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1.  Clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of LRP16 expression in colorectal carcinoma 
AIM: To explore the expression of leukemia related protein 16 (LRP16) in colorectal carcinoma, and analyze its correlation with clinicopathologic features and prognosis.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for LRP16 was performed in 201 cases of colorectal carcinoma and 60 cases of distal normal mucosa. Medical records were reviewed and clinicopathological analysis was performed.
RESULTS: LRP16 expression was detected in 117 of 201 cases of the colorectal carcinoma and in 21 cases of 60 distal normal mucosa. The expression of LRP16 in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa (χ2 = 9.999, P = 0.002). LRP16 protein expression was found in 43.3% (52/120) of carcinoma at stage I and II, and 80.2% (65/81) of carcinoma at stage III and IV (χ2 =27.088, P = 0.001). Correlation between LRP16 expression and clinicopathological factors was significant in differentiation (P = 0.010), tumor size (P = 0.001), infiltrative depth (P = 0.000) and distant metastasis (P = 0.027). The difference of median survival time between cancer patients with LRP16 expression (38.0 mo) and those without was statistically significant (105.0 mo, Log rank = 41.455, P = 0.001). The multivariate survival analysis revealed that LRP16 expression was correlated significantly (Cox’s regression: P = 0.001, relative risk = 2.082) with shortened survival in the patients with colorectal cancer.
CONCLUSION: The expression of LRP16 is related to the degree of differentiation, invasiveness, metastasis and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC2848373  PMID: 20355243
Colorectal neoplasms; Immunohistochemistry; Leukemia related protein 16; Prognosis; Clinicopathology
2.  Overexpression of PrPc, combined with MGr1-Ag/37LRP, is predictive of poor prognosis in gastric cancer 
Prion protein (PrPc) has been previously reported to be involved in gastric cancer (GC) development and progression. However, the association between expression of PrPc and GC prognosis is yet poorly characterized. In the present study, the expressions of PrPc and MGr1-Ag/37LRP, a protein interacting with PrPc, were detected using the tissue microarray technique and immunohistochemical method to compare clinicopathological parameters of 238 GC patients. We found that the expressions of PrPc and MGr1-Ag/37LRP were upregulated in GC lesions compared with their expressions in adjacent noncancerous tissues (p < 0.01). High expression of PrPc was detected in 37.39% (89/238) of GC patients and positively correlated with the expression of MGr1-Ag/37LRP (r = 0.532, p < 0.001). PrPc expression was associated with a number of clinicopathological parameters including depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis of the tumor (p < 0.001). High expression of PrPc brought a poorer prognosis than low PrPc expression. Moreover, GC patients with high level of PrPc and high level of MGr1-Ag/37LRP had the poorest prognosis. Multivariate survival analysis suggested that, along with other parameters, combined expression of PrPc and MGr1-Ag/37LRP was independent prognostic factors for GC patients. These data indicates that overexpression of PrPc, combined with MGr1-Ag/37LRP, is predictive of poor prognosis in GC and thereby could be used to guide the clinical decision.
What's new?
Prion protein was originally exclusively associated with prion disease but has now been linked to other processes such as cancer and inflammation. Here the authors examined the role of prion protein and its receptor MGr1-Ag/37LRP in gastric cancer. They found that both factors were upregulated in gastric cancer, and not in neighboring healthy, tissues and established the combined expression of prion protein and MGr1-Ag/37LRP as an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. These studies support a new role of prion protein in cancer and identify a new biomarker for a more accurate prediction of prognosis in gastric cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC4277329  PMID: 24706505
PrPc; MGr1-Ag/37LRP; gastric cancer; prognosis
3.  Low Level of Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 Predicts an Unfavorable Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Curative Resection 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e32775.
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional receptor involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis and cell signaling. The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression and mechanism of LRP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
LRP1 expression in 4 HCC cell lines and 40 HCC samples was detected. After interruption of LRP1 expression in a HCC cell line either with specific lentiviral-mediated shRNA LRP1 or in the presence of the LRP1-specific chaperone, receptor-associated protein (RAP), the role of LRP1 in the migration and invasion of HCC cells was assessed in vivo and in vitro, and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 in cells and the bioactivity of MMP9 in the supernatant were assayed. The expression and prognostic value of LRP1 were investigated in 327 HCC specimens.
Low LRP1 expression was associated with poor HCC prognosis, with low expression independently related to shortened overall survival and increased tumor recurrence rate. Expression of LRP1 in non-recurrent HCC samples was significantly higher than that in early recurrent samples. LRP1 expression in HCC cell lines was inversely correlated with their metastatic potential. After inhibition of LRP1, low-metastatic SMCC-7721 cells showed enhanced migration and invasion and increased expression and bioactivity of MMP9. Correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between LRP1 and MMP9 expression in HCC patients. The prognostic value of LRP1 expression was validated in the independent data set.
LRP1 modulated the level of MMP9 and low level of LRP1 expression was associated with aggressiveness and invasiveness in HCCs. LRP1 offered a possible strategy for tumor molecular therapy.
PMCID: PMC3299691  PMID: 22427881
4.  Expression of LRP and MDR1 in locally advanced breast cancer predicts axillary node invasion at the time of rescue mastectomy after induction chemotherapy 
Breast Cancer Research  2001;3(3):183-191.
Axillary node status after induction chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer has been shown on multivariate analysis to be an independent predictor of relapse. However, it has been postulated that responders to induction chemotherapy with a clinically negative axilla could be spared the burden of lymphadenectomy, because most of them will not show histological nodal invasion. P-glycoprotein expression in the rescue mastectomy specimen has finally been identified as a significant predictor of patient survival.
We studied the expression of the genes encoding multidrug resistance associated protein (MDR1) and lung cancer associated resistance protein (LRP) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 52 patients treated for locally advanced breast cancer by means of induction chemotherapy followed by rescue mastectomy. P-glycoprotein expression was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry before treatment in 23 cases, and by means of reverse-transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treatment in 46 (6 failed). LRP expression was detected by means of immunohistochemistry, with the LRP-56 monoclonal antibody, in 31 cases before treatment. Immunohistochemistry for detecting the expression of c-erb-B2, p53, Ki67, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor are routinely performed in our laboratory in every case, and the results obtained were included in the study. All patients had received between two and six cycles of standard 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC) chemotherapy, with two exceptions [one patient received four cycles of a docetaxel-adriamycin combination, and the other four cycles of standard cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil (CMF) polychemotherapy]. Response was assessed in accordance with the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). By these, 2 patients achieved a complete clinical response, 37 a partial response, and the remaining 13 showed stable disease. This makes a total clinical response rate of 75.0%. None achieved a complete pathological response.
MDR1 mRNA expression detected by RT-PCR was associated with the presence of invaded axillary nodes at surgery in 18/22 cases (81.8%), compared with 13/24 (54.2%) in the group with undetectable MDR1 expression. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). LRP expression in more than 20% of tumor cells before any treatment was associated with axillary nodal metastasis after chemotherapy and rescue mastectomy in 17/23 cases, compared with 3/8 in nonexpressors. Again, this difference was highly significant (P < 0.01). LRP expression before treatment and MDR1 mRNA expression after treatment were significantly interrelated (P < 0.001), which might reflect the presence of chemoresistant clones liable to metastasize to the regional nodes. Persistence of previously detected MDR1-positivity after treatment (7/9 compared with 0/2 cases) was significantly associated with axillary node metastasis (P < 0.05). Finally, in a logistic regression multivariate model, histology other than ductal, a Ki67 labeling index of at least 20% and the combination of LRP and MDR1 positivity emerged as independent predictors of axillary node invasion at the time of rescue mastectomy.
The expression of different genes involved in resistance to chemotherapy, both before and after treatment with neoadjuvant, is associated with the presence of axillary node invasion at rescue surgery in locally advanced breast cancer. This might reflect the presence of intrinsically resistant clones before any form of therapy, which persist after it, and could be helpful both for prognosis and for the choice of individual treatment.
PMCID: PMC30705  PMID: 11305953
axillary nodes; chemotherapy; LRP; multidrug resistant; neoadjuvant
5.  Expression of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase and its association with gastric carcinoma versus normal gastric tissues 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:353.
Recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by a serum-derived, macrophage stimulating protein (MSP) growth factor and is expressed in many malignant tumors. The aim of the present study was to reveal the protein expression profile of RON and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma and prognosis.
Gastric carcinoma tissue from 98 patients, along with 29 specimens of paraneoplastic tissue and 10 specimens of normal gastric mucosa, were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Western blot analysis of 19 samples of gastric carcinoma tissue and corresponding paraneoplastic tissue, 8 specimens of normal gastric mucosa, and 2 specimens of normal lymph node samples also detected expression of a splice variant of RON, RONΔ165. All samples obtained were accompanied by patient follow-up data that ranged from 3 to 89 months (median time: 22 months).
The rate of positive RON expression differed significantly between gastric carcinoma tissues [56.1%, (55/98)] and paraneoplastic tissues [25.6%, (8/29)] (p = 0.007). In contrast, RON expression was absent in normal gastric mucosa samples. RON expression positively correlated with the invasive depth of the tumor (p = 0.019), perigastric lymph nodes metastasis (p = 0.019), and TNM stage (p = 0.001). However, RON expression was independent of tumor growth pattern according to Bormann criteria (p = 0.209), histopathological grade (p = 0.196), and incidence of distant metastasis (p = 0.400). RON expression was not related to a patient's survival rate (p = 0.195). RONΔ165 was strongly expressed in fresh gastric carcinoma tissue, corresponding paraneoplastic tissue, and perigastric lymph nodes with metastatic carcinoma. In contrast, expression of RONΔ165 was not observed in normal gastric mucosa and normal lymph node tissue samples.
RON expression is significant in gastric carcinoma tissue and corresponding paraneoplastic tissue, but is not expressed in normal gastric mucosa. Expression of RONΔ165 was similarly observed in gastric carcinoma tissue and in metastases present in lymph node tissues. We hypothesize that RON and its splice variant play an important role in the occurrence, progression, and metastasis of gastric carcinoma, and therefore may represent a useful marker to evaluate the biological activity of gastric carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC2629483  PMID: 19040718
6.  The expression and significance of P-glycoprotein, lung resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein in gastric cancer 
To detect the expression of multidrug resistance molecules P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Lung resistnce protein (LRP) and Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and analyze the relationship between them and the clinico-pathological features.
The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 59 gastric cancer patients were determined by a labbelled Streptavidin-Peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical technique, and the results were analyzed in correlation with clinicopathological data. None of these patients received chemotherapy prior to surgery.
The positive rates of P-gp, LRP, MRP were 86.4%, 84.7% and 27.1%, respectively. The difference between the positive rate of P-gp and MRP was significant statistically, as well as the difference between the expression of MRP and LRP. No significant difference was observed between P-gp and LRP, but the positively correlation between the expression of P-gp and LRP had been found. No significant correlation between the expression of P-gp, LRP, MRP and the grade of differentiation were observed. The expression of P-gp was correlated with clinical stages positively (r = 0.742), but the difference with the expression of P-gp in different stages was not significant.
The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in patients with gastric cancer without prior chemotherapy are high, indicating that innate drug resistance may exist in gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC2788536  PMID: 19930704
7.  Myeloid Cell Receptor LRP1/CD91 Regulates Monocyte Recruitment and Angiogenesis in Tumors 
Cancer research  2013;73(13):3902-3912.
Recruitment of monocytes into sites of inflammation is essential in the immune response. In cancer, recruited monocytes promote invasion, metastasis, and possibly angiogenesis. LDL receptor-related protein (LRP1) is an endocytic and cell-signaling receptor that regulates cell migration. In this study, we isografted PanO2 pancreatic carcinoma cells into mice in which LRP1 is deleted in myeloid lineage cells. Recruitment of monocytes into orthotopic and subcutaneous tumors was significantly increased in these mice, compared with control mice. LRP1-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) expressed higher levels of multiple chemokines, including, most prominently, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/CCL3, which is known to amplify inflammation. Increased levels of CCL3 were detected in LRP1-deficient tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), isolated from PanO2 tumors, and in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells in which LRP1 was silenced. LRP1-deficient BMDMs migrated more rapidly than LRP1-expressing cells in vitro. The difference in migration was reversed by CCL3-neutralizing antibody, by CCR5-neutralizing antibody, and by inhibiting NFκB with JSH-23. Inhibiting NFκB reversed the increase in CCL3 expression associated with LRP1 gene-silencing in RAW 264.7 cells. Tumors formed in mice with LRP1-deficient myeloid cells demonstrated increased angiogenesis. Although VEGF mRNA expression was not increased in LRP1-deficient TAMs, at the single-cell level, the increase in TAM density in tumors with LRP1-deficient myeloid cells may have allowed these TAMs to contribute an increased amount of VEGF to the tumor microenvironment. Our results demonstrate that macrophage density in tumors is correlated with cancer angiogenesis in a novel model system. Myeloid cell LRP1 may be an important regulator of cancer progression.
PMCID: PMC3702673  PMID: 23633492
8.  An LRP5 Receptor with Internal Deletion in Hyperparathyroid Tumors with Implications for Deregulated WNT/β-Catenin Signaling 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(11):e328.
Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a common endocrine disorder with incompletely understood etiology, characterized by enlarged hyperactive parathyroid glands and increased serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. We have recently reported activation of the Wnt signaling pathway by accumulation of β-catenin in all analyzed parathyroid tumors from patients with primary HPT (pHPT) and in hyperplastic parathyroid glands from patients with uremia secondary to HPT (sHPT). Mechanisms that may account for this activation have not been identified, except for a few cases of β-catenin (CTNNB1) stabilizing mutation in pHPT tumors.
Methods and Findings
Reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis showed expression of an aberrantly spliced internally truncated WNT coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 5 (LRP5) in 32 out of 37 pHPT tumors (86%) and 20 out of 20 sHPT tumors (100%). Stabilizing mutation of CTNNB1 and expression of the internally truncated LRP5 receptor was mutually exclusive. Expression of the truncated LRP5 receptor was required to maintain the nonphosphorylated active β-catenin level, transcription activity of β-catenin, MYC expression, parathyroid cell growth in vitro, and parathyroid tumor growth in a xenograft severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model. WNT3 ligand and the internally truncated LRP5 receptor strongly activated transcription, and the internally truncated LRP5 receptor was insensitive to inhibition by DKK1.
The internally truncated LRP5 receptor is strongly implicated in deregulated activation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in hyperparathyroid tumors, and presents a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
Gunnar Westin and colleagues report the expression of an aberrantly spliced LRP5 receptor in primary and spontaneous parathyroid tumors and implicate it in the deregulated activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Editors' Summary
The parathyroid glands—four rice-sized glands in the neck—maintain a normal calcium balance in the body, to maintain strong bones and essential cellular functions. The glands release parathyroid hormone as a response to a decrease in blood calcium level. By stimulating calcium release from bone and its absorption in the gut, parathyroid hormone restores the blood calcium level. However, 100,000 new individuals in the US develop hyperparathyroidism (HPT) annually, characterized by enlarged, overactive parathyroid glands and high blood levels of calcium. Primary HPT (pHPT) is usually caused by a benign tumor (a non-life-threatening growth) in one of the parathyroid glands. Secondary HPT (sHPT) occurs in response to calcium regulatory disturbances, linked to vitamin D deficiency, and more or less invariably develops in patients with uremic kidney disease.
Why Was This Study Done?
HPT is usually treated by surgical removal of the enlarged parathyroid glands, which is done with great efficiency. However, ideally, doctors would like to know what drives the overgrowth of the parathyroid glands to be able to develop drugs for treatment or disease prophylaxis. Researchers recently reported that the cells in enlarged parathyroid glands from patients with HPT contain high amounts of β-catenin. This protein is part of the Wnt signaling pathway, which has been found to be disrupted in many tumor entities in other organs. In the absence of Wnt proteins, a group of proteins called the β-catenin destruction complex marks β-catenin so that it is rapidly destroyed. When Wnt proteins bind to a cell-surface receptor called Frizzled and a coreceptor called LRP5, the destruction complex is inhibited and β-catenin accumulates. This accumulation induces the production of other proteins (in particular, c-Myc) that stimulate cell growth and division. The accumulation of β-catenin in the enlarged parathyroid glands of patients with HPT could, therefore, significantly contribute to the overgrowth of their glands—but what causes β-catenin accumulation? In this study, the researchers have investigated this question to try to identify a target for drugs to treat HPT.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers looked for genetic changes (mutations) in β-catenin that stabilize the protein and measured the expression of LRP5 in abnormal parathyroid gland tissue from 37 patients with pHPT and 20 with uremia and sHPT. All the samples contained high levels of β-catenin, but only four contained a β-catenin–stabilizing mutation. All the sHPT samples and 32 pHPT samples (but none of the samples containing the β-catenin stabilizing mutation) expressed a mutated LRP5, with the central region deleted. To investigate the functional consequences of this internally deleted LRP5 protein, the researchers used a technique called RNA interference to block its expression in a human parathyroid tumor cell line. They found that expression of the mutated, short LRP5 is required for accumulation of β-catenin, expression of c-Myc, and continued growth of the cell line in test tubes and in animals.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The accumulation of β-catenin in all the enlarged parathyroid glands examined so far strongly implicates abnormal Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the development of pHPT and sHPT. These new findings identify which part of the signaling pathway is altered. The expression data and functional data together suggest that an internally deleted LRP5 coreceptor is often responsible for the accumulation of β-catenin. The functional data also show that expression of shortened LRP5 is necessary for the abnormal growth of parathyroid tumor cells. Exactly how the internally deleted coreceptor activates β-catenin signaling in parathyroid gland cells, or why a shorter-than-normal LRP5 is made, are not yet known. However, because these findings indicate that internally deleted LRP5 has a fundamental role in activating Wnt signaling in HPT, drugs that inactivate this aberrant protein but leave the normal protein unscathed might provide a nonsurgical treatment for this common hormone disorder.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
edlinePlus has encyclopedia pages on hyperparathyroidism, primary hyperparathyroidism, and secondary hyperparathyroidim (in English and Spanish)
Information is available for patients from the US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases on hyperparathyroidism, which includes links to organizations that help people with hyperparathyroidism
Wikipedia maintains pages on Wnt signaling pathway and on β-catenin (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
PMCID: PMC2082644  PMID: 18044981
9.  Synaptic plasticity and cognitive function are disrupted in the absence of Lrp4 
eLife  null;3:e04287.
Lrp4, the muscle receptor for neuronal Agrin, is expressed in the hippocampus and areas involved in cognition. The function of Lrp4 in the brain, however, is unknown, as Lrp4−/− mice fail to form neuromuscular synapses and die at birth. Lrp4−/− mice, rescued for Lrp4 expression selectively in muscle, survive into adulthood and showed profound deficits in cognitive tasks that assess learning and memory. To learn whether synapses form and function aberrantly, we used electrophysiological and anatomical methods to study hippocampal CA3–CA1 synapses. In the absence of Lrp4, the organization of the hippocampus appeared normal, but the frequency of spontaneous release events and spine density on primary apical dendrites were reduced. CA3 input was unable to adequately depolarize CA1 neurons to induce long-term potentiation. Our studies demonstrate a role for Lrp4 in hippocampal function and suggest that patients with mutations in Lrp4 or auto-antibodies to Lrp4 should be evaluated for neurological deficits.
eLife digest
LRP4 is a muscle protein that is found in the hippocampus, a region of the brain that controls cognitive processes such as learning and memory. However, we know very little about what exactly LRP4 does in the hippocampus, and how it affects learning and memory.
A standard way to figure out what a protein does is to study mice that have been genetically modified so that they cannot produce that protein. However, deleting the gene for LRP4 leads to muscle problems that kill these mutant mice at birth.
To get around this problem, Gomez et al. have developed a method to restore the production of LRP4 in the muscles of mutant mice but not in their brains. These mutant mice were then subjected to a battery of tests to measure their ability to learn and recall new memories. These tests showed that LRP4 must be present in the brain, otherwise learning and memory are impaired.
Gomez et al. also explored a process known as long-term potentiation. This process, which involves strengthening the functional connections between neurons, is believed to be essential for learning and other cognitive process. Gomez et al. demonstrated that long-term potentiation was disrupted by the lack of LRP4.
Further experiments are needed to work out how LRP4 controls the learning process in the hippocampus and to explore the connection between LRP4 and various neuromuscular and neurological diseases.
PMCID: PMC4270049  PMID: 25407677
synapse; low-density lipoprotein-related receptor; behavior; learning; hippocampus; long-term potentiation; mouse
10.  Stromal LRP1 in lung adenocarcinoma predicts clinical outcome 
LRP1 is a broadly-expressed receptor that binds multiple extracellular ligands and participates in protein clearance. LRP1 is expressed numerous cancers, but its role in lung cancer has not been characterized. Here, we investigate the relationship between LRP1 and lung cancer.
Experimental Design
LRP1 mRNA levels were determined in lung tumors from several large, multicenter studies. LRP1 protein localization was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tumor microarrays. Normal fibroblasts, fibroblasts treated with the LRP1 inhibitor RAP, and LRP1 null fibroblasts were co-cultured with three independent lung cancer cell lines to investigate the role of LRP1 on tumor cell proliferation.
LRP1 mRNA levels are significantly decreased in lung tumors relative to non-tumorous lung tissue. Lower expression of LRP1 in lung adenocarcinomas correlates with less favorable clinical outcome in a cohort of 439 patients. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrates that LRP1 is primarily expressed in stromal cells in 94/111 lung cancers, with very little protein found in cancer cells. A growth suppressive function of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEF) was observed in three lung cancer cell lines tested (H460, H2347, and HCC4006 cells); growth suppression was blocked by the LRP1 inhibitor, RAP. LRP1 deletion in fibroblasts reduced the ability of MEF cells to suppress tumor cell mitosis. In a validation set of adenocarcinomas, we confirmed a significant positive correlation between both LRP1 mRNA and protein levels and favorable clinical outcomes.
LRP1 expression is associated with improved lung cancer outcomes. Mechanistically, stromal LRP1 may non-cell autonomously suppress lung tumor cell proliferation.
PMCID: PMC3079007  PMID: 21325077
11.  Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients 
AIM: To investigate the expression of myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 (MR-1) in relation to clinicopathological parameters and postoperative survival in a group of Chinese patients with gastric cancer.
METHODS: In our previous study of human whole-genome gene expression profiling, the differentially expressed genes were detected in the gastric cancer and its adjacent noncancerous mucosa. We found that MR-1 was associated with the location and differentiation of tumors. In this study, MR-1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in specimens of primary cancer and the adjacent noncancerous tissues from gastric cancer patients. A set of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays based on the Universal ProbeLibrary-a collection of 165 presynthesized, fluorescence-labeled locked nucleic acid hydrolysis probes-was designed specifically to detect the expression of MR-1 mRNA. The correlation was analyzed between the expression of MR-1 and other tumor characteristics which may influence the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis was carried out and clinical data were collected from medical records.
RESULTS: MR-1 mRNA and protein could be detected in gastric cancer tissues as well as in matched noncancerous tissues. MR-1 was up-regulated at both mRNA (5.459 ± 0.639 vs 1.233 ± 0.238, P < 0.001) and protein levels (34.2% vs 13.2%, P = 0.003) in gastric cancer tissues. Correlation analysis demonstrated that high expression of MR-1 in gastric cancer was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.034). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the postoperative survival of the MR-1 positive group tended to be poorer than that of the MR-1 negative group, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.002). Among all the patients with stage I-IV carcinoma, the 5-year survival rates of MR-1 positive and negative groups were 50.40% and 12.70%, respectively, with respective median survival times of 64.27 mo (95%CI: 13.41-115.13) and 16.77 mo (95%CI: 8.80-24.74). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare the impact of MR-1 expression and other clinicopathological parameters on prognosis. In a univariate analysis on all 70 specimens, 6 factors were found to be significantly associated with the overall survival statistically: including MR-1 expression, depth of invasion, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion and the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage based on the 7th edition of the International Union against Cancer TNM classification. To avoid the influence caused by univariate analysis, the expressions of MR-1 as well as other parameters were examined in multivariate Cox analysis. Clinicopathological variables that might affect the prognosis of gastric cancer patients were analyzed by Cox regression analysis, which showed that MR-1 expression and TNM stage were independent predictors of postoperative survival. The best mathematical multivariate Cox regression model consisted of two factors: MR-1 expression and TNM stage. Our results indicated that MR-1 protein could act as an independent marker for patient overall survival [Hazard ratio (HR): 2.215, P = 0.043].
CONCLUSION: MR-1 is an important variable that can be used to evaluate the outcome, prognosis and targeted therapy of gastric cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3471113  PMID: 23082061
Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1; Gastric cancer; Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; Immunohistochemistry; Poor prognosis
12.  Ectodomains of the LDL Receptor-Related Proteins LRP1b and LRP4 Have Anchorage Independent Functions In Vivo 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(4):e9960.
The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family is a highly conserved group of membrane receptors with diverse functions in developmental processes, lipoprotein trafficking, and cell signaling. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1b (LRP1B) was reported to be deleted in several types of human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer. Our group has previously reported that a distal extracellular truncation of murine Lrp1b that is predicted to secrete the entire intact extracellular domain (ECD) is fully viable with no apparent phenotype.
Methods and Principal Findings
Here, we have used a gene targeting approach to create two mouse lines carrying internally rearranged exons of Lrp1b that are predicted to truncate the protein closer to the N-terminus and to prevent normal trafficking through the secretary pathway. Both mutations result in early embryonic lethality, but, as expected from the restricted expression pattern of LRP1b in vivo, loss of Lrp1b does not cause cellular lethality as homozygous Lrp1b-deficient blastocysts can be propagated normally in culture. This is similar to findings for another LDL receptor family member, Lrp4. We provide in vitro evidence that Lrp4 undergoes regulated intramembraneous processing through metalloproteases and γ-secretase cleavage. We further demonstrate negative regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the soluble extracellular domain.
Conclusions and Significance
Our results underline a crucial role for Lrp1b in development. The expression in mice of truncated alleles of Lrp1b and Lrp4 with deletions of the transmembrane and intracellular domains leads to release of the extracellular domain into the extracellular space, which is sufficient to confer viability. In contrast, null mutations are embryonically (Lrp1b) or perinatally (Lrp4) lethal. These findings suggest that the extracellular domains of both proteins may function as a scavenger for signaling ligands or signal modulators in the extracellular space, thereby preserving signaling thresholds that are critical for embryonic development, as well as for the clear, but poorly understood role of LRP1b in cancer.
PMCID: PMC2850915  PMID: 20383322
13.  Intestinal stem cell marker LGR5 expression during gastric carcinogenesis 
AIM: To investigate the differential expression of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) in gastric cancer tissues and its significance related to tumor growth and spread.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed biopsy specimens of intestinal metaplasia (n = 90), dysplasia (n = 53), gastric adenocarcinoma (n = 180), metastases in lymph nodes and the liver (n = 15), and lesion-adjacent normal gastric mucosa (controls; n = 145) were obtained for analysis from the Peking University Cancer Hospital’s Department of Pathology and Gastrointestinal Surgery tissue archives (January 2003 to December 2011). The biopsied patients’ demographic and clinicopathologic data were retrieved from the hospital’s medical records database. Each specimen was subjected to histopathological typing to classify the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and to immunohistochemistry staining to detect the expression of the cancer stem cell marker LGR5. The intergroup differences in LGR5 expression were assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation analysis, and the relationship between LGR5 expression level and the patients’ clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated by the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test.
RESULTS: Significantly more gastric cancer tissues showed LGR5+ staining than normal control tissues (all P < 0.01), with immunoreactivity detected in 72.2% (65/90) and 50.9% (27/53) of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia specimens, respectively, 52.8% (95/180) of gastric adenocarcinoma specimens, and 73.3%% (11/15) of metastasis specimens, but 26.9% (39/145) of lesion-adjacent normal gastric mucosa specimens. Comparison of the intensity of LGR5+ staining showed an increasing trend that generally followed increasing dedifferentiation and tumor spread (normal tissue < dysplasia, < gastric adenocarcinoma < metastasis; all P < 0.001), with the exception of expression level detected in intestinal metaplasia which was higher than that in normal gastric tissues (P < 0.001). Moreover, gastric cancer-associated enhanced expression of LGR5 was found to be significantly associated with age, tumor differentiation, Lauren type and TNM stage (I + II vs III + IV) (all P < 0.05), but not with sex, tumor site, location, size, histology, lymphovascular invasion, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis. Patients with LGR5+ gastric cancer specimens and without signs of metastasis from the original biopsy experienced more frequent rates of recurrence or metastasis during follow-up than patients with LGR5- specimens (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Enhanced LGR5 is related to progressive dedifferentiation and metastasis of gastric cancer, indicating the potential of this receptor as an early diagnostic and prognostic biomarker.
PMCID: PMC3870519  PMID: 24379591
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5; Cancer stem cell; Gastric cancer; Intestinal metaplasia; Tumorigenesis
14.  Increased expression of DLX2 correlates with advanced stage of gastric adenocarcinoma 
AIM: To investigate the expression of distal-less homeobox 2 (DLX2) in gastric adenocarcinoma and its clinicopathological significance.
METHODS: Gastric adenocarcinoma tissues were obtained from gastrectomy specimens of 129 patients from the Department of Surgery and Pathology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University. Sixty cases of normal gastric tissues were collected from gastrectomy specimens of adjacent gastric cancer margins greater than 5 cm. Patient diagnosis was established pathologically, and no patient had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy before surgery. All tissue specimens were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to investigate the expression of DLX2 in 129 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 60 adjacent normal tissues. The immunostaining reaction was semiquantitatively evaluated based on the proportion of positive cells and the median staining intensity in normal gastric epithelial cells or tumor cells. All patients had follow-up records for more than 5 years. Correlations of DLX2 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 software.
RESULTS: The positive expression of DLX2 was detected in 68 (52.7%) cases of 129 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 14 (23.3%) cases of 60 adjacent normal tissues. The difference in DLX2 expression between gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues was statistically significant (χ2 = 14.391, P < 0.001). Moreover, high expression of DLX2 was detected in 48 (37.2%) cases of 129 human gastric cancer tissues, but not in adjacent normal tissues. The expression of DLX2 correlated with the size of tumor (P = 0.001), depth of invasion (P = 0.008), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023) and tumor-node-metastasis stages (P = 0.020), but was not correlated with age, gender, histological differentiation and distant metastasis. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that survival time of patients with high DLX2 expression was significantly shorter than that with low DLX2 expression. However, the multivariate analysis showed that invasion depth (P < 0.001), lymph nodes metastasis (P = 0.001) and distant metastasis (P < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, but DLX2 expression, tumor location and tumor size were not.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that increased expression of DLX2 may correlate with the advanced stage of gastric adenocarcinoma, and it may contribute to tumor development.
PMCID: PMC3645389  PMID: 23674878
Gastric adenocarcinoma; Distal-less homeobox 2; Immunohistochemistry; Invasion; Metastasis; Prognosis
15.  Reduction of CAII Expression in Gastric Cancer: Correlation with Invasion and Metastasis 
Human carbonic anhydrases II (CAII) gene plays an important role in different cancer. However, its relevance to gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression of CAII in GC and explore its correlation with some clinicopathologic characteristics of GC.
The expression of CAII in 20 specimens of normal gastric mucosa, 38 specimens of intraepithelial neoplasia and 112 specimens of gastric carcinoma were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. Survival in GC with CAII expression was studied.
The positive rate of CAII protein in normal gastric mucosa was significantly higher than that in intraepithelial neoplasia and gastric carcinoma (100% vs. 63.16% and 28.57%, P<0.001). The positive rate of CAII protein was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma at early stages than that at advanced stages (70.0% vs. 19.57%, P<0.001). The positive rate of CAII protein was significantly lower in gastric carcinoma with lymph node metastases than that without lymph node metastases (10.81% vs. 37.33%, P<0.05). Furthermore, the positive rate of CAII protein was significantly lower in poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in moderately- or well-differentiated gastric carcinoma (15.94% vs. 31.03% or 60.00%, P<0.05). Moreover, CAII expression was not related with sex, age and tumor size. The patients with CAII-positive tumors showed a better survival rate than those with CAII-negative tumors (P=0.024, log-rank test).
CAII expression was related with stages and lymph node metastases in gastric carcinoma. The reduction of CAII expression in GC might promote tumor cell motility and contribute to tumor growth and metastasis.
PMCID: PMC3555285  PMID: 23359292
CAII; Gastric Carcinoma; Immunohistochemistry; Invasion; Metastasis
16.  Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6) rs10845498 Polymorphism Is Associated with a Decreased Risk of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
Objectives: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) modulates Wnt signaling transduction. Altered LRP6 expression leads to abnormal Wnt protein activation, cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. This study investigated the association between LRP6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Chinese population. Methods: A total of 500 NSCLC patients and 500 healthy controls were recruited for assessment of four LRP6 SNPs using the SEQUENOM MassARRAY matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The association between genotype and NSCLC risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results: The frequency of the LRP6 rs10845498 genotype was 60.9% (A/A), 35.5% (AG) and 3.6% (GG) in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 69.2% (A/A), 27.2% (A/G) and 3.6% (GG) in controls. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the LRP6 rs10845498 A/A major allele was associated with a reduced risk in developing lung SCC (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48-1.00; P=0.04), and tobacco smokers had a 2.21 fold greater risk in developing SCC than nonsmokers (p<0.01, 95% CI, 1.72-2.85), and tobacco smokers who carried an “A” allele (AA+AG) in rs6488507 had a 2.34-fold greater risk in developing NSCLC than other patients (p< 0.01, 95%CI, 1.74-3.13). Conclusions: The LRP6 rs10845498 SNP is associated with a reduced risk of lung SCC, while tobacco smoke increases the risk. LRP6 rs6488507 polymorphism synergistically increased the risk of NSCLC in tobacco smokers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the functional impact of LRP6 expression and activity in NSCLC.
PMCID: PMC4025167  PMID: 24843317
Non-small cell lung cancer; genetic susceptibility; low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6; single nucleotide polymorphism.
17.  Upregulated EMMPRIN/CD147 might contribute to growth and angiogenesis of gastric carcinoma: a good marker for local invasion and prognosis 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;95(10):1371-1378.
Tumour growth depends on angiogenesis, which is closely associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN) was reported to involve in the progression of malignancies by regulating expression of VEGF and MMPs in stromal cells. To clarify the role of EMMPRIN in progression and angiogenesis of gastric carcinoma, expression of EMMPRIN, ki-67, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF was examined on tissue microarray containing gastric carcinomas (n=234) and non-cancerous mucosa adjacent to carcinoma (n=85) by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, microvessel density (MVD) was assessed after labelling with anti-CD34 antibody. Extracellular MMP inducer expression was compared with clinicopathological parameters of tumours, including levels of ki-67, MMP-2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), MVD as well as survival time of carcinoma patients. Gastric carcinoma cell lines (HGC-27, MKN28 and MKN45) were studied for EMMPRIN expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Extracellular MMP inducer expression was gradually increased from normal mucosa to carcinomas through hyperplastic or metaplastic mucosa of the stomach (P<0.05). There was strong EMMPRIN expression in all gastric carcinoma cell lines despite different levels of glycosylation. Extracellular MMP inducer expression was positively correlated with tumour size, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, expression of ki-67, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF of tumours (P<0.05), but not with lymph node metastasis, UICC staging or differentiation (P>0.05). Interestingly, there was a significantly positive relationship between EMMPRIN expression and MVD in gastric carcinomas (P<0.05). Survival analysis indicated EMMPRIN expression to be negatively linked to favourable prognosis (P<0.05), but not be independent factor for prognosis (P>0.05). Further analysis showed three independent prognostic factors, depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, to influence the relationship between EMMPRIN expression and prognosis. Upregulated expression of EMMPRIN possibly contributes to genesis, growth and local invasion of gastric carcinomas. Altered EMMPRIN expression might enhance growth, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric carcinoma via upregulating MMP expression of both stromal fibroblasts and gastric cancer cells and could be considered as an objective and effective marker to predict invasion and prognosis.
PMCID: PMC2360592  PMID: 17088917
gastric carcinoma; progression; angiogenesis; prognosis; EMMPRIN
18.  The role of mTOR and phospho-p70S6K in pathogenesis and progression of gastric carcinomas: an immunohistochemical study on tissue microarray 
mTOR signaling pathway and its downstream serine/threonine kinase p70S6k were frequently activated in human cancers. The dysregulation of the mTOR pathway has been found to be a contributing factor of a variety of different cancer. To investigate the role of mTOR signal pathway in the stepwise development of gastric carcinomas, we analyzed the correlations between the mTOR and P70S6K expression and clinic pathological factors and studied its prognostic role in gastric carcinomas.
mTOR and phospho-p70S6K proteins were examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray containing gastric carcinomas (n = 412), adenomas (n = 47) and non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM, n = 197) with a comparison of their expression with clinicopathological parameters of carcinomas.
There was no difference of mTOR expression between these three tissues (p > 0.05). Cytoplasmic phospho(p)-P706SK was highly expressed in adenoma, compared with ANNMs (p < 0.05), whereas its nuclear expression was lower in gastric carcinomas than gastric adenoma and ANNMs (p < 0.05). These three markers were preferably expressed in the older patients with gastric cancer and intestinal-type carcinoma (p < 0.05). mTOR expression was positively correlated with the cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of p-P70S6K(p < 0.05). Nuclear P70S6K was inversely linked to tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and UICC staging (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis indicated that expression of mTOR and nuclear p-P70S6K was closely linked to favorable prognosis of the carcinoma patients (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that age, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, Lauren's classification and mTOR expression were independent prognostic factors for overall gastric carcinomas (p < 0.05).
Aberrant expression of p-P70S6K possibly contributes to pathogenesis, growth, invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinomas. It was considered as a promising marker to indicate the aggressive behaviors and prognosis of gastric carcinomas.
PMCID: PMC2797794  PMID: 20003385
19.  Expression of Rab25 correlates with the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer 
The objective of this study was to determine the expression of the important vesicle trafficking-regulating factor Rab25 in human gastric cancer tissues, to analyze the correlation between Rab25 protein expression with gastric cancer occurrence and development, and to discuss the correlation of Rab25 protein expression with gastric cancer cell metastasis. The overall aim was to provide experimental evidence that can be used to design future biological treatments of human gastric cancer. Human gastric cancer tissue and the adjacent normal gastric tissue were surgically removed, and immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect Rab25 protein expression. The correlation between Rab25 protein expression with the development and pathological characteristics of gastric cancer was analyzed. Using RNAi, Rab25 expression was reduced in the gastric cancer cell line MGC80-3, and the changes in MGC80-3 cell invasiveness were then monitored. Immunohistochemistry showed that the Rab25 protein expression rates were 78.21% and 23.08% in gastric carcinoma and the adjacent normal gastric tissue, respectively. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot results showed that Rab25 protein expression in gastric cancer was significantly higher than in adjacent normal gastric tissues (P<0.01). Less differentiated gastric cancer cells had higher expression of Rab25 protein (P<0.01). Gastric carcinomas from patients with a late pathological stage (III-IV) had significantly higher Rab25 protein expression than early stage (I-II) patients (P<0.01). Gastric carcinomas from patients with lymph node metastasis had significantly higher Rab25 protein expression than lymph node metastasis-free patients (P<0.01). Gastric carcinomas from patients with distant metastases had significantly higher Rab25 protein expression than the distant metastasis-negative patients (P<0.01). Rab25 protein expression in gastric cancer was not affected by the patients, sex, age, or tumor size (P>0.05). MGC80-3 cells transfected with Rab25 siRNA had significantly lower Rab25 protein expression (P<0.01) and a significantly lower number of cells that passed through a Transwell chamber compared with non-transfected controls and the transfected control group (P<0.01). Rab25 protein expression is associated with the development of gastric cancer. siRNA knockdown of Rab25 protein expression in MGC80-3 gastric cancer cells reduced MGC80-3 cell invasiveness and provided experimental evidence for potential future biological treatment strategies of human gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC3626988  PMID: 23592900
Rab25; human gastric cancer; immunohistochemistry; Western blot; siRNA; invasion
20.  Expression of MACC1 and c-Met in human gastric cancer and its clinical significance 
Recent studies have suggested that the metastasis-associated colon cancer1 (MACC1) gene can promote tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis through an upregulation of c-Met expression. However, its role in gastric cancer is controversial. Our study investigated expression of MACC1 and c-Met in gastric cancer, as well as correlated this with clinicopathological parameters.
Expressions of MACC1 and c-Met protein in a sample of 98 gastric carcinoma and adjacent nontumorous tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Their relationships and correlations with clinicopathological features were analyzed.
The positive rates of MACC1 and c-Met protein in primary tumors were 61.22% and 59.18%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between expression of MACC1 and c-Met (P<0.05). Expression of the MACC1 protein in gastric cancer tissue was correlated with lymph node metastasis (χ2 = 10.555,P = 0.001), peritoneal metastasis (χ2 = 5.694, P = 0.017), and hepatic metastasis (χ2 = 4.540,P = 0.033), but not with age, gender, tumor size, location, clinical stage or the distant metastases (P>0.05).
The positive rate of MACC1 protein expression was related to the protein expression of c-Met. Both had a correlation with the presence of peritoneal metastasis, lymph node metastasis and hepatic metastasis, all of which contribute to a poor prognosis for gastric cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC4029370  PMID: 24325214
Gastric cancer; Metastasis associated with colon cancer1; c-Met; Peritoneal metastasis; Lymph node metastasis; Hepatic metastasis
21.  Paxillin expression is closely linked to the pathogenesis, progression and prognosis of gastric carcinomas 
Oncology Letters  2013;7(1):189-194.
Paxillin encodes a focal adhesion-associated protein and is involved in the progression and aggressive phenotypes of malignancies through its interactions with the actin cytoskeleton and key signal transduction oncogenes. The present study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of paxillin in gastric cancer. The expression of paxillin was evaluated using tissue microarrays of gastric adjacent non-cancerous mucosa, adenoma and carcinoma specimens by immunohistochemistry. Paxillin expression was compared against clinicopathological parameters and the survival time of the patients. Paxillin was highly expressed in gastric adenoma compared with that in non-neoplastic mucosa and carcinoma (P<0.05). Paxillin expression was lower in the younger carcinoma patients compared with that in the elder carcinoma patients (P<0.05). Paxillin expression was negatively correlated with tumor size, depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis, but not with patient gender, lymphatic or venous invasion, or TNM staging (P>0.05). Higher paxillin expression was observed in intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type carcinoma (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated a positive association between paxillin expression and cumulative survival rate in all, advanced and intestinal-type carcinoma patients (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model indicated that patient age, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM staging and Lauren classification were independent prognostic factors for all gastric carcinomas (P<0.05). Aberrant paxillin expression may be involved in the growth, invasion, metastasis and differentiation of gastric carcinoma. Altered paxillin expression may, therefore, be employed as an indicator of pathobiological behaviors and prognosis of gastric carcinomas.
PMCID: PMC3861591  PMID: 24348846
gastric carcinoma; tumorgenesis; paxillin; clinicopathological behaviors; prognosis
22.  Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human gastric carcinoma 
Oncology Letters  2014;9(2):915-919.
The present report investigated the correlation between the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in gastric carcinoma patients and the clinicopathological characteristics. Forty-five samples of gastric carcinoma and distal gastric mucosa tissue, and 10 samples of healthy gastric mucosa tissue were analyzed using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, as well as immunohistochemical and hematoxylin and eosin staining. MMP-9 protein levels in serum samples from the same patients were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The present report identified that MMP-9 expression was markedly higher in the gastric carcinoma tissue (86.67%) than in the adjacent healthy tissue (10.00%). A positive association was identified between the level of MMP-9 protein expression and the depth of cancer invasion (P<0.05). Furthermore, the preoperative serum levels of the MMP-9 protein in the gastric carcinoma tissue were correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage and occurrence of lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Data from the present report indicates that MMP-9 may be key in gastric carcinoma malignancy, and implies that MMP-9 may serve as a novel biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC4301519  PMID: 25621068
gastric carcinoma; matrix metalloproteinases-9; semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction; immunohistochemistry; malignancy
23.  Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein (LRP) is Decreased in Optic Neuropathy of Alzheimer’s Disease 
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with optic nerve degeneration yet the underlying pathophysiology of this disease and the optic nerve disorder remains poorly understood. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is implicated in the pathogenesis of AD by mediating the transport of amyloid-β (Aβ) out of the brain into the systemic circulation. As a key player in the reaction to central nervous system (CNS) injury, astrocytes associate with LRP in AD. This study investigates the role of LRP and astrocytes in the pathogenesis of AD optic neuropathy.
To investigate the role of LRP and astrocytes in the pathogenesis of AD optic neuropathy, we conducted immunohistochemical (IHC) studies on postmortem optic nerves in AD patients (n = 11) and age-matched controls (n = 10) to examine the presence of LRP. Quantitative analyses using imaging software were used to document the extent of LRP in neural tissues. Axonal integrity was assessed by performing IHC on the subjects’ optic nerves with an antibody to neurofilament (NF) protein. Double-immunofluorescence labeling was performed to investigate whether LRP colocalized with astrocytes expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).
LRP expression was decreased in AD optic nerves compared to controls (p < 0.001). LRP immunoreactivity was observed in the microvasculature and perivascularly in close proximity to astrocytic processes. Colocalization of LRP in astrocytes of optic nerves was also demonstrated. The presence of optic neuropathy was confirmed in the AD optic nerves by demonstrating greatly reduced immunostaining for NF protein as compared to controls.
The reduction of LRP in the AD degenerative optic nerves supports the hypothesis that LRP may play a role in the pathophysiology of AD optic neuropathy.
PMCID: PMC3106991  PMID: 21593627
Alzheimer’s disease; Alzheimer’s optic neuropathy; astrocytes; low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein; microvasculature; optic nerve
24.  Alterations of MUC1 and MUC3 expression in gastric carcinoma: relevance to patient clinicopathological features 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2003;56(5):378-384.
Aims: Several studies have reported conflicting and inconclusive results concerning the clinical relevance of mucin expression in gastric carcinoma. This study investigated the correlations between aberrant expression of mucins in gastric carcinoma and patient clinicopathological features.
Methods: The expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, and MUC6 was investigated immunohistochemically in gastric carcinoma (n = 46) in relation to patient clinicopathological features.
Results: All normal gastric mucosa samples expressed MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6. MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were expressed in 29, 31, 30, 18, and 21 of the 46 cases of gastric carcinoma, respectively. The number of cases expressing MUC1 was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in patients with a small tumour size (≥ 5 cm) and in patients in clinical stages I–II, compared with clinical stages III–IV (p < 0.05). Expression was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in patients exhibiting metastasis. The number of cases expressing MUC3 was significantly higher in patients in clinical stages III–IV (p < 0.05), and in those with serosal invasion (p < 0.05) or metastasis (p<0.01). No significant relations were found between MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and clinical stage, metastasis, or tumour size.
Conclusions: Membrane bound mucins MUC1 and MUC3 appear to be associated with the development of gastric carcinoma. Patients who maintained high immunoreactivity for anti-MUC1 antibody had a better prognosis, whereas those with an increase in anti-MUC3 immunoreactivity had a poorer prognosis, as judged by tumour size, serosal invasion, and metastasis. However, no correlation was found between MUC2, MUC5AC, or MUC6 and clinical prognosis.
PMCID: PMC1769961  PMID: 12719460
gastric cancer; mucin; intestinal metaplasia; metastasis; invasion
25.  PIK3CA and PIK3CB expression and relationship with multidrug resistance in colorectal carcinoma 
The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a critical family of signaling enzymes that participate in many cellular processes that promote the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. These processes include cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. However, the correlation between PI3Ks and multidrug resistance (MDR) remains unclear. The prognostic value of PI3Ks has not been previously evaluated. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the association between PIK3CA and PIK3CB expression and the MDR gene in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the expressions of PIK3CA, PIK3CB, MDR-1, LRP, GST-π, and Topo II in 316 CRC specimens. Patients were followed-up annually by telephone or at an outpatient clinic. Results revealed that PIK3CA and PIK3CB expression was correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The overexpression of MDR-1, LRP, Topo II, and GST-π was found to be 72.78%, 70.89%, 77.53%, and 76.58% of CRC, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that PIK3CA and PIK3CB expression exhibits a positive correlation with MDR-1, LRP, and GST-π with correlation coefficients of 0.288, 0.128, and 0.197, respectively (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the five-year survival rate of patients without lymph node metastasis, positive expression of PIK3CA and PIK3CB, and negative expression of GST-π and MDR-1 was higher than those with these characteristics. Multivariate analysis revealed that GST-π, MDR-1 expression, and lymph node metastasis could serve as independent predictive factors of overall survival. The expression of both PIK3CA and PIK3CB is increased and related to the development and progress of colorectal carcinoma and MDR. The combined detection of PIK3CA andPIK3CB is important for patients with colorectal carcinoma in prognosis and optimal therapy.
PMCID: PMC4270546  PMID: 25550888
Colorectal cancer; MDR; PIK3CA; PIK3CB; prognosis

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