This study was aimed at enhancing the physical stability of the drug clotrimazole (CT) and the polymer contained within hot-melt extrusion (HME) films using polymer blends of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The HME films were investigated for solid-state characteristics, moisture sorption, bioadhesivity, mechanical properties, glass transition temperature, release characteristics, and physical and chemical stability of the drug and the polymer within the HME films. The solid-state characterization of the drug and the polymer was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffractometry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. A texture analyzer was used to study the bioadhesive and mechanical properties of the HME films. The physical and chemical stability of the films, stored at 25°C/60% relative humidity or in a desiccator, was studied for up to 12 months. CT was found to be in solid solution within all of the formulations extruded. The physical stability of the drug and PEO in the HME films increased with increasing HPC concentration, but the bioadhesivity and flexibility of the PEO films decreased with increasing HPC concentration. Films containing HPC: PEO∶CT in the ratio of 55∶35∶10 demonstrated optimum physical-mechanical, bioadhesive, and release properties. In conclusion, polymer blends of HPC and PEO were used successfully to tailor the drug release, mechanical and bio-adhesive properties, and stability of the HME films.
Solid solution; physical stability; hot-melt extrusion; polymers; physicochemical characterization
The present study was undertaken to find out the potential of gum from Moringa oleifera to act as a binder and release retardant in tablet formulations. The effect of calcium sulphate dihydrate (water insoluble) and lactose (water soluble) diluent on the release of propranolol hydrochloride was studied. The DSC thermograms of drug, gum and mixture of gum/drug indicated no chemical interaction. Tablets (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were prepared containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as diluent, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug using 10%, 8%, 6% and 4% w/v of gum solution as binder. Magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Physical and technological properties of granules and tablets like flow rate, Carr index, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, hardness, friability and disintegration time were determined and found to be satisfactory. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as excipient, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug using 10%, 20% and 30% of gum as release retardant, magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Similarly tablets were prepared replacing lactose with calcium sulphate dihydrate. Despite of the widely varying physico-chemical characteristics of the excipients, the drug release profiles were found to be similar. The drug release increased with increasing proportions of the excipient and decreased proportion of the gum irrespective of the solubility characteristics of the excipient. The values of release exponent ‘n’ are between 0.37 and 0.54. This implies that the release mechanism is Fickian. There is no evidence that the dissolution or erosion of the excipient has got any effect on the release of the drug. The t50% values for tablets containing calcium sulphate dihydrate were on an average 10%-15% longer than the tablets containing lactose as excipient. These relatively small differences in t50% values suggest that the nature of excipient used appeared to play a minor role in regulating the release, while the gum content was a major factor.
Binder; gum; Moringa oleifera; release retardant; tablet
The objective of this research work was to evaluate Klucel™ hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) EF and ELF polymers, for solubility enhancement as well as to address some of the disadvantages associated with solid dispersions. Ketoprofen (KPR), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug with poor solubility, was utilized as a model compound. Preliminary thermal studies were performed to confirm formation of a solid solution/dispersion of KPR in HPC matrix and also to establish processing conditions for hot-melt extrusion. Extrudates pelletized and filled into capsules exhibited a carrier-dependent release with ELF polymer exhibiting a faster release. Tablets compressed from milled extrudates exhibited rapid release owing to the increased surface area of the milled extrudate. Addition of mannitol (MNT) further enhanced the release by forming micro-pores and increasing the porosity of the extrudates. An optimized tablet formulation constituting KPR, MNT, and ELF in a 1:1:1 ratio exhibited 90% release in 15 min similar to a commercial capsule formulation. HPC polymers are non-ionic hydrophilic polymers that undergo polymer-chain-length-dependent solubilization and can be used to enhance solubility or dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Dissolution/release rate could be tailored for rapid-release applications by selecting a suitable HPC polymer and altering the final dosage form. The release obtained from pellets was carrier-dependent and not drug-dependent, and hence, such a system can be effectively utilized to address solubility or precipitation issues with poorly soluble drugs in the gastrointestinal environment.
hot-melt extrusion; Klucel™ EF/ELF; solid solutions/dispersions; solubility enhancement; thermal miscibility evaluation
Anionic polymer sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CELLOGEN® HP-HS and/or HP-12HS) was investigated for its ability to influence the release of three model drugs propranolol hydrochloride, theophylline and ibuprofen from polyethylene oxide (POLYOX™ WSR 1105 and/or Coagulant) hydrophilic matrices. For anionic ibuprofen and non-ionic theophylline, no unusual/unexpected release profiles were obtained from tablets containing a mixture of two polymers. However, for cationic propranolol HCl, a combination of polyethylene oxide (PEO) with sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) produced a significantly slower drug release compared to the matrices with single polymers. The potential use of this synergistic interaction can be a design of new extended release pharmaceutical dosage forms with a more prolonged release (beyond 12 h) using lower polymer amount, which could be particularly beneficial for freely water-soluble drugs, preferably for once daily oral administration. In order to explain changes in the obtained drug release profiles, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy was performed. A possible explanation for the more prolonged propranolol HCl release from matrices based on both PEO and NaCMC may be due to a chemical bond (i.e. ionic/electrostatic intermolecular interaction) between amine group of the cationic drug and carboxyl group of the anionic polymer, leading to a formation of a new type/form of the active (i.e. salt) with sustained release pattern.
extended release; FT-IR; ibuprofen; matrix tablet; polyethylene oxide; polymer combination; propranolol hydrochloride; sodium carboxymethylcellulose; theophylline
The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate buccal mucoadhesive controlled release tablets of lercanidipine hydrochloride using polyethylene oxide and different viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose individually and in combination. Effect of polymer type, proportion and combination was studied on the drug release rate, release mechanism and mucoadhesive strength of the prepared formulations. Buccal mucoadhesive tablets were made by direct compression and were characterized for content uniformity, weight variation, friability, surface pH, thickness and mechanism of release. In order to estimate the relative enhancement in bioavailability one optimized formulation was evaluated in rabbits. Further, placebo tablets were also evaluated for acceptability in human subjects. Results indicated acceptable physical characteristics of designed tablets with good content uniformity and minimum weight variation. Drug release and mucoadhesive strength were found to depend upon polymer type, proportion and viscosity. The formulations prepared using poly ethylene oxide gave maximum mucoadhesion. The release mechanism of most formulations was found to be of anomalous non-Fickian type. In vivo studies of selected formulation in rabbits demonstrated significant enhancement in bioavailability of lercanidipine hydrochloride relative to orally administered drug. Moreover, in human acceptability studies of placebo formulations, the designed tablets adhered well to the buccal mucosa for more than 4 h without causing any discomfort. It may be concluded that the designed buccoadhesive controlled release tablets have the potential to overcome the disadvantage of poor and erratic oral bioavailability associated with the presently marketed formulations of lercanidipine hydrochloride.
buccal; hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; lercanidipine; mucoadhesive; poly ethylene oxide
The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of propranolol–magnesium aluminium silicate intercalated complexes as drug reservoirs in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose tablets. The matrix tablets containing the complexes were prepared and characterised with respect to propranolol release and were subsequently compared with those loading propranolol or a propranolol–magnesium aluminium silicate physical mixture. Additionally, the effects of varying viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, compression pressures and calcium acetate incorporation on the drug release characteristics of the complex-loaded tablets were also examined. The results showed that the complex-loaded tablets have higher tablet hardness than those containing propranolol or a physical mixture. The drug release from the complex-loaded tablets followed a zero-order release kinetic, whereas an anomalous transport was found in the propranolol or physical mixture tablets. The drug release rate of the complex tablet significantly decreased with increasing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose viscosity grade. Increase in the compression pressure caused a decrease in the drug release rate of the tablets. Furthermore, the incorporation of calcium ions could accelerate propranolol release, particularly in acidic medium, because calcium ions could be exchanged with propranolol molecules intercalated in the silicate layers of magnesium aluminium silicate. These findings suggest that propranolol-magnesium aluminium silicate intercalated complexes show strong potential for use as drug reservoirs in matrix tablets intended for modifying drug release.
Complexes; drug release; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; propranolol; magnesium aluminium silicate; matrix tablets
This study evaluated tableting compression by using internal and external lubricant addition. The effect of lubricant addition on the enzymatic activity of trypsin, which was used as a model drug during the tableting compression process, was also investigated. The powder mixture (2% crystalline trypsin, 58% crystalline lactose, and 40% microcrystalline cellulose) was kneaded with 5% hydroxypropyl cellulose aqueous solution and then granulated using an extruding granulator equipped with a 0.5-mm mesh screen at 20 rpm. After drying, the sample granules were passed through a 10-mesh screen (1680 μm). A 200-mg sample was compressed by using 8-mm punches and dies at 49, 98, 196, or 388 MPa (Mega Pascal) at a speed of 25 mm/min. The external lubricant compression was performed using granules without lubricant in the punches and dies. The granules were already dry coated by the lubricant. In contrast, the internal lubricant compression was performed using sample granules (without dry coating) containing 0.5% lubricant. At 98 MPa, for example, the compression level using the external lubricant addition method was about 13% higher than that for internal addition. The significantly higher compressing energy was also observed at other MPas. By comparison, the friction energy for the external addition method calculated based on upper and lower compression forces was only slightly larger. The hardness of tablets prepared using the internal addition method was 34% to 48% lower than that for the external addition method. The total pore volume of the tablet prepared using the external addition method was significantly higher. The maximum ejection pressure using the no-addition method (ie, the tablet was prepared using neither dry-coated granules nor added lubricant) was significantly higher than that of other addition methods. The order was as follows: no addition, external addition, and then internal addition. The ejection energy (EE) for internal addition was the lowest; for no addition, EE was the highest. In the dissolution test, the tablets obtained using external addition immediately disintegrated and showed faster drug release than those prepared using internal addition. This result occurred because the water penetration rate of the tablet using the external addition was much higher. The trypsin activity in tablets prepared using the external addition method was significantly higher than that produced using the internal addition method at the same pressure. All these results suggest that the external addition method might produce a fast-dissolution tablet. Because the drug will be compressed using low pressure only, an unstable bulk drug may be tableted without losing potency.
Tableting; Trypsin; Preparation; Compression; Dissolution
Vesicles, which include both liposomes and polymersomes (polymer vesicles), are being developed as therapeutic drug carriers. In this study, we present a fully scalable low pressure extrusion methodology for preparing vesicles. Vesicles were generated by continuous extrusion through a 200 nm pore diameter hollow fiber (HF) membrane. The first half of this study describes a method for generating empty polymersomes composed of different molecular weight amphiphilic poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (PBD-b-PEO) diblock copolymers on a large scale (50 -100 ml) using a HF membrane. Monodisperse empty polymersomes were formed with particle diameters slightly less than 200 nm, which were close to the rated 200 nm pore size of the HF membrane. The second half of this study describes the successful encapsulation of hemoglobin (Hb) inside the aqueous core of polymersomes using the HF extrusion methodology. We demonstrate that polymersome encapsulated hemoglobin (PEH) particles formed by this technique had similar oxygen affinity, cooperativity coefficient, and methemoglobin (metHb) level compared to PEHs formed by the 1 ml volume small-scale manual extrusion method. Most notably, Hb encapsulation inside the polymer vesicles formed by the HF extrusion method increased two-fold compared to the manual extrusion method.
This work is important, since it will enable facile scale-up of homogeneous vesicle dispersions that are typically required for preclinical and clinical studies as well as industrial use.
Designing quality into dosage forms should not be only based on qualitative or purely heuristic relations. A knowledge space must be generated, in which at least some mechanistic understanding is included. This is of particular interest for critical dosage form parameters like the strength of tablets. In line with this consideration, the scope of the work is to explore the validity range of a theoretically derived power law for the tensile strength of tablets. Different grades of microcrystalline cellulose and lactose, as well as mixtures thereof, were used to compress model tablets. The power law was found to hold true in a low pressure range, which agreed with theoretical expectation. This low pressure range depended on the individual material characteristics, but as a rule of thumb, the tablets having a porosity of more than about 30% or being compressed below 100 MPa were generally well explained by the tensile strength relationship. Tablets at higher densities were less adequately described by the theory that is based on large-scale heterogeneity of the relevant contact points in the compact. Tablets close to the unity density therefore require other theoretical approaches. More research is needed to understand tablet strength in a wider range of compaction pressures.
compaction; percolation theory; solid dosage form; tensile strength
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of drug solubility on polymer hydration and drug dissolution from modified release matrix tablets of polyethylene oxide (PEO). Different PEO matrix tablets were prepared using acetaminophen (ACE) and ibuprofen (IBU) as study compounds and Polyox® WSR301 (PEO) as primary hydrophilic matrix polymer. Tablet dissolution was tested using the USP Apparatus II, and the hydration of PEO polymer during dissolution was recorded using a texture analyzer. Drug dissolution from the preparations was dependent upon drug solubility, hydrogel formation and polymer proportion in the preparation. Delayed drug release was attributed to the formation of hydrogel layer on the surface of the tablet and the penetration of water into matrix core through drug dissolution and diffusion. A multiple linear regression model could be used to describe the relationship among drug dissolution, polymer ratio, hydrogel formation and drug solubility; the mathematical correlation was also proven to be valid and adaptable to a series of study compounds. The developed methodology would be beneficial to formulation scientists in dosage form design and optimization.
drug dissolution; modified release; polymer hydration; texture analyzer
The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K 30, Pluronic® F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose were used to aid the compression of tablets. The tablets were found to have good appearance, uniform thickness, diameter, weight, pH, and drug content. A 23 full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables viz. levels of carrageenan gum, Pluronic F 127 and PVP K30, which significantly influenced characteristics like in vitro mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, swelling index, and in vitro residence time. The tablet was coated with an impermeable backing layer of ethyl cellulose to ensure unidirectional drug release. Different penetration enhancers were tried to improve the permeation of pravastatin sodium through buccal mucosa. Formulation containing 1% sodium lauryl sulfate showed good permeation of pravastatin sodium through mucosa. Histopathological studies revealed no buccal mucosal damage. It can be concluded that buccal route can be one of the alternatives available for the administration of pravastatin sodium.
bilayered buccal tablets; carrageenan; mucoadhesive; pravastatin sodium; 23 factorial design
The objective of the present study was to develop once-daily sustained-release matrix tablets of nicorandil, a novel potassium channel opener used in cardiovascular diseases. The tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method. Ethanolic solutions of ethylcellulose (EC), Eudragit RL-100, Eudragit RS-100, and polyvinylpyrrolidone were used as granulating agents along with hydrophilic matrix materials like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose, and sodium alginate. The granules were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index, total porosity, and drug content. The tablets were subjected to thickness, diameter, weight variation test, drug content, hardness, friability, and in vitro release studies. The granules showed satisfactory flow properties, compressibility, and drug content. All the tablet formulations showed acceptable pharmacotechnical properties and complied with in-house specifications for tested parameters. According to the theoretical release profile calculation, a oncedaily sustained-release formulation should release 5.92 mg of nicorandil in 1 hour, like conventional tablets, and 3.21 mg per hour up to 24 hours. The results of dissolution studies indicated that formulation F-I (drug-to-HPMC, 1∶4; ethanol as granulating agent) could extend the drug release up to 24 hours. In the further formulation development process, F-IX (drug-to-HPMC, 1∶4; EC 4% wt/vol as granulating agent), the most successful formulation of the study, exhibited satisfactory drug release in the initial hours, and the total release pattern was very close to the theoretical release profile. All the formulations (except F-IX) exhibited diffusion-dominated drug release. The mechanism of drug release from F-IX was diffusion coupled with erosion.
nicorandil; hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; ethylcellulose; sustained release; matrix tablets
Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl) tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms.
Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations.
Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics.
Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame) were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties.
Effervescent tablet; Ranitidine HCl; Fusion method; Direct compression method
The purpose of this study was to improve dissolution behavior of poorly water-soluble drugs by application of cyclodextrin in extrusion processes, which were melt extrusion process and wet extrusion process. Indomethacin (IM) was employed as a model drug. Extrudates containing IM and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) in 1:1 w/w ratio were manufactured by both melt extrusion process and wet extrusion process. In vitro drug release properties of IM from extrudates and physiochemical properties of extrudates were investigated. The dissolution rates of IM from extrudates manufactured by melt extrusion and wet extrusion with HP-β-CyD were significantly higher than that of the physical mixture of IM and HP-β-CyD. In extrudate manufactured by melt extrusion, γ-form of IM changed to amorphous completely during melt extrusion due to heating above melting point of IM. On the other hand, in extrudate manufactured by wet extrusion, γ-form of IM changed to amorphous partially due to interaction between IM and HP-β-CyD and mechanical agitating force during process. Application of HP-β-CyD in extrusion process is useful for the enhancement of dissolution rate for poorly water-soluble drugs.
2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; dissolution; extrusion; indomethacin; poor water-soluble drug
The objective of this work was to apply a new apparatus for the assay of the drug release from lozenge tablet with a potential use in the treatment of oral candidosis and another conditions connected to microbial etiopathology in the oral cavity or as an antiplaque factor. Also, an approach to comparison of the applied method with the classical paddle apparatus method was performed. Tablets containing chlorhexidine dihydrochloride were formulated with granulated sorbitol of different grades (diameter of 110, 180, 480, and 650 μm, respectively), lactose, and magnesium stearate as excipients. Tablets were obtained through direct compression, and uniformity of weight, friability, breaking strength, disintegration, and release rate were evaluated. The disintegration times ranged between 10 and 21 min. In the next stage of the study, the release of chlorhexidine from lozenges prepared with granulated sorbitol grade 110 μm and different amounts of lactose and magnesium stearate was assessed. Two stages were observed during the release of chlorhexidine dihydrochloride from the lozenges, assayed by the classical paddle apparatus method II USP. In the first stage, release rates were between 2.6 × 10−2 and 4.7 × 10−2 min−1, in the second stage between 1.7 × 10−3 and 7.7 × 10−3 min−1. In the case of the in-house method, the release was near to first-order kinetics through the entire release experiment, with rate constants between 3.6 × 10−2 and 6.6 × 10−2 min−1. The sorbitol granulate of granules with diameter 110 μm was found to be most suitable for the lozenges with chlorhexidine dihydrochloride and lactose. The in-house release method, proposed in this work, seems to be more realistic for the preliminary assessment of predicted drug concentrations in the oral cavity after the intake of a lozenge.
chlorhexidine; lactose; lozenges; magnesium stearate; release rate; sorbitol
The present study was carried out with an objective of preparation and in vitro evaluation of floating tablets of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) using ranitidine hydrochloride as a model drug. The floating tablets were based on effervescent approach using sodium bicarbonate a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by dry granulation method. The effect of polymers concentration and viscosity grades of HPMC on drug release profile was evaluated. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and stearic acid on drug release profile and floating properties were also investigated. The result of in vitro dissolution study showed that the drug release profile could be sustained by increasing the concentration of HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303. The formulation containing HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303 at the concentration of 13.88% showed 91.2% drug release at the end of 24 hours. Changing the viscosity grade of HPMC from K15MCR to K100MCR had no significant effect on drug release profile. Sodium bicarbonate and stearic acid in combination showed no significant effect on drug release profile. The formulations containing sodium bicarbonate 20 mg per tablet showed desired buoyancy (floating lag time of about 2 minutes and total floating time of >24 hours). The present study shows that polymers like HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303 in combination with sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent can be used to develop sustained release floating tablets of ranitidine hydrochloride.
Floating drug delivery system; gastroretentive drug delivery system; HPMC; PEO; ranitidine hydrochloride; sustained release
The purpose of this study was to design a ‘Traveller Friendly Drug Delivery System’ for PM-HCl. Conventional promethazine (PM-HCl) tablets are bitter, need to be taken 1 h before symptoms and water is also needed. Taste-masked granules were produced with Eudragit® E100 by extrusion, and analyzed with FTIR, DSC, and XRD. Tablets formulated from granules by direct compression using Ac-Di-Sol, Polyplasdone®-XL, Primojel® and ion-exchanger Tulsion®339 and evaluated for mass uniformity, friability, tensile strength, drug content uniformity, water absorption ratio, in-vitro and in-vivo disintegration time and in-vitro dissolution studies. The observed drug-polymer interactions and reduced crystallinity may be reasons for increased dissolution rates. The formulated tablets were disintegrated within 15 s. Tablets (25 mg PM-HCl) with Ac-Di-Sol (4%) showed complete release within 1 min, while marketed conventional tablets (Phenergan®; Rhone-Poulec) release 25% during the same period. A preliminary stability studies for the prepared tablets carried at 30 ± 2°C/60 ± 5% RH, and 40 ± 2°C/75 ± 5%RH for 3 months showed no significant changes in the tablets quality at 30 ± 2°C/60 ± 5% RH. However, at 40 ± 2°C/75 ± 5%RH marked increase in in-vitro disintegration time, tensile strength and decrease in friability and water absorption ratio was found. The present studies indicate the abilities of Eudragit® E 100 for taste masking and improving the dissolution profile of PM-HCl after complexation. In addition, by employing cost effective direct compression method, fast-dissolving tablets of 400 mg total weight with an acceptable quality could be prepared.
Eudragit® E 100; Eudragit® RD 100; promethazine hydrochloride; rapidly disintegrating tablet; stability study; superdisintegrants
Poly(ethylene) oxide (PEO) is a technologically important polymer with a wide range of applications including ion-exchange membranes, protein crystallization, and medical devices. PEO’s versatility arises from its special interactions with water. Water molecules may form hydrogen bond bridges between the ether oxygens of the backbone. While steady-state measurements and theoretical studies of PEO’s interactions with water abound, experiments measuring dynamic observables are quite sparse. A major question is the nature of the interactions of water with the ether oxygens as opposed to the highly hydrophilic PEO terminal hydroxyls. Here, we examine a wide range of mixtures of water and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDE), a methyl-terminated derivative of PEO with 4 repeat units (5 ether oxygens) using ultrafast infrared polarization selective pump-probe measurements on water’s hydroxyl stretching mode to determine vibrational relaxation and orientational relaxation dynamics. The experiments focus on the dynamical interactions of water with the ether backbone because TEGDE does not have the PEO terminal hydroxyls. The experiments observe two distinct subensembles of water molecules: those that are hydrogen bonded to other waters and those that are associated with TEGDE molecules. The water orientational relaxation has a fast component of a few ps (water-like) followed by much slower decay of ∼20 ps (TEGDE associated). The two decay times vary only mildly with the water concentration. The two subensembles are evident even in very low water content samples, indicating pooling of water molecules. Structural change as water content is lowered either through conformational changes in the backbone or increasing hydrophobic interactions is discussed.
In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler), swellable filler (starch 1500), microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers) on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve(0-t) and area under first moment curve(0-t) were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h.
In vivo studies; matrix tablets; polyethylene oxides; verapamil hydrochloride
The current paper was an attempt to design a sustained release dosage form using various grades of hydrophilic polymers, Hypromellose (hydroxyl-propyl methylcellulose [HPMC] K15M, HPMC K100M and HPMC K200M) and Polyacrylate polymers, Eudragit RL100 and Eudragit RS100 with or without incorporating ethyl cellulose on a matrix-controlled drug delivery system of Metformin hydrochloride.
Materials and Methods:
Laboratory scale batches of nine tablet formulations were prepared by wet granulation technique (Low shear). Micromeritic properties of the granules were evaluated prior to compression. Tablets were characterized as crushing strength, friability, weight variation, thickness, drug content or assay and evaluated for in-vitro release pattern for 12 h using Phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 at 37 ± 0.5°C. The in-vitro release mechanism was evaluated by kinetic modeling.
Results and Discussion:
The results obtained revealed that HPMC K200M at a concentration of 26% in formulation (F6) was able to sustain the drug release for 12 h and followed the Higuchi pattern quasi-Fickian diffusion. With that, combined effect of HPMC K15M as an extragranular section and Eudragit RS100 displayed a significant role in drug release. Dissolution data were compared with innovator for similarity factor (f2), and exhibited an acceptable value of ≥50 Three production validation scale batches were designed based on lab scale best batch and charged for stability testing, parameters were within the limit of acceptance. There was no chemical interaction found between the drug and excipients during Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimetry study.
Hence, combinely HPMC K200M and Eudragit RS100 at a suitable concentration can effectively be used to sustain drug release.
Hydrophilic polymer; innovator; Metformin hydrochloride; micromeritic properties; sustained release tablet matrix
Modified-release multiple-unit tablets of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride with different release profiles were prepared from the immediate-release pellets comprising the above two drugs and prolonged-release pellets containing only pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. The immediate-release pellets containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride alone or in combination with loratadine were prepared using extrusion–spheronization method. The pellets of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were coated to prolong the drug release up to 12 h. Both immediate- and prolonged-release pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsule and also compressed into tablets using inert tabletting granules of microcrystalline cellulose Ceolus KG-801. The in vitro drug dissolution study conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method showed that both multiple-unit capsules and multiple-unit tablets released loratadine completely within a time period of 2 h, whereas the immediate-release portion of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was liberated completely within the first 10 min of dissolution study. On the other hand, the release of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride from the prolonged release coated pellets was prolonged up to 12 hr and followed zero-order release kinetic. The drug dissolution profiles of multiple-unit tablets and multiple-unit capsules were found to be closely similar, indicating that the integrity of pellets remained unaffected during the compression process. Moreover, the friability, hardness, and disintegration time of multiple-unit tablets were found to be within BP specifications. In conclusion, modified-release pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was successfully developed and evaluated.
extrusion–spheronization; loratadine; modified-release multiple-unit tablet; pseudoephedrine hydrochloride
The purpose of this study was to prepare lamotrigine (LM) bilayered and single layered floating tablets and to compare their release profiles.
Materials and Methods:
LM floating tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Drug, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K4M, lactose monohydrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 constitute controlled release layer components and floating layer components includes polymers and sodium bicarbonate. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters such as hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, floating lag time (FLT), floating time, in vitro buoyancy study, in vitro release studies. The drug-polymer interaction was studied by fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry.
Results and Discussion:
The FLT of all the formulations were within the prescribed limits (<3 min). When ethyl cellulose was used as floating layer component, tablets showed good buoyancy effect but eroded within 6-8 h. Hence it was replaced with hydroxypropyl cellulose -M hydrophilic polymer, which showed good FLT and floating duration for 16 h. Formulation LFC4 was found to be optimized with dissolution profile of zero order kinetics showing fickian diffusion. A comparative study of bilayered and single layered tablets of LM showed a highest similarity factor of 83.03, difference factor of 2.74 and t-test (P < 0.05) indicates that there is no significant difference between them.
Though bilayered tablet possess many advantages, single layered tablet would be economical, cost-effective and reproducible for large scale production in the industry. However, the results of present study demonstrated that the in vitro development of bilayered gastro retentive floating tablets with controlled drug release profile for LM is feasible.
Epilepsy; gastro retentive drug delivery system; hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose
An attempt was made to sustain the release of Betahistine hydrochloride by complexation technique using strong cation-exchange resin, Tulsion T344. The drug loading onto ion-exchange resin was optimized for mixing time, activation, effect of pH, swelling time, ratio of drug : resin, and temperature. The resinate was evaluated for micromeritic properties and characterized using XRPD and IR. For resinate sustained release tablets were formulated using hydoxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, drug content, weight variation, and in vitro drug release. Tablets thus formulated (Batch T-3) provided sustained release of drug over a period of 12 h. The release of Betahistine HCl from resinate controls the diffusion of drug molecules through the polymeric material into aqueous medium. Results showed that Betahistine HCl was formulated into a sustained dosage form as an alternative to the conventional tablet.
The objective of present investigation was to develop venlafaxine hydrochloride-layered tablets for obtaining sustained drug release. The tablets containing venlafaxine hydrochloride 150 mg were prepared by wet granulation technique using xanthan gum in the middle layer and barrier layers. The granules and tablets were characterized. The in vitro drug dissolution study was conducted in distilled water. The tablets containing two lower strengths were also developed using the same percentage composition of the middle layer. Kinetics of drug release was studied. The optimized batches were tested for water uptake study. Radar diagrams are provided to compare the performance of formulated tablets with the reference products, Effexor XR capsules. The granules ready for compression exhibited good flow and compressibility when xanthan gum was used in the intragranular and extragranular fractions. Monolayer tablets failed to give the release pattern similar to that of the reference product. The drug release was best explained by Weibull model. A unified Weibull equation was evolved to express drug release from the formulated tablets. Lactose facilitated drug release from barrier layers. Substantial water uptake and gelling of xanthan gum appears to be responsible for sustained drug release. The present study underlines the importance of formulation factors in achieving same drug release pattern from three strengths of venlafaxine hydrochloride tablets.
layered tablet; radar diagram; venlafaxine hydrochloride; weibull model; xanthan gum
A hydrolyzable crosslinker (N,O-dimethacryloylhydroxylamine (MANHOMA)) was synthesized by a modified method and was characterized using 1H-NMR, FTIR, and melting point determination. Naltrexone-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol)1000 monomethyl ether mono methacrylate (PEO-MA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and N,O-dimethacryloylhydroxylamine (MANHOMA) in 0.4% poly(vinyl alcohol) aqueous solution. The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, particle size determination and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The TEM photomicrographs of the nanoparticles show a crosslinked core surrounded by a ring formed by the polyethylene glycol tail of PEO-MA. The loading efficiency of the nanoparticles and in vitro drug availability from the nanoparticles were investigated. The naltrexone-loaded hydrolyzable crosslinked nanoparticles were able to sustain the release of naltrexone for different periods of time, depending on the monomer feed composition.
Hydrolyzable crosslinked copolymer; Nanoparticles; Drug delivery system; Naltrexone