Nucleoside kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon M. jannaschii is a member of the PFK-B family which belongs to the ribokinase superfamily. Here, its expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis are described.
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii nucleoside kinase (MjNK) is an ATP-dependent non-allosteric phosphotransferase that shows high catalytic activity for guanosine, inosine and cytidine. MjNK is a member of the phosphofructokinase B family, but participates in the biosynthesis of nucleoside monophosphates rather than in glycolysis. MjNK was crystallized as the apoenzyme as well as in complex with an ATP analogue and Mg2+. The latter crystal form was also soaked with fructose-6-phosphate. Synchrotron-radiation data were collected to 1.70 Å for the apoenzyme crystals and 1.93 Å for the complex crystals. All crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry; however, the apoenzyme crystals contain one monomer per asymmetric unit whereas the complex crystals contain a dimer.
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii; phosphofructokinase B family; ribokinase superfamily; nucleoside kinases; hyperthermophiles; archaea
Aspartate transcarbamoylase, the second enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine-biosynthetic pathway, from T. cruzi has been purified and crystallized for X-ray structure analysis.
Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), the second enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine-biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes the production of carbamoyl aspartate from carbamoyl phosphate and l-aspartate. In contrast to Escherichia coli ATCase and eukaryotic CAD multifunctional fusion enzymes, Trypanosoma cruzi ATCase lacks regulatory subunits and is not part of the multifunctional fusion enzyme. Recombinant T. cruzi ATCase expressed in E. coli was purified and crystallized in a ligand-free form and in a complex with carbamoyl phosphate at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. Ligand-free crystals (space group P1, unit-cell parameters a = 78.42, b = 79.28, c = 92.02 Å, α = 69.56, β = 82.90, γ = 63.25°) diffracted X-rays to 2.8 Å resolution, while those cocrystallized with carbamoyl phosphate (space group P21, unit-cell parameters a = 88.41, b = 158.38, c = 89.00 Å, β = 119.66°) diffracted to 1.6 Å resolution. The presence of two homotrimers in the asymmetric unit (38 kDa × 6) gives V
M values of 2.3 and 2.5 Å3 Da−1 for the P1 and P21 crystal forms, respectively.
aspartate transcarbamoylase; Trypanosoma cruzi; Chagas disease; drug targets
Here we report the isolation, kinetic characterization, and X-ray structure determination of a cooperative E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) without regulatory subunits. The native ATCase holoenzyme consists of six catalytic chains organized as two trimers bridged non-covalently by six regulatory chains organized as three dimers, c6r6. Dissociation of the native holoenzyme produces catalytically active trimers, c3, and nucleotide-binding regulatory dimers, r2. By introducing specific disulfide bonds linking the catalytic chains from the upper trimer site specifically to their corresponding chains in the lower trimer prior to dissociation, a new catalytic unit, c6, was isolated consisting of two catalytic trimers linked by disulfide bonds. Not only does the c6 species display enhanced enzymatic activity compared to the wild-type enzyme, but the disulfide bonds also impart homotropic cooperativity, never observed in the wild-type c3. The c6 ATCase was crystallized in the presence of phosphate and its X-ray structure determined to 2.10 Å resolution. The structure of c6 ATCase liganded with phosphate exists in a nearly identical conformation as other R-state structures with similar values calculated for the vertical separation and planar angles. The disulfide bonds linking upper and lower catalytic trimers predispose the active site into a more active conformation by locking the 240’s loop into the position characteristic of the high-affinity R state. Furthermore, the elimination of the structural constraints imposed by the regulatory subunits within the holoenzyme provides increased flexibility to the c6 enzyme enhancing its activity over the wild-type holoenzyme (c6r6) and c3. The covalent linkage between upper and lower catalytic trimers restores homotropic cooperativity so that a binding event at one or so active sites stimulates binding at the other sites. Reduction of the disulfide bonds in the c6 ATCase results in c3 catalytic subunits that display similar kinetic parameters to wild-type c3. This is the first report of an active c6 catalytic unit that displays enhanced activity and homotropic cooperativity.
A preliminary crystallographic analysis at 2.3 Å resolution of protein MJ1225 from M. jannaschii, a putative archaeal homolog of γ-AMPK, is described.
In mammals, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein composed of a catalytic serine/threonine kinase subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ). The γ subunit senses the intracellular energy status by competitively binding AMP and ATP and is thought to be responsible for allosteric regulation of the whole complex. This work describes the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of protein MJ1225 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, an archaeal homologue of γ-AMPK. The purified protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data for MJ1225 were collected to 2.3 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to space group H32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 108.95, c = 148.08 Å, α = β = 90.00, γ = 120.00°. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data indicated that there was one molecule per asymmetric unit.
MJ1225; γ-AMPK; CBS domains; archaea; Methanocaldococcus jannaschii
The cistrons encoding the regulatory and catalytic polypeptides of aspartate transcarbamoylase (EC 18.104.22.168) from Escherichia coli K-12 have been cloned separately on plasmids from different incompatability groups. The catalytic cistron (pyrB) was carried by pACYC184 and expressed from its own promoter, whereas the regulatory cistron was expressed from the lac po of pBH20. The catalytic polypeptide chains assembled into enzymatically active trimers (c3) in vivo when expressed in the absence of regulatory subunits. Similarly, the regulatory polypeptide chains assembled into regulatory dimers (r2) in vivo in the absence of catalytic subunits. When cellular extracts containing regulatory dimers and catalytic trimers synthesized in separate cells were combined in vitro, partial spontaneous holoenzyme assembly occurred. When pyrB and pyrI were expressed from transcriptionally independent cistrons in the same cell, all detectable catalytic polypeptides were incorporated into the functional aspartate transcarbamoylase holoenzyme, 2(c3):3(r2). Thus, it is clear that the in vivo assembly of ATCase holoenzyme is a direct, spontaneous process involving the association of preformed regulatory subunits (r2) and catalytic subunits (c3). This procedure provides a general method for the construction of hybrid aspartate transcarbamoylase in vivo and may be applicable to other oligomeric enzymes constructed from different polypeptides.
The external domains of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain, collectively known as gp140) contain all known viral neutralization epitopes. Various strategies have been used to create soluble trimers of the envelope to mimic the structure of the native viral protein, including mutation of the gp120-gp41 cleavage site, introduction of disulfide bonds, and fusion to heterologous trimerization motifs. We compared the effects on quaternary structure, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of three such motifs: T4 fibritin, a GCN4 variant, and the E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase catalytic subunit. Fusion of each motif to the C-terminus of a non-cleavable JRCSF gp140(-) envelope protein led to enhanced trimerization but had limited effects on the antigenic profile and CD4 binding ability of the trimers. Immunization of rabbits provided no evidence that the trimerized gp140(-) constructs induced significantly improved neutralizing antibodies to several HIV-1 pseudoviruses, compared to gp140 lacking a trimerization motif. However, modest differences in both binding specificity and neutralizing antibody responses were observed among the various immunogens.
Vaccine; HIV-1; Envelope; trimerization motifs; ATCase; T4 fibritin; GCN; CD4; monoclonal antibody; immunization; neutralizing antibody
The envelope glycoproteins of the human immunodeficiency virus and the related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mediate viral entry into host cells by fusing viral and target cell membranes. We have reported expression, purification, and characterization of gp140 (also called gp160e), the soluble, trimeric ectodomain of the SIV envelope glycoprotein, gp160 (B. Chen et al., J. Biol. Chem. 275:34946-34953, 2000). We have now expressed and purified chimeric proteins of SIV gp140 and its variants with the catalytic subunit (C) of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase). The fusion proteins (SIV gp140-ATC) bind viral receptor CD4 and a number of monoclonal antibodies specific for SIV gp140. The chimeric molecule also has ATCase activity, which requires trimerization of the ATCase C chains. Thus, the fusion protein is trimeric. When ATCase regulatory subunit dimers (R2) are added, the fusion protein assembles into dimers of trimers as expected from the structure of C6R6 ATCase. Negative-stain electron microscopy reveals spikey features of both SIV gp140 and SIV gp140-ATC. The production of the fusion proteins may enhance the possibilities for structure determination of the envelope glycoprotein either by electron cryomicroscopy or X-ray crystallography.
Here we report high-resolution X-ray structures of Bacillus subtilis aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), an enzyme that catalyzes one of the first reactions in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Structures of the enzyme have been determined in the absence of ligands, in the presence of the substrate, carbamoyl phosphate, and in the presence of the bisubstrate/transition state analog N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. Combining the structural data with in silico docking and electrostatic calculations, we have been able to visualize each step in the catalytic cycle of ATCase, from the ordered binding of the substrates, to the formation and decomposition of the tetrahedral intermediate, to the ordered release of the products from the active site. Analysis of the conformational changes associated with these steps provides a rationale for the lack of cooperativity in trimeric ATCases that do not possess regulatory subunits.
pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis; transferase enzymes; catalytic cycle; X-ray crystal-lography
In this study, two forms of MJ0754 from the archaeon M. jannaschii were overexpressed and crystallized. The crystal of MJ0754 belonged to the hexagonal space group P61 and diffracted to 3.1 Å resolution, while the crystal of MJ0754t belonged to the orthogonal space group C2221 and diffracted to 1.3 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.
The protein encoded by the MJ0754 gene from the archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii DSM 2661 is an unknown hypothetical protein. Two recombinant proteins, MJ0754 (residues 1–185) and MJ0754t (a truncated form of MJ0754, residues 11–185), were cloned from MJ0754, overexpressed as His-tag fusion proteins and purified. The crystals were found to grow under two different conditions and to have two different shapes. The crystal of MJ0754 belonged to space group P61, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 127.015, c = 48.929 Å, a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.85 Å3 Da−1 and two molecules per asymmetric unit. The crystal of MJ0754t belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.915, b = 79.122, c = 93.869 Å, a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.41 Å3 Da−1 and one molecule per asymmetric unit. The SeMet-labelled P61 crystal diffracted to a resolution of 3.1 Å, while the native C2221 crystal diffracted to 1.3 Å resolution.
MJ0754; Methanococcus jannaschii; hypothetical proteins; ferritin-like diiron-carboxylate proteins
In the cell, protein folding is mediated by folding catalysts and chaperones. The two functions are often linked, especially when the catalytic module forms part of a multidomain protein, as in Methanococcus jannaschii peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) FKBP26. Here we show that FKBP26 chaperone activity requires both a 50-residue insertion in the catalytic FKBP domain, also called ‘Insert-in-Flap’ or IF domain, and also an 80-residue C-terminal domain. We determined FKBP26 structures from four crystal forms and analyzed chaperone domains in light of their ability to mediate protein-protein interactions. FKBP26 is a crescent-shaped homodimer. We reason that folding proteins are bound inside the large crescent cleft, thus enabling their access to inward-facing PPIase catalytic sites and ipsilateral chaperone domain surfaces. As these chaperone surfaces participate extensively in crystal lattice contacts, we speculate that the observed lattice contacts reflect a proclivity for protein associations and represent substrate interactions by FKBP26 chaperone domains. Finally, we find that FKBP26 is an exceptionally flexible molecule, suggesting a mechanism for non-specific substrate recognition.
crystal structure; FKBP; PPIase; prolyl isomerase; protein-protein interactions
Crystals of B. cepacia IST408 UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) were obtained in space group P212121 and diffracted to 2.09 Å resolution.
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have emerged as important opportunistic pathogens, establishing lung infections in immunocompromised or cystic fibrosis patients. Bcc uses polysaccharide-biofilm production in order to evade the host immune response. The biofilm precursor UDP-glucuronic acid is produced by a twofold NAD+-dependent oxidation of UDP-glucose. In B. cepacia IST408 this enzymatic reaction is performed by the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase BceC, a 470-residue enzyme, the production and crystallization of which are described here. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121 and contained four molecules in the asymmetric unit. Their crystallographic analysis at 2.09 Å resolution and a molecular-replacement study are reported.
UDP-glucose dehydrogenases; Burkholderia cepacia; BceC
Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS domain protein MJ1004 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii.
The purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the archaeal CBS-domain protein MJ1004 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii are described. The native protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.4, b = 53.8, c = 82.6 Å, β = 106.1°. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Matthews-volume calculations suggested the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit that are likely to correspond to a dimeric species, which is also observed in solution.
MJ1004; CBS domains; Bateman domains; Methanocaldococcus jannaschii
A case of imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning in monoclinic crystals of fungal fatty acid synthase is discussed. A space-group transition during crystal dehydration resulted in a Moiré pattern-like interference of the twinned diffraction patterns.
The recent high-resolution structures of fungal fatty acid synthase (FAS) have provided new insights into the principles of fatty acid biosynthesis by large multifunctional enzymes. The crystallographic phase problem for the 2.6 MDa fungal FAS was initially solved to 5 Å resolution using two crystal forms from Thermomyces lanuginosus. Monoclinic crystals in space group P21 were obtained from orthorhombic crystals in space group P212121 by dehydration. Here, it is shown how this space-group transition induced imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning in the monoclinic crystal, giving rise to a Moiré pattern-like interference of the two twin-related reciprocal lattices. The strategy for processing the twinned diffraction images and obtaining a quantitative analysis is presented. The twinning is also related to the packing of the molecules in the two crystal forms, which was derived from self-rotation function analysis and molecular-replacement solutions using a low-resolution electron microscopy map as a search model.
imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning; fungal fatty acid synthase
The products of two adjacent genes in the chromosome of Methanococcus jannaschii are similar to the amino and carboxyl halves of phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second step of fosfomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces wedmorensis. These two M. jannaschii genes were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, and their gene products were tested for the ability to catalyze the decarboxylation of a series of α-ketoacids. Both subunits are required to form an α6β6 dodecamer that specifically catalyzes the decarboxylation of sulfopyruvic acid to sulfoacetaldehyde. This transformation is the fourth step in the biosynthesis of coenzyme M, a crucial cofactor in methanogenesis and aliphatic alkene metabolism. The M. jannaschii sulfopyruvate decarboxylase was found to be inactivated by oxygen and reactivated by reduction with dithionite. The two subunits, designated ComD and ComE, comprise the first enzyme for the biosynthesis of coenzyme M to be described.
The argI gene from E. coli K12 has been sequenced. It contains an open reading frame of 1002 bases which encodes a polypeptide of 334 amino acids. Three such polypeptides are required to form the functional catalytic trimer (c3) of ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase-1, EC 126.96.36.199). The molecular mass of the mature trimer deduced from the amino acid sequence is 114,465 daltons. An altered form of argI was produced when a 1.6 kilobase DdeI fragment was subcloned into the HincII site of plasmid pUC8 extending the open reading frame an additional 20 nucleotides. It has been previously reported that the amino-terminal region of the respective polypeptides of argI, argF, and pyrB of E. coli possessed significant homology. In contrast, the homologous promoter/operator regions of argI and argF did not appear to share any homologies with pyrB. However, a closer scrutiny of the nucleotide sequence immediately preceding the pyrBI attenuator revealed a remarkable similarity to the argI and argF control region.
Crystals of the human Plk1 Polo-box domain in complex with a Cdc25C target peptide in an unphosphorylated and a phosphorylated state have been obtained in orthorhombic and monoclinic forms that diffract to 2.1 and 2.85 Å, respectively, using synchrotron radiation.
Polo-like kinase (Plk1) is crucial for cell-cycle progression via mitosis. Members of the Polo-like kinase family are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal domain termed the Polo-box domain (PBD) in addition to the N-terminal kinase domain. The PBD of Plk1 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystallization experiments of the protein in complex with an unphosphorylated and a phosphorylated target peptide from Cdc25C yield crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystals of the PBD in complex with the phosphorylated peptide belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.23, b = 67.35, c = 88.25 Å, α = γ = β = 90°, and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit. Crystals of the PBD in complex with the unphosphorylated peptide belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 40.18, b = 49.17, c = 56.23 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 109.48°, and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals diffracted to resolution limits of 2.1 and 2.85 Å using synchrotron radiation at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the Swiss Light Source (SLS), respectively.
Polo-like kinase; Polo-box domain; Cdc25C
Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A2 and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A2 analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained.
Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A2 and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A2 analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained. The crotoxin complex crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.2, b = 68.7, c = 84.2 Å, and diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution. The crystal of the phospholipase A2 domain belongs to the hexagonal space group P6122 (or its enantiomorph P6522), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 38.7, c = 286.7 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. The crotapotin crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution; however, the highly diffuse diffraction pattern did not permit unambiguous assignment of the unit-cell parameters.
crotoxin complex; crotapotin; phospholipase A2 domain
The first structure of a microbial aspartokinase reveals details of its quaternary structure and the mode of substrate binding and provides insights into the catalytic mechanism.
The activation of the β-carboxyl group of aspartate catalyzed by aspartokinase is the commitment step to amino-acid biosynthesis in the aspartate pathway. The first structure of a microbial aspartokinase, that from Methanococcus jannaschii, has been determined in the presence of the amino-acid substrate l-aspartic acid and the nucleotide product MgADP. The enzyme assembles into a dimer of dimers, with the interfaces mediated by both the N- and C-terminal domains. The active-site functional groups responsible for substrate binding and specificity have been identified and roles have been proposed for putative catalytic functional groups.
aspartokinase; amino-acid biosynthesis; enzyme catalysis; substrate binding; quaternary structure; archaea
Post-transcriptional modifications in archaeal RNA are known to be phylogenetically distinct but relatively little is known of tRNA from the Methanococci, a lineage of methanogenic marine euryarchaea that grow over an unusually broad temperature range. Transfer RNAs from Methanococcus vannielii, Methanococcus maripaludis, the thermophile Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and hyperthermophiles Methanococcus jannaschii and Methanococcus igneus were studied to determine whether modification patterns reflect the close phylogenetic relationships inferred from small ribosomal subunit RNA sequences, and to examine modification differences associated with temperature of growth. Twenty-four modified nucleosides were characterized, including the complex tricyclic nucleoside wyosine characteristic of position 37 in tRNAPhe and known previously only in eukarya, plus two new wye family members of presently unknown structure. The hypermodified nucleoside 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine, reported previously only in bacterial tRNA at the first position of the anticodon, was identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in four of the five organisms. The ribose-methylated nucleosides, 2′-O-methyladenosine, N2,2′-O-dimethylguanosine and N2,N2,2′-O-trimethylguanosine, were found only in hyperthermophile tRNA, consistent with their proposed roles in thermal stabilization of tRNA.
Human ornithine transcarbamylase is a trimer with 46% amino acid sequence homology to the catalytic subunit of E coli aspartate transcarbamylase. Secondary structure predictions, distributions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and the pattern of conserved residues suggest that the three dimensional structures of the two proteins are likely to be similar. A three dimensional model of ornithine transcarbamylase was generated from the crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of E coli aspartate transcarbamylase in the holoenzyme, by aligning the sequences, building in gaps, and minimising the energy. The binding sites for carbamyl phosphate in both enzymes are similar and the ornithine binding site in ornithine transcarbamylase appears to be in the same location as the L-aspartate binding site in aspartate transcarbamylase, with negatively charged side chains replaced by positively charged residues. Mutations in the ornithine transcarbamylase gene found in patients with hyperammonaemia of the "neonatal type" are clustered in important structural or functional domains, either in the interior of the protein, at the active site, or at the interchain interface, while mutations found in patients with milder "late onset" disease are located primarily on the surface of the protein. The predicted effects of all known missense mutations and in frame deletions in the ornithine transcarbamylase gene on the structure and function of the mature enzyme are described.
Over 30% of proteins are secreted across or integrated into membranes. Their newly synthesized forms contain either cleavable signal sequences or non-cleavable membrane anchor sequences, which direct them to the evolutionarily conserved Sec translocon (SecYEG in prokaryotes and Sec61, comprising α-, γ- and β-subunits, in eukaryotes). The translocon then functions as a protein-conducting channel1. These processes of protein localization occur either at or after translation. In bacteria, the SecA ATPase2,3 drives post-translational translocation. The only high-resolution structure of a translocon available so far is that for SecYEβ from the archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii4, which lacks SecA. Here we present the 3.2-Å-resolution crystal structure of the SecYE translocon from a SecA-containing organism, Thermus thermophilus. The structure, solved as a complex with an anti-SecY Fab fragment, revealed a ‘pre-open’ state of SecYE, in which several transmembrane helices are shifted, as compared to the previous SecYEβ structure4, to create a hydrophobic crack open to the cytoplasm. Fab and SecA bind to a common site at the tip of the cytoplasmic domain of SecY. Molecular dynamics and disulphide mapping analyses suggest that the pre-open state might represent a SecYE conformational transition that is inducible by SecA binding. Moreover, we identified a SecA–SecYE interface that comprises SecA residues originally buried inside the protein, indicating that both the channel and the motor components of the Sec machinery undergo cooperative conformational changes on formation of the functional complex.
The crystal structure of the YckF protein from Bacillus subtilis was determined with MAD phasing and refined at 1.95Å resolution. YckF forms a tight tetramer both in crystals and in solution. Conservation of such oligomerization in other phosphate sugar isomerases indicates that the crystallographically observed tetramer is physiologically relevant. The structure of YckF was compared to with its ortholog from Methanococcus jannaschii, MJ1247. Both of these proteins have phosphate hexulose isomerase activity, although neither of the organisms can utilize methane or methanol as source of energy and/or carbon. Extensive sequence and structural similarities with MJ1247 and with the isomerase domain of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli allowed us to group residues contributing to substrate binding or catalysis. Few notable differences among these structures suggest possible cooperativity of the four active sites of the tetramer. Phylogenetic relationships between obligatory and facultative methylotrophs along with B. subtilis and E. coli provide clues about the possible evolution of genes as they loose their physiological importance.
Protein structure initiative; Crystal structure; MAD phasing; Oligomerization; Tetramer; Putative active site; Catalytic Glu-152; Evolutionary pathway; Gene hybridization; Diminished physiological role
The nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding the enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from Pseudomonas putida have been determined. Our results confirm that the P. putida ATCase is a dodecameric protein composed of two types of polypeptide chains translated coordinately from overlapping genes. The P. putida ATCase does not possess dissociable regulatory and catalytic functions but instead apparently contains the regulatory nucleotide binding site within a unique N-terminal extension of the pyrB-encoded subunit. The first gene, pyrB, is 1,005 bp long and encodes the 334-amino-acid, 36.4-kDa catalytic subunit of the enzyme. The second gene is 1,275 bp long and encodes a 424-residue polypeptide which bears significant homology to dihydroorotase (DHOase) from other organisms. Despite the homology of the overlapping gene to known DHOases, this 44.2-kDa polypeptide is not considered to be the functional product of the pyrC gene in P. putida, as DHOase activity is distinct from the ATCase complex. Moreover, the 44.2-kDa polypeptide lacks specific histidyl residues thought to be critical for DHOase enzymatic function. The pyrC-like gene (henceforth designated pyrC') does not complement Escherichia coli pyrC auxotrophs, while the cloned pyrB gene does complement pyrB auxotrophs. The proposed function for the vestigial DHOase is to maintain ATCase activity by conserving the dodecameric assembly of the native enzyme. This unique assembly of six active pyrB polypeptides coupled with six inactive pyrC' polypeptides has not been seen previously for ATCase but is reminiscent of the fused trifunctional CAD enzyme of eukaryotes.
The genes encoding the catalytic (pyrB) and regulatory (pyrI) polypeptides of aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase, EC 188.8.131.52) from several members of the family Enterobacteriaceae appear to be organized as bicistronic operons. The pyrBI gene regions from several enteric sources were cloned into selected plasmid vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the catalytic cistrons were subcloned and expressed independently from the regulatory cistrons from several of these sources. The regulatory cistron of E. coli was cloned separately and expressed from lac promoter-operator vectors. By utilizing plasmids from different incompatibility groups, it was possible to express catalytic and regulatory cistrons from different bacterial sources in the same cell. In all cases examined, the regulatory and catalytic polypeptides spontaneously assembled to form stable functional hybrid holoenzymes. This hybrid enzyme formation indicates that the r:c domains of interaction, as well as the dodecameric architecture, are conserved within the Enterobacteriaceae. The catalytic subunits of the hybrid ATCases originated from native enzymes possessing varied responses to allosteric effectors (CTP inhibition, CTP activation, or very slight responses; and ATP activation or no ATP response). However, each of the hybrid ATCases formed with regulatory subunits from E. coli demonstrated ATP activation and CTP inhibition, which suggests that the allosteric control characteristics are determined by the regulatory subunits.
A 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the isolated kinase domain from the α2 subunit of human AMPK, the first from a multicellular organism, is presented.
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved trimeric protein complex that is responsible for energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Here, a 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the isolated kinase domain from the α2 subunit of human AMPK, the first from a multicellular organism, is presented. This human form adopts a catalytically inactive state with distorted ATP-binding and substrate-binding sites. The ATP site is affected by changes in the base of the activation loop, which has moved into an inhibited DFG-out conformation. The substrate-binding site is disturbed by changes within the AMPKα2 catalytic loop that further distort the enzyme from a catalytically active form. Similar structural rearrangements have been observed in a yeast AMPK homologue in response to the binding of its auto-inhibitory domain; restructuring of the kinase catalytic loop is therefore a conserved feature of the AMPK protein family and is likely to represent an inhibitory mechanism that is utilized during function.
AMP-activated kinases; kinases; DFG-out conformation