The X-ray crystal structure of the 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) homolog from Streptomyces coelicolor, SCO 6650, was solved at 1.5 Å resolution. SCO 6650 forms a hexameric T-fold that closely resembles other PTPS proteins. The biological activity of SCO 6650 is unknown, but it lacks both a required active-site zinc metal ion and the essential catalytic triad and does not catalyze the PTPS reaction. However, SCO 6650 maintains active-site residues consistent with binding a pterin-like substrate.
Dihydroneopterin aldolase (FolB) catalyzes conversion of dihydroneopterin to 6-hydroxymethyldihydropterin (HMDHP) in the classical folate biosynthesis pathway. However, folB genes are missing from the genomes of certain bacteria from the phyla Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Spirochaetes. Almost all of these folB-deficient genomes contain an unusual paralog of the tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis enzyme 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) in which a glutamate residue replaces or accompanies the catalytic cysteine. A similar PTPS paralog from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is known to form HMDHP from dihydroneopterin triphosphate in vitro and has been proposed to provide a bypass to the FolB step in vivo. Bacterial genes encoding PTPS-like proteins with active-site glutamate, cysteine, or both residues were accordingly tested together with the P. falciparum gene for complementation of the Escherichia coli folB mutation. The P. falciparum sequence and bacterial sequences with glutamate or glutamate plus cysteine were active; those with cysteine alone were not. These results demonstrate that PTPS paralogs with an active-site glutamate (designated PTPS-III proteins) can functionally replace FolB in vivo. Recombinant bacterial PTPS-III proteins, like the P. falciparum enzyme, mediated conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to HMDHP, but other PTPS proteins did not. Neither PTPS-III nor other PTPS proteins exhibited significant dihydroneopterin aldolase activity. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PTPS-III proteins may have arisen independently in various PTPS lineages. Consistent with this possibility, merely introducing a glutamate residue into the active site of a PTPS protein conferred incipient activity in the growth complementation assay, and replacing glutamate with alanine in a PTPS-III protein abolished complementation.
In a proteasome-lacking mutant of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), an intracellular enzyme with chymotrypsin-like activity, absent from the wild type, was detected. Complementation that restored proteasome function did not suppress expression of the endopeptidase. Since the enzyme was not found in two other S. coelicolor proteasome mutants, its expression probably resulted from a secondary mutation arisen in the proteasome mutant. Purification of the endopeptidase revealed its identity to SCO7095, a putative hydrolase encoded by the S. coelicolor A3(2) genome with no known homologue. Based on the prediction of a Ser-Asp-His catalytic triad and an α/β hydrolase fold, SCO7095 was assigned to peptidase clan SC. N-terminally His-tagged SCO7095 was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified for further characterization. Although SCO7095 is distantly related to several proline iminopeptidases, including Thermoplasma acidophilum tricorn-interacting F1, no aminopeptidase activity was detected. On synthetic substrates, the monomeric enzyme exhibited not only chymotrypsin-like activity but also thrombin-like activity.
The terminal reaction in triacylglyceride (TAG) biosynthesis is the esterification of diacylglycerol (DAG) with a fatty acid molecule. To study this reaction in Streptomyces coelicolor, we analyzed three candidate genes (sco0958, sco1280, and sco0123) whose products significantly resemble the recently identified wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):DAG acyltransferase (DGAT) from Acinetobacter baylyi. The deletion of either sco0123 or sco1280 resulted in no detectable decrease in TAG accumulation. In contrast, the deletion of sco0958 produced a dramatic reduction in neutral lipid production, whereas the overexpression of this gene yielded a significant increase in de novo TAG biosynthesis. In vitro activity assays showed that Sco0958 mediates the esterification of DAG using long-chain acyl-CoAs (C14 to C18) as acyl donors. The Km and Vmax values of this enzyme for myristoyl-CoA were 45 μM and 822 nmol mg−1 min−1, respectively. Significantly, the triple mutant strain was not completely devoid of storage lipids, indicating the existence of alternative TAG-biosynthetic routes. We present strong evidence demonstrating that the residual production of TAG in this mutant strain is mediated, at least in part, by an acyl-CoA-dependent pathway, since the triple mutant still exhibited DGAT activity. More importantly, there was substantial phospholipid:DGAT (PDAT) activity in the wild type and in the triple mutant. This is the first time that a PDAT activity has been reported for bacteria, highlighting the extreme metabolic diversity of this industrially important soil microorganism.
Geosmin (1) is responsible for the characteristic odor of moist soil, as well as off-flavors in drinking water and foodstuffs (ref. 1 and 2). Geosmin is generated from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP, 2) by an enzyme that in the soil organism Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is encoded by the SCO6073 gene (ref. 3) We have now shown that the recombinant N-terminal half of this protein catalyzes the Mg2+-dependent cyclization of FPP to germacradienol (3) and germacrene D (4), while the highly homologous C-terminal domain, previously thought to be catalytically silent, catalyzes the Mg2+-dependent conversion of germacradienol to geosmin (1). Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the N- and C-terminal domain each harbors a distinct, independently functioning active site. A mutation in the N-terminal domain of germacradienol–geosmin synthase of a catalytically essential serine to alanine results in the conversion of FPP (2) to a mixture of sesquiterpenes that includes an aberrant product identified as isolepidozene (6), previously suggested to be an enzyme-bound intermediate in the cyclization of FPP to germacradienol.
Type I sulfatases require an unusual co- or post-translational modification for their activity in hydrolyzing sulfate esters. In eukaryotic sulfatases, an active site cysteine residue is oxidized to the aldehyde-containing Cα-formylglycine residue by the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). The machinery responsible for sulfatase activation is poorly understood in prokaryotes. Here we describe the identification of a prokaryotic FGE from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, we solved the crystal structure of the Streptomyces coelicolor FGE homolog to 2.1Å resolution. The prokaryotic homolog exhibits remarkable structural similarity to human FGE, including the position of catalytic cysteine residues. Both biochemical and structural data indicate the presence of an oxidized cysteine modification in the active site that may be relevant to catalysis. In addition, we generated a mutant M. tuberculosis strain lacking FGE. Although global sulfatase activity was reduced in the mutant, a significant amount of residual sulfatase activity suggests the presence of FGE-independent sulfatases in this organism.
The 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase from E. coli has been crystallized in two crystal forms. Diffraction data were collected from hexagonal- and rectangular-shaped crystals to 3.0 and 2.3 Å, respectively.
6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase from E. coli (ePTPS) has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Hexagonal- and rectangular-shaped crystals were obtained. Diffraction data were collected from the hexagonal and rectangular crystals to 3.0 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. The hexagonal plate-shaped crystals belonged to space group P321, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 112.59, c = 68.82 Å, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The rectangular crystals belonged to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 112.76, b = 117.66, c = 153.57 Å, and contained six molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of ePTPS in both crystal forms has been determined by molecular replacement.
6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase; tetrahydrobiopterin; Escherichia coli
A hypothetical protein SCO4226 from S. coelicolor has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group P21 and diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution.
A non-Pfam hypothetical protein SCO4226 of molecular weight 9 kDa from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 29.67, b = 67.00, c = 34.43 Å, α = γ = 90.00, β = 94.26°.
SCO4226; Streptomyces coelicolor
In this paper, we have characterized two malic enzymes (ME), SCO2951 and SCO5261, from Streptomyces coelicolor and analyzed their role in antibiotic and triacylglycerol (TAG) production. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that Sco2951 and Sco5261 genes encode NAD+- and NADP+-dependent malic enzymes, respectively. Single or double mutants in the ME-encoding genes show no effect on growth rate compared to the parental M145 strain. However, the single Sco2951 and the double Sco2951 Sco5261 mutants display a strong reduction in the production of the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin; additionally, the Sco2951 Sco5261 mutant shows a decrease in stored TAGs during exponential growth. The lower production of actinorhodin in the double mutant occurs as a consequence of a decrease in the expression of actII-ORF4, the transcriptional activator of the actinorhodin gene cluster. On the other hand, the reduced TAG accumulation is not due to reduced transcript levels of fatty acid biosynthetic genes nor to changes in the amount of the precursor acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). This mutant accumulates intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that could alter the regulation of the actinorhodin biosynthetic pathway, suggesting that MEs are important anaplerotic enzymes that redirect C4 intermediates from the TCA cycle to maintain secondary metabolism and TAG production in Streptomyces.
Phosphosignaling through pSer/pThr/pTyr is emerging as a common signaling mechanism in prokaryotes. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) produces two low-molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases, PtpA and PtpB, with unknown functions. To provide the structural context for understanding PtpA function and substrate recognition, establish PtpA’s structural relations within the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, and to provide a framework for the design of specific inhibitors, we solved the crystal structure of PtpA at 1 Å resolution. While PtpA adopts the common, conserved PTP fold and shows close overall similarity to eukaryotic PTPs, several features in the active site and surface organization are unique and can be explored to design selective inhibitors. A peptide bound in the active site mimics a phosphotyrosine substrate, affords insight into substrate recognition, and provides a testable substrate prediction. Genetic deletion of ptpA or ptpB does not affect in vitro growth or cell wall integrity, raising the possibility that PtpA and PtpB have specialized functions during infection.
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase; crystal structure; S. aureus; phosphosignaling; substrate
N,N′-Diacetylchitobiose [(GlcNAc)2] induces the transcription of chitinase (chi) genes in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Physiological studies showed that (GlcNAc)2 addition triggered chi expression and increased the rate of (GlcNAc)2 concentration decline in culture supernatants of mycelia already cultivated with (GlcNAc)2, suggesting that (GlcNAc)2 induced the synthesis of its own uptake system. Four open reading frames (SCO0531, SCO0914, SCO2946, and SCO5232) encoding putative sugar-binding proteins of ABC transporters were found in the genome by probing the 12-bp repeat sequence required for regulation of chi transcription. SCO5232, named dasA, showed transcriptional induction by (GlcNAc)2 and N,N′,N‴-triacetylchitotriose [(GlcNAc)3]. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that recombinant DasA protein exhibited the highest affinity for (GlcNAc)2 (equilibrium dissociation constant [KD] = 3.22 × 10−8). In the dasA-null mutant, the rate of decline of the (GlcNAc)2 concentration in the culture supernatant was about 25% of that in strain M145. The in vitro and in vivo data clearly demonstrated that dasA is involved in (GlcNAc)2 uptake. Upstream and downstream of dasA, the transcriptional regulator gene (dasR) and two putative integral membrane protein genes (dasBC) are located in the opposite and same orientations, respectively. The expression of dasR and dasB, which seemed independent of dasA transcription, was also induced by (GlcNAc)2 and (GlcNAc)3.
Type II thioesterases (TE IIs) were shown to maintain the efficiency of polyketide synthases (PKSs) by removing acyl residues blocking extension modules. However, the substrate specificity and kinetic parameters of these enzymes differ, which may have significant consequences when they are included in engineered hybrid systems for the production of novel compounds. Here we show that thioesterase ScoT associated with polyketide synthase Cpk from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is able to hydrolyze acetyl, propionyl, and butyryl residues, which is consistent with its editing function. This enzyme clearly prefers propionate, in contrast to the TE IIs tested previously, and this indicates that it may have a role in control of the starter unit. We also determined activities of ScoT mutants and concluded that this enzyme is an α/β hydrolase with Ser90 and His224 in its active site.
A three-dimensional model of the Streptomyces coelicolor actinorhodin β-ketoacyl synthase (Act KS) was constructed based on the X-ray crystal structure of the related Escherichia coli fatty acid synthase condensing enzyme β-ketoacyl synthase II, revealing a similar catalytic active site organization in these two enzymes. The model was assessed by site-directed mutagenesis of five conserved amino acid residues in Act KS that are in close proximity to the Cys169 active site. Three substitutions completely abrogated polyketide biosynthesis, while two replacements resulted in significant reduction in polyketide production. 3H-cerulenin labeling of the various Act KS mutant proteins demonstrated that none of the amino acid replacements affected the formation of the active site nucleophile.
Streptomyces are predominantly soil-dwelling bacteria that are best known for their multicellular life cycle and their prodigious metabolic capabilities. They are also renowned for their regulatory capacity and flexibility, with each species encoding >60 sigma factors, a multitude of transcription factors, and an increasing number of small regulatory RNAs. Here, we describe our characterization of a conserved small RNA (sRNA), scr4677. In the model species Streptomyces coelicolor, this sRNA is located in the intergenic region separating SCO4677 (an anti-sigma factor-encoding gene) and SCO4676 (a putative regulatory protein-encoding gene), close to the SCO4676 translation start site in an antisense orientation. There appears to be considerable genetic interplay between these different gene products, with wild type expression of scr4677 requiring function of the anti-sigma factor SCO4677, and scr4677 in turn influencing the abundance of SCO4676-associated transcripts. The scr4677-mediated effects were independent of RNase III (a double stranded RNA-specific nuclease), with RNase III having an unexpectedly positive influence on the level of SCO4676-associated transcripts. We have shown that both SCO4676 and SCO4677 affect the production of the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin under specific growth conditions, and that this activity appears to be independent of scr4677.
The Actinobacteria phylum represents one of the largest and most diverse groups of bacteria, encompassing many important and well-characterized organisms including Streptomyces, Bifidobacterium, Corynebacterium and Mycobacterium. Members of this phylum are remarkably diverse in terms of life cycle, morphology, physiology and ecology. Recent comparative genomic analysis of 19 actinobacterial species determined that only 5 genes of unknown function uniquely define this large phylum . The cellular functions of these actinobacteria-specific proteins (ASP) are not known.
Here we report the first characterization of one of the 5 actinobacteria-specific proteins, ASP1 (Gene ID: SCO1997) from Streptomyces coelicolor. The X-ray crystal structure of ASP1 was determined at 2.2 Ǻ. The overall structure of ASP1 retains a similar fold to the large NP-1 family of nucleoside phosphorylase enzymes; however, the function is not related. Further comparative analysis revealed two regions expected to be important for protein function: a central, divalent metal ion binding pore, and a highly conserved elbow shaped helical region at the C-terminus. Sequence analyses revealed that ASP1 is paralogous to another actinobacteria-specific protein ASP2 (SCO1662 from S. coelicolor) and that both proteins likely carry out similar function.
Our structural data in combination with sequence analysis supports the idea that two of the 5 actinobacteria-specific proteins, ASP1 and ASP2, mediate similar function. This function is predicted to be novel since the structures of these proteins do not match any known protein with or without known function. Our results suggest that this function could involve divalent metal ion binding/transport.
The study of patient tissues and cell lines shows that SCO1 and SCO2 function collaboratively to generate a redox-dependent signal that is transduced from mitochondria to the cytosol by COX19, where it is relayed to ATP7A to regulate the rate of copper efflux from the cell.
SCO1 and SCO2 are metallochaperones whose principal function is to add two copper ions to the catalytic core of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). However, affected tissues of SCO1 and SCO2 patients exhibit a combined deficiency in COX activity and total copper content, suggesting additional roles for these proteins in the regulation of cellular copper homeostasis. Here we show that both the redox state of the copper-binding cysteines of SCO1 and the abundance of SCO2 correlate with cellular copper content and that these relationships are perturbed by mutations in SCO1 or SCO2, producing a state of apparent copper overload. The copper deficiency in SCO patient fibroblasts is rescued by knockdown of ATP7A, a trans-Golgi, copper-transporting ATPase that traffics to the plasma membrane during copper overload to promote efflux. To investigate how a signal from SCO1 could be relayed to ATP7A, we examined the abundance and subcellular distribution of several soluble COX assembly factors. We found that COX19 partitions between mitochondria and the cytosol in a copper-dependent manner and that its knockdown partially rescues the copper deficiency in patient cells. These results demonstrate that COX19 is necessary for the transduction of a SCO1-dependent mitochondrial redox signal that regulates ATP7A-mediated cellular copper efflux.
Both morphogenesis and antibiotic production in the streptomycetes are initiated in response to starvation, and these events are coupled. We previously described a transposon-generated mutant in Streptomyces coelicolor, SE293, that resulted in a bld strain that overproduced the antibiotic actinorhodin. The SCO1135 open reading frame identified by the insertion encodes a member of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. Here we show that a constructed deletion of the SCO1135 open reading frame resulted in the same morphological and antibiotic production phenotype as the insertion mutant. The constructed deletion also resulted in constitutive expression of SCO1135 transcript, as well as that of the gene cluster immediately adjacent to it, SCO1134-1132, which encodes a putative molybdopterin binding complex. A His6-tagged version of the SCO1135 protein product was shown to bind the intergenic region between SCO1135 and SCO1134, which contains the apparent transcription start sites for each gene mapped by primer extension analysis. Increased expression of the SCO1134-1132 transcript in the SCO1135 deletion mutant also resulted in increased expression of xanthine dehydrogenase activity, confirming the predictions about these open reading framed based on protein similarity. We have designated the SCO1134-1142 gene cluster xdhABC and the regulator encoded by SCO1135 xdhR. We speculate that the inappropriate expression of xanthine dehydrogenase affects purine salvaging pathways at the onset of development, creating artificially high concentrations of both GTP and ppGpp and perturbing the pathways these molecules participate in for the initiation of morphogenesis and antibiotic production.
To elucidate the early steps required during biosynthesis of a broad class of 7-deazapurine containing natural products, we have studied the reaction catalyzed by Escherichia coli QueD, a 6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) homolog possibly involved in queuosine biosynthesis. While mammalian PTPS homologs convert 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate (H2NTP) to 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin (PPH4) in biopterin biosynthesis, E. coli QueD catalyzes the conversion of H2NTP to 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin (CPH4). E. coli QueD can also convert PPH4 and sepiapterin to CPH4, allowing a mechanism to be proposed.
Effective chromosome organization is central to the functioning of any cell. In bacteria, this organization is achieved through the concerted activity of multiple nucleoid-associated proteins. These proteins are not, however, universally conserved, and different groups of bacteria have distinct subsets that contribute to chromosome architecture. Here, we describe the characterization of a novel actinobacterial-specific protein in Streptomyces coelicolor. We show that sIHF (SCO1480) associates with the nucleoid and makes important contributions to chromosome condensation and chromosome segregation during Streptomyces sporulation. It also affects antibiotic production, suggesting an additional role in gene regulation. In vitro, sIHF binds DNA in a length-dependent but sequence-independent manner, without any obvious structural preferences. It does, however, impact the activity of topoisomerase, significantly altering DNA topology. The sIHF–DNA co-crystal structure reveals sIHF to be composed of two domains: a long N-terminal helix and a C-terminal helix-two turns-helix domain with two separate DNA interaction sites, suggesting a potential role in bridging DNA molecules.
The overexpression of a regulatory gene of the TetR family (SCO3201) originating either from Streptomyces lividans or from Streptomyces coelicolor was shown to strongly repress antibiotic production (calcium-dependent antibiotic [CDA], undecylprodigiosin [RED], and actinorhodin [ACT]) of S. coelicolor and of the ppk mutant strain of S. lividans. Curiously, the overexpression of this gene also had a strong inhibitory effect on the sporulation process of S. coelicolor but not on that of S. lividans. SCO3201 was shown to negatively regulate its own transcription, and its DNA binding motif was found to overlap its −35 promoter sequence. The interruption of this gene in S. lividans or S. coelicolor did not lead to any obvious phenotypes, indicating that when overexpressed SCO3201 likely controls the expression of target genes of other TetR regulators involved in the regulation of the metabolic and morphological differentiation process in S. coelicolor. The direct and functional interaction of SCO3201 with the promoter region of scbA, a gene under the positive control of the TetR-like regulator, ScbR, was indeed demonstrated by in vitro as well as in vivo approaches.
Many taxonomically diverse prokaryotes enzymatically modify their DNA by replacing a non-bridging oxygen with a sulfur atom at specific sequences. The biological implications of this DNA S-modification (phosphorothioation) were unknown. We observed that simultaneous expression of the dndA-E gene cluster from Streptomyces lividans 66, which is responsible for the DNA S-modification, and the putative Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2 Type IV methyl-dependent restriction endonuclease ScoA3McrA (Sco4631) leads to cell death in the same host. A His-tagged derivative of ScoA3McrA cleaved S-modified DNA and also Dcm-methylated DNA in vitro near the respective modification sites. Double-strand cleavage occurred 16–28 nucleotides away from the phosphorothioate links. DNase I footprinting demonstrated binding of ScoA3McrA to the Dcm methylation site, but no clear binding could be detected at the S-modified site under cleavage conditions. This is the first report of in vitro endonuclease activity of a McrA homologue and also the first demonstration of an enzyme that specifically cleaves S-modified DNA.
Bacteria frequently exchange genetic information among themselves. DNA from one species can be transferred efficiently to unrelated microbes. Bacteria have developed systems that restrict gene transfer. Many restriction systems recognize and destroy foreign DNA entering the cells, but there are also enzymes inducing suicide of cells that have been invaded by foreign genes that modify the host DNA. We describe a restriction endonuclease from an antibiotic-producing soil bacterium that cuts foreign methylated DNA and also foreign DNA containing sulfur. DNA sulfur modification occurs in diverse medically or industrially important microbes and has been shown to prevent cleavage of DNA. The most similar enzyme in the databases is the putative restriction endonuclease McrA from Escherichia coli which has not been observed to cleave DNA in a test tube. Our endonuclease showed no activity with magnesium, but it cleaved DNA in the presence of manganese ions. Therefore, we present two novelties: an unusual restriction endonuclease that cleaves sulfur-modified DNA and conditions that allow the study of the enzyme in a test tube.
Antibiotic production and cell differentiation in Streptomyces is stimulated by micromolar levels of Cu2+. Here, we knocked out the Sco1/SenC family copper chaperone (ScoC) encoded in the conserved gene cluster ‘sco’ (the S treptomycescopper utilization) in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and S. griseus. It is known that the Sco1/SenC family incorporates Cu2+ into the active centre of cytochrome oxidase (cox). The knockout caused a marked delay in antibiotic production and aerial mycelium formation on solid medium, temporal pH decline in glucose‐containing liquid medium, and significant reduction of cox activity in S. coelicolor. The scoC mutant produced two‐ to threefold higher cellular mass of the wild type exhibiting a marked cox activity in liquid medium supplied with 10 µM CuSO4, suggesting that ScoC is involved in not only the construction but also the deactivation of cox. The scoC mutant was defective in the monoamine oxidase activity responsible for cell aggregation and sedimentation. These features were similarly observed with regard to the scoC mutant of S. griseus. The scoC mutant of S. griseus was also defective in the extracellular activity oxidizing N,N′‐dimethyl‐p‐phenylenediamine sulfate. Addition of 10 µM CuSO4 repressed the activity of the conserved promoter preceding scoA and caused phenylalanine auxotrophy in some Streptomyces spp. probably because of the repression of pheA; pheA encodes prephenate dehydratase, which is located at the 3′ terminus of the putative operon structure. Overall, the evidence indicates that Sco is crucial for the utilization of copper under a low‐copper condition and for the activation of the multiple Cu2+‐containing oxidases that play divergent roles in the complex physiology of Streptomyces.
The genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor contains three open reading frames (sco1441, sco2687, and sco6655) that encode proteins with significant (>40%) amino acid identity to GTP cyclohydrolase II (GCH II), which catalyzes the committed step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. The physiological significance of the redundancy of these proteins in S. coelicolor is not known. However, the gene contexts of the three proteins are different, suggesting that they may serve alternate biological niches. Each of the three proteins was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and characterized to determine if their functions are biologically overlapping. As purified, each protein contains 1 molar equiv of zinc/ mol of protein and utilizes guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) as substrate. Two of these proteins (SCO 1441 and SCO 2687) produce the canonical product of GCH II, 2,5-diamino-6-ribosylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone 5′-phosphate (APy). Remarkably, however, one of the three proteins (SCO 6655) converts GTP to 2-amino-5-formylamino-6-ribosylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone 5′-phosphate (FAPy), as shown by UV-visible spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and NMR. This activity has been reported for a GTP cyclohydrolase III protein from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii [Graham, D. E., Xu, H., and White, R. H. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 15074–15084], which has no amino acid sequence homology to SCO 6655. Comparison of the sequences of these proteins and mapping onto the structure of the E. coli GCH II protein [Ren, J., Kotaka, M., Lockyer, M., Lamb, H. K., Hawkins, A. R., and Stammers, D. K. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 36912–36919] allowed identification of a switch residue, Met120, which appears to be responsible for the altered fate of GTP observed with SCO 6655; a Tyr is found in the analogous position of all proteins that have been shown to catalyze the conversion of GTP to APy. The Met120Tyr variant of SCO 6655 acquires the ability to catalyze the conversion of GTP to APy, suggesting a role for Tyr120 in the late phase of the reaction. Our data are consistent with duplication of GCH II in S. coelicolor promoting evolution of a new function. The physiological role(s) of the gene clusters that house GCH II homologues will be discussed.
The redox-sensitive transcription factor SoxR in enteric bacteria senses and regulates the cellular response to superoxide and nitric oxide. In other bacterial groups, however, it may respond to redox-active small molecules, as demonstrated for pyocyanin sensing in pseudomonads. The antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor contains a gene for an SoxR homologue (SCO1697) whose DNA recognition helix is identical to that of Escherichia coli SoxR. Using the E. coli SoxR binding sequence, we predicted five candidate genes of the SoxR regulon and demonstrated that SoxR binds to their promoter regions and activates their expression concurrently with the production of the blue antibiotic actinorhodin (a benzoisochromanequinone). These genes encode a probable NADPH-dependent flavin reductase (SCO2478), an NADPH-dependent quinone reductase (SCO4266), an ABC transporter (SCO7008), a monooxygenase (SCO1909), and a hypothetical protein (SCO1178). Addition of actinorhodin to exponentially growing cells activated the expression of SoxR target genes in an SoxR-dependent manner. The secreted γ-actinorhodin was over 10-fold more effective in activation than the intracellular form of actinorhodin, suggesting that SoxR is specified to respond more to exogenous signals than to intracellular metabolites. The ΔsoxR mutant was not compromised in resistance against oxidants but was slow in forming aerial mycelium on R2YE medium with reduced sporulation, and its production of actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin was lowered by about 50% and 30%, respectively, compared to that of the wild type. These results support the proposal that SoxR senses redox-active molecules, such as actinorhodin in S. coelicolor, and induces a protective function against them. It also functions to ensure that cells undergo optimal differentiation and secondary metabolite production.
Superoxide dismutases rely on protein structural elements to adjust the redox potential of the metallocenter to an optimum value near 300 mV (vs. NHE), to provide a source of protons for catalysis, and to control the access of anions to the active site. These aspects of the catalytic mechanism are examined herein for recombinant preparations of the nickel-dependent SOD (NiSOD) from Streptomyces coelicolor, and for a series of mutants that affect a key tyrosine residue, Tyr9 (Y9F-, Y62F-, Y9FY62F- and D3A-NiSOD). Structural aspects of the nickel sites are examined by a combination of EPR and x-ray absorption spectroscopies, and by single crystal x-ray diffraction at ~ 1.9 Å resolution in the case of Y9F- and D3A-NiSODs. The functional effects of the mutations are examined by kinetic studies employing pulse radiolytic generation of O2− and by redox titrations. These studies reveal that although the structure of the nickel center in NiSOD is unique, the ligand environment is designed to optimize the redox potential at 290 mV and results in the oxidation of 50% of the nickel centers in the oxidized hexamer. Kinetic investigations show that all of the mutant proteins have considerable activity. In the case of Y9F-NiSOD, the enzyme shows saturation behavior that is not observed in WT-NiSOD and suggests that release of peroxide is inhibited. The crystal structure of Y9F-NiSOD reveals an anion binding site that is occupied by either Cl− or Br− and is located close to, but not within bonding distance of the nickel center. The structure of D3A-NiSOD reveals that in addition to affecting the interaction between subunits, this mutation repositions Y9 and leads to altered chemistry with peroxide. Comparisons with Mn(SOD) and Fe(SOD) reveal that although different strategies are employed to adjust the redox potential and supply of protons, NiSOD has evolved a similar strategy to control the access of anions to the active site.