Corticosteroids (CS) effects on insulin resistance related genes in rat skeletal muscle were studied. In our acute study, adrenalectomized (ADX) rats were given single doses of 50 mg/kg methylprednisolone (MPL) intravenously. In our chronic study, ADX rats were implanted with Alzet mini-pumps giving zero-order release rates of 0.3 mg/kg/h MPL and sacrificed at various times up to 7 days. Total RNA was extracted from gastrocnemius muscles and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChips. Data mining and literature searches identified 6 insulin resistance related genes which exhibited complex regulatory pathways. Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDK4), fatty acid translocase (FAT) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) dynamic profiles were modeled with mutual effects by calculated nuclear drug-receptor complex (DR(N)) and transcription factors. The oscillatory feature of endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression was depicted by a negative feedback loop. These integrated models provide testable quantitative hypotheses for these regulatory cascades.
corticosteroid; glucocorticoid; microarrays; mathematical modeling; insulin resistance
Mechanisms related to the adverse effects of corticosteroids on glucose homeostasis were studied. Five groups of adrenalectomized (ADX) rats were given methylprednisolone (MPL) intravenously at 10 and 50 mg/kg, or a continuous 7 day infusion at rates of 0, 0.1, 0.3 mg/kg/h via subcutaneously implanted Alzet mini-pumps. Plasma concentrations of MPL, glucose and insulin were determined at various time points up to 72 h after injection or 336 h after infusion. The pharmacokinetics of MPL was captured with a two-compartment model. The Adapt II software was used in modeling. Injection of MPL caused a temporary glucose increase over 6 h by stimulating gluconeogenesis. The glucose changes stimulated pancreatic β-cell secretion yielding a later insulin peak at around 10 h. In turn, insulin can stimulate glucose disposition. However, long-term MPL treatment caused continuous hyperglycemia during and after infusion. Insulin was increased during infusion, and immediately returned to baseline after the infusion was terminated, despite the almost doubled glucose concentration. A disease progression model incorporating the reduced endogenous glucose disposition was included to capture glucose homeostasis under different treatments. The results exemplify the importance of the steroid dosing regimen in mediating pharmacological and adverse metabolic effects. This mechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model quantitatively describes the induction of hyperglycemia and provides additional insights into metabolic disorders such as diabetes.
corticosteroids; methylprednisolone; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; glucose; insulin
Influences of methylprednisolone (MPL) and food consumption on body weight (BW), and the effects of MPL on glycemic control including food consumption and the dynamic interactions among glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were evaluated in normal male Wistar rats. Six groups of animals received either saline or MPL via subcutaneous infusions at the rate of 0.03, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg/h for different treatment periods. BW and food consumption were measured twice a week. Plasma concentrations of MPL and corticosterone (CST) were determined at animal sacrifice. Plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA were measured at various times after infusion. Plasma MPL concentrations were simulated by a two-compartment model and used as the driving force in the pharmacodynamic (PD) analysis. All data were modeled using ADAPT 5. The MPL treatments caused reduction of food consumption and body weights in all dosing groups. The steroid also caused changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations. Hyper-insulinemia was achieved rapidly at the first sampling time of 6 h; significant elevations of FFA were observed in all drug treatment groups; whereas only modest increases in plasma glucose were observed in the low dosing groups (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg/h). Body weight changes were modeled by dual actions of MPL: inhibition of food consumption and stimulation of weight loss, with food consumption accounting for the input of energy for body weight. Dynamic models of glucose and insulin feedback interactions were extended to capture the major metabolic effects of FFA: stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization. These models of body weight and glucose regulation adequately captured the experimental data and reflect significant physiological interactions among glucose, insulin, and FFA. These mechanism-based PD models provide further insights into the multi-factor control of this essential metabolic system.
Glucocorticoids; Methylprednisolone; Pharmacodynamics; Food intake; Body weight; Glucose; Insulin; Free fatty acids
A retrospective meta-modeling analysis was performed to integrate previously reported data of glucocorticoid (GC) effects on glucose regulation following a single intramuscular dose (50 mg/kg), single intravenous doses (10, 50 mg/kg), and intravenous infusions (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg/h) of methylprednisolone (MPL) in normal and adrenalectomized (ADX) male Wistar rats. A mechanistic pharmacodynamic (PD) model was developed based on the receptor/gene/protein-mediated GC effects on glucose regulation. Three major target organs (liver, white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle) together with some selected intermediate controlling factors were designated as important regulators involved in the pathogenesis of GC-induced glucose dysregulation. Assessed were dynamic changes of food intake and systemic factors (plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA) and leptin) and tissue-specific biomarkers (cAMP, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA and enzyme activity, leptin mRNA, interleukin 6 receptor type 1 (IL6R1) mRNA and Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) mRNA) after acute and chronic dosing with MPL along with the GC receptor (GR) dynamics in each target organ. Upon binding to GR in liver, MPL dosing caused increased glucose production by stimulating hepatic cAMP and PEPCK activity. In adipose tissue, the rise in leptin mRNA and plasma leptin caused reduction of food intake, the exogenous source of glucose input. Down-regulation of IRS-1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle inhibited the stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose utilization further contributing to hyperglycemia. The nuclear drug-receptor complex served as the driving force for stimulation or inhibition of downstream target gene expression within different tissues. Incorporating information such as receptor dynamics, as well as the gene and protein induction, allowed us to describe the receptor-mediated effects of MPL on glucose regulation in each important tissue. This advanced mechanistic model provides unique insights into the contributions of major tissues and quantitative hypotheses for the multi-factor control of a complex metabolic system.
Increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) resulting in nitric oxide elevation represents an important component of inflammatory responses. We assess the effects of methylprednisolone (MPL) on these processes during endotoxin-induced acute inflammation and provide a mechanism-based model to quantitatively describe them.
Male Lewis rats were dosed with lipopolysaccharide (50 μg/kg LPS) alone or with methylprednisolone (10 and 50 mg/kg) and sacrificed at different time points. Plasma MPL, lung iNOS mRNA expression, plasma nitric oxide (NO) and other physiological factors were measured. Sodium nitrate (750 μmole/kg) was given to a separate cohort of rats to assess NO disposition kinetics. PK-PD modeling was performed with ADAPT 5.
Disposition kinetics of plasma MPL and NO showed bi-exponential decline and were described by two-compartment models. LPS increased expression of iNOS mRNA in lung and increased plasma NO, while MPL dosing palliated this increase in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were well captured using tandem indirect response and precursor-pool models.
The model provides a quantitative assessment of the suppression of NO production by MPL and shows that the major effects are at the transcriptional level by reducing expression of iNOS mRNA.
corticosteroids; inflammation; iNOS; nitric oxide; PK-PD modeling
A physiologic pharmacodynamic model was developed to jointly describe the effects of methylprednisolone (MPL) on adrenal suppression and glycemic control in normal rats. Six groups of animals were given MPL intravenously at 0, 10 and 50 mg/kg, or by subcutaneous 7 day infusion at rates of 0, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/h. Plasma concentrations of MPL, corticosterone (CST), glucose and insulin were determined at various times up to 72 h after injection and 336 h after infusion. The pharmacokinetics of MPL was described by a two-compartment model. A circadian rhythm for CST was found in untreated rats with a stress-altered baseline caused by handling, which was captured by a circadian harmonic secretion rate with an increasing mesor. All drug treatments caused CST suppression. Injection of MPL caused temporary increases in glucose over 4 h. Insulin secretion was thereby stimulated yielding a later peak around 6 h. In turn, insulin can normalize glucose. However, long-term dosing caused continuous hyperglycemia during and after infusion. Hyperinsulinemia was achieved during infusion, but diminished immediately after dosing despite the high glucose concentration. The effects of CST and MPL on glucose production were described with a competitive stimulation function. A disease progression model incorporating reduced endogenous glucose uptake/utilization was used to describe glucose metabolism under different treatments. The results exemplify the roles of endogenous and exogenous hormones in mediating glucose dynamics. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model is valuable for quantitating diabetogenic effects of corticosteroid treatments and provides mechanistic insights into the hormonal control of the metabolic system.
corticosterone; methylprednisolone; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; glucose; insulin
Adrenal suppression and lymphocytopenia are commonly monitored pharmacological responses during systemic exposure to exogenously administered corticosteroids. The pharmacodynamics of plasma corticosterone (CS) and blood lymphocytes were investigated in 60 normal rats which received either 50 mg/kg methylprednisolone (MPL) or vehicle intramuscularly. Blood samples were collected between 0.5 and 96 h following treatment. Plasma CS displayed a transient suppression with re-establishment of a normal circadian rhythm 24 h following drug treatment. An indirect response model with suppression of production well captured plasma CS profiles. An early stress-induced rise in CS was also factored into the model. Blood lymphocyte numbers exhibited a sharp decline and then returned to a new circadian rhythm which was half of the original baseline level. An integrated pharmacodynamic (PD) model with inhibition of lymphocyte trafficking from tissue to blood by both MPL and CS and induction of cell apoptosis by MPL reasonably captured this lymphocytopenia. Rats and humans differ in lymphocyte responses with humans showing full recovery of baselines. Modeling provides a valuable tool in quantitative assessment of dual, complex drug responses.
pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics; hormones; mathematical model; pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models; corticosteroid; lymphocyte; cell trafficking; indirect response model; circadian rhythm
Glucocorticoids are commonly used as therapeutic agents in many acute and chronic inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. The current study investigated the effects of methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) on aortic distensibility and vascular resistance in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in male Wistar rats.
Chronic inflammation was induced by implanting a subcutaneous slow-release ALZET osmotic pump (1 mg kg−1 day−1 lipopolysaccharide) for either 2 or 4 weeks. Arterial wave transit time (τ) was derived to describe the elastic properties of aortas using the impulse response function of the filtered aortic input impedance spectra.
Long-term lipopolysaccharide challenge enhanced the expression of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the aortas. Lipopolysaccharide also upregulated the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase to produce high levels of nitric oxide (NO), which resulted in vasodilation, as evidenced by the fall in total peripheral resistance (Rp). However, lipopolysaccharide challenge did not influence the elastic properties of aortas, as shown by the unaltered τ. The NO-mediated vascular relaxation may counterbalance the AGEs-induced arterial stiffening so that the aortic distensibility remained unaltered. Treating lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats with methylprednisolone prevented peripheral vasodilation because of its ability to increase Rp. However, methylprednisolone produced an increase in aorta stiffness, as manifested by the significant decline in τ. The diminished aortic distensibility by methylprednisolone paralleled a significant reduction in NO plasma levels, in the absence of any significant changes in AGEs content.
Methylprednisolone stiffens aortas and elastic arteries in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in rats, for NO activity may be dominant as a counteraction of AGEs.
Thrombopoietin (Thpo) and its receptor (Mpl), which regulate megakaryopoiesis, are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), where Thpo is thought to exert pro-apoptotic effects on newly generated neurons. Mpl expression has been analysed in brain tissue on transcript level and in cultured primary rat neurons and astrocytes on protein level. Herein, we analysed Mpl expression in the developing and adult murine CNS by immunohistochemistry and investigated the brain of mice with homozygous Mpl deficiency (Mpl-/-) by MRI.
Mpl was not detectable at developmental stages E12 to E15 in any resident cells of the CNS. From E18 onwards, robust Mpl expression was found in various brain areas, including cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, thalamus, hypothalamus, medulla, pons, and the grey matter of spinal cord. However, major developmental changes became obvious: In the subventricular zone of the cerebral cortex Mpl expression occurred only during late gestation, while in the hippocampus Mpl expression was detectable for first time at stage P4. In the white matter of the cerebellum Mpl expression was restricted to the perinatal period. In the adult cerebellum, Mpl expression switched to Purkinje cell. The majority of other Mpl-positive cells were NeuN-positive neurons. None of the cells could be double-labelled with astrocyte marker GFAP. Mpl-/- mice showed no gross abnormalities of the brain.
Our data locate Mpl expression to neurons at different subdivisions of the spinal cord, rhombencephalon, midbrain and prosencephalon. Besides neuronal cells Mpl protein is also expressed in Purkinje cells of the adult cerebellum.
The myeloproliferative leukemia retrovirus (MPLV) has the v-mpl cellular sequences transduced in frame with the deleted and rearranged Friend murine leukemia virus env gene. The resulting env-mpl fusion oncogene is responsible for an acute myeloproliferative disorder induced in mice by MPLV. v-mpl is a truncated form of the c-mpl gene which encodes the receptor for thrombopoietin. We investigated the contribution of the Env-Mpl extracellular domain in the constitutive activation of this truncated cytokine receptor and found that the rearrangement of the env sequences in the env-mpl fusion gene was not required for oncogenicity. A pathogenic variant, DEL3MPLV, was generated, which differs from MPLV by the deletions of 22 amino acids of the Env signal peptide, all of the mature Env sequences, and 18 N-terminal amino acids of the v-Mpl extracellular domain. The resulting del3-mpl oncogene product conserves in its extracellular region the first 12 amino acids of the Env signal sequence including a cysteine residue, and 25 amino acids of the v-Mpl. We show here that a mutation converting this cysteine to a glycine completely abolishes del3-mpl oncogenicity and that the del3-mpl oncogene product is constitutively activated by disulfide-linked homodimerization.
A data set was generated to examine global changes in gene expression in rat liver over time in response to a single bolus dose of methylprednisolone. Four control animals and 43 drug-treated animals were humanely killed at 16 different time points following drug administration. Total RNA preparation from the livers of these animals were hybridized to 47 individual Affymetrix RU34A gene chips, generating data for 8799 different probe sets for each chip. Data mining techniques that are applicable to gene array time series data sets in order to identify drug-regulated changes in gene expression were applied to this data set. A series of 4 sequentially applied filters were developed that were designed to eliminate probe sets that were not expressed in the tissue, were not regulated by the drug treatment, or did not meet defined quality control standards. These filters eliminated 7287 probe sets of the 8799 total (82%) from further consideration. Application of judiciously chosen filters is an effective tool for data mining of time series data sets. The remaining data can then be further analyzed by clustering and mathematical modeling techniques.
Data mining; gene arrays; glucocorticoids; mathematical modeling; pharmacogenomics
A data set was generated to examine global changes in gene expression in rat liver over time in response to a single bolus dose of methylprednisolone. Four control animals and 43 drug-treated animals were humanely killed at 16 different time points following drug administration. Total RNA preparations from the livers of these animals were hybridized to 47 individual Affymetrix RU34A gene chips, generating data for 8799 different probe sets for each chip. Data mining techniques that are applicable to gene array time series data sets in order to identify drug-regulated changes in gene expression were applied to this data set. A series of 4 sequentially applied filters were developed that were designed to eliminate probe sets that were not expressed in the tissue, were not regulated by the drug treatment, or did not meet defined quality control standards. These filters eliminated 7287 probe sets of the 8799 total (82%) from further consideration. Application of judiciously chosen filters is an effective tool for data mining of time series data sets. The remaining data can then be further analyzed by clustering and mathematical modeling techniques.
Data mining; gene arrays; glucocorticoids; mathematical modeling; pharmacogenomics
v-mpl is a truncated form of a receptor-like chain which belongs to the cytokine receptor superfamily. This sequence has been transduced in the myeloproliferative leukemia virus as an env-mpl fusion gene responsible for an acute myeloproliferative disorder in mice. We constructed a series of viral mutants in the mpl sequence. Analysis of their oncogenic potential in vivo indicated that a critical 69-amino-acid-long cytoplasmic domain of v-Mpl is required for myoproliferative leukemia virus pathogenicity. We also developed an in vitro assay and showed that expression of the env-mpl gene confers growth factor independence to murine as well as to human hematopoietic growth factor-dependent cell lines. These findings strongly suggest that v-Mpl delivers a constitutive proliferative signal through a limited region of its cytoplasmic domain.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the nontoxic derivative of lipid A, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), were employed to assess the relationship between expression of LPS-inducible inflammatory genes and the induction of tolerance to LPS in murine macrophages. Both LPS and MPL induced expression (as assessed by increased steady-state mRNA levels) of a panel of seven "early" inflammatory genes including the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta, type 2 TNF receptor (TNFR-2), IP-10, D3, D8, and D2 genes (the last four represent LPS-inducible early genes whose functions remain unknown). In addition, LPS and MPL were both capable of inducing tolerance to LPS. The two stimuli differed in the relative concentration required to induce various outcome measures, with LPS being 100- to 1,000-fold more potent on a mass concentration basis. Characterization of the tolerant state identified three distinct categories of responsiveness. Two genes (IP-10 and D8) exhibited strong desensitization in macrophages pretreated with tolerance-inducing concentrations of either LPS or MPL. In macrophages rendered tolerant by pretreatment with LPS or MPL, a second group of inducible mRNAs (TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and D3) showed moderate suppression of response to secondary stimulation by LPS. The third category of inducible genes (TNFR-2 and D2) showed increased expression in macrophages pretreated with tolerance-inducing concentrations of either LPS or MPL. All of the LPS-inducible genes examined exhibited modest superinduction with less than tolerance-inducing concentrations of either stimulus, suggesting a priming effect of these adjuvants at low concentration. The differential behavior of the members of this panel of endotoxin-responsive genes thus offers insight into molecular events associated with acquisition of transient tolerance to LPS.
Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) is a nontoxic derivative of the lipid A region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is being developed as both an adjuvant and prophylactic drug for septic shock. We compared the ability of LPS and MPL to induce interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12 p35, IL-12 p40, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. These genes were chosen for their ability to positively or negatively regulate the host immune response and thus for their potential involvement in MPL-induced adjuvanticity or in its ability to protect against sepsis. LPS was a more potent inducer of IL-12 p35, IL-12 p40, and IFN-gamma mRNA, as well as of IL-12 protein, than MPL. In contrast, MPL induced higher levels of IL-10 mRNA than did LPS from 1 to 1,000 ng/ml. In general, MPL was not a more potent inducer of negative regulatory genes, since MPL and LPS induced similar levels of GR and IL-1ra mRNA. Addition of anti-IL-10 antibody to cultures increased the induction of MPL-induced IL-12 p35, IL-12 p40, and IFN-gamma mRNA, suggesting that the enhanced production of IL-10 by MPL-stimulated macrophages contributes to decreased production of mRNA for IL-12 (p35 and p40) and IFN-gamma. Conversely, the addition of exogenous IL-10 to LPS-treated macrophages reduced the mRNA expression of these cytokine genes. These studies suggest that enhanced production of IL-10 by MPL-stimulated macrophages may contribute to the reduced toxicity of MPL through its negative action on induction of cytokines shown to enhance endotoxicity.
Kidney is a major target for adverse effects associated with corticosteroids. A microarray dataset was generated to examine changes in gene expression in rat kidney in response to methylprednisolone. Four control and 48 drug-treated animals were killed at 16 times after drug administration. Kidney RNA was used to query 52 individual Affymetrix chips, generating data for 15,967 different probe sets for each chip. Mining techniques applicable to time series data that identify drug-regulated changes in gene expression were applied. Four sequential filters eliminated probe sets that were not expressed in the tissue, not regulated by drug, or did not meet defined quality control standards. These filters eliminated 14,890 probe sets (94%) from further consideration. Application of judiciously chosen filters is an effective tool for data mining of time series datasets. The remaining data can then be further analyzed by clustering and mathematical modeling. Initial analysis of this filtered dataset identified a group of genes whose pattern of regulation was highly correlated with prototype corticosteroid enhanced genes. Twenty genes in this group, as well as selected genes exhibiting either downregulation or no regulation, were analyzed for 5′ GRE half-sites conserved across species. In general, the results support the hypothesis that the existence of conserved DNA binding sites can serve as an important adjunct to purely analytic approaches to clustering genes into groups with common mechanisms of regulation. This dataset, as well as similar datasets on liver and muscle, are available online in a format amenable to further analysis by others.
data mining; gene arrays; glucocorticoids; pharmacogenomics; evolutionary conservation
Infections and chronic diseases can alter the host’s immunological balance or result in immuno-deficiencies. We hypothesize that this may also affect the performance of vaccine adjuvants. Accordingly, the potency and adjuvanticity of eight adjuvant formulations based on Montanide ISA720, MF59, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), QS21 (saponin derivative), MPL-SE (stable emulsion of a MPL derivative), and MPL-AF (MPL in aqueous formulation) were studied in immune gene knockout mice, IFN-γ −/−, IL-4 −/−, and STAT6 −/−, using the P. falciparum MSP1 vaccine, P30P2MSP1-19 as a model immunogen. The adjuvants showed preferential requirements for the immune mediators to induce immune responses to MSP1-19, and the effects were formulation-specific. While emulsion-type adjuvants were highly effective in mice, their potency was more readily suppressed by immune knockouts; and additions of immunomodulators were required to restore efficacy. Formulated adjuvants had characteristics distinct from their individual components, and multi-components formulations were not necessarily superior. We conclude that perturbation of immune environments will have measurable impact on adjuvant’s potency. Evaluation of adjuvants in immune knockout models may be a supplementary approach to measure and compare adjuvants’ efficacy, and to further unveil their distinct biological activities.
Sazetidine-A is a selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent and partial agonist. It has been shown in previous studies to significantly reduce nicotine self-administration in rats after acute or repeated injections. However, the effects of continuous chronic infusions of sazetidine-A on maintenance of nicotine self-administration and relapse after abstinence have yet to be examined.
This study evaluated the efficacy of continuous sazetidine-A infusions (sc) over a period of four weeks to reduce nicotine self-administration in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.
Sazetidine-A was administered via Alzet osmotic minipumps to young adult female and male rats at doses of 0, 2 or 6 mg/kg/day for four weeks. The effects of sazetidine-A on IV nicotine self-administration were examined in repeated 3-hour sessions over the first two weeks of infusion followed by one week of forced abstinence from nicotine and one week of resumed nicotine access.
The 6 mg/kg/day sazetidine-A dose significantly reduced overall nicotine self-administration compared with vehicle control across the sessions for both male (p<0.001) and female (p<0.05) rats. The lower 2 mg/kg/day sazetidine-A infusion dose was effective in reducing nicotine self-administration for male (p<0.001), but not female rats. No attenuation in sazetidine-A effectiveness was seen over the course of the four-week treatment. In the vehicle control group, male rats self-administered significantly (p<0.001) more nicotine than females.
The continuing effectiveness of sazetidine-A in reducing nicotine self-administration in both male and female rats supports its promise as a new treatment to help people successfully quit smoking.
Nicotine; Sazetidine-A; chronic; Self-administration; Sex differences
Bosutinib is a third-generation dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) inhibiting Abl and Src kinases. It was developed to act on up-regulated tyrosine kinases (TKs) like BCR-ABL in Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) when resistance to first- and second-generation TKIs developed. However, first- and second-generation TKIs show off-target effects on bone metabolism, whereas studies on skeletal adverse effects of bosutinib are still lacking. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to continuously expose juvenile rats to bosutinib and to analyze its influence on the growing bone.
Starting after weaning, 4-week-old Wistar rats were chronically exposed over a 28-day period to varying concentrations of bosutinib, which were continuously administered subcutaneously via implanted Alzet® micro-osmotic pumps. After necropsy, the length of the femora and tibiae were analyzed.
Continuous administration of bosutinib by micro-osmotic pumps led to serum drug levels in the lower therapeutic range, was well tolerated, and exhibited only minor adverse effects on the growing skeleton.
Micro-osmotic pumps represent a convenient system for continuous TKI release in young growing rats. Compared to first- and second-generation TKIs, bosutinib seems to exert fewer adverse effects on the growing bone.
bosutinib; TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor); micro-osmotic pump; bone
An alcohol bolus causes the blood alcohol level (BAL) to peak at 1-2 hours post ingestion. The ethanol elimination rate is regulated by alcohol metabolizing enzymes, primarily alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1). Recently, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) was found to reduce acute BALs 3h after an alcohol bolus. The question, then, was: what is the mechanism involved in this reduction of BAL by feeding SAMe? To answer this question, we investigated the changes in ethanol metabolizing enzymes and the epigenetic changes that regulate the expression of these enzymes during acute binge drinking and chronic drinking.
Rats were fed a bolus of ethanol with or without SAMe, and were sacrificed at 3h or 12 h after the bolus.
RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that SAMe significantly induced ADH1 levels in the 3h liver samples. However, SAMe did not affect the changes in ADH1 protein levels 12h post bolus. Since SAMe is a methyl donor, it was postulated that the ADH1 gene expression up regulation at 3h was due to a histone modification induced by methylation from methyl transferases. Dimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2), a modification responsible for gene expression activation, was found to be significantly increased by SAMe at 3h post bolus.
These results correlated with the low BAL found at 3h post bolus, and support the concept that SAMe increased the gene expression to increase the elimination rate of ethanol in binge drinking by increasing H3K4me2.
BACKGROUND: The value of corticosteroids in severe acute asthma continues to be debated. METHODS: Ninety consecutive patients admitted to the emergency room with severe acute asthma were studied in a randomised, double blind, controlled trial to determine the efficacy of corticosteroids. Eighty two patients completed the study. All received oxygen therapy and intensive bronchodilator treatment. The patients were divided into three groups for steroid treatment, receiving intravenous methylprednisolone 10 mg/kg every four hours for 48 hours (29 patients, group A); intravenous methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg every 4 hours for 48 hours (27 patients, group B); or no intravenous corticosteroids (26 patients, group C). RESULTS: There were no differences on admission among the three groups in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), or arterial oxygen or carbon dioxide tension; and the rates of recovery in FEV1, FVC, and PEF were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids given with bronchodilators have not shown a beneficial effect in the first 48 hours of recovery of severe acute asthma. Only in those patients who failed to respond by the third hour of treatment, and in those who were previously taking oral corticosteroids, does a favourable, though not statistically significant, effect appear to occur.
BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD) originate from a pluripotent haematopoietic progenitor cell but show a marked degree of heterogeneity, especially between Philadelphia chromosome positive and negative disease entities. Abnormal megakaryopoiesis is a frequent finding in CMPD, often associated with thrombocythaemic cell counts. Recent experimental data have suggested that the c-Mpl thrombopoietin receptor, together with its ligand thrombopoietin, are not only the major physiological regulators of megakaryopoiesis and platelet production, but also play a crucial role in chronic myeloproliferation. METHODS: A total of 18 peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples obtained from patients with CMPD (chronic myelocytic leukaemia (CML), n = 10; polycythaemia vera (PV), n = 6; and primary thrombocythaemia (PTH), n = 2) were analysed for c-mpl mRNA using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). In another 20 patients (CML, n = 10; chronic megakaryocytic granulocytic myelosis (CMGM), n = 3; PV, n = 3; PTH, n = 4), we compared the number of haematopoietic progenitors expressing c-Mpl, as characterised by coexpression with the CD34 antigen, in the bone marrow using double immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: c-mpl mRNA was detected in all samples from patients with CML analysed, whereas only two of six PV and one of two PTH samples were positive (p < or = 0.008; chi 2 test). Expression of the c-mpl receptor gene was absent in healthy subjects used as controls. Similarly, an increase of c-Mpl expressing CD34 positive haematopoietic cells was detected in seven of 10 bone marrow aspirates obtained from patients with CML. Increased numbers of c-Mpl positive CD34 positive cells were found in only one of four patients with PTH, whereas in PV and CMGM the numbers of c-Mpl positive CD34 positive cells did not exceed normal values, despite thrombocythaemic cell counts. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm recent findings showing an impaired expression of the c-mpl thrombopoietin receptor gene in Philadelphia chromosome negative CMPD when compared with patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive CML. The relevance of this observation to the functional and morphological characteristics of abnormal megakaryopoiesis remains unclear. Thrombocythaemic cell counts and a mature phenotype in megakaryocytes occur frequently in Philadelphia chromosome negative CMPD but require an intact c-Mpl receptor under physiological conditions. Therefore, further studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to megakaryopoiesis in CMPD disease entities with decreased c-mpl gene expression.
Chronopharmacology is an important but under-explored aspect of therapeutics. Rhythmic variations in biological processes can influence drug action, including pharmacodynamic responses, due to circadian variations in the availability or functioning of drug targets. We hypothesized that global gene expression analysis can be useful in the identification of circadian regulated genes involved in drug action. Circadian variations in gene expression in rat liver were explored using Affymetrix gene arrays. A rich time series involving animals analyzed at 18 time points within the 24 hour cycle was generated. Of the more than 15,000 probe sets on these arrays, 265 exhibited oscillations with a 24 hour frequency. Cluster analysis yielded 5 distinct circadian clusters, with approximately two-thirds of the transcripts reaching maximum expression during the animal’s dark/active period. Of the 265 probe sets, 107 of potential therapeutic importance were identified. The expression levels of clock genes were also investigated in this study. Five clock genes exhibited circadian variation in liver, and data suggest that these genes may also be regulated by corticosteroids.
CART (Cocaine- Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) has been shown to be regulated by corticosteroids in the hypothalamus, but its regulation by corticosteroids and stress has not been well examined in the hippocampus or the amygdala. Further, CART has been implicated in the transition to puberty. In this study we examine the effects of acute (30 minute) on CART mRNA in prepubescent and adult rats. In addition, we examined chronic (21 day × 6 hours) restraint stress upon the expression of CART mRNA in the hippocampus and the amygdala and the effects of 7 days of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid replacement upon CART expression in these regions of the adult rat brain. We found an up-regulation of CART mRNA in the central amygdala induced by acute but not chronic stress and an up-regulation in the dentate gyrus induced by chronic but not acute stress. Adrenalectomy reduced CART expression in the dentate gyrus but not the amygdala and this effect was blocked by corticosterone but not RU28,362 or aldosterone replacement, suggesting a synergism of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. Our data establish that CART expression is regulated by stress in a regionally and time specific manner and that CART is regulated by corticosteroid actions in the hippocampus.
HPA axis; anxiety; depression
The chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPD), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET) and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), are characterized by a spectrum of clinical features and linked by common genetic lesions in JAK2 and MPL. However, the clinical phenotypes in genetically undefined MPD patients are similar to those patients with JAK2 and MPL lesions. We, therefore, sought to determine whether there were JAK2 or MPL lesions in a well-defined, JAK2 V617F-negative MPD cohort, and to determine if clinical associations could be identified based on variations identified in these genes.
We examined the JAK2 and MPL genes in JAK2 V617F-negative PV, IMF and idiopathic erythrocytosis (ERT) patients for sequence variations.
We identified two previously unrecognized JAK2 mutations and three previously unrecognized MPL mutations in JAK2 V617F-negative PV, erythrocytosis and IMF patients. We identified JAK2 exon 12 lesions in 30% of JAK2 V617F-negative PV patients, and either JAK2 V617F or JAK2 exon 12 lesions in 9% of ERT patients In IMF, in addition to the MPL gene mutation, W515K, we identified three additional mutations: 204P and 2 intervening sequence transitions: IVS 11/12 and 10/11.
While the clinical phenotype of JAK2 exon 12 lesions in the MPD was predominantly erythroid, there was significant disease spectrum overlap between JAK2 V617F and JAK2 exon 12 mutations. By contrast, MPL gene mutations were not associated with erythrocytosis, but segregated primarily with the phenotypes of thrombocytosis, extramedullary disease, myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis.