The role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-1 (NOD1) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2), cytoplasmic receptors which detect bacterial cell wall molecules, in pulmonary innate immune responses is poorly understood. We determined that both NOD1 and NOD2 detect heat-killed Legionella and stimulate NF-κb and IFN-β promoter activity using an in vitro luciferase reporter system. We next infected NOD1- and NOD2-deficient animals with aerosolized Legionella pneumophila. At 3 days post infection, Nod1–/– mice had impaired bacterial clearance compared to WT controls. In addition, at 4 h and 24 h, Nod1–/– mice had impaired neutrophil recruitment to the alveolar space. In contrast, increased lung neutrophils were seen in the Nod2–/– animals at 24 h. Analysis of cytokine production at 4 h post infection revealed a significant decrease in proinflammatory cytokines in the Nod1–/– animals when compared to WT animals. In contrast, increased 4-h proinflammatory cytokines were seen in the Nod2–/– animals. Furthermore, the lungs of both Nod1–/– and Nod2–/– mice had significantly increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels at 24 h, suggesting possible suppressive roles for later stages of infection. Together, our data suggest that although both NOD1 and NOD2 can detect Legionella, these receptors modulate the in vivo pulmonary immune response differently.
Legionella pneumophila; NOD1; NOD2; Pneumonia
We analyzed the defensive role of the cytosolic innate recognition receptor nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) during infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Mice lacking NOD1 showed increased susceptibility to systemic intraperitoneal and intravenous infection with high or low doses of L. monocytogenes, as measured by the bacterial load and survival. NOD1 also controlled dissemination of L. monocytogenes into the brain. The increased susceptibility to reinfection of NOD1−/− mice was not associated with impaired triggering of listeria-specific T cells, and similar levels of costimulatory molecules or activation of dendritic cells was observed. Higher numbers of F480+ Gr1+ inflammatory monocytes and lower numbers of F480− Gr1+ neutrophils were recruited into the peritoneum of infected WT mice than into the peritoneum of infected NOD1−/− mice. We determined that nonhematopoietic cells accounted for NOD1-mediated resistance to L. monocytogenes in bone marrow radiation chimeras. The levels of NOD1 mRNA in fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) were upregulated after infection with L. monocytogenes or stimulation with different Toll-like receptor ligands. NOD1−/− BMM, astrocytes, and fibroblasts all showed enhanced intracellular growth of L monocytogenes compared to WT controls. Gamma interferon-mediated nitric oxide production and inhibition of L. monocytogenes growth were hampered in NOD1−/− BMM. Thus, NOD1 confers nonhematopoietic cell-mediated resistance to infection with L. monocytogenes and controls intracellular bacterial growth in different cell populations in vitro.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs) are modular cytoplasmic proteins implicated in the recognition of peptidoglycan-derived molecules. Further, several in vivo studies have demonstrated a role for Nod1 and Nod2 in host defense against bacterial pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that macrophages from NOD1-, NOD2-, and Rip2-deficient mice produced lower levels of TNF-α following infection with live Brucella abortus compared to wild-type mice. Similar reduction on cytokine synthesis was not observed for IL-12 and IL-6. However, NOD1, NOD2, and Rip2 knockout mice were no more susceptible to infection with virulent B. abortus than wild-type mice. Additionally, spleen cells from NOD1-, NOD2-, and Rip2-deficient mice showed unaltered production of IFN-γ compared to C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, this study demonstrates that NOD1, NOD2 and Rip2 are dispensable for the control of B. abortus during in vivo infection.
Here we investigated the role of the Nod/Rip2 pathway in host responses to Chlamydophila pneumoniae–induced pneumonia in mice. Rip2−/− mice infected with C. pneumoniae exhibited impaired iNOS expression and NO production, and delayed neutrophil recruitment to the lungs. Levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ levels as well as KC and MIP-2 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were significantly decreased in Rip2−/− mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice at day 3. Rip2−/− mice showed significant delay in bacterial clearance from the lungs and developed more severe and chronic lung inflammation that continued even on day 35 and led to increased mortality, whereas WT mice cleared the bacterial load, recovered from acute pneumonia, and survived. Both Nod1−/− and Nod2−/− mice also showed delayed bacterial clearance, suggesting that C. pneumoniae is recognized by both of these intracellular receptors. Bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrated that Rip2 in BM-derived cells rather than non-hematopoietic stromal cells played a key role in host responses in the lungs and clearance of C. pneumoniae. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of WT macrophages intratracheally was able to rescue the bacterial clearance defect in Rip2−/− mice. These results demonstrate that in addition to the TLR/MyD88 pathway, the Nod/Rip2 signaling pathway also plays a significant role in intracellular recognition, innate immune host responses, and ultimately has a decisive impact on clearance of C. pneumoniae from the lungs and survival of the infectious challenge.
Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is a common intracellular parasite that causes lung infections and contributes to several diseases characterized by chronic inflammation. Toll-like receptors expressed on the cell surface detect C. pneumoniae and mount a vigorous defense, but it is not known how the cell defends itself once the pathogen has taken up residence as a parasite. We reasoned that cytosolic pattern recognition receptors called Nods (nucleotide oligomerization domain) that detect microbes that gain entry into the cell might be involved. Using mice genetically deficient in Nod1 and Nod2 or their common downstream adaptor (Rip2), we show that in lung infection, Nod proteins are indeed essential in directing a defense against C. pneumoniae. Mice with defective Nod/Rip2-dependent signaling exhibited delayed recruitment of neutrophils, blunted production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and evidence of defective iNOS expression and NO production. These impaired responses led to delayed clearance of bacteria, intense persistent lung inflammation, and increased mortality. By performing bone marrow transplantation experiments and direct transfer of cells into the lungs of mice, we demonstrated that intact Nod-dependent signaling in bone marrow–derived cells was critical in the defense against C. pneumoniae. Our results indicate that Nod proteins also play an important role in host defense against C. pneumoniae. Coordinated and sequential activation of TLR and Nod signaling pathways may be necessary for an efficient immune response and host defense against C. pneumoniae.
The innate immune system surveys the extra- and intracellular environment for the presence of microbes. Among the intracellular sensors is a protein known as Nod2, a cytosolic protein containing a leucine-rich repeat domain. Nod2 is believed to play a role in determining host responses to invasive bacteria. A key element in upregulating host defense involves activation of the NF-κB pathway. It has been suggested through indirect studies that NF-κB-inducing kinase, or NIK, may be involved in Nod2 signaling. Here we have used macrophages derived from primary explants of bone marrow from wild-type mice and mice that either bear a mutation in NIK, rendering it inactive, or are derived from NIK−/− mice, in which the NIK gene has been deleted. We show that NIK binds to Nod2 and mediates induction of specific changes induced by the specific Nod2 activator, muramyl dipeptide, and that the role of NIK occurs in settings where both the Nod2 and TLR4 pathways are activated by their respective agonists. Specifically, we have linked NIK to the induction of the B-cell chemoattractant known as BLC and suggest that this chemokine may play a role in processes initiated by Nod2 activation that lead to improved host defense.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) polymorphisms are independent risk factors for Crohn's disease and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In Crohn's disease, the proinflammatory state resulting from NOD2 mutations have been associated with a loss of antibacterial function of enterocytes such as paneth cells. NOD2 has not been studied in experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Using chimeric recipients with NOD2−/− hematopoietic cells, we demonstrate that NOD2 deficiency in host hematopoietic cells exacerbates GVHD. We found that proliferation and activation of donor T cells was enhanced in NOD-deficient allo-BMT recipients, suggesting that NOD2 plays a role in the regulation of host antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Next, we used bone marrow chimeras in an experimental colitis model and observed again that NOD2 deficiency in the hematopoietic cells results in increased intestinal inflammation. We conclude that NOD2 regulates the development of GVHD through its inhibitory effect on host APC function.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), which causes tuberculosis, is a host-adapted intracellular pathogen of macrophages. Intracellular pattern recognition receptors in macrophages such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production. NOD2-mediated signalling pathways in response to M.tb have been studied primarily in mouse models and cell lines but not in primary human macrophages. Thus we sought to determine the role of NOD2 in regulating cytokine production and growth of virulent M.tb and attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) in human macrophages. We examined NOD2 expression during monocyte differentiation and observed a marked increase in NOD2 transcript and protein following 2–3 days in culture. Pre-treatment of human monocyte-derived and alveolar macrophages with the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide enhanced production of TNF-α and IL-1β in response to M.tb and BCG in a RIP2-dependent fashion. The NOD2-mediated cytokine response was significantly reduced following knock-down of NOD2 expression by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in human macrophages. Finally, NOD2 controlled the growth of both M.tb and BCG in human macrophages, whereas controlling only BCG growth in murine macrophages. Together, our results provide evidence that NOD2 is an important intracellular receptor in regulating the host response to M.tb and BCG infection in human macrophages.
Diabetes is a frequent underlying medical condition among individuals with Staphylococcus aureus infections, and diabetic patients often suffer from chronic inflammation and prolonged infections. Neutrophils are the most abundant inflammatory cells during the early stages of bacterial diseases, and previous studies have reported deficiencies in neutrophil function in diabetic hosts. We challenged age-matched hyperglycemic and normoglycemic NOD mice intraperitoneally with S. aureus and evaluated the fate of neutrophils recruited to the peritoneal cavity. Neutrophils were more abundant in the peritoneal fluids of infected diabetic mice by 48 h after bacterial inoculation, and they showed prolonged viability ex vivo compared to neutrophils from infected nondiabetic mice. These differences correlated with reduced apoptosis of neutrophils from diabetic mice and were dependent upon the presence of S. aureus and a functional neutrophil respiratory burst. Decreased apoptosis correlated with impaired clearance of neutrophils by macrophages both in vitro and in vivo and prolonged production of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha by neutrophils from diabetic mice. Our results suggest that defects in neutrophil apoptosis may contribute to the chronic inflammation and the inability to clear staphylococcal infections observed in diabetic patients.
The internalization of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, by phagocytes is essential for an effective activation of the immune response to this pathogen. The intracellular, cytosolic receptor Nod2 has been shown to play varying roles in either enhancing or attenuating inflammation in response to different infectious agents. We examined the role of Nod2 in responses to B. burgdorferi. In vitro stimulation of Nod2 deficient bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) resulted in decreased induction of multiple cytokines, interferons and interferon regulated genes compared with wild-type cells. However, B. burgdorferi infection of Nod2 deficient mice resulted in increased rather than decreased arthritis and carditis compared to control mice. We explored multiple potential mechanisms for the paradoxical response in in vivo versus in vitro systems and found that prolonged stimulation with a Nod2 ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP), resulted in tolerance to stimulation by B. burgdorferi. This tolerance was lost with stimulation of Nod2 deficient cells that cannot respond to MDP. Cytokine patterns in the tolerance model closely paralleled cytokine profiles in infected Nod2 deficient mice. We propose a model where Nod2 has an enhancing role in activating inflammation in early infection, but moderates inflammation after prolonged exposure to the organism through induction of tolerance.
Bacterial pneumonia remains a significant cause of mortality in the United States. The innate immune response is the first line of defense against invading bacteria. Neutrophil recruitment to the lungs is the first step in a multistep sequence leading to bacterial clearance. Ligand interaction with pattern-recognizing receptors (PRRs) leads to chemokine production, which drives neutrophils to the site of infection. Although we demonstrated that RIP2 is important for host defense in the lungs against Escherichia coli, the individual roles of NOD1 and NOD2 in pulmonary defense have not been addressed. Here, we explored the role of NOD2 in neutrophil-mediated host defense against an extracellular pathogen, E. coli. We found enhanced bacterial burden and reduced neutrophil and cytokine/chemokine levels in the lungs of NOD2−/− mice following E. coli infection. Furthermore, we observed reduced activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the lungs of NOD2−/− mice upon E. coli challenge. Moreover, NOD2−/− neutrophils show impaired intracellular bacterial killing. Using NOD2/RIP2−/− mice, we observed bacterial burden and neutrophil accumulation in the lungs similar to those seen with NOD2−/− mice. In addition, bone marrow-derived macrophages obtained from NOD2/RIP2−/− mice demonstrate a reduction in activation of NF-κB and MAPKs similar to that seen with NOD2−/− mice in response to E. coli. These findings unveil a previously unrecognized role of the NOD2-RIP2 axis for host defense against extracellular Gram-negative bacteria. This pathway may represent a novel target for the treatment of lung infection/inflammation.
The nucleotide-oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins are members of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, which are intracellular and cytoplasmic receptors. We analyzed the role of NODs for cytokine production by macrophages infected with intracellular pathogen M. leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α was inhibited in the presence of cytochalasin D, an agent blocking phagocytosis, suggesting that intracellular signaling was, partially, required for macrophage activation to M. leprae infection. Next, we investigated the role of NOD1 and NOD2 proteins on NF-κB activation and cytokine expression. Treatment with M. leprae significantly increased NF-κB activation and expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in NOD1- and NOD2-transfected cells. Interestingly, their activation and expression were inhibited by cytochalasin D, suggesting that stimulation of NOD proteins may be associated with the enhancement of cytokine production in host to M. leprae.
Mycobacterium leprae; Cytokine; Cytochalasin D; NOD
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the sensing of microbially derived compounds. We analyzed the contribution of these receptors to cytokine production by macrophages following stimulation with whole bacteria. Using knockout mice, we confirmed that the TLR4 and TLR2 contribution was predominant in the induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 by gram-negative bacteria. In contrast, the absence of TLR2 and/or TLR4 or TLR9 did not affect the response to gram-positive bacteria. In the absence of TLR2, phagocytosis was essential for cytokine production in response to heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus (HKSA). Because intracellular sensing was important in the absence of TLR2, we evaluated the contribution of Nod1 and Nod2, intracytoplasmic sensors of peptidoglycan-derived muropeptides, to the response to HKSA. By transfecting RAW 264.7 macrophages with dominant negative (DN) forms of Nod1 and Nod2, we showed that both molecules inhibited NF-κB activation in response to HKSA. The unexpected interference of DN Nod1 in the response of macrophages to gram-positive bacteria was confirmed with a Nod2 agonist (muramyl dipeptide) in transfection experiments with HEK293T cell. Taken together, these results show the contribution of phagocytosis and Nod molecules to the response to HKSA in macrophages and also identify possible cross talk between Nod1 and Nod2.
NOD2, an intracellular pathogen recognition sensor, modulates innate defences to muropeptides derived from various bacterial species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Experimentally, NOD2 attenuates two key putative mycobactericidal mechanisms. TNF-α synthesis is markedly reduced in MTB-antigen stimulated-mononuclear cells expressing mutant NOD2 proteins. NOD2 agonists also induce resistance to apoptosis, and may thus facilitate the survival of MTB in infected macrophages. To further define a role for NOD2 in disease pathogenesis, we analysed NOD2 transcriptional responses in pulmonary leucocytes and mononuclear cells harvested from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).
We analysed NOD2 mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain-reaction in alveolar lavage cells obtained from 15 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and their matched controls. We compared NOD2 transcriptional responses, in peripheral leucocytes, before and after anti-tuberculous treatment in 10 patients. In vitro, we measured NOD2 mRNA levels in MTB-antigen stimulated-mononuclear cells.
No significant differences in NOD2 transcriptional responses were detected in patients and controls. In some patients, however, NOD2 expression was markedly increased and correlated with toll-like-receptor 2 and 4 expression. In whole blood, NOD2 mRNA levels increased significantly after completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment. NOD2 expression levels did not change significantly in mononuclear cells stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro.
There are no characteristic NOD2 transcriptional responses in PTB. Nonetheless, the increased levels of NOD2 expression in some patients with severe tuberculosis, and the increases in expression levels within peripheral leucocytes following treatment merit further studies in selected patient and control populations.
Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are cytosolic sensors for microbial molecules. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)1 and NOD2 recognize the peptidoglycan derivatives, meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP), respectively, and trigger host innate immune responses. In the present study, we examined the function of NOD1 and NOD2 on innate immune responses in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. The gene expression of NOD1 and NOD2 was examined by RT-PCR. IL-6 and IL-8 production in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in response to Tri-DAP and MDP. The genes of NOD1 and NOD2 appeared to be expressed in PDL cells. Although the levels of NOD2 expression were weak in intact cells, MDP stimulation increased the gene expression of NOD2 in PDL cells. Tri-DAP and MDP led to the production of IL-6 and IL-8 and the activation of NF-κB and MAPK in PDL cells. Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation led to increased gene expression of NOD1 and NOD2 in PDL cells. Pam3CSK4 (a TLR2 agonist) and IFN-γ synergized with Tri-DAP and MDP to produce IL-8 and IL-6 in PDL cells. Our results indicate that NOD1 and NOD2 are functionally expressed in human PDL cells and can trigger innate immune responses.
nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2; immune response; periodontal ligament cells
The development of autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is controlled by at least three recessive loci, including one linked to the MHC. To determine whether any of these genetic loci exert their effects via the immune system, radiation bone marrow chimeras were constructed in which (NOD X B10)F1-irradiated recipients were reconstituted with NOD bone marrow cells. Unmanipulated (NOD X B10)F1 mice, or irradiated F1 mice reconstituted with F1 or B10 bone marrow, did not display insulitis or diabetes. In contrast, insulitis was observed in a majority of the NOD----F1 chimeras and diabetes developed in 21% of the mice. These data demonstrate that expression of the diabetic phenotype in the NOD mouse is dependent on NOD-derived hematopoietic stem cells. Diabetogenic genes in the NOD mouse do not appear to function at the level of the insulin-producing beta cells since NOD----F1 chimeras not only developed insulitis and diabetes but also rejected beta cells within pancreas transplants from newborn B10 mice. These data suggest that the beta cells of the NOD mouse do not express a unique antigenic determinant that is the target of the autoimmune response.
Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular sensor for small peptides derived from the bacterial cell wall component, peptidoglycan. Recent studies have uncovered unexpected functions of NOD2 in innate immune responses such as induction of type I IFN and facilitation of autophagy; moreover, they have disclosed extensive cross-talk between NOD2 and Toll-like receptors which plays an indispensable role both in host defense against microbial infection and in the development of autoimmunity. Of particular interest, polymorphisms of CARD15 encoding NOD2 are associated with Crohn's disease and other autoimmune states such as graft versus host disease. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding normal functions of NOD2 and discuss the mechanisms by which NOD2 polymorphisms associated with Crohn's disease lead to intestinal inflammation.
Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone marrow cells (BMCs) were co-transplanted in NOD mice following none myeloablative preconditioning and the development of chimerism, insulitis, diabetes, and graft versus host disease (GVHD) were monitored.
Eight-weeks-old female NOD mice were injected intravenously with 2×107 BMCs and 5×105 MSCs from C57BL/6 mice following treatment with 2 intraperitoneal injections of anti-CD3 antibody (days −7 and −4), and 3Gy total body irradiation (day −1). Thereafter, blood glucose and chimerism were monitored on peripheral blood samples.
Stable mixed chimerism (3->90% of donor phenotype) was induced in 63.2% of BMCs-MSCs-(n=19) and 45.0% of BMCs alone recipients (n=20, p=0.256). Insulitis was prevented and euglycemia persisted for >18 weeks in 89.5% of BMCs-MSCs recipients including those with <3% chimerism and 55% of BM alone recipients (p<0.05). In controls, 9.1% of mice receiving preconditioning treatment alone (n=11) and 16.7% of preconditioned mice receiving only MSCs (n=12) were non-diabetic. GVHD was not detected in all mice.
Co-injection of MSCs and BMCs increased the success rate in inducing chimerism and preventing insulitis and overt diabetes with no incidence of GVHD. Results also indicated that even micro-chimerism with <3% donor cells is sufficient for blocking autoimmunity.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism; Immune Tolerance; NOD mice
A deficit in IL-4 production has been previously reported in both diabetic human patients and non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In addition, re-introducing IL-4 into NOD mice systemically, or as a transgene, led to a beneficial outcome in most studies. Here, we show that prediabetic, 12-wk old female NOD mice have a deficit in IL-4 expression in the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN) compared to age-matched diabetes-resistant NOD.B10 mice. By bioluminescence imaging, we demonstrated that the PLN was preferentially targeted by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) following intravenous (IV) administration. Following IV injection of DCs transduced to express IL-4 (DC/IL-4) into 12-wk old NOD mice, it was possible to significantly delay or prevent the onset of hyperglycemia. We then focused on the PLN to monitor, by microarray analysis, changes in gene expression induced by DC/IL-4 and observed a rapid normalization of the expression of many genes, that were otherwise under-expressed compared to NOD.B10 PLN. The protective effect of DC/IL-4 required both MHC and IL-4 expression by the DCs. Thus, adoptive cellular therapy, using DCs modified to express IL-4, offers an effective, tissue-targeted cellular therapy to prevent diabetes in NOD mice at an advanced stage of pre-diabetes, and may offer a safe approach to consider for treatment of high risk human pre-diabetic patients.
Dendritic cells (DCs) contribute to islet inflammation and its progression to diabetes in NOD mouse model and human. DCs play a crucial role in the presentation of autoantigen and activation of diabetogenic T cells, and IRF4 and IRF8 are crucial genes involved in the development of DCs. We have therefore investigated the expression of these genes in splenic DCs during diabetes progression in NOD mice. We found that IRF4 expression was upregulated in splenocytes and in splenic CD11c+ DCs of NOD mice as compared to BALB/c mice. In contrast, IRF8 gene expression was higher in splenocytes of NOD mice whereas its expression was similar in splenic CD11c+ DCs of NOD and BALB/c mice. Importantly, levels of IRF4 and IRF8 expression were lower in tolerogenic bone marrow derived DCs (BMDCs) generated with GM-CSF as compared to immunogenic BMDCs generated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Analysis of splenic DCs subsets indicated that high expression of IRF4 was associated with increased levels of CD4+CD8α−IRF4+CD11c+ DCs but not CD4−CD8α+IRF8+CD11c+ DCs in NOD mice. Our results showed that IRF4 expression was up-regulated in NOD mice and correlated with the increased levels of CD4+CD8α− DCs, suggesting that IRF4 may be involved in abnormal DC functions in type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.
IL-10 contributes to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via the regulation of inflammatory responses to enteric bacteria. Loss of IL-10 signaling results in spontaneous colitis in mice and early onset enterocolitis in humans. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 2 is an intracellular receptor of bacterial peptidoglycan products, and, although NOD2 mutations are associated with Crohn’s disease, the precise role of NOD2 in the development of intestinal inflammation remains undefined. To determine the role of NOD2 in the development of colitis on the clinically relevant genetic background of IL-10–deficient signaling, we generated mice lacking IL-10 and NOD2 (IL-10−/−NOD2−/−). Loss of NOD2 in IL-10−/− mice resulted in significant amelioration of chronic colitis, indicating that NOD2 signaling promotes the development of intestinal inflammation in IL-10−/− mice. Contrary to previous reports investigating immune function in NOD2−/− mice, T cell proliferative capacity and IL-2 production were not impaired, and immune polarization toward type 1 immunity was not affected. However, loss of NOD2 in IL-10–deficient macrophages reduced IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-12p40 production in response to bacterial stimulation. Further analysis of the intrinsic macrophage response before the onset of inflammation revealed that, in the absence of IL-10, synergistic signaling between various TLRs and NOD2 resulted in hyperresponsive, proinflammatory macrophages, thus providing the appropriate immune environment for the development of colitis. Data presented in this study demonstrate that NOD2 signaling contributes to intestinal inflammation that arises through loss of IL-10 and provides mechanistic insight into the development of colitis in inflammatory bowel disease patients with impaired IL-10 signaling.
Toll-like receptors and Nod-like receptors (NLR) play an important role in sensing invading microorganisms for pathogen clearance and eliciting adaptive immunity for protection against rechallenge. Nod1 and Nod2, members of the NLR family, are capable of detecting bacterial peptidoglycan motifs in the host cytosol for triggering proinflammatory cytokine production. In the current study, we sought to determine if Nod1/Nod2 are involved in sensing Bacillus anthracis infection and eliciting protective immune responses. Using mice deficient in both Nod1 and Nod2 proteins, we showed that Nod1/Nod2 are involved in detecting B. anthracis for production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, CCL5, IL-6, and KC. Proinflammatory responses were higher when cells were exposed to viable spores than when they were exposed to irradiated spores, indicating that recognition of vegetative bacilli through Nod1/Nod2 is significant. We also identify a critical role for Nod1/Nod2 in priming responses after B. anthracis aerosol exposure, as mice deficient in Nod1/Nod2 were impaired in their ability to mount an anamnestic antibody response and were more susceptible to secondary lethal challenge than wild-type mice.
Nucleotide oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2) is a component of the innate immunity known to be involved in the homeostasis of Peyer patches (PPs) in mice. However, little is known about its role during gut infection in vivo. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen causing gastroenteritis, adenolymphitis and septicaemia which is able to invade its host through PPs. We investigated the role of Nod2 during Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Death was delayed in Nod2 deleted and Crohn's disease associated Nod2 mutated mice orogastrically inoculated with Y. pseudotuberculosis. In PPs, the local immune response was characterized by a higher KC level and a more intense infiltration by neutrophils and macrophages. The apoptotic and bacterial cell counts were decreased. Finally, Nod2 deleted mice had a lower systemic bacterial dissemination and less damage of the haematopoeitic organs. This resistance phenotype was lost in case of intraperitoneal infection. We concluded that Nod2 contributes to the susceptibility to Y. pseudotuberculosis in mice.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 2 is a cytosolic protein that plays a defensive role in bacterial infection by sensing peptidoglycans. C5a, which has harmful effects in sepsis, interacts with innate proteins. However, whether NOD2 regulates C5a generation during sepsis remains to be determined. To address this issue, cecal ligation & puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis was compared in wild type and Nod2−/− mice. Nod2−/− mice showed lower levels of C5a, IL-10, and IL-1β in serum and peritoneum, but higher survival rate during CLP-induced sepsis compared to wild type mice. Injection of recombinant C5a decreased survival rates of Nod2−/− mice rate during sepsis, whereas it did not alter those in wild type mice. These findings suggest a novel provocative role for NOD2 in sepsis, in contrast to its protective role during bacterial infection. Furthermore, we found that NOD2-mediated IL-10 production by neutrophils enhanced C5a generation by suppressing CD55 expression on neutrophils in IL-1β-dependent and/or IL-1β-independent manners, thereby aggravating CLP-induced sepsis. SB203580, a receptor-interacting protein 2 (RIP2) inhibitor downstream of NOD2, reduced C5a generation by enhancing CD55 expression on neutrophils, resulting in attenuation of polymicrobial sepsis. Therefore, we propose a novel NOD2-mediated complement cascade regulatory pathway in sepsis, which may be a useful therapeutic target.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 2 is a cytosolic protein that senses peptidoglycans of bacteria and exerts a defensive effect on bacterial infection. Sepsis is a complex dysregulated inflammatory response in bacterial infection, causing multiple organ dysfunction, coagulopathy, and fatal outcome. C5a, which has harmful effects in sepsis, interacts with innate proteins. However, it remains unclear the mechanism by which NOD2 affects sepsis responses in vivo by regulating C5a generation. Here, we demonstrate that NOD2 enhances C5a generation by IL-10-mediated suppression of CD55 expression on neutrophils, thereby aggravating polymicrobial sepsis. These findings suggest a provocative role for NOD2 in sepsis, in contrast to its protective role during bacterial infection. Therefore, we propose that a novel NOD2-mediated complement cascade regulatory pathway in neutrophils may be a useful therapeutic target for sepsis.
In bacterial infection, Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain (NOD) 1 and NOD2 induce innate immune responses by recognizing fragments of the bacterial component peptidoglycan (PGN). To determine the roles of these receptors in detection of periodontal pathogens, we stimulated human embryonic kidney cells expressing NOD1 or NOD2 with heat-killed Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Fusobacterium nucleatum or their soluble PGNs (sPGNs). All bacteria and their sPGNs could stimulate activation of NF-κB. However, there were differences in NOD1- and NOD2-stimulatory activities among the species of bacteria. P. gingivalis showed weaker NOD1- and NOD2-stimulatory activities than did other bacteria. These differences in activities were confirmed by production of interleukin-8 from oral epithelial cells stimulated with sPGNs. These findings indicate that both NOD1 and NOD2 might be involved in the recognition of periodontal pathogens, and that the weak NOD-stimulatory property of P. gingivalis might be helpful for survival in the periodontal pocket.
NOD; peptidoglycan; periodontal pathogens
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs) are modular cytoplasmic proteins implicated in the recognition of peptidoglycan-derived molecules. NOD2 has recently been shown to be important for host cell cytokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to synergize with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in mediating these responses, and thus to serve as a nonredundant recognition receptor for M. tuberculosis. Here, we demonstrate that macrophages and dendritic cells from NOD2-deficient mice were impaired in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide following infection with live, virulent M. tuberculosis. Mycolylarabinogalactan peptidoglycan (PGN), the cell wall core of M. tuberculosis, stimulated macrophages to release tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-12p40 in a partially NOD2-dependent manner, and M. tuberculosis PGN required NOD2 for the optimal induction of TNF. However, NOD2-deficient mice were no more susceptible to infection with virulent M. tuberculosis than wild-type mice: they controlled the replication of M. tuberculosis in lung, spleen, and liver as well as wild-type mice, and both genotypes displayed similar lung pathologies. In addition, mice doubly deficient for NOD2 and TLR2 were similarly able to control an M. tuberculosis infection. Thus, NOD2 appears to participate in the recognition of M. tuberculosis by antigen-presenting cells in vitro yet is dispensable for the control of the pathogen during in vivo infection.