AIM: To explore the expression of leukemia related protein 16 (LRP16) in colorectal carcinoma, and analyze its correlation with clinicopathologic features and prognosis.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for LRP16 was performed in 201 cases of colorectal carcinoma and 60 cases of distal normal mucosa. Medical records were reviewed and clinicopathological analysis was performed.
RESULTS: LRP16 expression was detected in 117 of 201 cases of the colorectal carcinoma and in 21 cases of 60 distal normal mucosa. The expression of LRP16 in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa (χ2 = 9.999, P = 0.002). LRP16 protein expression was found in 43.3% (52/120) of carcinoma at stage I and II, and 80.2% (65/81) of carcinoma at stage III and IV (χ2 =27.088, P = 0.001). Correlation between LRP16 expression and clinicopathological factors was significant in differentiation (P = 0.010), tumor size (P = 0.001), infiltrative depth (P = 0.000) and distant metastasis (P = 0.027). The difference of median survival time between cancer patients with LRP16 expression (38.0 mo) and those without was statistically significant (105.0 mo, Log rank = 41.455, P = 0.001). The multivariate survival analysis revealed that LRP16 expression was correlated significantly (Cox’s regression: P = 0.001, relative risk = 2.082) with shortened survival in the patients with colorectal cancer.
CONCLUSION: The expression of LRP16 is related to the degree of differentiation, invasiveness, metastasis and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma.
Colorectal neoplasms; Immunohistochemistry; Leukemia related protein 16; Prognosis; Clinicopathology
Prion protein (PrPc) has been previously reported to be involved in gastric cancer (GC) development and progression. However, the association between expression of PrPc and GC prognosis is yet poorly characterized. In the present study, the expressions of PrPc and MGr1-Ag/37LRP, a protein interacting with PrPc, were detected using the tissue microarray technique and immunohistochemical method to compare clinicopathological parameters of 238 GC patients. We found that the expressions of PrPc and MGr1-Ag/37LRP were upregulated in GC lesions compared with their expressions in adjacent noncancerous tissues (p < 0.01). High expression of PrPc was detected in 37.39% (89/238) of GC patients and positively correlated with the expression of MGr1-Ag/37LRP (r = 0.532, p < 0.001). PrPc expression was associated with a number of clinicopathological parameters including depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis of the tumor (p < 0.001). High expression of PrPc brought a poorer prognosis than low PrPc expression. Moreover, GC patients with high level of PrPc and high level of MGr1-Ag/37LRP had the poorest prognosis. Multivariate survival analysis suggested that, along with other parameters, combined expression of PrPc and MGr1-Ag/37LRP was independent prognostic factors for GC patients. These data indicates that overexpression of PrPc, combined with MGr1-Ag/37LRP, is predictive of poor prognosis in GC and thereby could be used to guide the clinical decision.
Prion protein was originally exclusively associated with prion disease but has now been linked to other processes such as cancer and inflammation. Here the authors examined the role of prion protein and its receptor MGr1-Ag/37LRP in gastric cancer. They found that both factors were upregulated in gastric cancer, and not in neighboring healthy, tissues and established the combined expression of prion protein and MGr1-Ag/37LRP as an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. These studies support a new role of prion protein in cancer and identify a new biomarker for a more accurate prediction of prognosis in gastric cancer patients.
PrPc; MGr1-Ag/37LRP; gastric cancer; prognosis
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional receptor involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis and cell signaling. The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression and mechanism of LRP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
LRP1 expression in 4 HCC cell lines and 40 HCC samples was detected. After interruption of LRP1 expression in a HCC cell line either with specific lentiviral-mediated shRNA LRP1 or in the presence of the LRP1-specific chaperone, receptor-associated protein (RAP), the role of LRP1 in the migration and invasion of HCC cells was assessed in vivo and in vitro, and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 in cells and the bioactivity of MMP9 in the supernatant were assayed. The expression and prognostic value of LRP1 were investigated in 327 HCC specimens.
Low LRP1 expression was associated with poor HCC prognosis, with low expression independently related to shortened overall survival and increased tumor recurrence rate. Expression of LRP1 in non-recurrent HCC samples was significantly higher than that in early recurrent samples. LRP1 expression in HCC cell lines was inversely correlated with their metastatic potential. After inhibition of LRP1, low-metastatic SMCC-7721 cells showed enhanced migration and invasion and increased expression and bioactivity of MMP9. Correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between LRP1 and MMP9 expression in HCC patients. The prognostic value of LRP1 expression was validated in the independent data set.
LRP1 modulated the level of MMP9 and low level of LRP1 expression was associated with aggressiveness and invasiveness in HCCs. LRP1 offered a possible strategy for tumor molecular therapy.
Axillary node status after induction chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer has been shown on multivariate analysis to be an independent predictor of relapse. However, it has been postulated that responders to induction chemotherapy with a clinically negative axilla could be spared the burden of lymphadenectomy, because most of them will not show histological nodal invasion. P-glycoprotein expression in the rescue mastectomy specimen has finally been identified as a significant predictor of patient survival.
We studied the expression of the genes encoding multidrug resistance associated protein (MDR1) and lung cancer associated resistance protein (LRP) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 52 patients treated for locally advanced breast cancer by means of induction chemotherapy followed by rescue mastectomy. P-glycoprotein expression was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry before treatment in 23 cases, and by means of reverse-transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treatment in 46 (6 failed). LRP expression was detected by means of immunohistochemistry, with the LRP-56 monoclonal antibody, in 31 cases before treatment. Immunohistochemistry for detecting the expression of c-erb-B2, p53, Ki67, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor are routinely performed in our laboratory in every case, and the results obtained were included in the study. All patients had received between two and six cycles of standard 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC) chemotherapy, with two exceptions [one patient received four cycles of a docetaxel-adriamycin combination, and the other four cycles of standard cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil (CMF) polychemotherapy]. Response was assessed in accordance with the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). By these, 2 patients achieved a complete clinical response, 37 a partial response, and the remaining 13 showed stable disease. This makes a total clinical response rate of 75.0%. None achieved a complete pathological response.
MDR1 mRNA expression detected by RT-PCR was associated with the presence of invaded axillary nodes at surgery in 18/22 cases (81.8%), compared with 13/24 (54.2%) in the group with undetectable MDR1 expression. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). LRP expression in more than 20% of tumor cells before any treatment was associated with axillary nodal metastasis after chemotherapy and rescue mastectomy in 17/23 cases, compared with 3/8 in nonexpressors. Again, this difference was highly significant (P < 0.01). LRP expression before treatment and MDR1 mRNA expression after treatment were significantly interrelated (P < 0.001), which might reflect the presence of chemoresistant clones liable to metastasize to the regional nodes. Persistence of previously detected MDR1-positivity after treatment (7/9 compared with 0/2 cases) was significantly associated with axillary node metastasis (P < 0.05). Finally, in a logistic regression multivariate model, histology other than ductal, a Ki67 labeling index of at least 20% and the combination of LRP and MDR1 positivity emerged as independent predictors of axillary node invasion at the time of rescue mastectomy.
The expression of different genes involved in resistance to chemotherapy, both before and after treatment with neoadjuvant, is associated with the presence of axillary node invasion at rescue surgery in locally advanced breast cancer. This might reflect the presence of intrinsically resistant clones before any form of therapy, which persist after it, and could be helpful both for prognosis and for the choice of individual treatment.
axillary nodes; chemotherapy; LRP; multidrug resistant; neoadjuvant
Recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by a serum-derived, macrophage stimulating protein (MSP) growth factor and is expressed in many malignant tumors. The aim of the present study was to reveal the protein expression profile of RON and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma and prognosis.
Gastric carcinoma tissue from 98 patients, along with 29 specimens of paraneoplastic tissue and 10 specimens of normal gastric mucosa, were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Western blot analysis of 19 samples of gastric carcinoma tissue and corresponding paraneoplastic tissue, 8 specimens of normal gastric mucosa, and 2 specimens of normal lymph node samples also detected expression of a splice variant of RON, RONΔ165. All samples obtained were accompanied by patient follow-up data that ranged from 3 to 89 months (median time: 22 months).
The rate of positive RON expression differed significantly between gastric carcinoma tissues [56.1%, (55/98)] and paraneoplastic tissues [25.6%, (8/29)] (p = 0.007). In contrast, RON expression was absent in normal gastric mucosa samples. RON expression positively correlated with the invasive depth of the tumor (p = 0.019), perigastric lymph nodes metastasis (p = 0.019), and TNM stage (p = 0.001). However, RON expression was independent of tumor growth pattern according to Bormann criteria (p = 0.209), histopathological grade (p = 0.196), and incidence of distant metastasis (p = 0.400). RON expression was not related to a patient's survival rate (p = 0.195). RONΔ165 was strongly expressed in fresh gastric carcinoma tissue, corresponding paraneoplastic tissue, and perigastric lymph nodes with metastatic carcinoma. In contrast, expression of RONΔ165 was not observed in normal gastric mucosa and normal lymph node tissue samples.
RON expression is significant in gastric carcinoma tissue and corresponding paraneoplastic tissue, but is not expressed in normal gastric mucosa. Expression of RONΔ165 was similarly observed in gastric carcinoma tissue and in metastases present in lymph node tissues. We hypothesize that RON and its splice variant play an important role in the occurrence, progression, and metastasis of gastric carcinoma, and therefore may represent a useful marker to evaluate the biological activity of gastric carcinoma.
To detect the expression of multidrug resistance molecules P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Lung resistnce protein (LRP) and Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and analyze the relationship between them and the clinico-pathological features.
The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 59 gastric cancer patients were determined by a labbelled Streptavidin-Peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical technique, and the results were analyzed in correlation with clinicopathological data. None of these patients received chemotherapy prior to surgery.
The positive rates of P-gp, LRP, MRP were 86.4%, 84.7% and 27.1%, respectively. The difference between the positive rate of P-gp and MRP was significant statistically, as well as the difference between the expression of MRP and LRP. No significant difference was observed between P-gp and LRP, but the positively correlation between the expression of P-gp and LRP had been found. No significant correlation between the expression of P-gp, LRP, MRP and the grade of differentiation were observed. The expression of P-gp was correlated with clinical stages positively (r = 0.742), but the difference with the expression of P-gp in different stages was not significant.
The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in patients with gastric cancer without prior chemotherapy are high, indicating that innate drug resistance may exist in gastric cancer.
Recruitment of monocytes into sites of inflammation is essential in the immune response. In cancer, recruited monocytes promote invasion, metastasis, and possibly angiogenesis. LDL receptor-related protein (LRP1) is an endocytic and cell-signaling receptor that regulates cell migration. In this study, we isografted PanO2 pancreatic carcinoma cells into mice in which LRP1 is deleted in myeloid lineage cells. Recruitment of monocytes into orthotopic and subcutaneous tumors was significantly increased in these mice, compared with control mice. LRP1-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) expressed higher levels of multiple chemokines, including, most prominently, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/CCL3, which is known to amplify inflammation. Increased levels of CCL3 were detected in LRP1-deficient tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), isolated from PanO2 tumors, and in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells in which LRP1 was silenced. LRP1-deficient BMDMs migrated more rapidly than LRP1-expressing cells in vitro. The difference in migration was reversed by CCL3-neutralizing antibody, by CCR5-neutralizing antibody, and by inhibiting NFκB with JSH-23. Inhibiting NFκB reversed the increase in CCL3 expression associated with LRP1 gene-silencing in RAW 264.7 cells. Tumors formed in mice with LRP1-deficient myeloid cells demonstrated increased angiogenesis. Although VEGF mRNA expression was not increased in LRP1-deficient TAMs, at the single-cell level, the increase in TAM density in tumors with LRP1-deficient myeloid cells may have allowed these TAMs to contribute an increased amount of VEGF to the tumor microenvironment. Our results demonstrate that macrophage density in tumors is correlated with cancer angiogenesis in a novel model system. Myeloid cell LRP1 may be an important regulator of cancer progression.
AIM: To investigate the expression of myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 (MR-1) in relation to clinicopathological parameters and postoperative survival in a group of Chinese patients with gastric cancer.
METHODS: In our previous study of human whole-genome gene expression profiling, the differentially expressed genes were detected in the gastric cancer and its adjacent noncancerous mucosa. We found that MR-1 was associated with the location and differentiation of tumors. In this study, MR-1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in specimens of primary cancer and the adjacent noncancerous tissues from gastric cancer patients. A set of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays based on the Universal ProbeLibrary-a collection of 165 presynthesized, fluorescence-labeled locked nucleic acid hydrolysis probes-was designed specifically to detect the expression of MR-1 mRNA. The correlation was analyzed between the expression of MR-1 and other tumor characteristics which may influence the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis was carried out and clinical data were collected from medical records.
RESULTS: MR-1 mRNA and protein could be detected in gastric cancer tissues as well as in matched noncancerous tissues. MR-1 was up-regulated at both mRNA (5.459 ± 0.639 vs 1.233 ± 0.238, P < 0.001) and protein levels (34.2% vs 13.2%, P = 0.003) in gastric cancer tissues. Correlation analysis demonstrated that high expression of MR-1 in gastric cancer was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.034). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the postoperative survival of the MR-1 positive group tended to be poorer than that of the MR-1 negative group, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.002). Among all the patients with stage I-IV carcinoma, the 5-year survival rates of MR-1 positive and negative groups were 50.40% and 12.70%, respectively, with respective median survival times of 64.27 mo (95%CI: 13.41-115.13) and 16.77 mo (95%CI: 8.80-24.74). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare the impact of MR-1 expression and other clinicopathological parameters on prognosis. In a univariate analysis on all 70 specimens, 6 factors were found to be significantly associated with the overall survival statistically: including MR-1 expression, depth of invasion, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion and the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage based on the 7th edition of the International Union against Cancer TNM classification. To avoid the influence caused by univariate analysis, the expressions of MR-1 as well as other parameters were examined in multivariate Cox analysis. Clinicopathological variables that might affect the prognosis of gastric cancer patients were analyzed by Cox regression analysis, which showed that MR-1 expression and TNM stage were independent predictors of postoperative survival. The best mathematical multivariate Cox regression model consisted of two factors: MR-1 expression and TNM stage. Our results indicated that MR-1 protein could act as an independent marker for patient overall survival [Hazard ratio (HR): 2.215, P = 0.043].
CONCLUSION: MR-1 is an important variable that can be used to evaluate the outcome, prognosis and targeted therapy of gastric cancer patients.
Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1; Gastric cancer; Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; Immunohistochemistry; Poor prognosis
The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a critical family of signaling enzymes that participate in many cellular processes that promote the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. These processes include cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. However, the correlation between PI3Ks and multidrug resistance (MDR) remains unclear. The prognostic value of PI3Ks has not been previously evaluated. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the association between PIK3CA and PIK3CB expression and the MDR gene in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the expressions of PIK3CA, PIK3CB, MDR-1, LRP, GST-π, and Topo II in 316 CRC specimens. Patients were followed-up annually by telephone or at an outpatient clinic. Results revealed that PIK3CA and PIK3CB expression was correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The overexpression of MDR-1, LRP, Topo II, and GST-π was found to be 72.78%, 70.89%, 77.53%, and 76.58% of CRC, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that PIK3CA and PIK3CB expression exhibits a positive correlation with MDR-1, LRP, and GST-π with correlation coefficients of 0.288, 0.128, and 0.197, respectively (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the five-year survival rate of patients without lymph node metastasis, positive expression of PIK3CA and PIK3CB, and negative expression of GST-π and MDR-1 was higher than those with these characteristics. Multivariate analysis revealed that GST-π, MDR-1 expression, and lymph node metastasis could serve as independent predictive factors of overall survival. The expression of both PIK3CA and PIK3CB is increased and related to the development and progress of colorectal carcinoma and MDR. The combined detection of PIK3CA andPIK3CB is important for patients with colorectal carcinoma in prognosis and optimal therapy.
Colorectal cancer; MDR; PIK3CA; PIK3CB; prognosis
Lrp4, the muscle receptor for neuronal Agrin, is expressed in the hippocampus and areas involved in cognition. The function of Lrp4 in the brain, however, is unknown, as Lrp4−/− mice fail to form neuromuscular synapses and die at birth. Lrp4−/− mice, rescued for Lrp4 expression selectively in muscle, survive into adulthood and showed profound deficits in cognitive tasks that assess learning and memory. To learn whether synapses form and function aberrantly, we used electrophysiological and anatomical methods to study hippocampal CA3–CA1 synapses. In the absence of Lrp4, the organization of the hippocampus appeared normal, but the frequency of spontaneous release events and spine density on primary apical dendrites were reduced. CA3 input was unable to adequately depolarize CA1 neurons to induce long-term potentiation. Our studies demonstrate a role for Lrp4 in hippocampal function and suggest that patients with mutations in Lrp4 or auto-antibodies to Lrp4 should be evaluated for neurological deficits.
LRP4 is a muscle protein that is found in the hippocampus, a region of the brain that controls cognitive processes such as learning and memory. However, we know very little about what exactly LRP4 does in the hippocampus, and how it affects learning and memory.
A standard way to figure out what a protein does is to study mice that have been genetically modified so that they cannot produce that protein. However, deleting the gene for LRP4 leads to muscle problems that kill these mutant mice at birth.
To get around this problem, Gomez et al. have developed a method to restore the production of LRP4 in the muscles of mutant mice but not in their brains. These mutant mice were then subjected to a battery of tests to measure their ability to learn and recall new memories. These tests showed that LRP4 must be present in the brain, otherwise learning and memory are impaired.
Gomez et al. also explored a process known as long-term potentiation. This process, which involves strengthening the functional connections between neurons, is believed to be essential for learning and other cognitive process. Gomez et al. demonstrated that long-term potentiation was disrupted by the lack of LRP4.
Further experiments are needed to work out how LRP4 controls the learning process in the hippocampus and to explore the connection between LRP4 and various neuromuscular and neurological diseases.
synapse; low-density lipoprotein-related receptor; behavior; learning; hippocampus; long-term potentiation; mouse
LRP1 is a broadly-expressed receptor that binds multiple extracellular ligands and participates in protein clearance. LRP1 is expressed numerous cancers, but its role in lung cancer has not been characterized. Here, we investigate the relationship between LRP1 and lung cancer.
LRP1 mRNA levels were determined in lung tumors from several large, multicenter studies. LRP1 protein localization was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tumor microarrays. Normal fibroblasts, fibroblasts treated with the LRP1 inhibitor RAP, and LRP1 null fibroblasts were co-cultured with three independent lung cancer cell lines to investigate the role of LRP1 on tumor cell proliferation.
LRP1 mRNA levels are significantly decreased in lung tumors relative to non-tumorous lung tissue. Lower expression of LRP1 in lung adenocarcinomas correlates with less favorable clinical outcome in a cohort of 439 patients. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrates that LRP1 is primarily expressed in stromal cells in 94/111 lung cancers, with very little protein found in cancer cells. A growth suppressive function of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEF) was observed in three lung cancer cell lines tested (H460, H2347, and HCC4006 cells); growth suppression was blocked by the LRP1 inhibitor, RAP. LRP1 deletion in fibroblasts reduced the ability of MEF cells to suppress tumor cell mitosis. In a validation set of adenocarcinomas, we confirmed a significant positive correlation between both LRP1 mRNA and protein levels and favorable clinical outcomes.
LRP1 expression is associated with improved lung cancer outcomes. Mechanistically, stromal LRP1 may non-cell autonomously suppress lung tumor cell proliferation.
AIM: To investigate the expression of distal-less homeobox 2 (DLX2) in gastric adenocarcinoma and its clinicopathological significance.
METHODS: Gastric adenocarcinoma tissues were obtained from gastrectomy specimens of 129 patients from the Department of Surgery and Pathology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University. Sixty cases of normal gastric tissues were collected from gastrectomy specimens of adjacent gastric cancer margins greater than 5 cm. Patient diagnosis was established pathologically, and no patient had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy before surgery. All tissue specimens were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to investigate the expression of DLX2 in 129 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 60 adjacent normal tissues. The immunostaining reaction was semiquantitatively evaluated based on the proportion of positive cells and the median staining intensity in normal gastric epithelial cells or tumor cells. All patients had follow-up records for more than 5 years. Correlations of DLX2 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 software.
RESULTS: The positive expression of DLX2 was detected in 68 (52.7%) cases of 129 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 14 (23.3%) cases of 60 adjacent normal tissues. The difference in DLX2 expression between gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues was statistically significant (χ2 = 14.391, P < 0.001). Moreover, high expression of DLX2 was detected in 48 (37.2%) cases of 129 human gastric cancer tissues, but not in adjacent normal tissues. The expression of DLX2 correlated with the size of tumor (P = 0.001), depth of invasion (P = 0.008), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023) and tumor-node-metastasis stages (P = 0.020), but was not correlated with age, gender, histological differentiation and distant metastasis. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that survival time of patients with high DLX2 expression was significantly shorter than that with low DLX2 expression. However, the multivariate analysis showed that invasion depth (P < 0.001), lymph nodes metastasis (P = 0.001) and distant metastasis (P < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, but DLX2 expression, tumor location and tumor size were not.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that increased expression of DLX2 may correlate with the advanced stage of gastric adenocarcinoma, and it may contribute to tumor development.
Gastric adenocarcinoma; Distal-less homeobox 2; Immunohistochemistry; Invasion; Metastasis; Prognosis
Tumour growth depends on angiogenesis, which is closely associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN) was reported to involve in the progression of malignancies by regulating expression of VEGF and MMPs in stromal cells. To clarify the role of EMMPRIN in progression and angiogenesis of gastric carcinoma, expression of EMMPRIN, ki-67, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF was examined on tissue microarray containing gastric carcinomas (n=234) and non-cancerous mucosa adjacent to carcinoma (n=85) by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, microvessel density (MVD) was assessed after labelling with anti-CD34 antibody. Extracellular MMP inducer expression was compared with clinicopathological parameters of tumours, including levels of ki-67, MMP-2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), MVD as well as survival time of carcinoma patients. Gastric carcinoma cell lines (HGC-27, MKN28 and MKN45) were studied for EMMPRIN expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Extracellular MMP inducer expression was gradually increased from normal mucosa to carcinomas through hyperplastic or metaplastic mucosa of the stomach (P<0.05). There was strong EMMPRIN expression in all gastric carcinoma cell lines despite different levels of glycosylation. Extracellular MMP inducer expression was positively correlated with tumour size, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, expression of ki-67, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF of tumours (P<0.05), but not with lymph node metastasis, UICC staging or differentiation (P>0.05). Interestingly, there was a significantly positive relationship between EMMPRIN expression and MVD in gastric carcinomas (P<0.05). Survival analysis indicated EMMPRIN expression to be negatively linked to favourable prognosis (P<0.05), but not be independent factor for prognosis (P>0.05). Further analysis showed three independent prognostic factors, depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, to influence the relationship between EMMPRIN expression and prognosis. Upregulated expression of EMMPRIN possibly contributes to genesis, growth and local invasion of gastric carcinomas. Altered EMMPRIN expression might enhance growth, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric carcinoma via upregulating MMP expression of both stromal fibroblasts and gastric cancer cells and could be considered as an objective and effective marker to predict invasion and prognosis.
gastric carcinoma; progression; angiogenesis; prognosis; EMMPRIN
The present report investigated the correlation between the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in gastric carcinoma patients and the clinicopathological characteristics. Forty-five samples of gastric carcinoma and distal gastric mucosa tissue, and 10 samples of healthy gastric mucosa tissue were analyzed using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, as well as immunohistochemical and hematoxylin and eosin staining. MMP-9 protein levels in serum samples from the same patients were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The present report identified that MMP-9 expression was markedly higher in the gastric carcinoma tissue (86.67%) than in the adjacent healthy tissue (10.00%). A positive association was identified between the level of MMP-9 protein expression and the depth of cancer invasion (P<0.05). Furthermore, the preoperative serum levels of the MMP-9 protein in the gastric carcinoma tissue were correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage and occurrence of lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Data from the present report indicates that MMP-9 may be key in gastric carcinoma malignancy, and implies that MMP-9 may serve as a novel biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.
gastric carcinoma; matrix metalloproteinases-9; semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction; immunohistochemistry; malignancy
Objectives: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) modulates Wnt signaling transduction. Altered LRP6 expression leads to abnormal Wnt protein activation, cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. This study investigated the association between LRP6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Chinese population. Methods: A total of 500 NSCLC patients and 500 healthy controls were recruited for assessment of four LRP6 SNPs using the SEQUENOM MassARRAY matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The association between genotype and NSCLC risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results: The frequency of the LRP6 rs10845498 genotype was 60.9% (A/A), 35.5% (AG) and 3.6% (GG) in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 69.2% (A/A), 27.2% (A/G) and 3.6% (GG) in controls. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the LRP6 rs10845498 A/A major allele was associated with a reduced risk in developing lung SCC (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48-1.00; P=0.04), and tobacco smokers had a 2.21 fold greater risk in developing SCC than nonsmokers (p<0.01, 95% CI, 1.72-2.85), and tobacco smokers who carried an “A” allele (AA+AG) in rs6488507 had a 2.34-fold greater risk in developing NSCLC than other patients (p< 0.01, 95%CI, 1.74-3.13). Conclusions: The LRP6 rs10845498 SNP is associated with a reduced risk of lung SCC, while tobacco smoke increases the risk. LRP6 rs6488507 polymorphism synergistically increased the risk of NSCLC in tobacco smokers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the functional impact of LRP6 expression and activity in NSCLC.
Non-small cell lung cancer; genetic susceptibility; low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6; single nucleotide polymorphism.
The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family is a highly conserved group of membrane receptors with diverse functions in developmental processes, lipoprotein trafficking, and cell signaling. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1b (LRP1B) was reported to be deleted in several types of human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer. Our group has previously reported that a distal extracellular truncation of murine Lrp1b that is predicted to secrete the entire intact extracellular domain (ECD) is fully viable with no apparent phenotype.
Methods and Principal Findings
Here, we have used a gene targeting approach to create two mouse lines carrying internally rearranged exons of Lrp1b that are predicted to truncate the protein closer to the N-terminus and to prevent normal trafficking through the secretary pathway. Both mutations result in early embryonic lethality, but, as expected from the restricted expression pattern of LRP1b in vivo, loss of Lrp1b does not cause cellular lethality as homozygous Lrp1b-deficient blastocysts can be propagated normally in culture. This is similar to findings for another LDL receptor family member, Lrp4. We provide in vitro evidence that Lrp4 undergoes regulated intramembraneous processing through metalloproteases and γ-secretase cleavage. We further demonstrate negative regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the soluble extracellular domain.
Conclusions and Significance
Our results underline a crucial role for Lrp1b in development. The expression in mice of truncated alleles of Lrp1b and Lrp4 with deletions of the transmembrane and intracellular domains leads to release of the extracellular domain into the extracellular space, which is sufficient to confer viability. In contrast, null mutations are embryonically (Lrp1b) or perinatally (Lrp4) lethal. These findings suggest that the extracellular domains of both proteins may function as a scavenger for signaling ligands or signal modulators in the extracellular space, thereby preserving signaling thresholds that are critical for embryonic development, as well as for the clear, but poorly understood role of LRP1b in cancer.
AIM: To investigate the differential expression of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) in gastric cancer tissues and its significance related to tumor growth and spread.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed biopsy specimens of intestinal metaplasia (n = 90), dysplasia (n = 53), gastric adenocarcinoma (n = 180), metastases in lymph nodes and the liver (n = 15), and lesion-adjacent normal gastric mucosa (controls; n = 145) were obtained for analysis from the Peking University Cancer Hospital’s Department of Pathology and Gastrointestinal Surgery tissue archives (January 2003 to December 2011). The biopsied patients’ demographic and clinicopathologic data were retrieved from the hospital’s medical records database. Each specimen was subjected to histopathological typing to classify the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and to immunohistochemistry staining to detect the expression of the cancer stem cell marker LGR5. The intergroup differences in LGR5 expression were assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation analysis, and the relationship between LGR5 expression level and the patients’ clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated by the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test.
RESULTS: Significantly more gastric cancer tissues showed LGR5+ staining than normal control tissues (all P < 0.01), with immunoreactivity detected in 72.2% (65/90) and 50.9% (27/53) of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia specimens, respectively, 52.8% (95/180) of gastric adenocarcinoma specimens, and 73.3%% (11/15) of metastasis specimens, but 26.9% (39/145) of lesion-adjacent normal gastric mucosa specimens. Comparison of the intensity of LGR5+ staining showed an increasing trend that generally followed increasing dedifferentiation and tumor spread (normal tissue < dysplasia, < gastric adenocarcinoma < metastasis; all P < 0.001), with the exception of expression level detected in intestinal metaplasia which was higher than that in normal gastric tissues (P < 0.001). Moreover, gastric cancer-associated enhanced expression of LGR5 was found to be signiﬁcantly associated with age, tumor differentiation, Lauren type and TNM stage (I + II vs III + IV) (all P < 0.05), but not with sex, tumor site, location, size, histology, lymphovascular invasion, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis. Patients with LGR5+ gastric cancer specimens and without signs of metastasis from the original biopsy experienced more frequent rates of recurrence or metastasis during follow-up than patients with LGR5- specimens (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Enhanced LGR5 is related to progressive dedifferentiation and metastasis of gastric cancer, indicating the potential of this receptor as an early diagnostic and prognostic biomarker.
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5; Cancer stem cell; Gastric cancer; Intestinal metaplasia; Tumorigenesis
Aims: Several studies have reported conflicting and inconclusive results concerning the clinical relevance of mucin expression in gastric carcinoma. This study investigated the correlations between aberrant expression of mucins in gastric carcinoma and patient clinicopathological features.
Methods: The expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, and MUC6 was investigated immunohistochemically in gastric carcinoma (n = 46) in relation to patient clinicopathological features.
Results: All normal gastric mucosa samples expressed MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6. MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were expressed in 29, 31, 30, 18, and 21 of the 46 cases of gastric carcinoma, respectively. The number of cases expressing MUC1 was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in patients with a small tumour size (≥ 5 cm) and in patients in clinical stages I–II, compared with clinical stages III–IV (p < 0.05). Expression was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in patients exhibiting metastasis. The number of cases expressing MUC3 was significantly higher in patients in clinical stages III–IV (p < 0.05), and in those with serosal invasion (p < 0.05) or metastasis (p<0.01). No significant relations were found between MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and clinical stage, metastasis, or tumour size.
Conclusions: Membrane bound mucins MUC1 and MUC3 appear to be associated with the development of gastric carcinoma. Patients who maintained high immunoreactivity for anti-MUC1 antibody had a better prognosis, whereas those with an increase in anti-MUC3 immunoreactivity had a poorer prognosis, as judged by tumour size, serosal invasion, and metastasis. However, no correlation was found between MUC2, MUC5AC, or MUC6 and clinical prognosis.
gastric cancer; mucin; intestinal metaplasia; metastasis; invasion
Human carbonic anhydrases II (CAII) gene plays an important role in different cancer. However, its relevance to gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression of CAII in GC and explore its correlation with some clinicopathologic characteristics of GC.
The expression of CAII in 20 specimens of normal gastric mucosa, 38 specimens of intraepithelial neoplasia and 112 specimens of gastric carcinoma were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. Survival in GC with CAII expression was studied.
The positive rate of CAII protein in normal gastric mucosa was significantly higher than that in intraepithelial neoplasia and gastric carcinoma (100% vs. 63.16% and 28.57%, P<0.001). The positive rate of CAII protein was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma at early stages than that at advanced stages (70.0% vs. 19.57%, P<0.001). The positive rate of CAII protein was significantly lower in gastric carcinoma with lymph node metastases than that without lymph node metastases (10.81% vs. 37.33%, P<0.05). Furthermore, the positive rate of CAII protein was significantly lower in poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in moderately- or well-differentiated gastric carcinoma (15.94% vs. 31.03% or 60.00%, P<0.05). Moreover, CAII expression was not related with sex, age and tumor size. The patients with CAII-positive tumors showed a better survival rate than those with CAII-negative tumors (P=0.024, log-rank test).
CAII expression was related with stages and lymph node metastases in gastric carcinoma. The reduction of CAII expression in GC might promote tumor cell motility and contribute to tumor growth and metastasis.
CAII; Gastric Carcinoma; Immunohistochemistry; Invasion; Metastasis
Changes in the expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) and p21 proteins have been shown to be closely associated with the development and progression of a number of cancers. The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels of the two proteins in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions, and to determine the clinical significance of this. A total of 109 gastric cancer, 57 precancerous gastric lesion, 50 chronic superficial gastritis and 17 normal gastric mucosa patients were recruited for immunohistochemical staining of NICD and p21 protein expression. The protein expression levels in the gastric cancer patient samples were associated with the clinicopathological and survival data. NICD protein levels were upregulated gradually from normal gastric mucosae through chronic superficial gastritis and precancerous gastric lesions to gastric cancer tissues (P<0.01), whereas p21 protein levels were downregulated accordingly (P<0.01). Increased NICD and a loss of p21 expression were closely associated with tumor dedifferentiation, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, surface morphology and Lauren classification in gastric cancer. Thus, NICD expression was inversely associated with p21 expression. In addition, the overall survival rate was greater in NICD− and P21+ patients than in NICD+ and P21− patients, respectively (P<0.05). The COX regression multivariate analysis revealed that NICD+, p21−, depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis were all independent prognostic factors for patients with gastric cancer. NICD and p21 proteins are differentially expressed in gastric cancer and the aberrant expression of these proteins is associated with an advanced tumor stage, tumor metastasis and overall patient survival. Future studies are required to further evaluate the two proteins as novel prognostic markers for patients with gastric cancer.
Notch1 intracellular doman; p21; gastric cancer; prognosis; biomarkers
mTOR signaling pathway and its downstream serine/threonine kinase p70S6k were frequently activated in human cancers. The dysregulation of the mTOR pathway has been found to be a contributing factor of a variety of different cancer. To investigate the role of mTOR signal pathway in the stepwise development of gastric carcinomas, we analyzed the correlations between the mTOR and P70S6K expression and clinic pathological factors and studied its prognostic role in gastric carcinomas.
mTOR and phospho-p70S6K proteins were examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray containing gastric carcinomas (n = 412), adenomas (n = 47) and non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM, n = 197) with a comparison of their expression with clinicopathological parameters of carcinomas.
There was no difference of mTOR expression between these three tissues (p > 0.05). Cytoplasmic phospho(p)-P706SK was highly expressed in adenoma, compared with ANNMs (p < 0.05), whereas its nuclear expression was lower in gastric carcinomas than gastric adenoma and ANNMs (p < 0.05). These three markers were preferably expressed in the older patients with gastric cancer and intestinal-type carcinoma (p < 0.05). mTOR expression was positively correlated with the cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of p-P70S6K(p < 0.05). Nuclear P70S6K was inversely linked to tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and UICC staging (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis indicated that expression of mTOR and nuclear p-P70S6K was closely linked to favorable prognosis of the carcinoma patients (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that age, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, Lauren's classification and mTOR expression were independent prognostic factors for overall gastric carcinomas (p < 0.05).
Aberrant expression of p-P70S6K possibly contributes to pathogenesis, growth, invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinomas. It was considered as a promising marker to indicate the aggressive behaviors and prognosis of gastric carcinomas.
Recent studies have suggested that the metastasis-associated colon cancer1 (MACC1) gene can promote tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis through an upregulation of c-Met expression. However, its role in gastric cancer is controversial. Our study investigated expression of MACC1 and c-Met in gastric cancer, as well as correlated this with clinicopathological parameters.
Expressions of MACC1 and c-Met protein in a sample of 98 gastric carcinoma and adjacent nontumorous tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Their relationships and correlations with clinicopathological features were analyzed.
The positive rates of MACC1 and c-Met protein in primary tumors were 61.22% and 59.18%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between expression of MACC1 and c-Met (P<0.05). Expression of the MACC1 protein in gastric cancer tissue was correlated with lymph node metastasis (χ2 = 10.555,P = 0.001), peritoneal metastasis (χ2 = 5.694, P = 0.017), and hepatic metastasis (χ2 = 4.540,P = 0.033), but not with age, gender, tumor size, location, clinical stage or the distant metastases (P>0.05).
The positive rate of MACC1 protein expression was related to the protein expression of c-Met. Both had a correlation with the presence of peritoneal metastasis, lymph node metastasis and hepatic metastasis, all of which contribute to a poor prognosis for gastric cancer patients.
Gastric cancer; Metastasis associated with colon cancer1; c-Met; Peritoneal metastasis; Lymph node metastasis; Hepatic metastasis
AIM: To investigate integrin β3 mRNA and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression in gastric carcinoma, and its correlation with microvascular density, growth-pattern, invasion, metastasis and prognosis.
METHODS: In situ hybridization (ISH) of integrin β3 mRNA and immunohistochemistry of VEGF and CD34 protein were performed on samples from 118 patients with gastric cancer.
RESULTS: The positive rate of integrin β3 mRNA in non-tumor gastric mucosa (20%) was significantly lower than that of the gastric cancer tissue (52.5%, χ2 = 10.20, P < 0.01). In patients of infiltrating type, stage T3-T4, vessel invasion, lymphatic metastasis, hepatic or peritoneal metastasis, the positive expression rates of integrin β3 mRNA were significantly higher than those in patients of expanding type (P < 0.01), stage T1-T2 (P < 0.01), non-vessel invasion (P < 0.01), without lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.01), without hepatic and peritoneal metastasis (P < 0.01), respectively. In patients of infiltrating type, stage T3-T4, vessel invasion, lymphatic metastasis, hepatic or peritoneal metastasis, the positive expression rates of VEGF protein were significantly higher than those in patients of expanding type (P < 0.01), stage T1-T2 (P < 0.01), non-vessel invasion (P < 0.01), without lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.01), without hepatic and peritoneal metastasis (P < 0.01), respectively. In patients of infiltrating type, stage T3-T4, vessel invasion, lymphatic metastasis, hepatic or peritoneal metastasis, the mean MVD were significantly higher than those in patients of expanding type (P < 0.01), stage T1-T2 (P < 0.01), non-vessel invasion (P < 0.01), without lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.01), without hepatic and peritoneal metastasis (P < 0.01), respectively. It was found that the positive expression rate of integrin β3 mRNA was positively related to that of VEGF protein (P < 0.01) and MVD (P < 0.05), meanwhile the positive expression rate of VEGF protein was positively related to MVD (P < 0.05). The mean survival period in patients with positive expression of integrin β3 mRNA and VEGF, and MVD ≥ 54.9/mm2 was significantly shorter than that in patients with negative expression of integrin β3 mRNA (P < 0.05) and VEGF (P < 0.01), and MVD < 54.9/mm2 (P < 0.01). Five-year survival rate in patients with positive expression of integrin β3 mRNA and VEGF, and MVD ≥ 54.9/mm2 was significantly lower than those with negative expression of integrin β3 mRNA (P < 0.05), VEGF (P < 0.05), and MVD < 54.9/mm2 (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Integrin β3 and VEGF expression can synergistically enhance tumor angiogenesis, and may play a crucial role in invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. Therefore, they may be prognostic biomarkers and novel molecular therapeutic targets.
Stomach neoplasms; Integrin β3; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Metastasis; Prognosis
Aim of the study
Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B), a vital growth factor which can induce angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is important in the metastasis of many tumors. However, the roles of PDGF-B in gastric carcinoma are largely unknown. We investigated the correlation between PDGF-B, PDGFR-β and E-cadherin expression with the clinical features of gastric carcinoma patients to evaluate the relationship between PDGF-B signaling, E-cadherin and metastasis of gastric carcinoma, the correlation between PDGF-B and E-cadherin expression to assess the roles of PDGF-B signaling in metastasis of gastric carcinoma..
Material and methods
We detected expressions of PDGF-B, PDGFR-β and E-cadherin in gastric carcinoma tissues and normal gastric mucosa tissues of 64 patients with gastric carcinoma who had undergone surgical resection, and investigated their relationships with clinical features and the relationships between PDGF-B and E-cadherin expression in gastric carcinoma.
In surgical specimens, tumor cells expressed PDGF-B, and PDGFR-β was expressed by tumor stromal cells. E-cadherin was expressed by both tumor cells and normal gastric mucosa cells. Expressions of PDGF-B and PDGFR-β were increased in gastric carcinoma tissues (p < 0.05) and were positively correlated with the depth of cancer invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (p < 0.05). The expression of E-cadherin was reduced in gastric carcinoma tissues (p < 0.05) and was negatively correlated with the depth of cancer invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (p < 0.05). The correlation between PDGF-B and E-cadherin expression was negative (p < 0.05).
Our data indicate that either the overexpression of PDGF-B and PDGFR-β or the underexpression of E-cadherin is correlated with cancer progression and lymphogenous metastasis of gastric carcinoma. The PDGF-B signal pathway might induce EMT by down-regulating expression of E-cadherin to promote metastasis of gastric carcinoma.
platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B); platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β); E-cadherin; gastric carcinoma
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with optic nerve degeneration yet the underlying pathophysiology of this disease and the optic nerve disorder remains poorly understood. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is implicated in the pathogenesis of AD by mediating the transport of amyloid-β (Aβ) out of the brain into the systemic circulation. As a key player in the reaction to central nervous system (CNS) injury, astrocytes associate with LRP in AD. This study investigates the role of LRP and astrocytes in the pathogenesis of AD optic neuropathy.
To investigate the role of LRP and astrocytes in the pathogenesis of AD optic neuropathy, we conducted immunohistochemical (IHC) studies on postmortem optic nerves in AD patients (n = 11) and age-matched controls (n = 10) to examine the presence of LRP. Quantitative analyses using imaging software were used to document the extent of LRP in neural tissues. Axonal integrity was assessed by performing IHC on the subjects’ optic nerves with an antibody to neurofilament (NF) protein. Double-immunofluorescence labeling was performed to investigate whether LRP colocalized with astrocytes expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).
LRP expression was decreased in AD optic nerves compared to controls (p < 0.001). LRP immunoreactivity was observed in the microvasculature and perivascularly in close proximity to astrocytic processes. Colocalization of LRP in astrocytes of optic nerves was also demonstrated. The presence of optic neuropathy was confirmed in the AD optic nerves by demonstrating greatly reduced immunostaining for NF protein as compared to controls.
The reduction of LRP in the AD degenerative optic nerves supports the hypothesis that LRP may play a role in the pathophysiology of AD optic neuropathy.
Alzheimer’s disease; Alzheimer’s optic neuropathy; astrocytes; low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein; microvasculature; optic nerve