Background and purpose:
The effects of veratridine, an alkaloid found in Liliaceae plants, on tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channels were investigated in mouse vas deferens.
Effects of veratridine on TTX-sensitive Na+ currents (INa) in vas deferens myocytes dispersed from BALB/c mice, homozygous mice with a null allele of NaV1.6 (NaV1.6−/−) and wild-type mice (NaV1.6+/+) were studied using patch-clamp techniques. Tension measurements were also performed to compare the effects of veratridine on phasic contractions in intact tissues.
In whole-cell configuration, veratridine had a concentration-dependent dual action on the peak amplitude of INa: INa was enhanced by veratridine (1–10 µM), while higher concentrations (≥30 µM) inhibited INa. Additionally, two membrane current components were evoked by veratridine, namely a sustained inward current during the duration of the depolarizing rectangular pulse and a tail current at the repolarization. Although veratridine caused little shift of the voltage dependence of the steady-state inactivation curve and the activation curve for INa, veratridine enhanced a non-inactivating component of INa. Veratridine caused no detectable contractions in vas deferens from NaV1.6−/− mice, although in tissues from NaV1.6+/+ mice, veratridine (≥3 µM) induced TTX-sensitive contractions. Similarly, no detectable inward currents were evoked by veratridine in NaV1.6−/− vas deferens myocytes, while veratridine elicited both the sustained and tail currents in cells taken from NaV1.6+/+ mice.
Conclusions and implications:
These results suggest that veratridine possesses a dual action on INa and that the veratridine-induced activation of contraction is induced by the activation of NaV1.6 channels.
channel enhancer; dual action; NaV1.6; smooth muscle-type Na+ channels; tetrodotoxin; veratridine
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) mediate neuronal action potentials. Tetrodotoxin inhibits all Nav isoforms, but Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are relatively tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) compared to other isoforms. Nav1.8 is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons and is functionally linked to nociception, but the sensitivity of TTX-r isoforms to inhaled anesthetics is unclear.
The sensitivities of heterologously expressed rat TTX-r Nav1.8 and endogenous tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) Nav to the prototypic inhaled anesthetic isoflurane were tested in mammalian ND7/23 cells using patch-clamp electrophysiology.
From a holding potential of −70 mV, isoflurane (0.53±0.06 mM, ~1.8 MAC at 24°C) reduced normalized peak Na+ current (INa) of Nav1.8 to 0.55±0.03 and of endogenous TTX-s Nav to 0.56±0.06. Isoflurane minimally inhibited INa from a holding potential of −140 mV. Isoflurane did not affect voltage-dependence of activation, but significantly shifted voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation by −6 mV for Nav1.8 and by −7 mV for TTX-s Nav. IC50 values for inhibition of peak INa were 0.67±0.06 mM for Nav1.8 and 0.66±0.09 mM for TTX-s Nav; significant inhibition occurred at clinically relevant concentrations as low as 0.58 MAC. Isoflurane produced use-dependent block of Nav1.8; at a stimulation frequency of 10 Hz, 0.56±0.08 mM isoflurane reduced INa to 0.64±0.01 vs. 0.78±0.01 for control.
Isoflurane inhibited the tetrodotoxin-resistant isoform Nav1.8 with potency comparable to that for endogenous tetrodotoxin-sensitive Nav isoforms, indicating that sensitivity to inhaled anesthetics is conserved across diverse Nav family members. Block of Nav1.8 in dorsal root ganglion neurons could contribute to the effects of inhaled anesthetics on peripheral nociceptive mechanisms.
Sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) express multiple voltage-gated sodium (Na) channels that substantially differ in gating kinetics and pharmacology. Small-diameter (<25 µm) neurons isolated from the rat DRG express a combination of fast tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and slow TTX-resistant (TTX-R) Na currents while large-diameter neurons (>30 µm) predominately express fast TTX-S Na current. Na channel expression was further investigated using single-cell RT-PCR to measure the transcripts present in individually harvested DRG neurons. Consistent with cellular electrophysiology, the small neurons expressed transcripts encoding for both TTX-S (Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6, Nav1.7) and TTX-R (Nav1.8, Nav1.9) Na channels. Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were the predominant Na channels expressed in the small neurons. The large neurons highly expressed TTX-S isoforms (Nav1.1, Nav1.6, Nav1.7) while TTX-R channels were present at comparatively low levels. A unique subpopulation of the large neurons was identified that expressed TTX-R Na current and high levels of Nav1.8 transcript. DRG neurons also displayed substantial differences in the expression of neurofilaments (NF200, peripherin) and Necl-1, a neuronal adhesion molecule involved in myelination. The preferential expression of NF200 and Necl-1 suggests that large-diameter neurons give rise to thick myelinated axons. Small-diameter neurons expressed peripherin, but reduced levels of NF200 and Necl-1, a pattern more consistent with thin unmyelinated axons. Single-cell analysis of Na channel transcripts indicates that TTX-S and TTX-R Na channels are differentially expressed in large myelinated (Nav1.1, Nav1.6, Nav1.7) and small unmyelinated (Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Nav1.9) sensory neurons.
Sodium channel; dorsal root ganglia; single-cell RT-PCR; Necl-1; NF200; peripherin
Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for the rising phase of the action potential in cardiac muscle. Previously, both TTX-sensitive neuronal sodium channels (NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.3, NaV1.4 and NaV1.6) and the TTX-resistant cardiac sodium channel (NaV1.5) have been detected in cardiac myocytes, but relative levels of protein expression of the isoforms were not determined. Using a quantitative approach, we analyzed z-series of confocal microscopy images from individual mouse myocytes stained with either anti-NaV1.1, anti-NaV1.2, anti-NaV1.3, anti-NaV1.4, anti-NaV1.5, or anti-NaV1.6 antibodies and calculated the relative intensity of staining for these sodium channel isoforms. Our results indicate that the TTX-sensitive channels represented approximately 23% of the total channels, whereas the TTX-resistant NaV1.5 channel represented 77% of the total channel staining in mouse ventricular myocytes. These ratios are consistent with previous electrophysiological studies in mouse ventricular myocytes. NaV1.5 was located at the cell surface, with high density at the intercalated disc, but was absent from the transverse (t)-tubular system, suggesting that these channels support surface conduction and inter-myocyte transmission. Low-level cell surface staining of NaV1.4 and NaV1.6 channels suggest a minor role in surface excitation and conduction. Conversely, NaV1.1 and NaV1.3 channels are localized to the t-tubules and are likely to support t-tubular transmission of the action potential to the myocyte interior. This quantitative immunocytochemical approach for assessing sodium channel density and localization provides a more precise view of the relative importance and possible roles of these individual sodium channel protein isoforms in mouse ventricular myocytes and may be applicable to other species and cardiac tissue types.
In rats expression of the Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel isoform is restricted to the peripheral nervous system and is abundant in the sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion. We expressed the rat Nav1.7 sodium channel α subunit together with the rat auxiliary β1 and β2 subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes and assessed the effects of the pyrethroid insecticide tefluthrin on the expressed currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp method. Tefluthrin at 100 µM modified of Nav1.7 channels to prolong inactivation of the peak current during a depolarizing pulse, resulting in a marked "late current" at the end of a 40-ms depolarization, and induced a sodium tail current following repolarization. Tefluthrin modification was enhanced up to two-fold by the application of a train of up to 100 5-ms depolarizing prepulses. These effects of tefluthrin on Nav1.7 channels were qualitatively similar to its effects on rat Nav1.2, Nav1.3 and Nav1.6 channels assayed previously under identical conditions. However, Nav1.7 sodium channels were distinguished by their low sensitivity to modification by tefluthrin, especially compared to Nav1.3 and Nav1.6 channels. It is likely that Nav1.7 channels contribute significantly to the tetrodotoxin-sensitive, pyrethroid-resistant current found in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. We aligned the complete amino acid sequences of four pyrethroid-sensitive isoforms (house fly Vssc1; rat Nav1.3, Nav1.6 and Nav1.8) and two pyrethroid-resistant isoforms (rat Nav1.2 and Nav1.7) and found only a single site, located in transmembrane segment 6 of homology domain I, at which the amino acid sequence was conserved among all four sensitive isoform sequences but differed in the two resistant isoform sequences. This position, corresponding to Val410 of the house fly Vssc1 sequence, also aligns with sites of multiple amino acid substitutions identified in the sodium channel sequences of pyrethroid-resistant insect populations. These results implicate this single amino acid polymorphism in transmembrane segment 6 of sodium channel homology domain I as a determinant of the differential pyrethroid sensitivity of rat sodium channel isoforms.
voltage-gated sodium channel; Nav1.7 isoform; pyrethroid; tefluthrin; peripheral nervous system; dorsal root ganglion
Voltage-gated sodium channels composed of a pore-forming α subunit and auxiliary β subunits are responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiac muscle. However, their localization and expression patterns in human myocardium have not yet been clearly defined. We used immunohistochemical methods to define the level of expression and the subcellular localization of sodium channel α and β subunits in human atrial myocytes. Nav1.2 channels are located in highest density at intercalated disks where β1 and β3 subunits are also expressed. Nav1.4 and the predominant Nav1.5 channels are located in a striated pattern on the cell surface at the z-lines together with β2 subunits. Nav1.1, Nav1.3, and Nav1.6 channels are located in scattered puncta on the cell surface in a pattern similar to β3 and β4 subunits. Nav1.5 comprised approximately 88% of the total sodium channel staining, as assessed by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Functional studies using whole cell patch-clamp recording and measurements of contractility in human atrial cells and tissue showed that TTX-sensitive (non-Nav1.5) α subunit isoforms account for up to 27% of total sodium current in human atrium and are required for maximal contractility. Overall, our results show that multiple sodium channel α and β subunits are differentially localized in subcellular compartments in human atrial myocytes, suggesting that they play distinct roles in initiation and conduction of the action potential and in excitation–contraction coupling. TTX-sensitive sodium channel isoforms, even though expressed at low levels relative to TTX-sensitive Nav1.5, contribute substantially to total cardiac sodium current and are required for normal contractility. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Na+ Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes”.
Sodium channels; Myocardium; Immunocytochemistry; Contractility
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Voltage-gated sodium channels are expressed primarily in excitable cells and play a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of action potentials. Nine subtypes of the pore-forming α-subunit have been identified, each with a distinct tissue distribution, biophysical properties and sensitivity to tetrodotoxin (TTX). Nav1.8, a TTX-resistant (TTX-R) subtype, is selectively expressed in sensory neurons and plays a pathophysiological role in neuropathic pain. In comparison with TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) Navα-subtypes in neurons, Nav1.8 is most strongly inhibited by the µO-conotoxin MrVIB from Conus marmoreus. To determine which domain confers Nav1.8 α-subunit its biophysical properties and MrVIB binding, we constructed various chimeric channels incorporating sequence from Nav1.8 and the TTX-S Nav1.2 using a domain exchange strategy.
Wild-type and chimeric Nav channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and depolarization-activated Na+ currents were recorded using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique.
MrVIB (1 µM) reduced Nav1.2 current amplitude to 69 ± 12%, whereas Nav1.8 current was reduced to 31 ± 3%, confirming that MrVIB has a binding preference for Nav1.8. A similar reduction in Na+ current amplitude was observed when MrVIB was applied to chimeras containing the region extending from S6 segment of domain I through the S5-S6 linker of domain II of Nav1.8. In contrast, MrVIB had only a small effect on Na+ current for chimeras containing the corresponding region of Nav1.2.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Taken together, these results suggest that domain II of Nav1.8 is an important determinant of MrVIB affinity, highlighting a region of the α-subunit that may allow further nociceptor-specific ligand targeting.
electrophysiology; heterologous expression; Xenopus oocytes; chimera; µO-conotoxin MrVIB; tetrodotoxin; voltage-gated sodium channels; Nav1.2; Nav1.8
Diabetic neuropathy is a common form of peripheral neuropathy, yet the mechanisms responsible for pain in this disease are poorly understood. Alterations in the expression and function of voltage-gated tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channels have been implicated in animal models of neuropathic pain, including models of diabetic neuropathy. We investigated the expression and function of TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-R sodium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the responses to thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-treated rats between 4–8 weeks after onset of diabetes. Diabetic rats demonstrated a significant reduction in the threshold for escape from innocuous mechanical pressure (allodynia) and a reduction in the latency to withdrawal from a noxious thermal stimulus (hyperalgesia). Both TTX-S and TTX-R sodium currents increased significantly in small DRG neurons isolated from diabetic rats. The voltage-dependent activation and steady-state inactivation curves for these currents were shifted negatively. TTX-S currents induced by fast or slow voltage ramps increased markedly in neurons from diabetic rats. Immunoblots and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated significant increases in the expression of Nav1.3 (TTX-S) and Nav1.7 (TTX-S) and decreases in the expression of Nav1.6 (TTX-S) and Nav1.8 (TTX-R) in diabetic rats. The level of serine/threonine phosphorylation of Nav1.6 and Nav1.8 increased in response to diabetes. In addition, increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Nav1.6 and Nav1.7 was observed in DRGs from diabetic rats. These results suggest that both TTX-S and TTX-R sodium channels play important roles and that differential phosphorylation of sodium channels involving both serine/threonine and tyrosine sites contributes to painful diabetic neuropathy.
Background and Purpose
Adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons normally express transcripts for five isoforms of the α-subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels: NaV1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) readily blocks all but NaV1.8 and 1.9, and pharmacological agents that discriminate among the TTX-sensitive NaV1-isoforms are scarce. Recently, we used the activity profile of a panel of μ-conotoxins in blocking cloned rodent NaV1-isoforms expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes to conclude that action potentials of A- and C-fibres in rat sciatic nerve were, respectively, mediated primarily by NaV1.6 and NaV1.7.
We used three μ-conotoxins, μ-TIIIA, μ-PIIIA and μ-SmIIIA, applied individually and in combinations, to pharmacologically differentiate the TTX-sensitive INa of voltage-clamped neurons acutely dissociated from adult rat DRG. We examined only small and large neurons whose respective INa were >50% and >80% TTX-sensitive.
In both small and large neurons, the ability of the toxins to block TTX-sensitive INa was μ-TIIIA < μ-PIIIA < μ-SmIIIA, with the latter blocking ≳90%. Comparison of the toxin-susceptibility profiles of the neuronal INa with recently acquired profiles of rat NaV1-isoforms, co-expressed with various NaVβ-subunits in X. laevis oocytes, were consistent: NaV1.1, 1.6 and 1.7 could account for all of the TTX-sensitive INa, with NaV1.1 < NaV1.6 < NaV1.7 for small neurons and NaV1.7 < NaV1.1 < NaV1.6 for large neurons.
Conclusions and Implications
Combinations of μ-conotoxins can be used to determine the probable NaV1-isoforms underlying the INa in DRG neurons. Preliminary experiments with sympathetic neurons suggest that this approach is extendable to other neurons.
μ-conotoxin PIIIA; μ-conotoxin SmIIIA; μ-conotoxin TIIIA; dorsal root ganglion; superior cervical ganglion; tetrodotoxin; voltage-gated sodium channel; whole-cell patch clamp
Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are responsible for initiation and propagation of action potential in the neurons. To explore the mechanisms for chronic heart failure (CHF)-induced baroreflex dysfunction, we measured the expression and current density of Nav channel subunits (Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9) in the aortic baroreceptor neurons and investigated the role of Nav channels on aortic baroreceptor neuron excitability and baroreflex sensitivity in sham and CHF rats. CHF was induced by left coronary artery ligation. The development of CHF (6–8 weeks after the coronary ligation) was confirmed by hemodynamic and morphological characteristics. Immunofluorescent data indicated that Nav1.7 was expressed in A-type (myelinated) and C-type (unmyelinated) nodose neurons but Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were expressed only in C-type nodose neurons. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot data showed that CHF reduced mRNA and protein expression levels of Nav channels in nodose neurons. In addition, using the whole cell patch-clamp technique, we found that Nav current density and cell excitability of the aortic baroreceptor neurons were lower in CHF rats than that in sham rats. Aortic baroreflex sensitivity was blunted in anesthetized CHF rats, compared with that in sham rats. Furthermore, Nav channel activator (rATX II, 100 nM) significantly enhanced Nav current density and cell excitability of aortic baroreceptor neurons and improved aortic baroreflex sensitivity in CHF rats. These results suggest that reduced expression and activation of the Nav channels is involved in the attenuation of baroreceptor neuron excitability, which subsequently contributes to the impairment of baroreflex in CHF state.
Aortic baroreceptor neuron; Baroreflex; Heart failure; Sodium channel
Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) can trigger dual-mode regulation of the voltage gated cardiac sodium channel (NaV1.5). The channel components of the Ca2+ regulatory system are the calmodulin (CaM)-binding IQ motif and the Ca2+ sensing EF hand–like (EFL) motif in the carboxyl terminus of the channel. Mutations in either motif have been associated with arrhythmogenic changes in expressed NaV1.5 currents. Increases in [Ca2+]i shift the steady-state inactivation of NaV1.5 in the depolarizing direction and slow entry into inactivated states. Mutation of the EFL (NaV1.54X) shifts inactivation in the hyperpolarizing direction compared with the wild-type channel and eliminates the Ca2+ sensitivity of inactivation gating. Modulation of the steady-state availability of NaV1.5 by [Ca2+]i is more pronounced after the truncation of the carboxyl terminus proximal to the IQ motif (NaV1.5Δ1885), which retains the EFL. Mutating the EFL (NaV1.54X) unmasks CaM-mediated regulation of the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation. This latent CaM modulation of inactivation is eliminated by mutation of the IQ motif (NaV1.54X-IQ/AA). The LQT3 EFL mutant channel NaV1.5D1790G exhibits Ca2+ insensitivity and unmasking of CaM regulation of inactivation gating. The enhanced effect of CaM on NaV1.54X gating is associated with significantly greater fluorescence resonance energy transfer between enhanced cyan fluorescent protein–CaM and NaV1.54X channels than is observed with wild-type NaV1.5. Unlike other isoforms of the Na channel, the IQ-CaM interaction in the carboxyl terminus of NaV1.5 is latent under physiological conditions but may become manifest in the presence of disease causing mutations in the CT of NaV1.5 (particularly in the EFL), contributing to the production of potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias.
voltage-gated sodium channel; EF hand motif; IQ motif; calmodulin; FRET
Spermidine and spermine, are endogenous polyamines (PAs) that regulate cell growth and modulate the activity of numerous ion channel proteins. In particular, intracellular PAs are potent blockers of many different cation channels and are responsible for strong suppression of outward K+ current, a phenomenon known as inward rectification characteristic of a major class of KIR K+ channels. We previously described block of heterologously expressed voltage-gated Na+ channels (NaV) of rat muscle by intracellular PAs and PAs have recently been found to modulate excitability of brain neocortical neurons by blocking neuronal NaV channels. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of four different cloned mammalian NaV isoforms to PAs to investigate whether PA block is a common feature of NaV channel pharmacology. We find that outward Na+ current of muscle (NaV1.4), heart (NaV1.5), and neuronal (NaV1.2, NaV1.7) NaV isoforms is blocked by PAs, suggesting that PA metabolism may be linked to modulation of action potential firing in numerous excitable tissues. Interestingly, the cardiac NaV1.5 channel is more sensitive to PA block than other isoforms. Our results also indicate that rapid binding of PAs to blocking sites in the NaV1.4 channel is restricted to access from the cytoplasmic side of the channel, but plasma membrane transport pathways for PA uptake may contribute to long-term NaV channel modulation. PAs may also play a role in drug interactions since spermine attenuates the use-dependent effect of the lidocaine, a typical local anesthetic and anti-arrhythmic drug.
inward rectification; lidocaine; local anesthetics; Polyamines; sodium channels; spermidine; spermine; use-dependence; voltage-gated Na+ channels
Mammalian species express nine functional voltage-gated Na+ channels. Three of them, the cardiac-specific isoform Nav1.5 and the neuronal isoforms Nav1.8 and Nav1.9, are relatively resistant to the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX; IC50 ≥ 1 μM). The other six isoforms are highly sensitive to TTX with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. These isoforms are expressed in the central nervous system (Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6), in the skeletal muscle (Nav1.4), and in the peripheral nervous system (Nav1.6, Nav1.7). The isoform Nav1.5, encoded by the SCN5A gene, is responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in the heart. Mutations in SCN5A are associated with a variety of life-threatening arrhythmias, like long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3), Brugada syndrome (BrS) or cardiac conduction disease (CCD). Previous immunohistochemical and electrophysiological assays demonstrated the cardiac expression of neuronal and skeletal muscle Na+ channels in the heart of various mammals, which led to far-reaching speculations on their function. However, when comparing the Na+ channel mRNA patterns in the heart of various mammalian species, only minute quantities of transcripts for TTX-sensitive Na+ channels were detectable in whole pig and human hearts, suggesting that these channels are not involved in cardiac excitation phenomena in higher mammals. This conclusion is strongly supported by the fact that mutations in TTX-sensitive Na+ channels were associated with epilepsy or skeletal muscle diseases, rather than with a pathological cardiac phenotype. Moreover, previous data from TTX-intoxicated animals and from cases of human tetrodotoxication showed that low TTX dosages caused at most little alterations of both the cardiac output and the electrocardiogram. Recently, genome-wide association studies identified SCN10A, the gene encoding Nav1.8, as a determinant of cardiac conduction parameters, and mutations in SCN10A have been associated with BrS. These novel findings opened a fascinating new research area in the cardiac ion channel field, and the on-going debate on how SCN10A/Nav1.8 affects cardiac conduction is very exciting.
Small neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) express five of the nine known voltage-gated sodium channels. Each channel has unique biophysical characteristics which determine how it contributes to the generation of action potentials (AP). To better understand how AP amplitude is maintained in nociceptive DRG neurons and their centrally projecting axons, which are subjected to depolarization within the dorsal horn, we investigated the dependence of AP amplitude on membrane potential, and how that dependence is altered by the presence or absence of sodium channel Nav1.8.
In small neurons cultured from wild type (WT) adult mouse DRG, AP amplitude decreases as the membrane potential is depolarized from -90 mV to -30 mV. The decrease in amplitude is best fit by two Boltzmann equations, having V1/2 values of -73 and -37 mV. These values are similar to the V1/2 values for steady-state fast inactivation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) sodium channels, and the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) Nav1.8 sodium channel, respectively. Addition of TTX eliminates the more hyperpolarized V1/2 component and leads to increasing AP amplitude for holding potentials of -90 to -60 mV. This increase is substantially reduced by the addition of potassium channel blockers. In neurons from Nav1.8(-/-) mice, the voltage-dependent decrease in AP amplitude is characterized by a single Boltzmann equation with a V1/2 value of -55 mV, suggesting a shift in the steady-state fast inactivation properties of TTX-s sodium channels. Transfection of Nav1.8(-/-) DRG neurons with DNA encoding Nav1.8 results in a membrane potential-dependent decrease in AP amplitude that recapitulates WT properties.
We conclude that the presence of Nav1.8 allows AP amplitude to be maintained in DRG neurons and their centrally projecting axons even when depolarized within the dorsal horn.
Resurgent sodium currents contribute to the regeneration of action potentials and enhanced neuronal excitability. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) resurgent currents have been described in many different neuron populations, including cerebellar and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. In most cases, sodium channel Nav1.6 is the major contributor to these TTX-S resurgent currents. Here we report a novel TTX-resistant (TTX-R) resurgent current recorded from rat DRG neurons. The TTX-R resurgent currents are similar to classic TTX-S resurgent currents in many respects, but not all. As with TTX-S resurgent currents, they are activated by membrane repolarization, inhibited by lidocaine, and enhanced by a peptide-mimetic of the β4 sodium channel subunit intracellular domain. However, the TTX-R resurgent currents exhibit much slower kinetics, occur at more depolarized voltages, and are sensitive to the Nav1.8 blocker A803467. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation experiments from rat DRG lysates indicate the endogenous sodium channel β4 subunits associate with Nav1.8 in DRG neurons. These results suggest that slow TTX-R resurgent currents in DRG neurons are mediated by Nav1.8 and are generated by the same mechanism underlying TTX-S resurgent currents. We also show that both TTX-S and TTX-R resurgent currents in DRG neurons are enhanced by inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, the β4 peptide increased excitability of small DRG neurons in the presence of TTX. We propose that these slow TTX-R resurgent currents contribute to the membrane excitability of nociceptive DRG neurons under normal conditions and that enhancement of both types of resurgent currents by inflammatory mediators could contribute to sensory neuronal hyperexcitability associated with inflammatory pain.
action potential; hyperexcitability; nociceptor; resurgent sodium current; sodium current; voltage clamp
Sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion express two kinds of tetrodotoxin resistant (TTX-R) isoforms of voltage-gated sodium channels, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. These isoforms play key roles in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Of special interest is NaV1.9: our previous studies revealed a unique property of the NaV1.9 current, i.e., the NaV1.9 current shows a gradual and notable up-regulation of the peak amplitude during recording (“spontaneous augmentation of NaV1.9”). However, the mechanism underlying the spontaneous augmentation of NaV1.9 is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC), on the spontaneous augmentation of NaV1.9. The spontaneous augmentation of the NaV1.9 current was significantly suppressed by activation of PKA, whereas activation of PKA did not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation for the NaV1.9 current. On the contrary, the finding that activation of PKC can affect the voltage dependence of inactivation for NaV1.9 in the perforated patch recordings, where the augmentation does not occur, suggests that the effects of PMA are independent of the augmentation process. These results indicate that the spontaneous augmentation of NaV1.9 was regulated directly by PKA, and indirectly by PKC.
Na+ channel; tetrodotoxin; dorsal root ganglion; patch clamp; PKA; PKC
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV channels) are key players in the generation and propagation of action potentials, and selective blockade of these channels is a promising strategy for clinically useful suppression of electrical activity. The conotoxin µ-CnIIIC from the cone snail Conus consors exhibits myorelaxing activity in rodents through specific blockade of skeletal muscle (NaV1.4) NaV channels.
We investigated the activity of µ-CnIIIC on human NaV channels and characterized its inhibitory mechanism, as well as the molecular basis, for its channel specificity.
Similar to rat paralogs, human NaV1.4 and NaV1.2 were potently blocked by µ-CnIIIC, the sensitivity of NaV1.7 was intermediate, and NaV1.5 and NaV1.8 were insensitive. Half-channel chimeras revealed that determinants for the insensitivity of NaV1.8 must reside in both the first and second halves of the channel, while those for NaV1.5 are restricted to domains I and II. Furthermore, domain I pore loop affected the total block and therefore harbours the major determinants for the subtype specificity. Domain II pore loop only affected the kinetics of toxin binding and dissociation. Blockade by µ-CnIIIC of NaV1.4 was virtually irreversible but left a residual current of about 5%, reflecting a ‘leaky’ block; therefore, Na+ ions still passed through µ-CnIIIC-occupied NaV1.4 to some extent. TTX was excluded from this binding site but was trapped inside the pore by µ-CnIIIC.
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
Of clinical significance, µ-CnIIIC is a potent and persistent blocker of human skeletal muscle NaV1.4 that does not affect activity of cardiac NaV1.5.
sodium channel; muscle relaxant; analgesia; conotoxin; patch-clamp
Reentrant arrhythmias often develop in the setting of myocardial infarction and ensuing slow propagation. Increased Na+ channel expression could prevent or disrupt reentrant circuits by speeding conduction if channel availability is not limited by membrane depolarization within the diseased myocardium. We therefore asked if, in the setting of membrane depolarization, action potential (AP) upstroke and normal conduction can be better preserved by the expression of a Na+ channel isoform with altered biophysical properties compared to the native cardiac Na+ channel isoform, namely having a positively shifted, voltage-dependent inactivation.
Methods and results
The skeletal Na+ channel isoform (SkM1) and the cardiac Na+ channel isoform (Nav1.5) were expressed in newborn rat ventricular myocyte cultures with a point mutation introduced in Nav1.5 to increase tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitivity so native and expressed currents could be distinguished. External K+ was increased from 5.4 to 10 mmol/L to induce membrane depolarization. APs, Na+ currents, and conduction velocity (CV) were measured. In control cultures, elevated K+ significantly reduced AP upstroke (∼75%) and CV (∼25%). Expression of Nav1.5 did not protect AP upstroke from K+ depolarization. In contrast, in SkM1 expressing cultures, high K+ reduced AP upstroke <50% and conduction was not significantly reduced. In a simulated anatomical reentry setting (using a void), the angular velocity (AV) of induced reentry was faster and the excitable gap shorter in SkM1 cultures compared to control for both normal and high K+.
Expression of SkM1 but not Nav1.5 preserves AP upstroke and CV in a K+-depolarized syncytium. The higher AV and shorter excitable gap observed during reentry excitation around a void in SkM1 cultures would be expected to facilitate reentry self-termination. SkM1 Na+ channel expression represents a novel gene therapy for the treatment of reentrant arrhythmias.
Na+ channel; Gene therapy; Arrhythmia; Conduction; Mapping
Functional alterations in the properties of Aβ afferent fibers may account for the increased pain sensitivity observed under peripheral chronic inflammation. Among the voltage-gated sodium channels involved in the pathophysiology of pain, Nav1.8 has been shown to participate in the peripheral sensitization of nociceptors. However, to date, there is no evidence for a role of Nav1.8 in controlling Aβ-fiber excitability following persistent inflammation.
Distribution and expression of Nav1.8 in dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves were qualitatively or quantitatively assessed by immunohistochemical staining and by real time-polymerase chain reaction at different time points following complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) administration. Using a whole-cell patch-clamp configuration, we further determined both total INa and TTX-R Nav1.8 currents in large-soma dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons isolated from sham or CFA-treated rats. Finally, we analyzed the effects of ambroxol, a Nav1.8-preferring blocker on the electrophysiological properties of Nav1.8 currents and on the mechanical sensitivity and inflammation of the hind paw in CFA-treated rats.
Our findings revealed that Nav1.8 is up-regulated in NF200-positive large sensory neurons and is subsequently anterogradely transported from the DRG cell bodies along the axons toward the periphery after CFA-induced inflammation. We also demonstrated that both total INa and Nav1.8 peak current densities are enhanced in inflamed large myelinated Aβ-fiber neurons. Persistent inflammation leading to nociception also induced time-dependent changes in Aβ-fiber neuron excitability by shifting the voltage-dependent activation of Nav1.8 in the hyperpolarizing direction, thus decreasing the current threshold for triggering action potentials. Finally, we found that ambroxol significantly reduces the potentiation of Nav1.8 currents in Aβ-fiber neurons observed following intraplantar CFA injection and concomitantly blocks CFA-induced mechanical allodynia, suggesting that Nav1.8 regulation in Aβ-fibers contributes to inflammatory pain.
Collectively, these findings support a key role for Nav1.8 in controlling the excitability of Aβ-fibers and its potential contribution to the development of mechanical allodynia under persistent inflammation.
Aβ-fibers; Allodynia; Complete Freund’s adjuvant; Electrophysiology; Sodium channel blocker
Altered function of Na+ channels is responsible for increased hyperexcitability of primary afferent neurons that may underlie pathological pain states. Recent evidence suggests that the Nav1.9 subunit is implicated in inflammatory but not acute pain. However, the contribution of Nav1.9 channels to the cellular events underlying nociceptor hyperexcitability is still unknown, and there remains much uncertainty as to the biophysical properties of Nav1.9 current and its modulation by inflammatory mediators. Here, we use gene targeting strategy and computer modeling to identify Nav1.9 channel current signature and its impact on nociceptors' firing patterns. Recordings using internal fluoride in small DRG neurons from wild-type and Nav1.9-null mutant mice demonstrated that Nav1.9 subunits carry the TTX-resistant “persistent” Na+ current called NaN. Nav1.9−/− nociceptors showed no significant change in the properties of the slowly inactivating TTX-resistant SNS/Nav1.8 current. The loss in Nav1.9-mediated Na+ currents was associated with the inability of small DRG neurons to generate a large variety of electrophysiological behaviors, including subthreshold regenerative depolarizations, plateau potentials, active hyperpolarizing responses, oscillatory bursting discharges, and bistable membrane behaviors. We further investigated, using CsCl- and KCl-based pipette solutions, whether G-protein signaling pathways and inflammatory mediators upregulate the NaN/Nav1.9 current. Bradykinin, ATP, histamine, prostaglandin-E2, and norepinephrine, applied separately at maximal concentrations, all failed to modulate the Nav1.9 current. However, when applied conjointly as a soup of inflammatory mediators they rapidly potentiated Nav1.9 channel activity, generating subthreshold amplification and increased excitability. We conclude that Nav1.9 channel, the molecular correlate of the NaN current, is potentiated by the concerted action of inflammatory mediators that may contribute to nociceptors' hyperexcitability during peripheral inflammation.
Voltage-gated Na+ channels (NaV channels) are specifically blocked by guanidinium toxins such as tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) with nanomolar to micromolar affinity depending on key amino acid substitutions in the outer vestibule of the channel that vary with NaV gene isoforms. All NaV channels that have been studied exhibit a use-dependent enhancement of TTX/STX affinity when the channel is stimulated with brief repetitive voltage depolarizations from a hyperpolarized starting voltage. Two models have been proposed to explain the mechanism of TTX/STX use dependence: a conformational mechanism and a trapped ion mechanism. In this study, we used selectivity filter mutations (K1237R, K1237A, and K1237H) of the rat muscle NaV1.4 channel that are known to alter ionic selectivity and Ca2+ permeability to test the trapped ion mechanism, which attributes use-dependent enhancement of toxin affinity to electrostatic repulsion between the bound toxin and Ca2+ or Na+ ions trapped inside the channel vestibule in the closed state. Our results indicate that TTX/STX use dependence is not relieved by mutations that enhance Ca2+ permeability, suggesting that ion–toxin repulsion is not the primary factor that determines use dependence. Evidence now favors the idea that TTX/STX use dependence arises from conformational coupling of the voltage sensor domain or domains with residues in the toxin-binding site that are also involved in slow inactivation.
Background and Aim
The action potential plateau of Purkinje fibers is particularly sensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX) and this could be due to a TXX-sensitive Na+ current. The expression of TTX-sensitive neuronal NaV1.1 and NaV1.2 isoforms has been reported in canine Purkinje myocytes. Our aim was to investigate by means of biochemical and functional techniques whether the TTX-sensitive skeletal NaV1.4 isoform is also expressed in canine cardiac Purkinje myocytes.
Methods and Results
Using NaV1.4 specific primers, a PCR product corresponding to NaV1.4 was amplified from canine Purkinje fibers RNA and confirmed by sequencing and megablast of the gene bank. Confocal indirect immunostaining using anti-NaV1.4 antibody demonstrates distinct sarcolemmal staining pattern compared to that of the cardiac isoform NaV1.5. Expression of NaV1.4 in tsA201 cells yielded a TTX-sensitive Na+ current with an IC50 of 10 nM.
These results demonstrate the expression of the TTX-sensitive NaV1.4 channel in canine cardiac Purkinje myocytes. This novel finding suggests a role of NaV1.4 channel in Purkinje myocytes and thus has important clinical implications for the mechanisms and management of ventricular arrhythmias originating in the Purkinje network.
Na+ channel isoforms; cardiac tissues; Purkinje myocytes; tetrodotoxin
Voltage-gated sodium channels are important sites for the neurotoxic actions of pyrethroid insecticides in mammals. The pore-forming α subunits of mammalian sodium channels are encoded by a family of 9 genes, designated Nav1.1 - Nav1.9. Native sodium channels in the adult central nervous system (CNS) are heterotrimeric complexes of one of these 9 α subunits and two auxiliary (β) subunits. Here we compare the functional properties and pyrethroid sensitivity of the rat and human Nav1.3 isoforms, which are abundantly expressed in the developing CNS. Coexpression of the rat Nav1.3 and human Nav1.3 α subunits in combination with their conspecific β1 and β2 subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes gave channels with markedly different inactivation properties and sensitivities to the pyrethroid insecticide tefluthrin. Rat Nav1.3 channels inactivated more slowly than human Nav1.3 channels during a depolarizing pulse. The rat and human channels also differed in their voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. Exposure of rat and human Nav1.3 channels to 100 μM tefluthrin in the resting state produced populations of channels that activated, inactivated and deactivated more slowly than unmodified channels. For both rat and human channels, application of trains of depolarizing prepulses enhanced the extent of tefluthrin modification approximately twofold; this result implies that tefluthrin may bind to both the resting and open states of the channel. Modification of rat Nav1.3 channels by 100 μM tefluthrin was four-fold greater than that measured in parallel assays with human Nav1.3 channels. Human Nav1.3 channels were also less sensitive to tefluthrin than rat Nav1.2 channels, which are considered to be relatively insensitive to pyrethroids. These data provide the first direct comparison of the functional and pharmacological properties of orthologous rat and human sodium channels and demonstrate that orthologous channels with a high degree of amino acid sequence conservation differ in both their functional properties and their sensitivities to pyrethroid insecticides.
Nav1.3; oocyte; sodium channel; pyrethroid; tefluthrin; rat; human
The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 is only expressed in subsets of neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal and nodose ganglia. We have isolated mouse partial length Nav1.8 cDNA clones spanning the exon 17 sequence, which have 17 nucleotide substitutions and 12 predicted amino acid differences from the published sequence. The absence of a mutually exclusive alternative exon 17 was confirmed by sequencing 4.1 kilobases of genomic DNA spanning exons 16–18 of Scn10a. A novel cDNA isoform was identified, designated Nav1.8c, which results from alternative 3′-splice site selection at a CAG/CAG motif to exclude the codon for glutamine 1031 within the interdomain cytoplasmic loop IDII/III. The ratio of Nav1.8c (CAG-skipped) to Nav1.8 (CAG-inclusive) mRNA in mouse is ~2:1 in adult DRG, trigeminal ganglion, and neonatal DRG. A Nav1.8c isoform also occurs in rat DRG, but is less common. Of the two other tetrodotoxin-resistant channels, no analogous alternative splicing of mouse Nav1.9 was detected, whereas rare alternative splicing of Nav1.5 at a CAG/CAG motif resulted in the introduction of a CAG trinucleotide. This isoform, designated Nav1.5c, is conserved in rat and encodes an additional glutamine residue that disrupts a putative CK2 phosphorylation site. In summary, novel isoforms of Nav1.8 and Nav1.5 are each generated by alternative splicing at CAG/CAG motifs, which result in the absence or presence of predicted glutamine residues within the interdomain cytoplasmic loop IDII/III. Mutations of sodium channels within this cytoplasmic loop have previously been demonstrated to alter electrophysiological properties and cause cardiac arrhythmias and epilepsy.
We tested the hypothesis that expression of presynaptic voltage-gated Na+ channel (Nav) subtypes coupled to neurotransmitter release differs between transmitter types and CNS regions in a nerve terminal-specific manner. Nav coupling to transmitter release was determined by measuring the sensitivity of 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-evoked [3H]glutamate and [14C]GABA release to the specific Nav blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) for nerve terminals isolated from rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and spinal cord. Expression of various Nav subtypes was measured by immunoblotting using subtype-specific antibodies. Potencies of TTX for inhibition of glutamate and GABA release were similar between CNS regions. However, the efficacies of TTX for inhibition of 4AP-evoked glutamate release were greater than for inhibition of GABA release in all regions except spinal cord. The relative nerve terminal expression of total Nav subtypes as well as of specific subtypes varied considerably between CNS regions. The region-specific potencies of TTX for inhibition of 4AP-evoked glutamate release correlated with greater relative expression of total nerve terminal Nav and Nav1.2. Nerve terminal-specific differences in the expression of specific Nav subtypes contribute to transmitter-specific and regional differences in pharmacological sensitivities of transmitter release.