administrations.
Ketorolac tromethamine; Chitosan; Gelatin B; Complex coacervation; Microspheres
This work examines the influence of various process parameters (like sodium alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration, and hardening time) on papain entrapped in ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery to the small intestine using neural network modeling. A 33 full-factorial design and feed-forward neural network with multilayer perceptron was used to investigate the effect of process variables on percentage of entrapment, time required for 50% and 90% of the enzyme release, particle size, and angle of repose. Topographical characterization was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, and entrapment was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Times required for 50% (T50) and 90% (T90) of enzyme release were increased in all 3 of the process variables. Percentage entrapment and particle size were found to be directly proportional to sodium alginate concentration and inversely proportional to calcium chloride concentration and hardening time, whereas angle of repose and degree of cross-linking showed exactly opposite proportionality. Beads with >90% entrapment and T50 of <10 minutes could be obtained at the low levels of all 3 of the process variables. The inability of beads to dissolve in acidic environment, with complete dissolution in buffer of pH≥6.8, showed the suitability of beads to release papain into the small intestine. The shelf-life of the capsules prepared using the papain-loaded alginate beads was found to be 3.60 years compared with 1.01 years of the marketed formulation. It can be inferred from the above results that the proposed methodology can be used to prepare papain-loaded alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery.
alginate beads; neural network; multilayer perceptron; optimization; papain
Floating microspheres have been utilized to obtain prolonged and uniform release of drug in the stomach for development of once-daily formulations. A controlled-release system designed to increase residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa was achieved through the preparation of floating microspheres by the emulsion solvent diffusion technique, using (i) calcium silicate (CS) as porous carrier; (ii) glipizide, an oral hypoglycemic agent; and (iii) Eudragit® S as polymer. The effects of various formulations and process variables on the internal and external particle morphology, micromeritic properties, in vitro floating behavior, drug loading, and in vitro drug release were studied. The microspheres were found to be regular in shape and highly porous. The prepared microspheres exhibited prolonged drug release (~8 h) and remained buoyant for >10 h. The mean particle size increased and the drug release rate decreased at higher polymer concentrations. No significant effect of the stirring rate during preparation on drug release was observed. In vitro studies demonstrated diffusion-controlled drug release from the microspheres. Microsphere formulation CS4, containing 200 mg calcium silicate, showed the best floating ability (88% buoyancy) in simulated gastric fluid. The release pattern of glipizide in simulated gastric fluid from all floating microspheres followed the Higuchi matrix model and the Peppas-Korsmeyer model.
Calcium silicate; emulsion solvent diffusion method; floating controlled drug-delivery system; glipizide; microspheres
Background and the purpose of the study
The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize, optimize and evaluate microballoons of Propranolol hydrochloride and to increase its boioavailability by increasing the retention time of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract.
Propranolol hydrochloride-loaded microballoons were prepared by the non-aqueous O/O emulsion solvent diffusion evaporation method using Eudragit RSPO as polymer. It was found that preparation temperature determined the formation of cavity inside the microballoon and this in turn determined the buoyancy. Microballoons were subjected to particle size determination, micromeritic properties, buoyancy, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release and IR study. The correlation between the buoyancy, bulk density and porosity of microballoons were elucidated. The release rate was determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) of pH 1.2 at 37±0.5°C.
The microballoons presented spherical and smooth morphologies (SEM) and were porous due to presence of hollow cavity. Microballoons remained buoyant for >12 hrs for the optimized formulation. The formulation demonstrated favorable in vitro floating and release characteristics. The encapsulation efficiency was high. In vitro dissolution kinetics followed the Higuchi model. The drug release from microballoons was mainly controlled by diffusion and showed a biphasic pattern with an initial burst release, followed by sustained release for 12 hrs. The amount of the drug which released up to 12 hrs was 82.05±0.64%. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed significant difference (p<0.05) in the cumulative amount of drug released after 30 min, and up to 12 hrs from optimized formulations.
The designed system for propanolol would possibly be advantageous in terms of increased bioavailability and patient compliance.
Floating drug delivery system; O/O emulsion Solvent diffusion/evaporation method; Eudragit RS PO; Buoyancy
Mucoadhesive beads were fabricated and evaluated for controlled release of an antiemetic drug ‘Ondansetron Hydrochloride’. Ondansetron hydrochloride is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist mainly used for the treatment of emesis, which occurs as a side effect of chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods:
The present work was to fabricate and evaluate ondansetron-loaded microbeads by using chitosan as mucoadhesive and sustained release polymer. Sodium tripolyphosphate (Na-TPP) was used as a cross-linking agent. The microbeads were successfully prepared by ionotropic gelation technique. The particle size, entrapment efficiency, and mucoadhesive strength of drug-loaded formulations was measured by an optical microscope, direct crushing method, and in vitro wash-off method, respectively.
Particle size, entrapment efficiency, mucoadhesive strength, and in vitro drug release of optimized formulation was found to be 760.11 ± 1.02 μm, 75.09 ± 2.40%, 95.14 ± 0.27% and 87.45 ± 1.21%, respectively. The data was fitted to different kinetic models to illustrate its anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion.
The results revealed that ondansetron HCl loaded microbeads are most suitable mode of drug delivery for promising therapeutic action. Ondansetron HCl-loaded microbeads can prove to be potential pharmaceutical dosage forms for sustaining the drug release and reducing the dose frequency.
Chitosan; ionotropic gelation technique; mucoadhesion; release kinetics; sodium tripolyphosphate
Microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs using coacervation-phase separation method is very challenging, as these drugs partitioned into the aqueous polymeric solution, resulting in poor drug entrapment. For evaluating the effect of ovalbumin on the microencapsulation of drugs with different solubility, pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, propranolol HCl, paracetamol, and curcuminoid were used. In addition, drug mixtures comprising of paracetamol and pseudoephedrine HCl were also studied. The morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and in vitro release profile were investigated. The results showed that the solubility of the drug determined the ratio of ovalbumin to be used for successful microencapsulation. The optimum ratios of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin for water-soluble (pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, and propranolol HCl), sparingly water-soluble (paracetamol), and water-insoluble (curcuminoid) drugs were found to be 1:1:2, 2:3:5, and 1:3:4. As for the drug mixture, the optimum ratio of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin was 2:3:5. Encapsulated particles prepared at the optimum ratios showed high yield, drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and sustained release profiles. The solubility of drug affected the particle size of the encapsulated particle. Highly soluble drugs resulted in smaller particle size. In conclusion, addition of ovalbumin circumvented the partitioning effect, leading to the successful microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs.
coacervation-phase separation method; gelatin; microencapsulation; ovalbumin; solubility
Liposomal dry powder formulations (DPFs) have proven their superiority over conventional DPFs due to favorably improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of entrapped drugs, and thus, reduced local and systemic toxicities. Nanoliposomal DPFs (NLDPFs) provide stable, high aerosolization efficiency to deep lung, prolonged drug release, slow systemic dilution, and avoid macrophage uptake of encapsulated drug by carrier-based delivery of nano-range liposomes. This chapter describes methods of preparation of nanoliposomes (NLs) and NLDPFs, using various techniques, and their characterization with respect to size distribution, flow behavior, in vitro drug release profile, lung deposition, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, and in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Some examples have been detailed for better understanding of the methods of preparation and evaluation of NLDPFs by investigators.