Selenomethionine-substituted crystals of the cytosolic domain of the cation diffusion facilitator family protein from T. maritima diffracted X-rays to 2.5 Å and belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 97.7, c = 83.4 Å.
The cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family proteins are ubiquitously distributed in the three domains of life and transport metals such as zinc and various heavy metals. Prokaryotic CDF proteins consists of an N-terminal putative six-transmembrane domain followed by a C-terminal cytosolic domain. The cytosolic domain of the CDF-family protein from Thermotoga maritima has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The selenomethionine-substituted crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation, belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 97.7, c = 83.4 Å, and are expected to contain one molecule in each asymmetric unit.
cation diffusion facilitators; transporter; zinc; membrane proteins; cytosolic domain
The crystal structure of the esterase EstA from a cold-adapted bacterium was determined in a form that was covalently inhibited by monoethylphosphonate.
The crystal structure of the esterase EstA from the cold-adapted bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A was determined in a covalently inhibited form at a resolution of 1.35 Å. The enzyme has a typical SGNH hydrolase structure consisting of a single domain containing a five-stranded β-sheet, with three helices at the convex side and two helices at the concave side of the sheet, and is ornamented with a couple of very short helices at the domain edges. The active site is located in a groove and contains the classic catalytic triad of Ser, His and Asp. In the structure of the crystal soaked in diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (DNP), the catalytic serine is covalently connected to a phosphonate moiety that clearly has only one ethyl group. This is the only example in the Protein Data Bank of a DNP-inhibited enzyme with covalently bound monoethylphosphate.
esterases; psychrotrophic bacteria; monoethylphosphate inhibitors
Full-length and soluble domains of the integral membrane protein CorA have been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected and analyzed.
The full-length integral membrane protein CorA from Thermotoga maritima (TmCorA1–351) has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified without membrane isolation. TmCorA1–351 crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 214.25, b = 86.30, c = 181.53 Å, β = 112.23°. Native crystals diffracted to 3.7 Å using synchrotron radiation, but selenomethionine-substituted crystals rarely diffracted to better than 5.0 Å. All full-length protein crystals were highly mosaic and produced anisotropic diffraction patterns. To aid in crystallographic phasing, soluble domain constructs were screened and the periplasmic domain of CorA from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (AfCorA1–263) was crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6122, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 101.17, c = 142.87 Å. Native and SeMet-substituted AfCorA1–263 crystals diffracted to ∼3.0 Å using synchrotron radiation.
membrane proteins; transporter; magnesium
Crystals of the peroxiredoxin domain of a larger natural hybrid protein from T. maritima were obtained which diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution on a synchrotron source.
Thermotoga maritima contains a natural hybrid protein constituted of two moieties: a peroxiredoxin domain at the N-terminus and a nitroreductase domain at the C-terminus. The peroxiredoxin (Prx) domain has been overproduced and purified from Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant Prx domain, which is homologous to bacterial Prx BCP and plant Prx Q, folds properly into a stable protein that possesses biological activity. The recombinant protein was crystallized and synchrotron data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.67, c = 141.20 Å.
natural hybrid proteins; Thermotoga maritima; peroxiredoxin domain
The gene encoding the major intracellular tributyrin esterase of Lactococcus lactis was cloned using degenerate DNA probes based on 19 known N-terminal amino acid residues of the purified enzyme. The gene, named estA, was sequenced and found to encode a protein of 258 amino acid residues. The transcription start site was mapped 233 nucleotides upstream of the start codon, and a canonical promoter sequence was identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of the estA product contained the typical GXSXG motif found in most lipases and esterases. The protein was overproduced up to 170-fold in L. lactis by use of the nisin-controlled expression system recently developed for lactic acid bacteria. The estA gene was inactivated by chromosomal integration of a temperature-sensitive integration vector. This resulted in the complete loss of esterase activity, which could then be recovered after complementation of the constructed esterase-deficient strain with the wild-type estA gene. This confirms that EstA is the main enzyme responsible for esterase activity in L. lactis. Purified recombinant enzyme showed a preference for short-chain acyl esters, surprisingly also including phospholipids. Medium- and long-acyl-chain lipids were also hydrolyzed, albeit less efficiently. Intermediate characteristics between esterases and lipases make intracellular lactococcal EstA difficult to classify in either of these two groups of esterolytic enzymes. We suggest that, in vivo, EstA could be involved in (phospho)lipid metabolism or cellular detoxification or both, as its sequence showed significant similarity to S-formylglutathione hydrolase (FGH) of Paracoccus denitrificans and human EstD (or FGH), which are part of a universal formaldehyde detoxification pathway.
The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8 possesses a reverse gyrase whose enzymatic properties are very similar to those of archaeal reverse gyrases. It catalyzes the positive supercoiling of the DNA in an Mg2+- and ATP-dependent process. Its optimal temperature of activity is around 90°C, and it is highly thermostable. We have cloned and DNA sequenced the corresponding gene (T. maritima topR). This is the first report describing the analysis of a gene encoding a reverse gyrase in bacteria. The T. maritima topR gene codes for a protein of 1,104 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 128,259, a value in agreement with that estimated from the denaturing gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme. Like its archaeal homologs, the T. maritima reverse gyrase exhibits helicase and topoisomerase domains, and its sequence matches very well the consensus sequence for six reverse gyrases now available. Phylogenetic analysis shows that all reverse gyrases, including the T. maritima enzyme, form a very homogeneous group, distinct from the type I 5′ topoisomerases of the TopA subfamily, for which we have previously isolated a representative gene in T. maritima (topA). The coexistence of these two distinct genes, coding for a reverse gyrase and an ω-like topoisomerase, respectively, together with the recent description of a gyrase in T. maritima (O. Guipaud, E. Marguet, K. M. Noll, C. Bouthier de la Tour, and P. Forterre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:10606–10611, 1977) addresses the question of the control of the supercoiling in this organism.
T. maritima TrmFO was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. A diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.6 Å.
TrmFO, previously classified as GID, is a methyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of 5-methyluridine or ribothymidine (T) at position 54 in tRNA in some Gram-positive bacteria. To date, TrmFO is the only characterized tRNA methyltransferase that does not use S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl-group donor. Instead, the donor of the methyl group is N
10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of TrmFO are reported here. The recombinant protein, cloned from Thermotoga maritima genomic DNA, was overproduced in Esherichia coli and crystallized in 25%(v/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM NaCl and sodium citrate buffer pH 5.0 at 291 K using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. The plate-shaped crystals diffracted to 2.6 Å and belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.94, b = 92.46, c = 127.20 Å.
GIDs; TrmFO; RNA modifications
The functional expression of proteins on the surface of bacteria has proven important for numerous biotechnological applications. In this report, we investigated the N-terminal fusion display of the periplasmic enzyme β-lactamase (Bla) on the surface of Escherichia coli by using the translocator domain of the Pseudomonas putida outer membrane esterase (EstA), which is a member of the lipolytic autotransporter enzymes. To find out the transport function of a C-terminal domain of EstA, we generated a set of Bla-EstA fusion proteins containing N-terminally truncated derivatives of the EstA C-terminal domain. The surface exposure of the Bla moiety was verified by whole-cell immunoblots, protease accessibility, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The investigation of growth kinetics and host cell viability showed that the presence of the EstA translocator domain in the outer membrane neither inhibits cell growth nor affects cell viability. Furthermore, the surface-exposed Bla moiety was shown to be enzymatically active. These results demonstrate for the first time that the translocator domain of a lipolytic autotransporter enzyme is an effective anchoring motif for the functional display of heterologous passenger protein on the surface of E. coli. This investigation also provides a possible topological model of the EstA translocator domain, which might serve as a basis for the construction of fusion proteins containing heterologous passenger domains.
A lipase-negative deletion mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 still showed extracellular lipolytic activity toward short-chain p-nitrophenylesters. By screening a genomic DNA library of P. aeruginosa PAO1, an esterase gene, estA, was identified, cloned, and sequenced, revealing an open reading frame of 1,941 bp. The product of estA is a 69.5-kDa protein, which is probably processed by removal of an N-terminal signal peptide to yield a 67-kDa mature protein. A molecular mass of 66 kDa was determined for 35S-labeled EstA by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The amino acid sequence of EstA indicated that the esterase is a member of a novel GDSL family of lipolytic enzymes. The estA gene showed high similarity to an open reading frame of unknown function located in the trpE-trpG region of P. putida and to a gene encoding an outer membrane esterase of Salmonella typhimurium. Amino acid sequence alignments led us to predict that this esterase is an autotransporter protein which possesses a carboxy-terminal β-barrel domain, allowing the secretion of the amino-terminal passenger domain harboring the catalytic activity. Expression of estA in P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and subsequent cell fractionation revealed that the enzyme was associated with the cellular membranes. Trypsin treatment of whole cells released a significant amount of esterase, indicating that the enzyme was located in the outer membrane with the catalytic domain exposed to the surface. To our knowledge, this esterase is unique in that it exemplifies in P. aeruginosa (i) the first enzyme identified in the outer membrane and (ii) the first example of a type IV secretion mechanism.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produces the biodetergent rhamnolipid and secretes it into the extracellular environment. The role of rhamnolipids in the life cycle and pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa has not been completely understood, but they are known to affect outer membrane composition, cell motility, and biofilm formation. This report is focused on the influence of the outer membrane-bound esterase EstA of P. aeruginosa PAO1 on rhamnolipid production. EstA is an autotransporter protein which exposes its catalytically active esterase domain on the cell surface. Here we report that the overexpression of EstA in the wild-type background of P. aeruginosa PAO1 results in an increased production of rhamnolipids whereas an estA deletion mutant produced only marginal amounts of rhamnolipids. Also the known rhamnolipid-dependent cellular motility and biofilm formation were affected. Although only a dependence of swarming motility on rhamnolipids has been known so far, the other kinds of motility displayed by P. aeruginosa PAO1, swimming and twitching, were also affected by an estA mutation. In order to demonstrate that EstA enzyme activity is responsible for these effects, inactive variant EstA* was constructed by replacement of the active serine by alanine. None of the mutant phenotypes could be complemented by expression of EstA*, demonstrating that the phenotypes affected by the estA mutation depend on the enzymatically active protein.
The first crystallographic study of a member of the NLP (Nep1-like protein) toxin and elicitor protein family is reported.
The elicitor protein Nep1-like protein from the plant pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A native data set was collected to 1.35 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Since selenomethionine-labelled protein did not crystallize under the original conditions, a second crystal form was identified that yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. A multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) experiment was performed at 100 K and all four selenium sites were identified, which allowed solution of the structure.
elicitor proteins; plant pathogens; MAD; SeMet
The aim of this work was to investigate the behavior of thermophilic esterase EST2 from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius in milk and cheese models. The pure enzyme was used to compare the EST2 hydrolytic activity to the activity of endogenous esterase EstA from Lactococcus lactis. The results indicate that EST2 exhibits 30-fold-higher esterase activity than EstA. As EstA has thioesterase activity, EST2 was assayed for this activity under the optimal conditions determined for EstA (namely, 30°C and pH 7.5). Although it is a thermophilic enzyme, EST2 exhibited eightfold-higher thioesterase activity than EstA with S-methyl thiobutanoate. The abilities of EST2 and EstA to synthesize short-chain fatty acid esters were compared. Two methods were developed to do this. In the first method a spectrophotometric assay was used to monitor the synthesis of esters by the pure enzymes using p-nitrophenol as the alcohol substrate. The synthetic activities were also evaluated under conditions that mimicked those present in milk and/or cheese. The second method involved evaluation of the synthetic abilities of the enzymes when they were directly added to a model cheese matrix. Substantial ester synthesis by EST2 was observed under both conditions. Finally, esterase and thioesterase activities were evaluated in milk using the purified EST2 enzyme and in the model cheese matrix using a strain of L. lactis NZ9000 harboring the EST2 gene and thus overproducing EST2. Both the esterase and thioesterase activities measured in milk and in the cheese matrix were much greater than the activities of the controls.
An esterase of Streptomyces diastatochromogenes was purified to homogeneity from culture filtrate. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 30,862 +/- 5.8 Da, as determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The esterase-encoding gene was cloned on a 5.1-kb MboI fragment from S. diastatochromogenes genomic DNA into Streptomyces lividans TK23 by using plasmid vector pIJ702. Nucleotide sequence analysis predicted a 978-bp open reading frame, estA, encoding a protein of 326 amino acids, a potential ribosome binding site, and a putative 35- or 36-residue signal peptide for secretion in S. lividans or S. diastatochromogenes, respectively. The transcriptional initiation site was mapped 29 nucleotides upstream from the predicted translational start codon of estA in S. diastatochromogenes. The protein sequence deduced from the estA gene was similar to that of the esterase from the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies. Both enzymes lacked the conserved motif GXSXG carrying the active-site serine of hydrolytic enzymes. A serine modified by [1,3-3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate was located at position 11 of the mature enzyme in the sequence GDSYT. This finding and results obtained by site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that serine 11 may be the active-site nucleophile.
Native and selenomethionine-derivatized CDCP2 from A. thaliana have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution.
Cystathione β-synthase domain-containing protein 2 (CDCP2) from Arabidopsis thaliana has been overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. As an initial step towards three-dimensional structure determination, crystals of recombinant CDCP2 protein have been obtained using polyethylene glycol 8000 as a precipitant. The crystals diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belonged to the trigonal space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.360, c = 82.596 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. The asymmetric unit contains one CDCP2 molecule and the solvent content is approximately 41%.
Arabidopsis thaliana; cystathionine β-synthase; CBS domain; CDCP2
The truncated cytosolic domain of the iron transporter FeoB from T. maritima was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Four native or SeMet crystal forms in a nucleotide-free state or in complex with either GDP or GMPPNP diffracted to resolutions of between 1.5 and 2.1 Å.
FeoB-family proteins are widely distributed in bacteria and archaea and are involved in high-affinity Fe2+ uptake through the plasma membrane. FeoB consists of an N-terminal cytosolic region followed by a C-terminal transmembrane region. The cytosolic region contains small GTPase and GDP dissociation inhibitor-like domains, which serve a regulatory function. The truncated cytosolic region of the iron transporter FeoB from Thermotoga maritima was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Four native or SeMet crystal forms in a nucleotide-free state or in complex with either GDP or GMPPNP diffracted to resolutions of between 1.5 and 2.1 Å.
small GTPases; GDI domain; cytosolic domain; membrane proteins; iron transporters
The putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from T. maritima was cloned, overproduced, purified and crystallized. A complete MAD diffraction data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are ATP hydrolysis-dependent transmembrane transporters. Here, the overproduction, purification and crystallization of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from Thermotoga maritima are reported. The protein was crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 148.49, c = 106.96 Å, γ = 120.0°. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the calculated V
M is 2.84 Å3 Da−1, which corresponds to a solvent content of 56.6%. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected to 2.3 Å resolution from SeMet-substituted TM0222 crystals. Data sets were collected on the BL38B1 beamline at SPring-8, Japan.
ATP-binding proteins; transmembrane transporters; Thermotoga maritima; MAD data
Recombinant EstE1 protein with a histidine tag at the C-terminus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) and then purified by affinity chromatography. The protein was then crystallized at 290 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method.
EstE1, a new thermostable esterase, was isolated by functional screening of a metagenomic DNA library from thermal environment samples. This enzyme showed activity towards short-chain acyl derivatives of length C4–C6 at a temperature of 303–363 K and displayed a high thermostability above 353 K. EstE1 has 64 and 57% amino-acid sequence similarity to est
pc-encoded carboxylesterase from Pyrobaculum calidifontis and AFEST from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, respectively. The recombinant protein with a histidine tag at the C-terminus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) and then purified by affinity chromatography. The protein was crystallized at 290 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution from an EstE1 crystal; the crystal belongs to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.71, c = 234.23 Å. Assuming the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient V
M is calculated to be 2.2 Å3 Da−1 and the solvent content is 44.1%.
EstE1; carboxyesterases; thermostable enzymes
The expression, purification and crystallization of the collagen-binding region of the E. rhusiopathiae surface protein RspB is described. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.
RspB is a surface adhesin of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. A recombinant form of the collagen-binding region of this protein, RspB(31–348), has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli in native and selenomethionine-derivative forms and purified using affinity and gel-permeation chromatography. Thin plate-like crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using the same condition for both forms. The native crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å using an in-house X-ray source, while the selenomethionine-derivative crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.2 Å using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.19, b = 66.65, c = 101.72 Å, β = 94.11°.
RspB; Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae; collagen binding
A gene (estA) encoding a 42-kDa cell-bound esterase, EstA, was found to be located 75 bp upstream of the cyclophilin A gene (cypA) of Streptomyces chrysomallus. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of EstA (42 kDa) in cell extracts of S. chrysomallus X2 and Streptomyces lividans. EstA specifically hydrolyzes short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters. EstA formation starts at the end of growth phase, and its activity level remains constant throughout stationary phase. Expression of estA from the melanin (mel) promoter in plasmid pIJ702 led to a substantial increase of total esterase activity in streptomycetes.
The overexpression, purification and crystallization of endonuclease IV from T. maritima are reported. The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P61 and diffracted to 2.36 Å resolution.
The DNA-repair enzyme endonuclease IV from the thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8 (reference sequence NC_000853) has been expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized for X-ray analysis. T. maritima endonuclease IV is a 287-amino-acid protein with 32% sequence identity to E. coli endonuclease IV. The protein was purified to homogeneity and was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method. The protein crystallized in space group P61, with one biological molecule in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 2.39 Å3 Da−1 and 47% solvent content. The unit-cell parameters of the crystals were a = b = 123.2, c = 35.6 Å. Microseeding and further optimization yielded crystals with an X-ray diffraction limit of 2.36 Å. A single 70° data set was collected and processed, resulting in an overall R
merge and a completeness of 9.5% and 99.3%, respectively.
endonuclease IV; DNA-repair proteins; Thermotoga maritima
The expression, purification, crystallization, and structure determination of NAD-kinase from T. maritima are reported. Similarity to other NAD-kinases as well as homo-oligomrization state of the enzyme from T. maritima are discussed.
NAD kinase is the only known enzyme that catalyzes the formation of NADP, a coenzyme involved in most anabolic reactions and in the antioxidant defense system. Despite its importance, very little is known regarding the mechanism of catalysis and only recently have several NAD kinase structures been deposited in the PDB. Here, an independent investigation of the crystal structure of inorganic polyphosphate/ATP-NAD kinase, PPNK_THEMA, a protein from Thermotoga maritima, is reported at a resolution of 2.3 Å. The crystal structure was solved using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) data collected at the Se absorption-peak wavelength in a state in which no cofactors or substrates were bound. It revealed that the 258-amino-acid protein is folded into two distinct domains, similar to recently reported NAD kinases. The N-terminal α/β-domain spans the first 100 amino acids and the last 30 amino acids of the polypeptide and has several topological matches in the PDB, whereas the other domain, which spans the middle 130 residues, adopts a unique β-sandwich architecture and only appreciably matches the recently deposited PDB structures of NAD kinases.
gi|1564447; NAD; NADP; phosphorylation; kinases
Autotransporters are a widespread family of proteins, generally known as virulence factors produced by Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the esterase A (EstA) autotransporter of the rice root-colonizing beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri A15 was characterized. A multiple sequence alignment identified EstA as belonging to clade II of the GDSL esterase family. Autologous overexpression allowed the investigation of several features of both autotransporter proteins and GDSL esterases. First, the correctly folded autotransporter was shown to be present in the membrane fraction. Unexpectedly, after separation of the membrane fraction, EstA was detected in the N-laurylsarcosine soluble fraction. However, evidence is presented for the surface exposure of EstA based on fluorescent labeling with EstA specific antibodies. Another remarkable feature is the occurrence of a C-terminal leucine residue instead of the canonical phenylalanine or tryptophan residue. Replacement of this residue with a phenylalanine residue reduced the stability of the β-barrel. Regarding the esterase passenger domain, we show the importance of the catalytic triad residues, with the serine and histidine residues being more critical than the aspartate residue. Furthermore, the growth of an estA-negative mutant was not impaired and cell mobility was not disabled compared to the wild type. No specific phenotype was detected for an estA-negative mutant. Overall, P. stutzeri A15 EstA is a new candidate for the surface display of proteins in environmentally relevant biotechnological applications.
CheW from T. maritima has been crystallized (space group P63, unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.265, c = 361.045 Å). Diffraction data have been collected to 3.1 Å resolution using synchrotron X-ray radiation.
The CheW protein plays a key role in bacterial chemotaxis signal transduction by coupling CheA to chemotaxis receptors. CheW from Thermotoga maritima has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 298 K using ammonium sulfate as a salt precipitant. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.10 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to space group P63, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.265, c = 361.045 Å. The asymmetric unit may contain four to six CheW molecules.
CheW; coupling proteins; adapter proteins; CheA; chemotaxis receptors; methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins; chemotaxis; signal transduction; Thermotoga maritima
The arginine repressor of the hyperthermophile T. neapolitana was crystallized with and without its corepressor arginine. Both crystals diffracted to high resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with similar unit-cell parameters.
The arginine repressor of Thermotoga neapolitana (ArgRTnp) is a member of the family of multifunctional bacterial arginine repressors involved in the regulation of arginine metabolism. This hyperthermophilic repressor shows unique DNA-binding features that distinguish it from its homologues. ArgRTnp exists as a homotrimeric protein that assembles into hexamers at higher protein concentrations and/or in the presence of arginine. ArgRTnp was crystallized with and without its corepressor arginine using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of the aporepressor diffracted to a resolution of 2.1 Å and belong to the orthorhombic P212121 space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 117.73, b = 134.15, c = 139.31 Å. Crystals of the repressor in the presence of its corepressor arginine diffracted to a resolution of 2.4 Å and belong to the same space group, with similar unit-cell parameters.
arginine repressor; regulation of transcription; hyperthermophiles
Serratia liquefaciens MG1 employs the swr quorum-sensing system to control various functions, including production of extracellular enzymes and swarming motility. Here we report the sequencing of the swr flanking DNA regions. We identified a gene upstream of swrR and transcribed in the same direction, designated estA, which encodes an esterase that belongs to family II of lipolytic enzymes. EstA was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the substrate specificity of the enzyme was determined in crude extracts. With the aid of zymograms visualizing EstA on polyacrylamide gels and by the analysis of a transcriptional fusion of the estA promoter to the promoterless luxAB genes, we showed that expression of the esterase is not regulated by the swr quorum-sensing system. An estA mutant was generated and was found to exhibit growth defects on minimal medium containing Tween 20 or Tween 80 as the sole carbon source. Moreover, we show that the mutant produces greatly reduced amounts of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules on Tween-containing medium compared with the wild type, suggesting that under certain growth conditions EstA may be important for providing the cell with precursors required for AHL biosynthesis.