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1.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the terminal oxygenase component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Nocardioides aromaticivorans IC177 
The terminal oxygenase component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from N. aromaticivorans IC177 was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.30 Å resolution.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of carbazole by angular-position (C9a) carbon bonding to the imino nitrogen and its adjacent C1 carbon. CARDO consists of a terminal oxygenase component and two electron-transfer components: ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. The terminal oxygenase component (43.9 kDa) of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Nocardioides aromaticivorans IC177 was crystallized at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and belong to space group C2.
doi:10.1107/S1744309106044939
PMCID: PMC2225353  PMID: 17142899
angular dioxygenases; carbazole; Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenase system; Rieske-type protein
2.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the electron-transfer complex between the terminal oxygenase component and ferredoxin in the Rieske non-haem iron oxygenase system carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase 
The electron-transfer complex between the terminal oxygenase and ferredoxin of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.90 Å resolution.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase, which consists of an oxygenase component (CARDO-O) and the electron-transport components ferredoxin (CARDO-F) and ferredoxin reductase (CARDO-R), catalyzes dihydroxylation at the C1 and C9a positions of carbazole. The electron-transport complex between CARDO-­O and CARDO-F crystallizes at 293 K using hanging-drop vapour diffusion with the precipitant PEG MME 2000 (type I crystals) or PEG 3350 (type II). Blossom-shaped crystals form from a pile of triangular plate-shaped crystals. The type I crystal diffracts to a maximum resolution of 1.90 Å and belongs to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 97.1, b = 89.8, c = 104.9 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 103.8°. Diffraction data for the type I crystal gave an overall R merge of 8.0% and a completeness of 100%. Its V M value is 2.63 Å3 Da−1, indicating a solvent content of 53.2%.
doi:10.1107/S1744309105014557
PMCID: PMC1952320  PMID: 16511100
angular dioxygenases; carbazole; electron-transfer complexes; Rieske non-haem iron oxygenase systems; Rieske-type ferredoxins; Rieske-type proteins
3.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a novel ferredoxin involved in the dioxygenation of carbazole by Novosphingobium sp. KA1 
The ferredoxin component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO-F) is involved in an electron-transfer reaction. The CARDO-F from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized under anaerobic conditions and diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å.
Novosphingobium sp. KA1 uses carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) as the first dioxygenase in its carbazole-degradation pathway. The CARDO of KA1 contains a terminal oxygenase component and two electron-transfer components: ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. In contrast to the CARDO systems of other species, the ferredoxin component of KA1 is a putidaredoxin-type protein. This novel ferredoxin was crystallized at 293 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG MME 550 as the precipitant under anaerobic conditions. The crystals belong to space group C2221 and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.9 Å (the diffraction limit was 1.6 Å).
doi:10.1107/S1744309108016278
PMCID: PMC2443972  PMID: 18607094
carbazole; putidaredoxin-type proteins; Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenases
4.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a terminal oxygenase of carbazole 1,9a-­dioxygenase from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 
The terminal oxygenase component (Oxy) of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) catalyzes dihydroxylation of the aromatic ring. The Oxy of CARDO from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.1 Å.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) is the initial dioxygenase in the carbazole-degradation pathway of Novosphingobium sp. KA1. The CARDO from KA1 consists of a terminal oxygenase (Oxy), a putidaredoxin-type ferredoxin and a ferredoxin reductase. The Oxy from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized at 277 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.1 Å. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21. Self-rotation function analysis suggested that the asymmetric unit contained two Oxy trimers; the Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 5.9 Å3 Da−1 and 79.1%, respectively.
doi:10.1107/S1744309110034949
PMCID: PMC3001653  PMID: 21045300
carbazole; Novosphingobium; Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenases; sphingomonads; terminal oxygenases
5.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the ferredoxin reductase component in the Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenase system carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase 
The NAD(P)H:ferredoxin oxidoreductase in carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Janthinobacterium sp. J3 was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.60 Å resolution.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO), which consists of an oxygenase component (CARDO-O) and the electron-transport components ferredoxin (CARDO-F) and ferredoxin reductase (CARDO-R), catalyzes dihydroxylation at the C1 and C9a positions of carbazole. CARDO-R was crystallized at 277 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with the precipitant PEG 8000. Two crystal types (types I and II) were obtained. The type I crystal diffracted to a maximum resolution of 2.80 Å and belonged to space group P42212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 158.7, c = 81.4 Å. The type II crystal was obtained in drops from which type I crystals had been removed; it diffracted to 2.60 Å resolution and belonged to the same space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 161.8, c = 79.5 Å.
doi:10.1107/S174430910702163X
PMCID: PMC2335075  PMID: 17554172
angular dioxygenases; NAD(P)H:ferredoxin oxidoreductases; Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenase system; electron transfer; carbazole
6.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a ferredoxin reductase component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 
The ferredoxin reductase component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (Red) is involved in electron transfer from NAD(P)H to ferredoxin. The class IIA Red from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized and the crystal diffracted to a resolution of 1.58 Å.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) is the initial enzyme of the carbazole-degradation pathway. The CARDO of Novosphingobium sp. KA1 consists of a terminal oxygenase, a putidaredoxin-type ferredoxin and a ferredoxin-NADH oxidoreductase (Red) and is classified as a class IIA Rieske oxygenase. Red from KA1 was crystallized at 278 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystal diffracted to 1.58 Å resolution and belonged to space group P32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 92.2, c = 78.6 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 120°. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray diffraction data revealed that the asymmetric unit contained two Red monomers. The crystal appeared to be a merohedral twin, with a twin fraction of 0.32 and twin law (−h, −k, l).
doi:10.1107/S1744309110014491
PMCID: PMC2882777  PMID: 20516607
carbazole; Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenases; ferredoxin reductases
7.  Structural insight into the substrate- and dioxygen-binding manner in the catalytic cycle of rieske nonheme iron oxygenase system, carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase 
Background
Dihydroxylation of tandemly linked aromatic carbons in a cis-configuration, catalyzed by multicomponent oxygenase systems known as Rieske nonheme iron oxygenase systems (ROs), often constitute the initial step of aerobic degradation pathways for various aromatic compounds. Because such RO reactions inherently govern whether downstream degradation processes occur, novel oxygenation mechanisms involving oxygenase components of ROs (RO-Os) is of great interest. Despite substantial progress in structural and physicochemical analyses, no consensus exists on the chemical steps in the catalytic cycles of ROs. Thus, determining whether conformational changes at the active site of RO-O occur by substrate and/or oxygen binding is important. Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO), a RO member consists of catalytic terminal oxygenase (CARDO-O), ferredoxin (CARDO-F), and ferredoxin reductase. We have succeeded in determining the crystal structures of oxidized CARDO-O, oxidized CARDO-F, and both oxidized and reduced forms of the CARDO-O: CARDO-F binary complex.
Results
In the present study, we determined the crystal structures of the reduced carbazole (CAR)-bound, dioxygen-bound, and both CAR- and dioxygen-bound CARDO-O: CARDO-F binary complex structures at 1.95, 1.85, and 2.00 Å resolution. These structures revealed the conformational changes that occur in the catalytic cycle. Structural comparison between complex structures in each step of the catalytic mechanism provides several implications, such as the order of substrate and dioxygen bindings, the iron-dioxygen species likely being Fe(III)-(hydro)peroxo, and the creation of room for dioxygen binding and the promotion of dioxygen binding in desirable fashion by preceding substrate binding.
Conclusions
The RO catalytic mechanism is proposed as follows: When the Rieske cluster is reduced, substrate binding induces several conformational changes (e.g., movements of the nonheme iron and the ligand residue) that create room for oxygen binding. Dioxygen bound in a side-on fashion onto nonheme iron is activated by reduction to the peroxo state [Fe(III)-(hydro)peroxo]. This state may react directly with the bound substrate, or O–O bond cleavage may occur to generate Fe(V)-oxo-hydroxo species prior to the reaction. After producing a cis-dihydrodiol, the product is released by reducing the nonheme iron. This proposed scheme describes the catalytic cycle of ROs and provides important information for a better understanding of the mechanism.
doi:10.1186/1472-6807-12-15
PMCID: PMC3423008  PMID: 22727022
8.  Plasmid pCAR3 Contains Multiple Gene Sets Involved in the Conversion of Carbazole to Anthranilate†  
The carbazole degradative car-I gene cluster (carAaIBaIBbICIAcI) of Sphingomonas sp. strain KA1 is located on the 254-kb circular plasmid pCAR3. Carbazole conversion to anthranilate is catalyzed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO; CarAaIAcI), meta-cleavage enzyme (CarBaIBbI), and hydrolase (CarCI). CARDO is a three-component dioxygenase, and CarAaI and CarAcI are its terminal oxygenase and ferredoxin components. The car-I gene cluster lacks the gene encoding the ferredoxin reductase component of CARDO. In the present study, based on the draft sequence of pCAR3, we found multiple carbazole degradation genes dispersed in four loci on pCAR3, including a second copy of the car gene cluster (carAaIIBaIIBbIICIIAcII) and the ferredoxin/reductase genes fdxI-fdrI and fdrII. Biotransformation experiments showed that FdrI (or FdrII) could drive the electron transfer chain from NAD(P)H to CarAaI (or CarAaII) with the aid of ferredoxin (CarAcI, CarAcII, or FdxI). Because this electron transfer chain showed phylogenetic relatedness to that consisting of putidaredoxin and putidaredoxin reductase of the P450cam monooxygenase system of Pseudomonas putida, CARDO systems of KA1 can be classified in the class IIA Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase system. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that two car gene clusters constituted operons, and their expression was induced when KA1 was exposed to carbazole, although the fdxI-fdrI and fdrII genes were expressed constitutively. Both terminal oxygenases of KA1 showed roughly the same substrate specificity as that from the well-characterized carbazole degrader Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, although slight differences were observed.
doi:10.1128/AEM.72.5.3198-3205.2006
PMCID: PMC1472349  PMID: 16672458
9.  Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the three components of the toluene 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme system 
All three components of the toluene dioxygenase system have been expressed, purified and crystallized.
Pseudomonas putida F1 can grow with toluene as its sole source of carbon and energy. The initial reaction of the degradation of toluene is catalyzed by a three-component toluene dioxygenase enzyme system consisting of a reductase (ReductaseTOL), a ferredoxin (FerredoxinTOL) and a Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenase (OxygenaseTOL). The three components and the apoenzyme of the dioxygenase (apo-OxygenaseTOL) were overexpressed, purified and crystallized. ReductaseTOL diffracts to 1.8 Å and belongs to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 77.1, c = 156.3 Å. FerredoxinTOL diffracts to 1.2 Å and belongs to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 30.5, b = 52.0, c = 30.95 Å, β = 113.7°. Apo-OxygenaseTOL and OxygenaseTOL diffract to 3.2 Å and belong to space group P4332, with unit-cell parameters a = 235.9 Å and a = 234.5 Å, respectively.
doi:10.1107/S1744309105017549
PMCID: PMC1952458  PMID: 16511124
toluene 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme system
10.  Purification and Characterization of Carbazole 1,9a-Dioxygenase, a Three-Component Dioxygenase System of Pseudomonas resinovorans Strain CA10 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2002;68(12):5882-5890.
The carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) system of Pseudomonas resinovorans strain CA10 consists of terminal oxygenase (CarAa), ferredoxin (CarAc), and ferredoxin reductase (CarAd). Each component of CARDO was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) as a native form (CarAa) or a His-tagged form (CarAc and CarAd) and was purified to apparent homogeneity. CarAa was found to be trimeric and to have one Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster and one mononuclear iron center in each monomer. Both His-tagged proteins were found to be monomeric and to contain the prosthetic groups predicted from the deduced amino acid sequence (His-tagged CarAd, one FAD and one [2Fe-2S] cluster per monomer protein; His-tagged CarAc, one Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster per monomer protein). Both NADH and NADPH were effective as electron donors for His-tagged CarAd. However, since the kcat/Km for NADH is 22.3-fold higher than that for NADPH in the 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase assay, NADH was supposed to be the physiological electron donor of CarAd. In the presence of NADH, His-tagged CarAc was reduced by His-tagged CarAd. Similarly, CarAa was reduced by His-tagged CarAc, His-tagged CarAd, and NADH. The three purified proteins could reconstitute the CARDO activity in vitro. In the reconstituted CARDO system, His-tagged CarAc seemed to be indispensable for electron transport, while His-tagged CarAd could be replaced by some unrelated reductases.
doi:10.1128/AEM.68.12.5882-5890.2002
PMCID: PMC134387  PMID: 12450807
11.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin component of biphenyl dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain KKS102 
BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement calculation yielded a satisfactory solution.
BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin component of a biphenyl dioxygenase (BphA) from Pseudomonas sp. strain KKS102, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two crystal forms were obtained from the same conditions. The form I crystal belongs to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.3, b = 144.3, c = 61.5 Å, and diffracted to 2.45 Å resolution. The form II crystal belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.2, b = 121.3, c = 142.7 Å, and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. A molecular-replacement calculation using BphF as a search model yielded a satisfactory solution for both forms.
doi:10.1107/S1744309106017799
PMCID: PMC2243079  PMID: 16754990
ferredoxins; electron transfer; Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] clusters
12.  Diverse Oxygenations Catalyzed by Carbazole 1,9a-Dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain CA10 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(10):3105-3113.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10 is a multicomponent enzyme that catalyzes the angular dioxygenation of carbazole, dibenzofuran, and dibenzo-p-dioxin. It was revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses that xanthene and phenoxathiin were converted to 2,2′,3-trihydroxydiphenylmethane and 2,2′,3-trihydroxydiphenyl sulfide, respectively. Thus, for xanthene and phenoxathiin, angular dioxygenation by CARDO occurred at the angular position adjacent to the oxygen atom to yield hetero ring-cleaved compounds. In addition to the angular dioxygenation, CARDO catalyzed the cis dihydroxylation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biphenyl. Naphthalene and biphenyl were converted by CARDO to cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene and cis-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl, respectively. On the other hand, CARDO also catalyzed the monooxygenation of sulfur heteroatoms in dibenzothiophene and of the benzylic methylenic group in fluorene to yield dibenzothiophene-5-oxide and 9-hydroxyfluorene, respectively. These results indicate that CARDO has a broad substrate range and can catalyze diverse oxygenation: angular dioxygenation, cis dihydroxylation, and monooxygenation. The diverse oxygenation catalyzed by CARDO for several aromatic compounds might reflect the differences in the binding of the substrates to the reaction center of CARDO.
PMCID: PMC93765  PMID: 10322011
13.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the reduced Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin derived from Pseudomonas sp. strain KKS102 
The reduced form of BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin, was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. A molecular-replacement calculation yielded a satisfactory solution.
The reduced form of BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin component of the biphenyl dioxygenase BphA from Pseudomonas sp. strain KKS102, was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The crystal belongs to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.6, c = 171.9 Å, and diffracts to a resolution of 1.95 Å. A molecular-replacement calculation using oxidized BphA3 as a search model yielded a satisfactory solution.
doi:10.1107/S1744309107009992
PMCID: PMC2330217  PMID: 17401203
ferredoxins; electron transfer; Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] cluster; reduced form; anaerobic conditions
14.  A Novel Phenanthrene Dioxygenase from Nocardioides sp. Strain KP7: Expression in Escherichia coli 
Journal of Bacteriology  2000;182(8):2134-2141.
Nocardioides sp. strain KP7 grows on phenanthrene but not on naphthalene. This organism degrades phenanthrene via 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate, o-phthalate, and protocatechuate. The genes responsible for the degradation of phenanthrene to o-phthalate (phd) were found by Southern hybridization to reside on the chromosome. A 10.6-kb DNA fragment containing eight phd genes was cloned and sequenced. The phdA, phdB, phdC, and phdD genes, which encode the α and β subunits of the oxygenase component, a ferredoxin, and a ferredoxin reductase, respectively, of phenanthrene dioxygenase were identified. The gene cluster, phdAB, was located 8.3 kb downstream of the previously characterized phdK gene, which encodes 2-carboxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase. The phdCD gene cluster was located 2.9 kb downstream of the phdB gene. PhdA and PhdB exhibited moderate (less than 60%) sequence identity to the α and β subunits of other ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. The PhdC sequence showed features of a [3Fe-4S] or [4Fe-4S] type of ferredoxin, not of the [2Fe-2S] type of ferredoxin that has been found in most of the reported ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. PhdD also showed moderate (less than 40%) sequence identity to known reductases. The phdABCD genes were expressed poorly in Escherichia coli, even when placed under the control of strong promoters. The introduction of a Shine-Dalgarno sequence upstream of each initiation codon of the phdABCD genes improved their expression in E. coli. E. coli cells carrying phdBCD or phdACD exhibited no phenanthrene-degrading activity, and those carrying phdABD or phdABC exhibited phenanthrene-degrading activity which was significantly less than that in cells carrying the phdABCD genes. It was thus concluded that all of the phdABCD genes are necessary for the efficient expression of phenanthrene-degrading activity. The genetic organization of the phd genes, the phylogenetically diverged positions of these genes, and an unusual type of ferredoxin component suggest phenanthrene dioxygenase in Nocardioides sp. strain KP7 to be a new class of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases.
PMCID: PMC111261  PMID: 10735855
15.  Characterization of Novel Carbazole Catabolism Genes from Gram-Positive Carbazole Degrader Nocardioides aromaticivorans IC177†  
Nocardioides aromaticivorans IC177 is a gram-positive carbazole degrader. The genes encoding carbazole degradation (car genes) were cloned into a cosmid clone and sequenced partially to reveal 19 open reading frames. The car genes were clustered into the carAaCBaBbAcAd and carDFE gene clusters, encoding the enzymes responsible for the degradation of carbazole to anthranilate and 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate and of 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate to pyruvic acid and acetyl coenzyme A, respectively. The conserved amino acid motifs proposed to bind the Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster and mononuclear iron, the Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster, and flavin adenine dinucleotide were found in the deduced amino acid sequences of carAa, carAc, and carAd, respectively, which showed similarities with CarAa from Sphingomonas sp. strain KA1 (49% identity), CarAc from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 (31% identity), and AhdA4 from Sphingomonas sp. strain P2 (37% identity), respectively. Escherichia coli cells expressing CarAaAcAd exhibited major carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) activity. These data showed that the IC177 CARDO is classified into class IIB, while gram-negative CARDOs are classified into class III or IIA, indicating that the respective CARDOs have diverse types of electron transfer components and high similarities of the terminal oxygenase. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) experiments showed that the carAaCBaBbAcAd and carDFE gene clusters are operonic. The results of quantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that transcription of both operons is induced by carbazole or its metabolite, whereas anthranilate is not an inducer. Biotransformation analysis showed that the IC177 CARDO exhibits significant activities for naphthalene, carbazole, and dibenzo-p-dioxin but less activity for dibenzofuran and biphenyl.
doi:10.1128/AEM.72.5.3321-3329.2006
PMCID: PMC1472339  PMID: 16672473
16.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a ferredoxin reductase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 
Palustrisredoxin reductase (RPA3782, PuR), a flavin-dependent ferredoxin reductase, is an essential component of the Class I cytochrome P450 systems in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009. Crystals of PuR that diffract to 2.2 Å resolution have been obtained.
Palustrisredoxin reductase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009, a member of the oxygenase-coupled NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductase (ONFR) family, catalyzes electron transfer from NADH to ferredoxins. It is an essential component of the cytochrome P450 systems in R. palustris CGA009, a model organism with diverse metabolic pathways. Here, the crystallization of palustrisredoxin reductase is reported. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = 107.5, b = 107.5, c = 69.9 Å, and diffract to 2.2 Å resolution on a synchrotron source.
doi:10.1107/S1744309107017411
PMCID: PMC2335014  PMID: 17565187
palustrisredoxin reductase; ferredoxin reductases
17.  Structures of the multicomponent Rieske non-heme iron toluene 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme system 
The crystal structures of the three-component toluene 2,3-dioxygenase system provide a model for electron transfer among bacterial Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenases.
Bacterial Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases catalyze the initial hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbon substrates. The structures of all three components of one such system, the toluene 2,3-dioxygenase system, have now been determined. This system consists of a reductase, a ferredoxin and a terminal dioxygenase. The dioxygenase, which was cocrystallized with toluene, is a heterohexamer containing a catalytic and a structural subunit. The catalytic subunit contains a Rieske [2Fe–2S] cluster and mononuclear iron at the active site. This iron is not strongly bound and is easily removed during enzyme purification. The structures of the enzyme with and without mononuclear iron demonstrate that part of the structure is flexible in the absence of iron. The orientation of the toluene substrate in the active site is consistent with the regiospecificity of oxygen incorporation seen in the product formed. The ferredoxin is Rieske type and contains a [2Fe–2S] cluster close to the protein surface. The reductase belongs to the glutathione reductase family of flavoenzymes and consists of three domains: an FAD-binding domain, an NADH-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. A model for electron transfer from NADH via FAD in the reductase and the ferredoxin to the terminal active-site mononuclear iron of the dioxygenase is proposed.
doi:10.1107/S0907444908036524
PMCID: PMC2628974  PMID: 19153463
toluene; dioxygenases; electron transfer; Rieske clusters; reductases; ferredoxins; NADH; FAD
18.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of an electron-transfer complex of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase from the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya boryana  
Cocrystallization of ferredoxin and glutamate synthase was successfully carried out and the resulting crystals were demonstrated to be suitable for structural determination of an electron-transfer complex of these two proteins.
Ferredoxin (Fd) dependent glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT) is a key enzyme involved in nitrogen assimilation that catalyzes the two-electron reductive conversion of Gln and 2-oxoglutarate to two molecules of Glu. Fd serves as an electron donor for Fd-GOGAT and the two proteins form a transient electron-transfer complex. In this study, these two proteins were cocrystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected and processed at 2.65 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P43, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 84.95, c = 476.31 Å.
doi:10.1107/S1744309112003387
PMCID: PMC3310542  PMID: 22442234
ferredoxin; glutamate synthase; electron-transfer complex
19.  Degradation of Chlorinated Dibenzofurans and Dibenzo-p-Dioxins by Two Types of Bacteria Having Angular Dioxygenases with Different Features 
Two kinds of bacteria having different-structured angular dioxygenases—a dibenzofuran (DF)-utilizing bacterium, Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63, and a carbazole (CAR)-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10—were investigated for their ability to degrade some chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) (or, together, CDF/Ds) using either wild-type strains or recombinant Escherichia coli strains. First, it was shown that CAR 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) catalyzed angular dioxygenation of all mono- to triCDF/Ds investigated in this study, but DF 4,4a-dioxygenase (DFDO) did not degrade 2,7-diCDD. Secondly, degradation of CDF/Ds by the sets of three enzymes (angular dioxygenase, extradiol dioxygenase, and meta-cleavage compound hydrolase) was examined, showing that these enzymes in both strains were able to convert 2-CDF to 5-chlorosalicylic acid but not other tested substrates to the corresponding chlorosalicylic acid (CSA) or chlorocatechol (CC). Finally, we tested the potential of both wild-type strains for cooxidation of CDF/Ds and demonstrated that both strains degraded 2-CDF, 2-CDD, and 2,3-diCDD to the corresponding CSA and CC. We investigated the sites for the attack of angular dioxygenases in each CDF/D congener, suggesting the possibility that the angular dioxygenation of 2-CDF, 2-CDD, 2,3-diCDD, and 1,2,3-triCDD (10 ppm each) by both DFDO and CARDO occurred mainly on the nonsubstituted aromatic nuclei.
doi:10.1128/AEM.67.8.3610-3617.2001
PMCID: PMC93062  PMID: 11472938
20.  Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of gallate dioxygenase DesB from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6 
Gallate dioxygenase (DesB) from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6, which belongs to the type II extradiol dioxygenase family, was purified and crystallized in two different crystal forms, which were subjected to X-ray analysis.
Gallate dioxygenase (DesB) from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6, which belongs to the type II extradiol dioxygenase family, was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two crystal forms were obtained. The form I crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 136.2, b = 53.6, c = 55.1 Å, β = 112.8°, and diffracted to 1.6 Å resolution. The form II crystal belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.2, b = 64.7, c = 116.1 Å, β = 95.1°, and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. A molecular-replacement calculation using LigAB as a search model yielded a satisfactory solution for both crystal forms.
doi:10.1107/S1744309109041086
PMCID: PMC2777051  PMID: 19923743
extradiol dioxygenases; gallate dioxygenase
21.  Molecular Characterization and Substrate Specificity of Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase from Comamonas sp. Strain JS765 
Comamonas sp. strain JS765 can grow with nitrobenzene as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. We report here the sequence of the genes encoding nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO), which catalyzes the first step in the degradation of nitrobenzene by strain JS765. The components of NBDO were designated ReductaseNBZ, FerredoxinNBZ, OxygenaseNBZα, and OxygenaseNBZβ, with the gene designations nbzAa, nbzAb, nbzAc, and nbzAd, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the components of NBDO have a high level of homology with the naphthalene family of Rieske nonheme iron oxygenases, in particular, 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain JS42. The enzyme oxidizes a wide range of substrates, and relative reaction rates with partially purified OxygenaseNBZ revealed a preference for 3-nitrotoluene, which was shown to be a growth substrate for JS765. NBDO is the first member of the naphthalene family of Rieske nonheme iron oxygenases reported to oxidize all of the isomers of mono- and dinitrotoluenes with the concomitant release of nitrite.
doi:10.1128/AEM.68.2.634-641.2002
PMCID: PMC126692  PMID: 11823201
22.  The effect of ferredoxin(BED) overexpression on benzene dioxygenase activity in Pseudomonas putida ML2. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1994;176(9):2507-2512.
The benzene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida ML2 is a multicomponent complex comprising a flavoprotein reductase, a ferredoxin, and a terminal iron-sulfur protein (ISP). The catalytic activity of the isolated complex shows a nonlinear relationship with protein concentration in cell extracts, with the limiting factor for activity in vitro being ferredoxin(BED). The relative levels of the three components were analyzed by using 125I-labelled antibodies, and the functional molar ratio of ISP(BED), ferredoxin(BED), and reductase(BED) was shown to be 1:0.9:0.8, respectively. The concentration of ferredoxin(BED) was confirmed by quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the 2Fe-2S centers in ferredoxin(BED) and ISP(BED) of whole cells. These results demonstrate that the ferredoxin(BED) component is a limiting factor in dioxygenase activity in vitro. To determine if it is a limiting factor in vivo, a plasmid (pJRM606) overproducing ferredoxin(BED) was introduced into P. putida ML2. The benzene dioxygenase activity of this strain, measured in cell extracts, was fivefold greater than in the wild type, and the activity was linear with protein concentration in cell extracts above 2 mg/ml. Western blotting (immunoblotting) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis confirmed an elevated level of ferredoxin(BED) protein and active redox centers in the recombinant strain. However, in these cells, the increased level of ferredoxin(BED) had no effect on the overall rate of benzene oxidation by whole cells. Thus, we conclude that ferredoxin(BED) is not limiting at the high intracellular concentration (0.48 mM) found in cells.
Images
PMCID: PMC205386  PMID: 8169199
23.  Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase PheB from Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219 
PheB, an extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenase, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system, space group P212121, and diffracts to 2.3 Å resolution.
Class II extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenase, a key enzyme of aromatic compound degradation in bacteria, cleaves the aromatic ring of catechol by adding two O atoms. PheB is one of the class II extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenases and shows a high substrate specificity for catechol derivatives, which have one aromatic ring. In order to reveal the mechanism of the substrate specificity of PheB, PheB has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant. The space group of the obtained crystal was P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.5, b = 119.2, c = 158.7 Å. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution.
doi:10.1107/S174430910504323X
PMCID: PMC2150948  PMID: 16511281
extradiol-type dioxygenase; non-haem iron; thermostable proteins
24.  Structural investigations of the ferredoxin and terminal oxygenase components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 
Background
The initial step involved in oxidative hydroxylation of monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds by the microorganism Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain B1 (B1), previously known as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain B1 and Beijerinckia sp. strain B1, is performed by a set of multiple terminal Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases. These enzymes share a single electron donor system consisting of a reductase and a ferredoxin (BPDO-FB1). One of the terminal Rieske oxygenases, biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO-OB1), is responsible for B1's ability to dihydroxylate large aromatic compounds, such as chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene.
Results
In this study, crystal structures of BPDO-OB1 in both native and biphenyl bound forms are described. Sequence and structural comparisons to other Rieske oxygenases show this enzyme to be most similar, with 43.5 % sequence identity, to naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. While structurally similar to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase, the active site entrance is significantly larger than the entrance for naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase. Differences in active site residues also allow the binding of large aromatic substrates. There are no major structural changes observed upon binding of the substrate. BPDO-FB1 has large sequence identity to other bacterial Rieske ferredoxins whose structures are known and demonstrates a high structural homology; however, differences in side chain composition and conformation around the Rieske cluster binding site are noted.
Conclusion
This is the first structure of a Rieske oxygenase that oxidizes substrates with five aromatic rings to be reported. This ability to catalyze the oxidation of larger substrates is a result of both a larger entrance to the active site as well as the ability of the active site to accommodate larger substrates. While the biphenyl ferredoxin is structurally similar to other Rieske ferredoxins, there are distinct changes in the amino acids near the iron-sulfur cluster. Because this ferredoxin is used by multiple oxygenases present in the B1 organism, this ferredoxin-oxygenase system provides the structural platform to dissect the balance between promiscuity and selectivity in protein-protein electron transport systems.
doi:10.1186/1472-6807-7-10
PMCID: PMC1847435  PMID: 17349044
25.  Crystallization of a flavodoxin involved in nitrogen fixation in Rhodobacter capsulatus  
The flavodoxin NifF from R. capsulatus, a candidate for nitrogenase reduction during nitrogen fixation, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Preliminary X-ray data processing at 2.17 Å resolution allowed determination of the crystal system and unit-cell parameters.
Flavodoxins are small electron-transfer proteins that contain one molecule of noncovalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN). The flavodoxin NifF from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is reduced by one electron from ferredoxin/flavodoxin:NADP(H) reductase and was postulated to be an electron donor to nitrogenase in vivo. NifF was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and concentrated for crystallization using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Crystals grew from a mixture of PEG 3350 and PEG 400 at pH 5.5 and belong to the tetragonal space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.49, c = 121.32 Å. X-ray data sets have been collected to 2.17 Å resolution.
doi:10.1107/S1744309108008038
PMCID: PMC2376390  PMID: 18453705
flavodoxins; nitrogen fixation; Rhodobacter capsulatus

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