The goal of this special volume is to provide veterinary scientists with state-of-the art reviews in animal health and to inform human health scientists of the various challenges and collaborative opportunities associated with their animal health counterparts. The contributors are highly respected experts, providing invaluable insights into current issues and state-of-the-art advances within veterinary medicine.
Veterinary medicine; harmonization
Persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have a high lifetime need for ongoing patient education to reduce the risk of serious and costly medical conditions. We have addressed this need through monthly in-person public education programs called SCI Forums. More recently, we began videotaping these programs for streaming on our website to reach a geographically diverse audience of patients, caregivers, and providers.
We compared information from the in-person forums to that of the same forums shown streaming on our website during a 1-year period.
Both the in-person and Internet versions of the forums received high overall ratings from individuals who completed evaluation forms. Eighty-eight percent of online evaluators and 96% of in-person evaluators reported that they gained new information from the forum; 52 and 64% said they changed their attitude, and 61 and 68% said they would probably change their behavior or take some kind of action based on information they learned. Ninety-one percent of online evaluators reported that video is better than text for presenting this kind of information.
Online video is an accessible, effective, and well-accepted way to present ongoing SCI education and can reach a wider geographical audience than in-person presentations.
Patient education; Spinal cord injuries; Media; Print; Digital; Video; Internet; Secondary complications; Prevention; Self-care; Quality of life
Globalization of the pharmaceutical industry has led to a need to harmonize the regulatory requirements governing the marketing of medicinal products. To minimize the barriers impeding global drug product registration, the International Conference on the Harmonization of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) was established in 1990. The ICH has developed a series of guidelines that reflect agreements reached by participating nations on aspects of the chemistry and clinical technical sections that will fulfill the regulatory requirements of these various jurisdications. Nevertheless, there continue to be points of divergent perspectives and barriers that can impede the use of foreign clinical data. Given the importance of these issues, the Regulatory Science (RS) section of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS), in conjunction with the Regulatory Affairs Professional Society (RAPS) and the Canadian Association of Professional Regulatory Affairs (CAPRA) cosponsored a public forum on this topic. This manuscript provides a summary of the speaker presentations and audience discussions regarding the design of clinical trials and the extrapolation of results from these trials to support international drug registration.
clinical trials; regulatory requirements; international harmonization; foreign clinical data
No study has evaluated the association between state endorsement of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Public Health Association (APHA) national guidelines and unnecessary exclusion decisions. We sought to determine the rate of unnecessary exclusion decisions by child care directors in a state that endorses AAP/APHA guidelines and to identify factors that are associated with higher unnecessary exclusion decisions.
A telephone survey was administered to directors in metropolitan Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Directors were randomly sampled from a list of 971 registered centers. Director, center, and neighborhood characteristics were obtained. Directors reported whether immediate exclusion was indicated for 5 vignettes that featured children with mild illness that do not require exclusion by AAP/APHA guidelines. Weighted data were summarized by using descriptive statistics. Regression analysis was used to identify factors that were associated with directors’ exclusion decisions.
A total of 305 directors completed the survey. Overall, directors would unnecessarily exclude 57% of children. More than 62% had never heard of the AAP/APHA guidelines. Regression analysis showed fewer exclusions among more experienced compared with less experienced directors, among larger centers compared with smaller centers, and among centers that were located in areas with a higher percentage of female heads of household. Centers with ≤10% children on state-assisted tuition excluded more.
High rates of inappropriate exclusion persist despite state endorsement of AAP/APHA guidelines. Focused initial and ongoing training of directors regarding AAP/APHA guidelines may help to reduce high rates of unnecessary exclusions.
child care; exclusion; mild illness
The beneficial effects of adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium (ADSC-CM) on skin regeneration have been reported. Although the mechanism of how ADSC-CM promotes skin regeneration is unclear, ADSC-CM contained various growth factors and it is an excellent raw material for skin treatment. ADSC-CM produced in a hypoxia condition of ADSC—in other words, Advanced Adipose-Derived Stem cell Protein Extract (AAPE)—has great merits for skin regeneration. In this study, human primary keratinocytes (HKs), which play fundamental roles in skin tissue, was used to examine how AAPE affects HK. HK proliferation was significantly higher in the experimental group (1.22 μg/mL) than in the control group. DNA gene chip demonstrated that AAPE in keratinocytes (p < 0.05) notably affected expression of 290 identified transcripts, which were associated with cell proliferation, cycle and migration. More keratinocyte wound healing and migration was shown in the experimental group (1.22 μg/mL). AAPE treatment significantly stimulated stress fiber formation, which was linked to the RhoA-ROCK pathway. We identified 48 protein spots in 2-D gel analysis and selected proteins were divided into 64% collagen components and 30% non-collagen components as shown by the MALDI-TOF analysis. Antibody array results contained growth factor/cytokine such as HGF, FGF-1, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, VEGF, and TGF-β3 differing from that shown by 2-D analysis. Conclusion: AAPE activates HK proliferation and migration. These results highlight the potential of the topical application of AAPE in the treatment of skin regeneration.
ADSC-CM; AAPE; stress fiber formation; RhoA-ROCK signaling; regeneration; proliferation; migration
Objective. To assess the prevalence and characteristics of curriculum in dual doctor of pharmacy (PharmD)/master of public health (MPH) degree programs offered by US pharmacy programs.
Methods. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed online to faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. Of the 110 colleges and schools that responded, 23 (21%) offered a PharmD/MPH degree. Common characteristics of these 23 programs included current PharmD program structure (3 + 1 year), early curricular recruitment, small enrollment, and interdisciplinary coursework occurring online and in the classroom. The impact of the dual degree on the curriculum and longevity of the dual-degree programs varied. About 55% of responding programs without a formal dual-degree program reported that additional public health training was available.
Conclusion. Twenty-one percent of colleges and schools of pharmacy offer a combined PharmD/MPH dual degree. Most programs required an additional 1 or 2 semesters to complete both degrees.
pharmacy education; public health; masters of public health; dual degree
Objective. To implement and assess the effectiveness of a capstone pharmacotherapy course designed to integrate in-class curriculum using patient cases and drug-information questions. The course was intended to improve third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' clinical documentation skills in preparation for beginning advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).
Design. This 2-credit, semester-long course consisted of 6 patient cases and 12 drug-information questions posted electronically on an Internet-based medical chart, a public health presentation, a knowledge examination, and an objective standardized performance assessment. In class, students engaged in active-learning exercises and clinical problem-solving. Students worked outside of class in small groups to retrieve and discuss assigned articles and review medication information in preparation for in-class discussions.
Assessment. A rubric was used to assess the patient cases and questions that students completed and submitted individually. Data for 4 consecutive course offerings (n=622) were then analyzed. A significant improvement was found in the “misplaced” but not the “missing” documentation ratings for both assessment and plan notes in the final assessment compared with baseline. In course evaluations, the majority of students agreed that the course integrated material across the curriculum (97%) and improved their clinical writing skills (80.5%).
Conclusion. A capstone pharmacy course was successful in integrating and reviewing much of the material covered across the PharmD curriculum and in improving students’ clinical documentation skills.
clinical documentation; clinical thinking; case-based learning; pharmacotherapy
The Conference Report of the 3rd AAPS/FDA Bioanalytical Workshop (Crystal City III) endorsed the concept that assay methods supporting bioanalytical data in submissions must demonstrate assay reproducibility by using incurred samples. The present Workshop was convened to provide a forum for discussion and consensus building about incurred sample assay reproducibility for both nonclinical and clinical studies. Information about current regulatory perspectives on incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) was presented, implications of ISR for both large and small molecules were discussed, and the steering committee put forth recommendations for performing ISR. These recommendations from the Workshop, along with the subsequent evolution of approaches leading to a robust ISR program, may be used by scientists performing bioanalytical assays for regulated studies to provide additional confirmation of assay reproducibility for incurred samples.
bioanalytical; confirmatory analysis; incurred sample(s); reanalysis
To describe PharmD students' work experiences and activities; examine their attitudes towards their work; examine perceptions of preceptor pharmacists they worked with; and determine important issues associated with career preference.
A written survey was administered to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 8 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the Midwest.
Five hundred thirty-three students (response rate = 70.4%) completed the survey instrument. Nearly 100% of PharmD students reported working in a pharmacy by the time their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) began. Seventy-eight percent reported working in a community pharmacy, and 67% had worked in a chain community pharmacy. For all practice settings, students reported spending 69% of their time on activities such as compounding, dispensing, and distribution of drug products.
Most students are working in community pharmacy (mainly chain) positions where their primary function is traditional drug product dispensing and distribution. Having a controllable work schedule was the variable most strongly associated with career choice for all students.
pharmacy student; work experience; work activities; attitudes; career choice
To characterize the dissemination of study findings and assess project preceptor attitudes towards a required senior research project in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum.
A survey was conducted to determine preceptors' perceptions of the value of a required pharmacy student research project and dissemination of research results.
One hundred fifteen project preceptors (92.0%) responded. Most preceptors agreed that the projects provided a valuable learning experience to the students (87.5%) and were of value to them professionally (82.1%) and to their institution (78.2%). Study findings were disseminated primarily through institutional forums (47.3%). A smaller percentage of projects were disseminated externally through presentations at professional meetings (23.7%, poster presentations; 4.0%, platform presentations), and peer-reviewed publications (5.3%).
Despite a modest level of dissemination of project results through presentations at professional meetings and a low level of dissemination via published manuscripts, the majority of preceptors perceived a required student research project to be of value.
doctor of pharmacy degree; research; student research; curriculum requirements
Medical journals have contributed to the advancement of medicine by helping to disseminate scientific knowledge and providing a forum for medical communities to debate issues in depth. To the authors' knowledge, there are no studies examining the process of medical journal publication in developing Asian countries. The authors analysed the process and costs of publishing medical journals in Sri Lanka, a developing country in South Asia.
Data were collected by interviewing the editors and perusing the records at the editorial offices of the respective medical journals. Articles published in 2009 (or 2008 for journals not published in 2009) were analysed by perusing the respective journals.
A total of 44 medical journals were published in Sri Lanka's history, of which only 28 journals remained in publication after 2007. A majority (54%) of the journals published after 2007 were published once per year. Seventeen journals in publication after 2007 were published in paper version only, and 11 journals were also available online. The mean cost of printing one issue was Sri Lankan Rupees (LKR) 97 720 (US$888) (range LKR 28 000–270 000). The cost of distribution ranged from LKR 2000 to 140 000 (US$18–1273). The mean cost of publishing one article was LKR 6646 (US$60). A total of 456 articles were published in 2009 (/2008). The total number of pages published was 1723.
The infrastructure for medical journal publishing in Sri Lanka has many good qualities such as free access, minimum charges for authors and potential for online availability. The journals are solely academic (non-profit), but the costs remain high.
To analyse the process and costs of publishing medical journals in a developing country.
To identify a list of medical journals published in the country.
To analyse the number and types of articles published in recent Sri Lankan medical journals.
Sri Lankan medical journals are freely accessible with minimum charges for authors.
Sri Lankan medical journals are solely academic (non-commercial) and non-profit in nature.
The publication costs remain high.
Strengths and limitations of this study
There is a lack of a comprehensive list of medical journals in the country.
The limited number of publications from the fields of allied health sciences (nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy) were not included.
The workshop “Pharmacogenetics in Individualized Medicine: Methods, Regulatory, and Clinical Applications” was held November 15–16, 2008 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. This workshop provided an opportunity for pharmaceutical scientists, clinical practitioners, clinical laboratory scientists, and FDA to discuss methods, regulatory, and the application of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice and drug discovery. Key highlights of the workshop were: (a) the use of genetic information in individualized medicine has significant potential in advancing drug development and human health by optimizing drug response, drug efficacy, and preventing adverse drug reactions; (b) various barriers exist preventing the advance of the individualized medicine in the society, industry, and clinical practice; and (c) the barriers may be overcome by integrated approaches; the education of researchers, clinical practitioners, and patients and fostering interactive communication among stakeholders. By targeting the AAPS audience, this workshop was one step among many steps that AAPS–FIP is intending to take towards removing the barriers to widespread uptake of pharmacogenetics in drug discovery and clinical practice.
clinical pharmacology; drug discovery; drug metabolism; individualized medicine; pharmacogenetics; pharmacogenomics
Objective. To evaluate the advanced clinical track, a curricular track designed to prepare doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students for residency training and institutional practice.
Design. The advanced clinical track required completion of elective coursework, an additional advanced practice experience, 8 clinical experiences, and a skills checklist, and participation in a clinical skills competition.
Assessment. Thirty-two graduates of the advanced clinical track were surveyed. Of the 23 respondents, 95% of those who pursued residency training were successfully matched with a residency program. Ninety-one percent of respondents felt that the advanced clinical track increased their confidence and 74% felt it was definitely an advantage when applying to a residency program. All participants agreed that the advanced clinical track met their expectations or goals and would recommend it to other students.
Conclusion. Completion of an advanced clinical track was viewed by PharmD graduates as valuable preparation for residency training and institutional practice and would be recommended to other students.
students; curricular track; curriculum; residency; training; survey
Skin testing is recommended for children at risk for this disease.
In 1996, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended targeted tuberculin skin testing (TST) of children while discouraging routine TST of children without risk factors for tuberculosis (TB). Recent studies have provided evidence in support of the targeted TST and recommendations that favor risk assessment over universal screening with TST. While evidence for targeted TB testing exists and benefits of screening programs are clear, administrative logistics could be a greater issue. The challenge for public health and school officials is to develop a screening program that avoids stigmatization of the at-risk group. Until then, pediatric healthcare providers will continue to have a key role in identifying children at risk for latent TB infection by using the AAP-endorsed risk-assessment questionnaire and should screen children with TST only when >1 risk factor is present.
Tuberculin skin testing; targeted; children; synopsis
The continued undertreatment of pain at the end of life is a substantive public health problem that has not been resolved through increased public awareness, the issuance of clinical guidance for providers, or expanded organizational commitments. In this forum, we illuminate the role of public policies in promoting pain management. We review federal and state policies and consider empirical evaluations that compared the quality of state policies and the factors that contributed to their formation. We resolve that any organized interest in improving end-of-life care should begin by focusing on the development and expansion of those state policies that support the provision of evidence-based medicine for reducing the amount of pain an individual experiences at the end of life. Although empirical research is needed to determine which particular aspects of state pain policy are most critical and how these policies can be implemented most effectively, any organized effort that advances state medical board activity or another state policy would appear to be making an important step toward making the pain at the end of life go away.
Pain management; Pain policy; State medical boards; End of life
To implement and assess a required public health poster project in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program.
Third-year PharmD students collaborated in pairs to research a public health topic relating to pharmacy practice. Each student group prepared an informational poster, while receiving feedback from a faculty mentor at each stage of the project. The students presented their completed posters at a statewide pharmacy conference.
Faculty members evaluated the posters with a grading rubric, and students completed a survey instrument that assessed the overall experience. In general, faculty members rated the class highly across all domains of the grading rubric. The class generally agreed that the poster project increased their awareness of public health issues related to pharmacy practice, overall knowledge of public health, and presentation skills.
The implementation of a poster project was well received by students and faculty members as an effective method for enhancing public health instruction in the PharmD program at North Dakota State University.
poster presentations; public health; active-learning
The fungal arginine attenuator peptide (AAP) is encoded by a regulatory upstream open reading frame (uORF). The AAP acts as a nascent peptide within the ribosome tunnel to stall translation in response to arginine (Arg). The effect of AAP and Arg on ribosome peptidyl transferase center (PTC) function was analyzed in Neurospora crassa and wheat germ translation extracts using the transfer of nascent AAP to puromycin as an assay. In the presence of a high concentration of Arg, the wild-type AAP inhibited PTC function, but a mutated AAP that lacked stalling activity did not. While AAP of wild-type length was most efficient at stalling ribosomes, based on primer extension inhibition (toeprint) assays and reporter synthesis assays, a window of inhibitory function spanning four residues was observed at the AAP's C terminus. The data indicate that inhibition of PTC function by the AAP in response to Arg is the basis for the AAP's function of stalling ribosomes at the uORF termination codon. Arg could interfere with PTC function by inhibiting peptidyltransferase activity and/or by restricting PTC A-site accessibility. The mode of PTC inhibition appears unusual because neither specific amino acids nor a specific nascent peptide chain length was required for AAP to inhibit PTC function.
The role of nursing in the delivery of health care has emerged as a complex and cross-cutting issue ripe for inquiry and multidisciplinary research. Indeed, problems in the nursing workforce have risen high on the agendas on many influential organizations, including the American Academy of Nursing, the Institute of Medicine, the National Quality Forum, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and others. In an effort to clarify current research issues and advance an agenda for future investigations, Dr. Peter Buerhaus at Vanderbilt University organized a round table focused on the working conditions of the nursing workforce at the AcademyHealth 2003 Annual Research Meeting in Nashville, Tenn. Chaired by the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Public Health's Jack Needleman, the “Working Conditions of the Nursing Workforce” roundtable proved to be a provocative exchange of views among researchers and users of research. Participants shared background about their role in advancing the research, identified gaps in current research, and suggested specific areas for further research. What follows is an edited transcript of the Roundtable that, in addition to Dr. Needleman, included Ellen Kurtzman, National Quality Forum; Barbara Mark, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Lori Melichar, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and Donald Steinwachs, Johns Hopkins University.
The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis colonizes indwelling medical devices by biofilm formation but is primarily a skin resident. In many S. epidermidis strains biofilm formation is mediated by a cell wall-anchored protein, the accumulation-associated protein (Aap). Here, we investigate the role of Aap in skin adhesion. Aap is an LPXTG protein with a domain architecture including a terminal A domain and a B-repeat region. S. epidermidis NCTC 11047 expresses Aap as localized, lateral tufts of fibrils on one subpopulation of cells (Fib+), whereas a second subpopulation does not express these fibrils of Aap (Fib−). Flow cytometry showed that 72% of NCTC 11047 cells expressed Aap and that 28% of cells did not. Aap is involved in the adhesion of Fib+ cells to squamous epithelial cells from the hand (corneocytes), as the recombinant A-domain protein partially blocked binding to corneocytes. To confirm the role of the Aap A domain in corneocyte attachment, Aap was expressed on the surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 as sparsely distributed, peritrichous fibrils. The expression of Aap increased corneocyte adhesion 20-fold compared to L. lactis carrying Aap without an A domain. S. epidermidis isolates from catheters, artificial joints, skin, and the nose also used the A domain of Aap to adhere to corneocytes, emphasizing the role of Aap in skin adhesion. In addition, L. lactis expressing Aap with different numbers of B repeats revealed a positive correlation between the number of B repeats and adhesion to corneocytes, suggesting an additional function for the B region in enhancing A-domain-dependent attachment to skin. Therefore, in addition to its established role in biofilm formation, Aap can also promote adhesion to corneocytes and is likely to be an important adhesin in S. epidermidis skin colonization.
To provide a forum for local, state, federal, and international public health/health care sectors to share promising practices and lessons learned in transitioning their organizations in the use of ICD-9 to ICD-10 codes for their respective surveillance activities.
This roundtable will provide forum for a diverse set of representatives from the local, state, federal and international public health care sectors to share tools, resources, experiences, and promising practices regarding the potential impact of the transition on their surveillance activities. This forum will promote the sharing of lessons learned, foster collaborations, and facilitate the reuse of existing resources without having to “reinvent the wheel”. It is hope that this roundtable will lay the ground-work for a more formal, collaborative, and sustainable venue within ISDS to aid in preparing the public health surveillance community for the coming ICD-9/10 CM transition.
The moderators will engage the participants in the discussion through dialogue in how their programs are currently using ICD-9 CM codes for surveillance and how the transition will impact their respective programs.
ICD-9; ICD-10; Transition
Objectives. To evaluate first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' communication apprehension, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy for communication over the duration of a 15-week patient-counseling course.
Design. First-year PharmD students (n=94) were asked to complete a 47-item, self-administered questionnaire on 3 occasions over the duration of the Nonprescription Drugs/Patient-Counseling course during the fall 2009 and 2010 semesters.
Assessment. Eighty-seven of 94 students completed the survey instrument across data collection periods. There were significant reductions in total communication apprehension scores and in the communication apprehension subscores for meetings and public speaking, and significant increases in self-efficacy over time. No differences were found for outcome expectations of communication scores or the subscores for interpersonal conversations and group discussion.
Conclusions. Communication apprehension may be decreased and self-efficacy for communication increased in first-year PharmD students through a 15-week Nonprescription Drugs/Patient-Counseling course using small-group practice sessions, case studies, and role-play exercises in conjunction with classroom lectures.
communication apprehension; self-efficacy; non-prescription medication; counseling
Compelling public interest is propelling national efforts to advance the evidence base for cancer treatment and control measures and to transform the way in which evidence is aggregated and applied. Substantial investments in health information technology, comparative effectiveness research, health care quality and value, and personalized medicine support these efforts and have resulted in considerable progress to date. An emerging initiative, and one that integrates these converging approaches to improving health care, is “rapid-learning health care.” In this framework, routinely collected real-time clinical data drive the process of scientific discovery, which becomes a natural outgrowth of patient care. To better understand the state of the rapid-learning health care model and its potential implications for oncology, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the Institute of Medicine held a workshop entitled “A Foundation for Evidence-Driven Practice: A Rapid-Learning System for Cancer Care” in October 2009. Participants examined the elements of a rapid-learning system for cancer, including registries and databases, emerging information technology, patient-centered and -driven clinical decision support, patient engagement, culture change, clinical practice guidelines, point-of-care needs in clinical oncology, and federal policy issues and implications. This Special Article reviews the activities of the workshop and sets the stage to move from vision to action.
To develop an assessment that would (1) help doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students review therapeutic decision making and build confidence in their skills, (2) provide pharmacy practice residents with the opportunity to lead small group discussions, and (3) provide the assessment committee with program-level assessment data.
A case-based interactive assessment was developed and delivered to PharmD students immediately prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). The assessment used an audience response system to allow immediate feedback followed by small group discussions led by pharmacy-practice residents. Students self-assessed their knowledge and confidence levels and developed personalized learning objectives for APPEs.
Eighty-nine percent of students found the assessment useful, and pharmacy practice residents reported that it was helpful in developing precepting skills. The college assessment committee was able to use the data to supplement the ongoing College curricular mapping process.
An interactive assessment process can help students build confidence for experiential training, provide a learning opportunity for pharmacy residents, and produce program-level data for college assessment purposes. Planned modifications of the assessment include expanding the content areas covered and adding ability-based assessments such as communication skills.
audience response system; assessment; ability-based outcomes; confidence; advanced pharmacy practice experience
To describe the introduction of an education concentration in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program and to evaluate its impact on students' knowledge and attitudes about teaching.
A concentration consisting of 3 elective 2-credit didactic courses and an advanced pharmacy practice experience with a teaching focus were developed and implemented into the PharmD curriculum.
An attitudes survey instrument and knowledge test were administered to students enrolled in the education concentration track at baseline and after completing the 3 didactic education courses. Students' attitudes toward using various assessment tools and instructional strategies improved and knowledge about concepts in higher education and interest in pursuing a career in academia increased.
Pharmacy students completing an education concentration were more likely to consider a career in higher education.
education concentration; advanced pharmacy practice experience; faculty recruitment; career
To compare student and faculty perceptions of the delivery and achievement of professional competencies in a doctor of pharmacy program in order to provide data for both accountability and curricular improvement purposes.
A survey instrument was designed based on current learning theory, and 76 specific competency statements generated from mission and goal statements of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy and the Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education. This instrument was administered to PharmD program students and faculty.
The number of competencies by program year that are delivered in the curriculum, the percent of students and faculty reporting individual competency delivery and achievement, and differences between student and faculty perceptions of competency delivery and achievement are reported.
The faculty and student opinions provided an in-depth view of curricular outcomes. Gathering perception data from faculty and students about the delivery and achievement of competencies in a PharmD program can be used to both meet accreditation requirements (accountability) and to improve the curriculum (improvement).
outcomes assessment; assessment; survey research; curriculum reform; competency