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1.  Comparative Phenotypic Analysis of the Major Fungal Pathogens Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans 
PLoS Pathogens  2014;10(9):e1004365.
Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans are human fungal pathogens that belong to the CTG clade in the Saccharomycotina. In contrast to C. albicans, relatively little is known about the virulence properties of C. parapsilosis, a pathogen particularly associated with infections of premature neonates. We describe here the construction of C. parapsilosis strains carrying double allele deletions of 100 transcription factors, protein kinases and species-specific genes. Two independent deletions were constructed for each target gene. Growth in >40 conditions was tested, including carbon source, temperature, and the presence of antifungal drugs. The phenotypes were compared to C. albicans strains with deletions of orthologous transcription factors. We found that many phenotypes are shared between the two species, such as the role of Upc2 as a regulator of azole resistance, and of CAP1 in the oxidative stress response. Others are unique to one species. For example, Cph2 plays a role in the hypoxic response in C. parapsilosis but not in C. albicans. We found extensive divergence between the biofilm regulators of the two species. We identified seven transcription factors and one protein kinase that are required for biofilm development in C. parapsilosis. Only three (Efg1, Bcr1 and Ace2) have similar effects on C. albicans biofilms, whereas Cph2, Czf1, Gzf3 and Ume6 have major roles in C. parapsilosis only. Two transcription factors (Brg1 and Tec1) with well-characterized roles in biofilm formation in C. albicans do not have the same function in C. parapsilosis. We also compared the transcription profile of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans biofilms. Our analysis suggests the processes shared between the two species are predominantly metabolic, and that Cph2 and Bcr1 are major biofilm regulators in C. parapsilosis.
Author Summary
Candida species are among the most common causes of fungal infection worldwide. Infections can be both community-based and hospital-acquired, and are particularly associated with immunocompromised individuals. Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species and is the best studied. However, other species are becoming of increasing concern. Candida parapsilosis causes outbreaks of infection in neonatal wards, and is one of the few Candida species that is transferred from the hands of healthcare workers. C. parapsilosis, like C. albicans, grows as biofilms (cell communities) on the surfaces of indwelling medical devices like feeding tubes. We describe here the construction of a set of tools that allow us to characterize the virulence properties of C. parapsilosis, and in particular its ability to grow as biofilms. We find that some of the regulatory mechanisms are shared with C. albicans, but others are unique to each species. Our tools, based on selectively deleting regulatory genes, will provide a major resource to the fungal research community.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004365
PMCID: PMC4169492  PMID: 25233198
2.  Candida parapsilosis is a Significant Neonatal Pathogen: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
Background
Candida is the third most common cause of late-onset neonatal sepsis in infants born at < 1500 g. C. parapsilosis infections are increasingly reported in preterm neonates in association with indwelling catheters.
Methods
We systematically reviewed neonatal literature and synthesized data pertaining to percentage of C. parapsilosis infections and mortality by meta-analyses. We also reviewed risk factors, virulence determinants, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and outlined clinical management strategies.
Results
C. parapsilosis infections comprised 33.47 % [95% CI, 30.02, 37.31] of all neonatal Candida infections. C. parapsilosis rates were similar in studies performed before the year 2000, 33.53 % [95% CI, 30.06, 37.40] (28 studies), to those after 2000, 27.00% [95% CI, 8.25, 88.37] (8 studies). The mortality due to neonatal Candida parapsilosis infections was 10.02% [95% CI, 7.66, 13.12]. Geographical variations in C. parapsilosis infections included a low incidence in Europe and higher incidence in North America and Australia. Biofilm formation was a significant virulence determinant and predominant risk factors for C. parapsilosis infections were prematurity, prior colonization and catheterization. Amphotericin B remains the antifungal drug of choice and combination therapy with caspofungin or other echinocandins may be considered in resistant cases.
Conclusion
C. parapsilosis is a significant neonatal pathogen, comprises a third of all Candida infections and is associated with 10% mortality. Availability of tools for genetic manipulation of this organism will identify virulence determinants and organism characteristics that may explain predilection for preterm neonates. Strategies to prevent horizontal transmission in the neonatal unit are paramount in decreasing infection rates.
doi:10.1097/INF.0b013e3182863a1c
PMCID: PMC3681839  PMID: 23340551
Neonate; Candida parapsilosis; systematic review; meta-analyses
3.  Conserved and Divergent Roles of Bcr1 and CFEM Proteins in Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e28151.
Candida parapsilosis is a pathogenic fungus that is major cause of hospital-acquired infection, predominantly due to growth as biofilms on indwelling medical devices. It is related to Candida albicans, which remains the most common cause of candidiasis disease in humans. The transcription factor Bcr1 is an important regulator of biofilm formation in vitro in both C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. We show here that C. parapsilosis Bcr1 is required for in vivo biofilm development in a rat catheter model, like C. albicans. By comparing the transcription profiles of a bcr1 deletion in both species we found that regulation of expression of the CFEM family is conserved. In C. albicans, three of the five CFEM cell wall proteins (Rbt5, Pga7 and Csa1) are associated with both biofilm formation and acquisition of iron from heme, which is an important virulence characteristic. In C. parapsilosis, the CFEM family has undergone an expansion to 7 members. Expression of three genes (CFEM2, CFEM3, and CFEM6) is dependent on Bcr1, and is induced in low iron conditions. All three are involved in the acquisition of iron from heme. However, deletion of the three CFEM genes has no effect on biofilm formation in C. parapsilosis. Our data suggest that the role of the CFEM family in iron acquisition is conserved between C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, but their role in biofilm formation is not.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028151
PMCID: PMC3228736  PMID: 22145027
4.  Molecular Genotyping of Candida parapsilosis Group I Clinical Isolates by Analysis of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(3):750-759.
Candida parapsilosis, a pathogenic yeast, is composed of three newly designated genomic species that are physiologically and morphologically indistinguishable. Nosocomial infections caused by group I C. parapsilosis are often associated with the breakdown of infection control practices and the contamination of medical devices, solutions, and indwelling catheters. Due to the low levels of nucleotide sequence variation that are observed, an investigation of the size polymorphisms in loci harboring microsatellite repeat sequences was applied for the typing of C. parapsilosis group I isolates. PCR primer sets that flank the microsatellite repeats for seven loci were designed. Following amplification by PCR, the size of each amplification product was determined automatically by capillary electrophoresis. A total of 42 C. parapsilosis group I isolates were typed by microsatellite analysis, and their profiles were compared to the hybridization profiles obtained by use of the Cp3-13 DNA probe. A high degree of discrimination (discriminatory power = 0.971) was observed by microsatellite analysis. The number of different alleles per locus ranged from 14 for locus B to 5 for locus C. Microsatellite analysis detected 30 different microsatellite genotypes, with 24 genotypes represented by a single isolate. Comparison of the genotypes obtained by microsatellite analysis and those obtained by analysis of the Cp3-13 hybridization profiles showed that they were similar, and these methods were able to identify related and unrelated isolates. Some discrepancies were observed between the methods and may be due to higher mutation rates and/or homoplasy by microsatellite markers. Identical results were observed between microsatellite analysis and Cp3-13 DNA hybridization profile analysis for C. parapsilosis isolates obtained from two patients, demonstrating the reproducibilities of the methods in vivo. Identical microsatellite profiles were observed for isolates displaying different phenotypic switching morphologies. Indistinguishable Cp3-13 DNA hybridization profiles were observed for six epidemiologically related isolates; however, only three of six primary isolates had identical microsatellite profiles. Size variation at a single locus was observed for three of six isolates obtained either after the outbreak period or from a different body site, suggesting the potential of the method to detect microevolutionary events. Interestingly, for most loci a single allele per strain was observed; in contrast, two alleles per locus were observed for some strains, and consistent with the findings for natural isolates, some isolates may be aneuploid. Due to the potential for high throughput, reproducibility, and discrimination, microsatellite analysis may provide a robust and efficient method for the genotyping of large numbers of C. parapsilosis group I isolates.
doi:10.1128/JCM.44.3.750-759.2006
PMCID: PMC1393075  PMID: 16517850
5.  Horizontal Transmission of Candida parapsilosis Candidemia in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(7):2363-2369.
This report describes the nosocomial acquisition of Candida parapsilosis candidemia by one of the six premature newborns housed in the same room of a neonatal intensive care unit at the Ospedale Santa Chiara, Pisa, Italy. The infant had progeria, a disorder characterized by retarded physical development and progressive senile degeneration. The infant, who was not found to harbor C. parapsilosis at the time of his admission to the intensive care unit, had exhibited symptomatic conjunctivitis before the onset of a severe bloodstream infection. In order to evaluate the source of infection and the route of transmission, two independent molecular typing methods were used to determine the genetic relatedness among the isolates recovered from the newborn, the inanimate hospital environment, hospital personnel, topically and intravenously administered medicaments, and indwelling catheters. Among the isolates collected, only those recovered from the hands of two nurses attending the newborns and from both the conjunctiva and the blood of the infected infant were genetically indistinguishable. Since C. parapsilosis was never recovered from indwelling catheters or from any of the drugs administered to the newborn, we concluded that (i) horizontal transmission of C. parapsilosis occurred through direct interaction between nurses and the newborn and (ii) the conjunctiva was the site through which C. parapsilosis entered the bloodstream. This finding highlights the possibility that a previous C. parapsilosis colonization and/or infection of other body sites may be a predisposing condition for subsequent C. parapsilosis hematogenous dissemination in severely ill newborns.
doi:10.1128/JCM.40.7.2363-2369.2002
PMCID: PMC120610  PMID: 12089249
6.  Epidemiologic and Molecular Characterization of an Outbreak of Candida parapsilosis Bloodstream Infections in a Community Hospital 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(10):4468-4472.
Candida parapsilosis is an important cause of bloodstream infections in the health care setting. We investigated a large C. parapsilosis outbreak occurring in a community hospital and conducted a case-control study to determine the risk factors for infection. We identified 22 cases of bloodstream infection with C. parapsilosis: 15 confirmed and 7 possible. The factors associated with an increased risk of infection included hospitalization in the intensive care unit (adjusted odds ratio, 16.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 148.1) and receipt of total parenteral nutrition (adjusted odds ratio, 9.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 98.1). Samples for surveillance cultures were obtained from health care worker hands, central venous catheter insertion sites, and medical devices. Twenty-six percent of the health care workers surveyed demonstrated hand colonization with C. parapsilosis, and one hand isolate was highly related to all case-patient isolates by tests with the DNA probe Cp3-13. Outbreak strain isolates also demonstrated reduced susceptibilities to fluconazole and voriconazole. This largest known reported outbreak of C. parapsilosis bloodstream infections in adults resulted from an interplay of host, environment, and pathogen factors. Recommendations for control measures focused on improving hand hygiene compliance.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.10.4468-4472.2004
PMCID: PMC522355  PMID: 15472295
7.  Sequence and Analysis of the Genome of the Pathogenic Yeast Candida orthopsilosis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e35750.
Candida orthopsilosis is closely related to the fungal pathogen Candida parapsilosis. However, whereas C. parapsilosis is a major cause of disease in immunosuppressed individuals and in premature neonates, C. orthopsilosis is more rarely associated with infection. We sequenced the C. orthopsilosis genome to facilitate the identification of genes associated with virulence. Here, we report the de novo assembly and annotation of the genome of a Type 2 isolate of C. orthopsilosis. The sequence was obtained by combining data from next generation sequencing (454 Life Sciences and Illumina) with paired-end Sanger reads from a fosmid library. The final assembly contains 12.6 Mb on 8 chromosomes. The genome was annotated using an automated pipeline based on comparative analysis of genomes of Candida species, together with manual identification of introns. We identified 5700 protein-coding genes in C. orthopsilosis, of which 5570 have an ortholog in C. parapsilosis. The time of divergence between C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis is estimated to be twice as great as that between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. There has been an expansion of the Hyr/Iff family of cell wall genes and the JEN family of monocarboxylic transporters in C. parapsilosis relative to C. orthopsilosis. We identified one gene from a Maltose/Galactoside O-acetyltransferase family that originated by horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium to the common ancestor of C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. We report that TFB3, a component of the general transcription factor TFIIH, undergoes alternative splicing by intron retention in multiple Candida species. We also show that an intein in the vacuolar ATPase gene VMA1 is present in C. orthopsilosis but not C. parapsilosis, and has a patchy distribution in Candida species. Our results suggest that the difference in virulence between C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis may be associated with expansion of gene families.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035750
PMCID: PMC3338533  PMID: 22563396
8.  Isolates from hospital environments are the most virulent of the Candida parapsilosis complex 
BMC Microbiology  2011;11:180.
Background
Candida parapsilosis is frequently isolated from hospital environments, like air and surfaces, and causes serious nosocomial infections. Molecular studies provided evidence of great genetic diversity within the C. parapsilosis species complex but, despite their growing importance as pathogens, little is known about their potential to cause disease, particularly their interactions with phagocytes. In this study, clinical and environmental C. parapsilosis isolates, and strains of the related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were assayed for their ability to induce macrophage cytotocixity and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, to produce pseudo-hyphae and to secrete hydrolytic enzymes.
Results
Environmental C. parapsilosis isolates caused a statistically significant (p = 0.0002) higher cell damage compared with the clinical strains, while C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were less cytotoxic. On the other hand, clinical isolates induced a higher TNF-α production compared with environmental strains (p < 0.0001). Whereas the amount of TNF-α produced in response to C. orthopsilosis strains was similar to the obtained with C. parapsilosis environmental isolates, it was lower for C. metapsilosis strains. No correlation between pseudo-hyphae formation or proteolytic enzymes secretion and macrophage death was detected (p > 0.05). However, a positive correlation between pseudo-hyphae formation and TNF-α secretion was observed (p = 0.0119).
Conclusions
We show that environmental C. parapsilosis strains are more resistant to phagocytic host defences than bloodstream isolates, being potentially more deleterious in the course of infection than strains from a clinical source. Thus, active environmental surveillance and application of strict cleaning procedures should be implemented in order to prevent cross-infection and hospital outbreaks.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-180
PMCID: PMC3166928  PMID: 21824396
9.  A Naturally Occurring Proline-to-Alanine Amino Acid Change in Fks1p in Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis Accounts for Reduced Echinocandin Susceptibility▿  
Candida parapsilosis has emerged as a common cause of invasive fungal infection, especially in Latin America and in the neonatal setting. C. parapsilosis is part of a closely related group of organisms that includes the species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. All three species show elevated MICs for the new echinocandin class drugs caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin relative to other Candida species. Despite potential impacts on therapy, the mechanism behind this reduced echinocandin susceptibility has not been determined. In this report, we investigated the role of a naturally occurring Pro-to-Ala substitution at amino acid position 660 (P660A), immediately distal to the highly conserved hot spot 1 region of Fks1p, in the reduced-echinocandin-susceptibility phenotype. Kinetic inhibition studies demonstrated that glucan synthase from the C. parapsilosis group was 1 to 2 logs less sensitive to echinocandin drugs than the reference enzyme from C. albicans. Furthermore, clinical isolates of C. albicans and C. glabrata which harbor mutations at this equivalent position also showed comparable 2-log decreases in target enzyme sensitivity, which correlated with increased MICs. These mutations also resulted in 2.4- to 18.8-fold-reduced Vmax values relative to those for the wild-type enzyme, consistent with kinetic parameters obtained for C. parapsilosis group enzymes. Finally, the importance of the P660A substitution for intrinsic resistance was confirmed by engineering an equivalent P647A mutation into Fks1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant glucan synthase displayed characteristic 2-log decreases in sensitivity to the echinocandin drugs. Overall, these data firmly indicate that a naturally occurring P660A substitution in Fks1p from the C. parapsilosis group accounts for the reduced susceptibility phenotype.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00262-08
PMCID: PMC2443908  PMID: 18443110
10.  Candida parapsilosis candidaemia in a neonatal unit over 7 years: a case series study 
BMJ Open  2012;2(4):e000992.
Objective
To evaluate Candida parapsilosis candidaemia in a neonatal unit over 7 years.
Design
Case series study.
Setting
A 2000-bed tertiary-care university hospital at São Paulo, Brazil.
Participants
Neonates hospitalised in a 63-bed neonatal unit.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
We evaluated the incidence of C parapsilosis fungemia in a neonatal unit from 2002 through 2008 and the main microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of this disease in neonates. During the study period an outbreak occurred, an infection control programme was implemented, and isolates from blood and hand healthcare workers (HCWs) were submitted to molecular typing.
Results
During 7 years, there were 36 cases of C parapsilosis fungaemia and annual incidence varied from 0 to 19.7 per 1000 admissions. Evaluating 31 neonates with fungemia, the mean age at diagnosis was 19 days. All children except for one were premature; all had received total parenteral nutrition and all but one had used central venous catheter. Three neonates had received antifungal treatment previously to the diagnosis. Thirty-day mortality was 45%. Only lower birthweight was associated with mortality. C parapsilosis species complex was isolated from hand cultures in eight (11%) of the HCWs (one isolate was identified as C orthopsilosis). By molecular typing no HCW isolate was similar to any of the blood isolates.
Conclusions
The incidence of C parapsilosis fungemia in a neonatal unit varied widely over 7 years. We observed in our series a higher death rate than that reported in European countries and the USA.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000992
PMCID: PMC3425904  PMID: 22869093
Epidemiology; Infection control; Molecular diagnostics; Neonatal intensive & critical care
11.  Targeted gene deletion in Candida parapsilosis demonstrates the role of secreted lipase in virulence  
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2007;117(10):3049-3058.
Candida parapsilosis is a major cause of human disease, yet little is known about the pathogen’s virulence. We have developed an efficient gene deletion system for C. parapsilosis based on the repeated use of the dominant nourseothricin resistance marker (caSAT1) and its subsequent deletion by FLP-mediated, site-specific recombination. Using this technique, we deleted the lipase locus in the C. parapsilosis genome consisting of adjacent genes CpLIP1 and CpLIP2. Additionally we reconstructed the CpLIP2 gene, which restored lipase activity. Lipolytic activity was absent in the null mutants, whereas the WT, heterozygous, and reconstructed mutants showed similar lipase production. Biofilm formation was inhibited with lipase-negative mutants and their growth was significantly reduced in lipid-rich media. The knockout mutants were more efficiently ingested and killed by J774.16 and RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. Additionally, the lipase-negative mutants were significantly less virulent in infection models that involve inoculation of reconstituted human oral epithelium or murine intraperitoneal challenge. These studies represent what we believe to be the first targeted disruption of a gene in C. parapsilosis and show that C. parapsilosis–secreted lipase is involved in disease pathogenesis. This efficient system for targeted gene deletion holds great promise for rapidly enhancing our knowledge of the biology and virulence of this increasingly common invasive fungal pathogen.
doi:10.1172/JCI32294
PMCID: PMC1974868  PMID: 17853941
12.  Genotypic variation and slime production among blood and catheter isolates of Candida parapsilosis. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1994;32(2):452-456.
Candida parapsilosis is an important nosocomial pathogen that can proliferate in high concentrations of glucose and form biofilms on prosthetic materials. We investigated the genotypic diversity and slime production among 31 isolates of C. parapsilosis from individual patients with bloodstream or catheter infections. DNA subtyping was performed by using electrophoretic karyotyping plus restriction endonuclease analysis with BssHII followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Slime production was evaluated by growing organisms in Sabouraud broth with 8% glucose and examining the walls of the tubes for the presence of an adherent slime layer. Overall there were 14 DNA subtypes among the 31 isolates. Eighty percent of the isolates produced slime; 67% of the isolates were moderately to strongly positive, 13% were weakly positive, and 20% were not slime producers. The ability of isolates of a given DNA type to produce slime under these conditions was variable. The results of these studies indicate moderate genotypic variation among clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis. The propensity of these isolates to form slime in glucose-containing solutions suggests that this phenotypic characteristic may contribute to the ability of C. parapsilosis to adhere to plastic catheters and cause infections.
Images
PMCID: PMC263052  PMID: 8150956
13.  Prospective Multicenter Study of the Epidemiology, Molecular Identification, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis Isolated from Patients with Candidemia ▿ 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(12):5590-5596.
A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2%), and Candida metapsilosis (1.1%). Most candidemias (C. parapsilosis, 76.4%; C. orthopsilosis, 70.0%; C. metapsilosis, 100%) were observed in adults. No C. orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis candidemias occurred in neonates. C. parapsilosis was most frequent in adult intensive care unit (28.8%), surgery (20.9%), and internal medicine (19.7%) departments; and C. orthopsilosis was most frequent in hematology (28.6%), pediatrics (12.0%), and neonatology (11.5%) departments. The geographic distribution of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis was not uniform. According to CLSI clinical breakpoints, all C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the nine agents tested. Resistance (MICs > 1 mg/liter) was observed only in C. parapsilosis: amphotericin B, posaconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin (0.3% each), anidulafungin (1.9%), and micafungin (2.5%). Applying the new species-specific fluconazole and echinocandin breakpoints, the rates of resistance to fluconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis increased to 4.8% and 0.3%, respectively; conversely, for C. parapsilosis they shifted from 1.9 to 0.6% (anidulafungin) and from 2.5 to 0.6% (micafungin). Our study confirms the different prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex candidemia among age groups: neither C. orthopsilosis nor C. metapsilosis was isolated from neonates; interestingly, C. metapsilosis was isolated only from adults and the elderly. The disparity in antifungal susceptibility among species could be important for therapy.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00466-11
PMCID: PMC3232769  PMID: 21930869
14.  Inhibition of Candida parapsilosis Fatty Acid Synthase (Fas2) Induces Mitochondrial Cell Death in Serum 
PLoS Pathogens  2012;8(8):e1002879.
We have recently observed that a fatty acid auxotrophic mutant (fatty acid synthase, Fas2Δ/Δ) of the emerging human pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis dies after incubation in various media including serum. In the present study we describe the mechanism for cell death induced by serum and glucose containing media. We show that Fas2Δ/Δ yeast cells are profoundly susceptible to glucose leading us to propose that yeast cells lacking fatty acids exhibit uncontrolled metabolism in response to glucose. We demonstrate that incubation of Fas2Δ/Δ yeast cells with serum leads to cell death, and this process can be prevented with inhibition of protein or DNA synthesis, indicating that newly synthesized cellular components are detrimental to the mutant cells. Furthermore, we have found that cell death is mediated by mitochondria. Suppression of electron transport enzymes using inhibitors such as cyanide or azide prevents ROS overproduction and Fas2Δ/Δ yeast cell death. Additionally, deletion of mitochondrial DNA, which encodes several subunits for enzymes of the electron transport chain, significantly reduces serum-induced Fas2Δ/Δ yeast cell death. Therefore, our results show that serum and glucose media induce Fas2Δ/Δ yeast cell death by triggering unbalanced metabolism, which is regulated by mitochondria. To our knowledge, this is the first study to critically define a link between cytosolic fatty acid synthesis and mitochondrial function in response to serum stress in C. parapsilosis.
Author Summary
Candida parapsilosis is a human opportunistic pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised individuals such as premature, low-birthweight neonates. Our prior studies have indicated that C. parapsilosis effectively utilizes fatty acids/lipids for growth and virulence. We now show that inhibition of the fatty acid synthase (Fas2) results in a hypersensitivity to serum, indicating that yeast cell survival and replication in serum medium or in vivo is dependent on Fas2. Serum hypersensitivity of Fas2-inhibited yeast cells is due to mitochondrial mediated dysregulation of metabolism. Thus, we conclude that Fas2 is candidate antifungal target to combat disseminated fungal infections.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002879
PMCID: PMC3431346  PMID: 22952445
15.  Kinetic studies of Candida parapsilosis phagocytosis by macrophages and detection of intracellular survival mechanisms 
Even though the number of Candida infections due to non-albicans species like C. parapsilosis has been increasing, little is known about their pathomechanisms. Certain aspects of C. parapsilosis and host interactions have already been investigated; however we lack information about the innate cellular responses toward this species. The aim of our project was to dissect and compare the phagocytosis of C. parapsilosis to C. albicans and to another Candida species C. glabrata by murine and human macrophages by live cell video microscopy. We broke down the phagocytic process into three stages: macrophage migration, engulfment of fungal cells and host cell killing after the uptake. Our results showed increased macrophage migration toward C. parapsilosis and we observed differences during the engulfment processes when comparing the three species. The engulfment time of C. parapsilosis was comparable to that of C. albicans regardless of the pseudohypha length and spatial orientation relative to phagocytes, while the rate of host cell killing and the overall uptake regarding C. parapsilosis showed similarities mainly with C. glabrata. Furthermore, we observed difference between human and murine phagocytes in the uptake of C. parapsilosis. UV-treatment of fungal cells had varied effects on phagocytosis dependent upon which Candida strain was used. Besides statistical analysis, live cell imaging videos showed that this species similarly to the other two also has the ability to survive in host cells via the following mechanisms: yeast replication, and pseudohypha growth inside of phagocytes, exocytosis of fungal cells and also abortion of host cell mitosis following the uptake. According to our knowledge this is the first study that provides a thorough examination of C. parapsilosis phagocytosis and reports intracellular survival mechanisms associated with this species.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00633
PMCID: PMC4238376  PMID: 25477874
video microscopy; phagocytic stages; Candida parapsilosis; intracellular survival mechanisms; pseudohypha uptake
16.  Candida parapsilosis fungemia associated with parenteral nutrition and contaminated blood pressure transducers. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1987;25(6):1029-1032.
During the period September 1983 through May 1985, Candida parapsilosis was isolated from intravascular sites (blood or vascular catheter tips) in 12 patients at a pediatric hospital. Of 205 patients with cultures of any site positive for Candida species, 32 (16%) had cultures positive for C. parapsilosis. In contrast, of 23 patients with intravascular cultures positive for Candida species, 12 (51%) had cultures positive for C. parapsilosis (P less than 0.001, Fisher's exact test). The 12 patients with intravascular cultures positive for C. parapsilosis were more likely to have received central venous nutrition therapy (10 of 12 versus 7 of 23; P less than 0.01, Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test) and had a longer duration of exposure to blood pressure transducers (P less than 0.08, paired t test) than the 23 ward- and age-matched controls. C. parapsilosis was isolated from 11 (32%) of 34 in-use and stored blood pressure transducers. After ethylene oxide sterilization of blood pressure transducers was begun, in-use pressure transducers showed no growth of C. parapsilosis. This study emphasizes the role of C. parapsilosis as a nosocomial pathogen associated with invasive devices and parenteral nutrition; it also emphasizes the importance of adhering to recommended procedures for sterilizing blood pressure transducers.
PMCID: PMC269130  PMID: 3110206
17.  Optimal Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution, Using Different Combinations of Minocycline, EDTA, and 25-Percent Ethanol, Rapidly Eradicates Organisms Embedded in Biofilm▿  
Antimicrobial lock solutions may be needed to salvage indwelling catheters in patients requiring continuous intravenous therapy. We determined the activity of minocycline, EDTA, and 25% ethanol, alone or in combination, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida parapsilosis catheter-related bloodstream infection strains in two established models of biofilm colonization. Biofilm-colonized catheter segments from a modified Robbins device and a silicone disk biofilm colonization model were exposed to these antimicrobial agents for 15 or 60 min, respectively. After exposure, segments were sonicated and cultured. To determine regrowth after incubation at 37°C, following the brief exposure to the antimicrobial agents, an equal number of segments were washed, reincubated for 24 h, and then sonicated and cultured. The triple combination of minocycline-EDTA (M-EDTA) in 25% ethanol was the only antimicrobial lock solution that completely eradicated S. aureus and C. parapsilosis in biofilm of all segments tested in the two models, and it completely prevented regrowth. In addition, M-EDTA in 25% ethanol was significantly more effective in rapidly eradicating the growth or regrowth of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and C. parapsilosis biofilm colonization in the two models than the other solutions—minocycline, EDTA, M-EDTA, 25% ethanol, and EDTA in ethanol. We conclude that M-EDTA in 25% ethanol is highly effective at rapidly eradicating S. aureus and C. parapsilosis embedded in biofilm adhering to catheter segments.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00154-06
PMCID: PMC1797642  PMID: 17074799
18.  Nosocomial candiduria in chronic liver disease patients at a hepatobilliary center  
Background:
Nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in catheterized patients. Fungal UTI has become an important nosocomial problem over the past decade. The microbiology of candiduria is rapidly evolving and new trends are being reported.
Aims:
To study the microbiological trends and antifungal resistance profile of Candida in urine of catheterized chronic liver disease (CLD) patients at a super specialty hepatobiliary tertiary-care center.
Materials and Methods:
urine samples were collected by sterile technique, processed by semi-quantitative method as per the standard protocols. Direct microscopic examination of urine sample was also done to look for the presence of pus cells, red blood cells, casts, crystals or any bacterial or fungal element.
Result:
A total of 337 yeast isolates were obtained from catheterized patients, non-albicans Candida spp. emerged as the predominant pathogen and was responsible for 67.06% of nosocomial fungal UTI. Candida tropicalis accounted for 34.71% of the cases, whereas Candida albicans grew in 32.93%, Candida glabrata 16.32%, rare Candida spp. Nearly 11.5% (Candida hemolunii to be confirmed by molecular methods). Antifungal sensitivity varied non-albicans species except C. tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis were more often resistant to antifungal drugs.
Conclusion:
Nosocomial Candida UTIs in CLD patients is common, due to the cumulative pressure of contributing factors such as urinary instrumentation and prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Non-albicans Candida were found to outnumber C. albicans in catherized CLD patients. Risk of strain persistence is also higher with non-albicans Candida. Thus, species identification and susceptibility testing is a must for appropriate management of such patients.
doi:10.4103/0972-5229.130575
PMCID: PMC4033857  PMID: 24872653
Candida; candiduria; catheterized; chronic liver disease; nosocomial
19.  Epidemiology and Antifungal Susceptibility of Bloodstream Fungal Isolates in Pediatric Patients: a Spanish Multicenter Prospective Survey ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(12):4158-4163.
Data on fungemia epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of isolates from children are scarce, leading frequently to pediatric empirical treatment based on available adult data. The present study was designed to update the epidemiological, mycological, and in vitro susceptibility data on fungal isolates from children with fungemia in Spain. All fungemia episodes were identified prospectively by blood culture over 13 months at 30 hospitals. Tests of susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin were performed at participant institutions by a microdilution colorimetric method. New species-specific clinical breakpoints for fluconazole, voriconazole, and echinocandins were also applied. A total of 203 episodes of fungemia in 200 children were identified. A higher proportion of fungal isolates was from general wards than intensive care units (ICU). Candida parapsilosis (46.8%), Candida albicans (36.5%), Candida tropicalis (5.9%), Candida glabrata (3.9%), and Candida guilliermondii (2.5%) were the leading species. C. parapsilosis was the predominant species except in neonates. C. albicans was the most frequent in neonatal ICU settings (51.9%). Intravascular catheter (79.3%), surgery (35%), prematurity (30%), and neutropenia (11%) were the most frequent predisposing factors. Most Candida isolates (95.1%) were susceptible to all antifungals. When the new species-specific clinical breakpoints were applied, all C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to echinocandins except one, which was micafungin resistant. This is the largest published series of fungemia episodes in the pediatric setting. C. parapsilosis is the most prevalent species in Spain, followed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Resistance to azole and echinocandin agents is extremely rare among Candida species. The fluconazole resistance rate in Spain has decreased in the last 10 years.
doi:10.1128/JCM.05474-11
PMCID: PMC3232947  PMID: 22012014
20.  Biofilm Production by Isolates of Candida Species Recovered from Nonneutropenic Patients: Comparison of Bloodstream Isolates with Isolates from Other Sources 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(4):1244-1248.
Biofilm production has been implicated as a potential virulence factor of some Candida species responsible for catheter-related fungemia in patients receiving parenteral nutrition. We therefore compared clinical bloodstream isolates representing seven different Candida species to each other and to those from other anatomical sites for the capacity to form biofilms in glucose-containing medium. Potential associations between the capacity to form biofilms and the clinical characteristics of fungemia were also analyzed. Isolates included the following from nonneutropenic patients: 101 bloodstream isolates (35 C. parapsilosis, 30 C. albicans, 18 C. tropicalis, 8 C. glabrata, and 10 other Candida species isolates) and 259 clinical isolates from other body sites (116 C. albicans, 53 C. glabrata, 43 C. tropicalis, 17 C. parapsilosis, and 30 other Candida species isolates). Organisms were grown in Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB) containing a final concentration of 8% glucose to induce biofilm formation, as published previously. Biofilm production was determined by both visual and spectrophotometric methods. In this medium, biofilm production by C. albicans isolates was significantly less frequent (8%) than that by non-C. albicans Candida species (61%; P < 0.0001). The overall proportion of non-C. albicans Candida species isolates from the blood that produced biofilms was significantly higher than that of non-C. albicans Candida isolates obtained from other sites (79% versus 52%; P = 0.0001). Bloodstream isolates of C. parapsilosis alone were significantly more likely to be biofilm positive than were C. parapsilosis isolates from other sites (86% versus 47%; P = 0.0032). Non-C. albicans Candida species, including C. parapsilosis, were more likely to be biofilm positive if isolates were derived from patients whose candidemia was central venous catheter (CVC) related (95%; P < 0.0001) and was associated with the use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (94%; P < 0.005). These data suggest that the capacity of Candida species isolates to produce biofilms in vitro in glucose-containing SDB may be a reflection of the pathogenic potential of these isolates to cause CVC-related fungemia in patients receiving TPN.
doi:10.1128/JCM.40.4.1244-1248.2002
PMCID: PMC140345  PMID: 11923339
21.  Prevalence, Distribution, and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Candida parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis in a Tertiary Care Hospital▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(8):2392-2397.
Candida parapsilosis, an emergent agent of nosocomial infections, was previously made up of a complex of three genetically distinct groups (groups I, II, and III). Recently, the C. parapsilosis groups have been renamed as distinct species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. In Portugal, no data pertaining to the distribution and antifungal susceptibility of these Candida species are yet available. In the present report, we describe the incidence and distribution of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis among 175 clinical and environmental isolates previously identified by conventional methods as C. parapsilosis. We also evaluated the in vitro susceptibilities of the isolates to fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and two echinocandins, caspofungin and anidulafungin. Of the 175 isolates tested, 160 (91.4%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 4 (2.3%) were identified as C. orthopsilosis, and 5 (2.9%) were identified as C. metapsilosis. Six isolates corresponded to species other than the C. parapsilosis group. Interestingly, all isolates from blood cultures corresponded to C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility profile showed that only nine (5.6%) C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were susceptible-dose dependent or resistant to fluconazole, and a single strain displayed a multiazole-resistant phenotype; two (1.3%) C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were amphotericin B resistant. All C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to azoles and amphotericin B. A high number of strains were nonsusceptible to the echinocandins (caspofungin and anidulafungin).
doi:10.1128/JCM.02379-08
PMCID: PMC2725652  PMID: 19494078
22.  A risk factor analysis of healthcare-associated fungal infections in an intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study 
Background
The incidence of fungal healthcare-associated infection (HAI) has increased in a major teaching hospital in the northern part of Taiwan over the past decade, especially in the intensive care units (ICUs). The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that were responsible for the outbreak and trend in the ICU.
Methods
Surveillance fungal cultures were obtained from “sterile” objects, antiseptic solutions, environment of infected patients and hands of medical personnel. Risk factors for comparison included age, gender, admission service, and total length of stay in the ICU, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores at admission to the ICU, main diagnosis on ICU admission, use of invasive devices, receipt of hemodialysis, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, history of antibiotic therapy before HAI or during ICU stay in no HAI group, and ICU discharge status (ie, dead or alive). Univariable analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent risk factors for ICU fungal HAIs and ICU mortality.
Results
There was a significant trend in ICU fungal HAIs from 1998 to 2009 (P < 0.001). A total of 516 episodes of ICU fungal HAIs were identified; the rates of various infections were urinary tract infection (UTI) (54.8%), blood stream infection (BSI) (30.6%), surgical site infection (SSI) (6.6%), pneumonia (4.5%), other sites (3.5%). The fungi identified were: yeasts (54.8%), Candida albicans (27.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.6%), Candida glabrata (6.6%), Candida parapsilosis (1.9%), Candida species (0.8%), and other fungi (1.9%). Candida albicans accounted for 63% of all Candida species. Yeasts were found in the environment of more heavily infected patients. The independent risk factors (P < 0.05) of developing ICU fungal HAIs from all sites were TPN use, sepsis, surgical patients, mechanical ventilation and an indwelling urinary catheter. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal UTI included TPN use, mechanical ventilation and an indwelling urinary catheter. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal BSI included TPN use, sepsis, and higher APACHE II score. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal pneumonia included TPN use, surgical patients. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal SSI included surgical patients, and TPN use. The odds ratios of TPN use in various infection types ranged from 3.51 to 8.82. The risk of mortality in patients with ICU fungal HAIs was over 2 times that of patients without ICU HAIs in the multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
There was a secular trend of an increasing number of fungal HAIs in our ICU over the past decade. Patients with ICU fungal HAIs had a significantly higher mortality rate than did patients without ICU HAIs. Total parenteral nutrition was a significant risk factor for all types of ICU fungal HAIs, and its use should be monitored closely.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-10
PMCID: PMC3548709  PMID: 23298156
Intensive care unit; Fungal infection; Outbreak surveillance; Candida; Total parenteral nutrition
23.  Biofilm Production by Candida Species and Inadequate Antifungal Therapy as Predictors of Mortality for Patients with Candidemia▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(6):1843-1850.
Nosocomial Candida bloodstream infections rank among infections with highest mortality rates. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted at Catholic University Hospital to estimate the risk factors for mortality of patients with candidemia. We reviewed records for patients with a Candida bloodstream infection over a 5-year period (January 2000 through December 2004). Two hundred ninety-four patients (42.1% male; mean age ± standard deviation, 65 ± 12 years) were studied. Patients most commonly were admitted with a surgical diagnosis (162 patients [55.1%]), had a central venous catheter (213 [72.4%]), cancer (118 [40.1%]), or diabetes (58 [19.7%]). One hundred fifty-four (52.3%) patients died within 30 days. Of 294 patients, 168 (57.1%) were infected by Candida albicans, 64 (21.7%) by Candida parapsilosis, 28 (9.5%) by Candida tropicalis, and 26 (8.8%) by Candida glabrata. When fungal isolates were tested for biofilm formation capacity, biofilm production was most commonly observed for isolates of C. tropicalis (20 of 28 patients [71.4%]), followed by C. glabrata (6 of 26 [23.1%]), C. albicans (38 of 168 [22.6%]), and C. parapsilosis (14 of 64 [21.8%]). Multivariable analysis identified inadequate antifungal therapy (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.09 to 5.10; P = 0.03), infection with overall biofilm-forming Candida species (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.26 to 4.30; P = 0.007), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scores (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.15; P < 0.001) as independent predictors of mortality. Notably, if mortality was analyzed according to the different biofilm-forming Candida species studied, only infections caused by C. albicans (P < 0.001) and C. parapsilosis (P = 0.003) correlated with increased mortality. Together with well-established factors, Candida biofilm production was therefore shown to be associated with greater mortality of patients with candidemia, probably by preventing complete organism eradication from the blood.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00131-07
PMCID: PMC1933062  PMID: 17460052
24.  Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Prognosis of Candida parapsilosis Bloodstream Infections: Case-Control Population-Based Surveillance Study of Patients in Barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(5):1681-1685.
Candida parapsilosis has emerged as an important yeast species causing fungemia. We describe the incidence and epidemiology of C. parapsilosis fungemia. Data from active population-based surveillance in Barcelona, Spain, from January 2002 to December 2003 were analyzed. We focused on 78 episodes of C. parapsilosis fungemia, and we compared them with 175 Candida albicans controls. C. parapsilosis accounted for 23% of all fungemias. The annual incidences were 1 episode per 105 patients, 1.2 episodes per 104 discharges, and 1.7 episodes per 105 patient days. All isolates but one (99%) were fluconazole susceptible. Seventy-two isolates (92%) were inpatient candidemias. Forty-two episodes (51%) were considered catheter-related fungemia, 35 (45%) were considered primary fungemia, and 3 (4%) were considered secondary fungemia. Risk factors for candidemia were vascular catheterization (97%), prior antibiotic therapy (91%), parenteral nutrition (54%), prior surgery (46%), prior immunosuppressive therapy (38%), malignancy (27%), prior antifungal infection (26%), transplant recipient (16%), neutropenia (12%), and prior colonization (11%). Multivariate analysis of the differential characteristics showed that the factors that independently predicted the presence of C. parapsilosis fungemia were neonate patients (odds ratio [OR], 7.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 26.8; P = 0.002), transplant recipients (OR, 9.2; 95% CI, 1.9 to 43.3; P = 0.005), patients with a history of prior antifungal therapy (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.8 to 15.9; P = 0.002), and patients who received parenteral nutrition (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.09 to 4.6; P = 0.028). The overall mortality rate was lower than that associated with C. albicans candidemia (23% versus 43%; P < 0.01). In summary, C. parapsilosis was responsible for 23% of all candidemias and was more frequent in neonates, in transplant recipients, and in patients who received parenteral nutrition or previous antifungal therapy, mainly fluconazole. The mortality rate was lower than that associated with C. albicans fungemia.
doi:10.1128/JCM.44.5.1681-1685.2006
PMCID: PMC1479182  PMID: 16672393
25.  Emergence of Fluconazole Resistance in a Candida parapsilosis Strain That Caused Infections in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(6):2729-2735.
Candida parapsilosis is an increasing cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). It has been a persistent problem in the NICU of Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, since 1987. Fluconazole prophylaxis has been used to control the problem. The number of new infections has, however, increased markedly since September 2000. We assessed fluconazole consumption and occurrence of all Candida species in the NICU from 1991 to 2002. C. parapsilosis bloodstream isolates obtained in the NICU from 1990 to 2002 (n = 26) were genotyped and their fluconazole susceptibility was defined. A low rate of C. parapsilosis BSIs was correlated with high rates of consumption of fluconazole. No emergence of Candida species with primary resistance to fluconazole was detected. However, genotyping with a complex DNA fingerprinting probe revealed that a single strain of C. parapsilosis with decreasing susceptibility to fluconazole was responsible for cross-infections that caused BSIs in the NICU over a 12-year period. The emergence of fluconazole resistance in that strain was observed after more than 10 years of fluconazole prophylaxis.
doi:10.1128/JCM.43.6.2729-2735.2005
PMCID: PMC1151957  PMID: 15956390

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