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1.  The horror of wrong-site surgery continues: report of two cases in a regional trauma centre in Nigeria 
Background
Wrong- site surgeries are iatrogenic errors encountered in the course of surgical patient management. Despite the ‘never do harm’ pledge in the ‘Hippocratic Oath’ drafted in 5th century BC, man is after all human, with this limitation manifesting in the physician’s art despite his best intention. Beyond the catastrophic consequences of wrong- site surgery on the patient and surgeon, and the opprobrium on the art of medicine, the incidents have come to be regarded as a quality-of-care indicator. Orthopaedic surgery is a specialty with a preponderance of this phenomenon and the attendant medico-legal issues relating to malpractice claims. Consequently the specialty had pioneered institutional initiatives at preventing these ‘friendly-fires’. Awareness and implementation of these initiatives however remain low in many parts of the world, hampered by a culture of denial and shame.
Case presentation
This report presents two cases of wrong-site surgery following trauma from road-traffic accident. The first case was a closed reduction of the ‘wrong’ dislocated hip in the trauma/emergency unit under the care of senior residents, while the second case was attempted wrong-site surgery on the right leg in a patient with fracture of the left tibia, in conjunction with bilateral femoral fracture and right radio-ulnar fracture; by an experienced Chief Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon operating elective list. Both are orthopaedic cases, each with some trauma to both lower extremeties. Neither of the cases was formally mentioned anywhere in clinical discourse in the hospital, much less a formal report or audit.
Conclusion
There was no formal, institutionalized process to prevent wrong-site surgery in the health institution and this could have been largely responsible for these incidents. An open, mandatory process of reporting such incidents for relevant audit and awareness is necessary, as a mechanism for prevention rather than blame or punishment.
doi:10.1186/s13037-014-0053-2
PMCID: PMC4312470  PMID: 25642288
Wrong- site surgery; Medical errors; Patient safety; “Universal protocol”; “WHO surgical safety checklist”
2.  Recurrent Dislocation of the Shoulder Joint 
Dr. Anthony F. DePalma is shown. Photograph provided with kind permission of the Art Committee of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.
Dr. DePalma was the first editor of Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, established by the recently formed Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons. The idea of forming the Association of Bone and Joint surgeons had been conceived by Dr. Earl McBride of Oklahoma City in 1947, and organized by a group of twelve individuals (Drs. Earl McBride, Garrett Pipkin, Duncan McKeever, Judson Wilson, Fritz Teal, Louis Breck, Henry Louis Green, Howard Shorbe, Theodore Vinke, Paul Williams, Eugene Secord, and Frank Hand) [9]. The first organizational meeting was held in conjunction with the 1949 Annual Meeting of the AAOS [9] and the first annual meeting held April 1–2, 1949 in Oklahoma City. Drs. McBride and McKeever invited Dr. DePalma to attend that meeting and join the society. According to DePalma, “Even at this small gathering, there were whisperings of the need of another journal to provide an outlet for the many worthy papers written on clinical and basic science subjects” [7]. The decision to form a new journal was finalized in 1951, and Drs. DePalma and McBride signed a contract with J.B. Lippincott Company. Dr. DePalma was designated Editor-in-Chief, and the journal became a reality in 1953 with the publication of the first volume. From the outset he established the “symposium” as a unique feature, in which part of the articles were devoted to a particular topic. Dr. DePalma served as Editor for 13 years until 1966, when he resigned the position and recommended the appointment of Dr. Marshall R. Urist. At his retirement, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research was well established as a major journal.
Dr. Anthony F. DePalma was born in Philadelphia in 1904, the son of immigrants from Alberona in central Foggia, Italy [1]. He attended the University of Maryland for his premedical education, then Jefferson Medical College, from which he graduated in 1929. He then served a two-year internship (common at the time) at Philadelphia General Hospital. Jobs were scarce owing to the Depression, and he felt fortunate to obtain in 1931 a position as assistant surgeon at the Coaldale State Hospital, in Coaldale, Pennsylvania, a mining town. However, he became attracted to orthopaedics and looked for a preceptorship (postgraduate training in specialties was not well developed at this time before the establishments of Boards). In the fall of 1932, he was appointed as a preceptor at the New Jersey Orthopaedic Hospital, an extension of the New York Orthopaedic Hospital. In 1939 he acquired Board certification (the first board examination was offered in 1935 for a fee of $25.00 [2]) and was appointed to the NJOH staff [1].
Dr. DePalma volunteered for military service in 1942, and served first at the Parris Island Naval Hospital in South Carolina, then on the Rixey, a hospital ship. In addition to serving to evacuate casualties to New Zealand, his ship was involved in several of the Pacific island assaults (Guam, Leyte, Okinawa). In 1945, he was assigned to the Naval Hospital in Philadelphia [1].
On his return to Philadelphia, he contacted staff members at Jefferson Medical College, including the Chair, Dr. James Martin, and became good friends with Dr. Bruce Gill (a professor of Orthopaedics at the University of Pennsylvania, and one of the earliest Presidents of the AAOS). After he was discharged from the service, he joined the staff of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Jefferson, where he remained the rest of his career. He succeeded Dr. Martin as Chair in 1950, a position he held until 1970 when he reached the mandatory retirement age of 65. He closed his practice and moved briefly to Pompano Beach, Florida, but the lure of academia proved too powerful, and in January, 1971, he accepted the offer to develop a Division of Orthopaedics at the New Jersey College of Medicine and became their Chair. He committed to a five-year period, and then again moved to Pompano Beach, only to take the Florida State Boards and open a private practice in 1977. His practice grew, and he continued that practice until 1983 at the age of nearly 79. Even then he continued to travel and lecture [1].
We reproduce here four of his many contributions on the shoulder. The first comes from his classic monograph, “Surgery of the Shoulder,” published by J. B. Lippincott in 1950 [2]. In this article he describes the evolutionary development of the shoulder, focusing on the distinction between various primates, and relates the anatomic changes to upright posture and prehensile requirements. The remaining three are journal articles related to frozen shoulder [1], recurrent dislocation [3], and surgical anatomy of the rotator cuff [6], three of the most common shoulder problems then and now. He documented the histologic inflammation and degeneration in various tissues including the coracohumeral ligaments, supraspinatus tendon, bursal wall, subscapularis musculotendinous junction, and biceps tendon. Thus, the problem was rather more global than localized. He emphasized, “Manipulation of frozen shoulders is a dangerous and futile procedure.” For recurrent dislocation he advocated the Magnuson procedure (transfer of the subscapularis tendon to the greater tuberosity) to create a musculotendinous sling. All but two of 23 patients he treated with this approach were satisfied with this relatively simple procedure. (Readers will note the absence of contemporary approaches to ascertain outcomes and satisfaction. The earliest outcome musculoskeletal measures were introduced in the 60s by Larson [11] and then by Harris [10], but these instruments were physician-generated and do not reflect the rather more rigorously validated patient-generated outcome measures we use today. Nonetheless, the approach used by Dr. DePalma reflected the best existing standards of reporting results.) Dr. DePalma’s classic article, “Surgical Anatomy of the Rotator Cuff and the Natural History of Degenerative Periarthritis,” [6] reflected his literature review and dissections of 96 shoulders from 50 individuals “unaware of any (shoulder) disability” and mostly over the age of 40. By the fifth decade, most specimens began to show signs of rotator cuff tearing and he found complete tears in nine specimens from “the late decades.” He concluded,
“Based on the…observations, one can reasonably construct the natural history of periarthritis of the shoulder. It is apparent that aging is an important etiological factor, and with aging certain changes take place in the connective tissue elements of the musculotendinous cuff…it is also apparent that in slowly developing lesions of this nature compensating adjustments in the mechanics of the joint take place so that severe alterations in the mechanics of the joint do not appear. However, one must admit that such a joint is very vulnerable and, if subjected to minor trauma, the existing degenerative lesion would be extended and aggravated.”
Thus, he clearly defined the benign effects of rotator cuff tear in many aging individuals, but also the potential to create substantial pain and disability.
Dr. DePalma was a prolific researcher and writer. In addition to his “Surgery of the Shoulder,” he wrote three other books, “Diseases of the Knee: Management in Medicine and Surgery” (published by J.B. Lippincott in 1954) [4], “The Management of Fractures and Dislocations” (a large and comprehensive two volume work published by W.B. Saunders in 1959, and going through 5 reprintings) [5], and “The Intervertebral Disc” (published by W.B. Saunders in 1970, and written with his colleague, Dr. Richard Rothman) [8]. PubMed lists 62 articles he published from 1948 until 1992.
We wish to pay tribute to Dr. DePalma for his vision in establishing Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research as a unique journal and for his many contributions to orthopaedic surgery.
References
DePalma A. Loss of scapulohumeral motion (frozen shoulder). Ann Surg. 1952;135:193–204.DePalma AF. Origin and comparative anatomy of the pectoral limb. In: DePalma AF, ed. Surgery of the Shoulder. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1950:1–14.DePalma AF. Recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint. Ann Surg. 1950;132:1052–1065.DePalma AF. Diseases of the Knee: Management in Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Company; 1954.DePalma AF. The Management of Fractures and Dislocations—An Atlas. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1959.DePalma AF. Surgical anatomy of the rotator cuff and the natural history of degenerative periarthritis. Surg Clin North Am. 1963;43:1507–1520.DePalma AF. A lifetime of devotion to the Janus of orthopedics. Bridging the gap between the clinic and laboratory. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;265:146–169.DePalma AF, Rothman RH. The Intervertebral Disc. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1970.Derkash RS. History of the Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1997;337:306–309.Harris WH. Traumatic arthritis of the hip after dislocation and acetabular fractures: treatment by mold arthroplasty. An end-result study using a new method of result evaluation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51:737–755.Larson CB. Rating scale for hip disabilities. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1963;31:85–93.
doi:10.1007/s11999-007-0105-3
PMCID: PMC2505210  PMID: 18264840
3.  Simultaneous distal radius and lunate fractures: a lesson for an unwary eye 
BMJ Case Reports  2010;2010:bcr10.2009.2387.
Simultaneous distal radius and carpus fractures are uncommon. They can be missed because of a diffused clinical picture and an inexperienced clinician reviewing the patient and radiographs. A 64-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with a clinically deformed left wrist after a fall. Plain radiographs were interpreted as a distal radius intra-articular fracture with volar angulation, both by the ED physician and the first on call for trauma and orthopaedics (T&O). Review of the radiographs in the trauma meeting revealed the possibility of an additional undisplaced lunate fracture. A computed tomography scan confirmed the distal radius fracture in addition to an undisplaced fracture of the lunate. Because of the unstable nature of the distal radius fracture, open reduction and internal fixation was performed. As the lunate fracture was undisplaced, it was managed conservatively. The patient was discharged home the next day and has been doing well at follow-up.
doi:10.1136/bcr.10.2009.2387
PMCID: PMC3047489  PMID: 22485120
4.  A Survey of Post-Intake Orthopaedic Trauma Meetings in England 
INTRODUCTION
The structure of trauma meetings has been noted to vary considerably throughout our region. The aim of this study was to assess current practice of trauma meetings on a national level and to propose a structure on the basis of the survey.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A telephone survey of 120 hospitals in England was performed with a 100% response rate. The on-call duty orthopaedic surgeon at each hospital was contacted and questioned regarding trauma meetings held at that hospital. Details obtained included the frequency of meetings, the presence of medical staff and staff from other disciplines, review of radiographs and educational value.
RESULTS
In total, 107 (89.2%) hospitals conducted regular trauma meetings with a mean duration of 36 min (range, 15–120 min). Teaching of junior medical staff occurred at 89 (83.2%) meetings. Postoperative radiographs were reviewed at 80 (74.8%) hospitals. A radiologist attended in 5 (4.7%) of meetings. The median number of consultants present was 3 (range, 1–10). Other attendees included trauma co-ordinators (34.6%), physiotherapists (30.8%), theatre staff (23.4%), nursing staff (20.6%) and anaesthetists (15.9%).
CONCLUSIONS
Trauma meetings assist with the organisation of trauma lists, the review of results and have a valuable educational component. However, in busier orthopaedic units, additional meetings for teaching purposes may be necessary as an adjunct to routine daily trauma meetings.
doi:10.1308/003588407X160873
PMCID: PMC1963542  PMID: 17323531
Trauma meetings; Survey; Telephone survey
5.  Delays in orthopaedic trauma treatment: setting standards for the time interval between admission and operation. 
Delay in operating on trauma patients leads to increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay and overall cost. The urgency of operative intervention depends on the injury sustained. There are no published guidelines on what constitutes a reasonable delay between admission and operation. As part of the clinical governance in our unit, an audit was undertaken to examine the structure and process of trauma operating. Patients were allocated to groups defined by the Bath Orthopaedic Department, according to urgency of need for surgery. Group A: patients (for example, open fractures and dislocations) should have definitive treatment within 6 h of admission. Group B: patients (for example, hip fractures, long bone injuries and ankle fractures) should have operations on the day that they are presented to the consultant trauma meeting, or on the day that they are declared fit/ready for theatre. Group C: patients (for example, tendon injuries, simple hand fractures) should have operations within 5 days of presentation to the trauma meeting. Over 3 months, there were 401 acute orthopaedic admissions requiring surgery (61 group A, 277 group B, 63 group C). 78% of group A patients, 58% of group B patients and 86% of group C patients were operated on within the target times. In total, 137 out of 401 operations (34%) missed the targets set. 119 of these (87%) were delayed due to lack of available operating time. This was despite the fact that 59 operations (15% of total) were done on lists normally used for elective operating. Most of the other delays were due to the need for an appropriately experienced surgeon to be available. If these targets are to be achieved for the majority of patients, the trauma theatre must become more efficient, or more flexible time must be made available during evenings or weekends to clear the backlog of trauma operations.
PMCID: PMC2503628  PMID: 11041030
6.  Role of the trauma-room chest x-ray film in assessing the patient with severe blunt traumatic injury 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  1996;39(1):36-41.
Objectives
To examine the accuracy of standard trauma-room chest x-ray films in assessing blunt abdominal trauma and to determine the significance of missed injuries under these circumstances.
Design
A retrospective review.
Setting
A regional trauma unit in a tertiary-care institution.
Patients
Multiply injured trauma patients admitted between January 1988 and December 1990 who died within 24 hours of injury and in whom an autopsy was done.
Intervention
Standard radiography of the chest.
Main Outcome Measures
Chest injuries diagnosed and recorded by the trauma room team from standard anteroposterior x-ray films compared with the findings at autopsy and with review of the films by a staff radiologist initially having no knowledge of the injuries and later, if injuries remained undetected, having knowledge of the autopsy findings.
Results
Thirty-seven patients met the study criteria, and their cases were reviewed. In 11 cases, significant injuries were noted at autopsy and not by the trauma-room team, and in 7 cases these injuries were also missed by the reviewing radiologist. Injuries missed by the team were: multiple rib fractures (11 cases), sternal fractures (3 cases), diaphragmatic tear (2 cases) and intimal aortic tear (1 case). In five cases, chest tubes were not inserted despite the presence (undiagnosed) of multiple rib fractures and need for intubation and positive-pressure ventilation.
Conclusions
Significant blunt abdominal trauma, potentially requiring operative management or chest-tube insertion, may be missed on the initial anteroposterior chest x-ray film. Caution must therefore be exercised in interpreting these films in the trauma resuscitation room.
PMCID: PMC3895124  PMID: 8599789
7.  Effects of Two Commercial Electronic Prescribing Systems on Prescribing Error Rates in Hospital In-Patients: A Before and After Study 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(1):e1001164.
In a before-and-after study, Johanna Westbrook and colleagues evaluate the change in prescribing error rates after the introduction of two commercial electronic prescribing systems in two Australian hospitals.
Background
Considerable investments are being made in commercial electronic prescribing systems (e-prescribing) in many countries. Few studies have measured or evaluated their effectiveness at reducing prescribing error rates, and interactions between system design and errors are not well understood, despite increasing concerns regarding new errors associated with system use. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two commercial e-prescribing systems in reducing prescribing error rates and their propensities for introducing new types of error.
Methods and Results
We conducted a before and after study involving medication chart audit of 3,291 admissions (1,923 at baseline and 1,368 post e-prescribing system) at two Australian teaching hospitals. In Hospital A, the Cerner Millennium e-prescribing system was implemented on one ward, and three wards, which did not receive the e-prescribing system, acted as controls. In Hospital B, the iSoft MedChart system was implemented on two wards and we compared before and after error rates. Procedural (e.g., unclear and incomplete prescribing orders) and clinical (e.g., wrong dose, wrong drug) errors were identified. Prescribing error rates per admission and per 100 patient days; rates of serious errors (5-point severity scale, those ≥3 were categorised as serious) by hospital and study period; and rates and categories of postintervention “system-related” errors (where system functionality or design contributed to the error) were calculated. Use of an e-prescribing system was associated with a statistically significant reduction in error rates in all three intervention wards (respectively reductions of 66.1% [95% CI 53.9%–78.3%]; 57.5% [33.8%–81.2%]; and 60.5% [48.5%–72.4%]). The use of the system resulted in a decline in errors at Hospital A from 6.25 per admission (95% CI 5.23–7.28) to 2.12 (95% CI 1.71–2.54; p<0.0001) and at Hospital B from 3.62 (95% CI 3.30–3.93) to 1.46 (95% CI 1.20–1.73; p<0.0001). This decrease was driven by a large reduction in unclear, illegal, and incomplete orders. The Hospital A control wards experienced no significant change (respectively −12.8% [95% CI −41.1% to 15.5%]; −11.3% [−40.1% to 17.5%]; −20.1% [−52.2% to 12.4%]). There was limited change in clinical error rates, but serious errors decreased by 44% (0.25 per admission to 0.14; p = 0.0002) across the intervention wards compared to the control wards (17% reduction; 0.30–0.25; p = 0.40). Both hospitals experienced system-related errors (0.73 and 0.51 per admission), which accounted for 35% of postsystem errors in the intervention wards; each system was associated with different types of system-related errors.
Conclusions
Implementation of these commercial e-prescribing systems resulted in statistically significant reductions in prescribing error rates. Reductions in clinical errors were limited in the absence of substantial decision support, but a statistically significant decline in serious errors was observed. System-related errors require close attention as they are frequent, but are potentially remediable by system redesign and user training. Limitations included a lack of control wards at Hospital B and an inability to randomize wards to the intervention.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Medication errors—for example, prescribing the wrong drug or giving a drug by the wrong route—frequently occur in health care settings and are responsible for thousands of deaths every year. Until recently, medicines were prescribed and dispensed using systems based on hand-written scripts. In hospitals, for example, physicians wrote orders for medications directly onto a medication chart, which was then used by the nursing staff to give drugs to their patients. However, drugs are now increasingly being prescribed using electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) systems. With these systems, prescribers use a computer and order medications for their patients with the help of a drug information database and menu items, free text boxes, and prewritten orders for specific conditions (so-called passive decision support). The system reviews the patient's medication and known allergy list and alerts the physician to any potential problems, including drug interactions (active decision support). Then after the physician has responded to these alerts, the order is transmitted electronically to the pharmacy and/or the nursing staff who administer the prescription.
Why Was This Study Done?
By avoiding the need for physicians to write out prescriptions and by providing active and passive decision support, e-prescribing has the potential to reduce medication errors. But, even though many countries are investing in expensive commercial e-prescribing systems, few studies have evaluated the effects of these systems on prescribing error rates. Moreover, little is known about the interactions between system design and errors despite fears that e-prescribing might introduce new errors. In this study, the researchers analyze prescribing error rates in hospital in-patients before and after the implementation of two commercial e-prescribing systems.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers examined medication charts for procedural errors (unclear, incomplete, or illegal orders) and for clinical errors (for example, wrong drug or dose) at two Australian hospitals before and after the introduction of commercial e-prescribing systems. At Hospital A, the Cerner Millennium e-prescribing system was introduced on one ward; three other wards acted as controls. At Hospital B, the researchers compared the error rates on two wards before and after the introduction of the iSoft MedChart e-prescribing system. The introduction of an e-prescribing system was associated with a substantial reduction in error rates in the three intervention wards; error rates on the control wards did not change significantly during the study. At Hospital A, medication errors declined from 6.25 to 2.12 per admission after the introduction of e-prescribing whereas at Hospital B, they declined from 3.62 to 1.46 per admission. This reduction in error rates was mainly driven by a reduction in procedural error rates and there was only a limited change in overall clinical error rates. Notably, however, the rate of serious errors decreased across the intervention wards from 0.25 to 0.14 per admission (a 44% reduction), whereas the serious error rate only decreased by 17% in the control wards during the study. Finally, system-related errors (for example, selection of an inappropriate drug located on a drop-down menu next to a likely drug selection) accounted for 35% of errors in the intervention wards after the implementation of e-prescribing.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that the implementation of these two e-prescribing systems markedly reduced hospital in-patient prescribing error rates, mainly by reducing the number of incomplete, illegal, or unclear medication orders. The limited decision support built into both the e-prescribing systems used here may explain the limited reduction in clinical error rates but, importantly, both e-prescribing systems reduced serious medication errors. Finally, the high rate of system-related errors recorded in this study is worrying but is potentially remediable by system redesign and user training. Because this was a “real-world” study, it was not possible to choose the intervention wards randomly. Moreover, there was no control ward at Hospital B, and the wards included in the study had very different specialties. These and other aspects of the study design may limit the generalizability of these findings, which need to be confirmed and extended in additional studies. Even so, these findings provide persuasive evidence of the current and potential ability of commercial e-prescribing systems to reduce prescribing errors in hospital in-patients provided these systems are continually monitored and refined to improve their performance.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001164.
ClinfoWiki has pages on medication errors and on electronic prescribing (note: the Clinical Informatics Wiki is a free online resource that anyone can add to or edit)
Electronic prescribing in hospitals challenges and lessons learned describes the implementation of e-prescribing in UK hospitals; more information about e-prescribing in the UK is available on the NHS Connecting for Health Website
The Clinicians Guide to e-Prescribing provides up-to-date information about e-prescribing in the USA
Information about e-prescribing in Australia is also available
Information about electronic health records in Australia
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001164
PMCID: PMC3269428  PMID: 22303286
8.  Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia as a Risk Factor for Surgical-Site Infection in Non-diabetic Orthopaedic Trauma Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit 
Journal of orthopaedic trauma  2013;27(1):16-21.
Objectives
To evaluate the association between stress-induced hyperglycemia and infectious complications in non-diabetic orthopaedic trauma patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).
Design
Retrospective review.
Setting
Academic Level-1 Trauma Center.
Patients
One hundred and eighty-seven consecutive trauma patients with isolated orthopaedic injuries.
Intervention
Blood glucose values during initial hospitalization were evaluated. The admission blood glucose (BG) and Hyperglycemic Index (HGI) were determined for each patient.
Main Outcome Measures
Perioperative infectious complications: pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI), surgical-site infection (SSI), sepsis.
Results
An average of 21.5 BG values was obtained for each patient. Mean ICU and hospital length of stay was 4.0±4.9 and 10.0±8.1 days, respectively. Infections were recorded in 43/187 patients (23.0%) and SSI’s specifically documented in 16 patients (8.6%). Open fractures were not associated with SSI (8/83, 9.6% vs. 8/104, 7.7%). There was no difference in admission BG or HGI and infection. However, there was a significant difference in HGI when considering SSI alone (2.1±1.7 vs. 1.2±1.1). Patients with an SSI received a greater amount of blood transfusions (14.9±12.1 vs. 4.9±7.6). No patient was diagnosed with a separate infection (i.e. pneumonia, UTI, bacteremia) prior to SSI. There was no significant difference in Injury Severity Score among patients with an SSI (11.1±4.0 vs. 9.6±3.0). Multivariable regression testing with HGI as a continuous variable demonstrated a significant relationship (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3–2.5) with SSI after adjusting for blood transfusions (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1–1.2).
Conclusions
Stress-induced hyperglycemia demonstrated a significant independent association with SSI’s in non-diabetic orthopaedic trauma patients who were admitted to the ICU.
doi:10.1097/BOT.0b013e31825d60e5
PMCID: PMC3507335  PMID: 22588532
hyperglycemia; orthopaedic trauma; surgical site infection; non-diabetic; intensive care unit
9.  The casualty profile from the Manchester bombing 1996: a proposal for the construction and dissemination of casualty profiles from major incidents. 
OBJECTIVE: To produce a casualty profile for the Manchester bombing and to illustrate the potential uses of such templates in major incident planning. METHODS: A retrospective review of casualty notes from the Manchester bombing. RESULTS: A complete anonymous casualty profile for the Manchester bombing is given with AIS90 coded injuries. The majority (129, 62%) of casualties sustained minor injuries from flying glass. A significant number of casualties (36, 18%) presented with emotional distress or medical problems. A wide age range of casualties was involved. Few patients (19, 9%) required admission to hospital. There were no deaths and no casualties sustained major trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Casualty profiles may be useful in the planning and testing of health service major incident plans. Such information should be easily accessible to all emergency planners.
Images
PMCID: PMC1342872  PMID: 9132196
10.  Child Abuse: The Role of the Orthopaedic Surgeon in Nonaccidental Trauma 
Background
Child abuse presents in many different forms: physical, sexual, psychological, and neglect. The orthopaedic surgeon is involved mostly with physical abuse but should be aware of the other forms. There is limited training regarding child abuse, and the documentation is poor when a patient is at risk for abuse. There is a considerable risk to children when abuse is not recognized.
Questions/purposes
In this review, we (1) define abuse, (2) describe the incidence and demographic characteristics of abuse, (3) describe the orthopaedic manifestations of abuse, and (4) define the orthopaedic surgeon’s role in cases of abuse.
Methods
We performed a PubMed literature review and a search of the Department of Health and Human Services Web site. The Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery of North America trauma symposium was referenced and expanded to create this review.
Results
Recognition and awareness of child abuse are the primary tasks of the orthopaedic surgeon. Skin trauma is more common than fractures, yet fractures are the most common radiographic finding. Patients with fractures who are younger than 3 years, particularly those younger than 1 year, should be evaluated for abuse. No fracture type or location is pathognomonic. Management in the majority of fracture cases resulting from abuse is nonoperative casting or splinting.
Conclusions
The role of the orthopaedic surgeon in suspected cases of child abuse includes (1) obtaining a good history and making a thorough physical examination; (2) obtaining the appropriate radiographs and notifying the appropriate services; and (3) participating in and communicating with a multidisciplinary team to manage the patients.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1610-3
PMCID: PMC3032840  PMID: 20941649
11.  The impact of trauma centre designation on open tibial fracture management 
Introduction
The British Orthopaedic Association/British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons guidelines for the management of open tibial fractures recommend early senior combined orthopaedic and plastic surgical input with appropriate facilities to manage a high caseload. The aim of this study was to assess whether becoming a major trauma centre has affected the management of patients with open tibial fractures.
Methods
Data were obtained prospectively on consecutive open tibial fractures during two eight-month periods: before and after becoming a trauma centre.
Results
Overall, 29 open tibial fractures were admitted after designation as a major trauma centre compared with 15 previously. Of the 29 patients, 21 came directly or as transfers from another accident and emergency deparment (previously 8 of 15). The time to transfer patients admitted initially to local orthopaedic departments has fallen from 205.7 hours to 37.4 hours (p=0.084). Tertiary transferred patients had a longer hospital stay (16.3 vs 14.9 days) and had more operations (3.7 vs 2.6, p=0.08) than direct admissions. As a trauma centre, there were improvements in time to definitive skeletal stabilisation (4.7 vs 2.2 days, p=0.06), skin coverage (8.3 vs 3.7 days, p=0.06), average number of operations (4.2 vs 2.3, p=0.002) and average length of hospital admission (26.6 vs 15.3 days, p=0.05).
Conclusions
The volume and management of open tibial fractures, independent of fracture grade, has been directly affected by the introduction of a trauma centre enabling early combined senior orthopaedic and plastic surgical input. Our data strongly support the benefits of trauma centres and the continuing development of trauma networks in the management of open tibial fractures.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609957416
PMCID: PMC4165241  PMID: 23827288
Open fracture; Trauma network; Major trauma centre; Gustilo; Tibial fracture
12.  Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors 
Executive Summary
In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry’s newly released Aging at Home Strategy.
After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person’s transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report.
Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series.
Aging in the Community: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses
Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis
The Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR)
Objective
To identify interventions that may be effective in reducing the probability of an elderly person’s falling and/or sustaining a fall-related injury.
Background
Although estimates of fall rates vary widely based on the location, age, and living arrangements of the elderly population, it is estimated that each year approximately 30% of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 and older, and 50% of those aged 85 and older will fall. Of those individuals who fall, 12% to 42% will have a fall-related injury.
Several meta-analyses and cohort studies have identified falls and fall-related injuries as a strong predictor of admission to a long-term care (LTC) home. It has been shown that the risk of LTC home admission is over 5 times higher in seniors who experienced 2 or more falls without injury, and over 10 times higher in seniors who experienced a fall causing serious injury.
Falls result from the interaction of a variety of risk factors that can be both intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic factors are those that pertain to the physical, demographic, and health status of the individual, while extrinsic factors relate to the physical and socio-economic environment. Intrinsic risk factors can be further grouped into psychosocial/demographic risks, medical risks, risks associated with activity level and dependence, and medication risks. Commonly described extrinsic risks are tripping hazards, balance and slip hazards, and vision hazards.
Note: It is recognized that the terms “senior” and “elderly” carry a range of meanings for different audiences; this report generally uses the former, but the terms are treated here as essentially interchangeable.
Evidence-Based Analysis of Effectiveness
Research Question
Since many risk factors for falls are modifiable, what interventions (devices, systems, programs) exist that reduce the risk of falls and/or fall-related injuries for community-dwelling seniors?
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
Inclusion Criteria
English language;
published between January 2000 and September 2007;
population of community-dwelling seniors (majority aged 65+); and
randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental trials, systematic reviews, or meta-analyses.
Exclusion Criteria
special populations (e.g., stroke or osteoporosis; however, studies restricted only to women were included);
studies only reporting surrogate outcomes; or
studies whose outcome cannot be extracted for meta-analysis.
Outcomes of Interest
number of fallers, and
number of falls resulting in injury/fracture.
Search Strategy
A search was performed in OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published between January 2000 and September 2007. Furthermore, all studies included in a 2003 Cochrane review were considered for inclusion in this analysis. Abstracts were reviewed by a single author, and studies meeting the inclusion criteria outlined above were obtained. Studies were grouped based on intervention type, and data on population characteristics, fall outcomes, and study design were extracted. Reference lists were also checked for relevant studies. The quality of the evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE methodology.
Summary of Findings
The following 11 interventions were identified in the literature search: exercise programs, vision assessment and referral, cataract surgery, environmental modifications, vitamin D supplementation, vitamin D plus calcium supplementation, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), medication withdrawal, gait-stabilizing devices, hip protectors, and multifactorial interventions.
Exercise programs were stratified into targeted programs where the exercise routine was tailored to the individuals’ needs, and untargeted programs that were identical among subjects. Furthermore, analyses were stratified by exercise program duration (<6 months and ≥6 months) and fall risk of study participants. Similarly, the analyses on the environmental modification studies were stratified by risk. Low-risk study participants had had no fall in the year prior to study entry, while high-risk participants had had at least one fall in the previous year.
A total of 17 studies investigating multifactorial interventions were identified in the literature search. Of these studies, 10 reported results for a high-risk population with previous falls, while 6 reported results for study participants representative of the general population. One study provided stratified results by fall risk, and therefore results from this study were included in each stratified analysis.
Summary of Meta-Analyses of Studies Investigating the Effectiveness of Interventions on the Risk of Falls in Community-Dwelling Seniors*
CI refers to confidence interval; RR, relative risk.
Hazard ratio is reported, because RR was not available.
Summary of Meta-Analyses of Studies Investigating the Effectiveness of Interventions on the Risk of Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors*
CI refers to confidence interval; RR, relative risk.
Odds ratio is reported, because RR was not available.
Conclusions
High-quality evidence indicates that long-term exercise programs in mobile seniors and environmental modifications in the homes of frail elderly persons will effectively reduce falls and possibly fall-related injuries in Ontario’s elderly population.
A combination of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in elderly women will help reduce the risk of falls by more than 40%.
The use of outdoor gait-stabilizing devices for mobile seniors during the winter in Ontario may reduce falls and fall-related injuries; however, evidence is limited and more research is required in this area.
While psychotropic medication withdrawal may be an effective method for reducing falls, evidence is limited and long-term compliance has been demonstrated to be difficult to achieve.
Multifactorial interventions in high-risk populations may be effective; however, the effect is only marginally significant, and the quality of evidence is low.
PMCID: PMC3377567  PMID: 23074507
13.  Pelvic radiography in ATLS algorithms: A diminishing role? 
Background
Pelvic x-ray is a routine part of the primary survey of polytraumatized patients according to Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines. However, pelvic CT is the gold standard imaging technique in the diagnosis of pelvic fractures. This study was conducted to confirm the safety of a modified ATLS algorithm omitting pelvic x-ray in hemodynamically stable polytraumatized patients with clinically stable pelvis in favour of later pelvic examination by CT scan.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of all polytraumatized patients in our emergency room between 01.07.2004 and 31.01.2006. Inclusion criteria were blunt abdominal trauma, initial hemodynamic stability and a stable pelvis on clinical examination. We excluded patients requiring immediate intervention because of hemodynamic instability.
Results
We reviewed the records of n = 452 polytraumatized patients, of which n = 91 fulfilled inclusion criteria (56% male, mean age = 45 years). The mechanism of trauma included 43% road traffic accidents, 47% falls. In 68/91 (75%) patients, both a pelvic x-ray and a CT examination were performed; the remainder had only pelvic CT. In 6/68 (9%) patients, pelvic fracture was diagnosed by pelvic x-ray. None of these 6 patients was found having a false positive pelvic x-ray, i.e. there was no fracture on pelvic CT scan. In 3/68 (4%) cases a fracture was missed in the pelvic x-ray, but confirmed on CT (false negative on x-ray). None of the diagnosed fractures needed an immediate therapeutic intervention. 5 (56%) were classified type A fractures, and another 4 (44%) B 2.1 in computed tomography (AO classification). One A 2.1 fracture was found in a clinically stable patient who only received CT scan (1/23).
Conclusion
While pelvic x-ray is an integral part of ATLS assessment, this retrospective study suggests that in hemodynamically stable patients with clinically stable pevis, its sensitivity is only 67% and it may safely be omitted in favor of a pelvic CT examination if such is planned in adjunct assessment and available. The results support the safety and utility of our modified ATLS algorithm. A randomized controlled trial using the algorithm can safely be conducted to confirm the results.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-3-11
PMCID: PMC2311282  PMID: 18318904
14.  Management of open tibial fractures – a regional experience 
INTRODUCTION
The treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with tibial diaphyseal fractures presents a clinical challenge that is best managed by a combined plastic and orthopaedic surgery approach. The current study was undertaken to assess early treatment outcomes and burden of service provision across five regional plastic surgery units in the South-West of England.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
We conducted a prospective 6-month audit of open tibial diaphyseal fracture management in five plastic surgery units (Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, Salisbury, Swansea) with a collective catchment of 9.2 million people. Detailed data were collected on patient demographics, injury pattern, surgical management and outcome followed to discharge.
RESULTS
The study group consisted of 55 patients (40 male, 15 female). Twenty-two patients presented directly to the emergency department at the specialist hospital (primary group), 33 patients were initially managed at a local hospital (tertiary group). The mean time from injury to soft tissue cover was significantly less (P < 0.001) in the primary group (3.6 ± 0.8 days) than the tertiary group (10.8 ± 2.2 days), principally due to a delay in referral in the latter group (5.4 ±1.7 days). Cover was achieved with 39 flaps (19 free, 20 local), eight split skin grafts. Nine wounds closed directly or by secondary intention. There were 11 early complications (20%) including one flap failure and four infections. The overall mean length of stay was 17.5 ± 2.8 days.
CONCLUSIONS
Multidisciplinary management of severe open tibial diaphyseal may not be feasible at presentation of injury depending on local hospital specialist services available. Our results highlight the need for robust assessment, triage and senior orthopaedic review in the early post-injury phase. However, broader improvements in the management of lower limb trauma will additionally require further development of combined specialist trauma centres.
doi:10.1308/003588410X12699663904592
PMCID: PMC3229382  PMID: 21047449
Open fracture; Soft tissue; Reconstruction; Tibia
15.  Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia 
Executive Summary
In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry’s newly released Aging at Home Strategy.
After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person’s transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report.
Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series.
Aging in the Community: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses
Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis
The Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR)
This report features the evidence-based analysis on caregiver- and patient-directed interventions for dementia and is broken down into 4 sections:
Introduction
Caregiver-Directed Interventions for Dementia
Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia
Economic Analysis of Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia
Caregiver-Directed Interventions for Dementia
Objective
To identify interventions that may be effective in supporting the well-being of unpaid caregivers of seniors with dementia living in the community.
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Dementia is a progressive and largely irreversible syndrome that is characterized by a loss of cognitive function severe enough to impact social or occupational functioning. The components of cognitive function affected include memory and learning, attention, concentration and orientation, problem-solving, calculation, language, and geographic orientation. Dementia was identified as one of the key predictors in a senior’s transition from independent community living to admission to a long-term care (LTC) home, in that approximately 90% of individuals diagnosed with dementia will be institutionalized before death. In addition, cognitive decline linked to dementia is one of the most commonly cited reasons for institutionalization.
Prevalence estimates of dementia in the Ontario population have largely been extrapolated from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging conducted in 1991. Based on these estimates, it is projected that there will be approximately 165,000 dementia cases in Ontario in the year 2008, and by 2010 the number of cases will increase by nearly 17% over 2005 levels. By 2020 the number of cases is expected to increase by nearly 55%, due to a rise in the number of people in the age categories with the highest prevalence (85+). With the increase in the aging population, dementia will continue to have a significant economic impact on the Canadian health care system. In 1991, the total costs associated with dementia in Canada were $3.9 billion (Cdn) with $2.18 billion coming from LTC.
Caregivers play a crucial role in the management of individuals with dementia because of the high level of dependency and morbidity associated with the condition. It has been documented that a greater demand is faced by dementia caregivers compared with caregivers of persons with other chronic diseases. The increased burden of caregiving contributes to a host of chronic health problems seen among many informal caregivers of persons with dementia. Much of this burden results from managing the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), which have been established as a predictor of institutionalization for elderly patients with dementia.
It is recognized that for some patients with dementia, an LTC facility can provide the most appropriate care; however, many patients move into LTC unnecessarily. For individuals with dementia to remain in the community longer, caregivers require many types of formal and informal support services to alleviate the stress of caregiving. These include both respite care and psychosocial interventions. Psychosocial interventions encompass a broad range of interventions such as psychoeducational interventions, counseling, supportive therapy, and behavioural interventions.
Assuming that 50% of persons with dementia live in the community, a conservative estimate of the number of informal caregivers in Ontario is 82,500. Accounting for the fact that 29% of people with dementia live alone, this leaves a remaining estimate of 58,575 Ontarians providing care for a person with dementia with whom they reside.
Description of Interventions
The 2 main categories of caregiver-directed interventions examined in this review are respite care and psychosocial interventions. Respite care is defined as a break or relief for the caregiver. In most cases, respite is provided in the home, through day programs, or at institutions (usually 30 days or less). Depending on a caregiver’s needs, respite services will vary in delivery and duration. Respite care is carried out by a variety of individuals, including paid staff, volunteers, family, or friends.
Psychosocial interventions encompass a broad range of interventions and have been classified in various ways in the literature. This review will examine educational, behavioural, dementia-specific, supportive, and coping interventions. The analysis focuses on behavioural interventions, that is, those designed to help the caregiver manage BPSD. As described earlier, BPSD are one of the most challenging aspects of caring for a senior with dementia, causing an increase in caregiver burden. The analysis also examines multicomponent interventions, which include at least 2 of the above-mentioned interventions.
Methods of Evidence-Based Analysis
A comprehensive search strategy was used to identify systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effectiveness of interventions for caregivers of dementia patients.
Questions
Section 2.1
Are respite care services effective in supporting the well-being of unpaid caregivers of seniors with dementia in the community?
Do respite care services impact on rates of institutionalization of these seniors?
Section 2.2
Which psychosocial interventions are effective in supporting the well-being of unpaid caregivers of seniors with dementia in the community?
Which interventions reduce the risk for institutionalization of seniors with dementia?
Outcomes of Interest
any quantitative measure of caregiver psychological health, including caregiver burden, depression, quality of life, well-being, strain, mastery (taking control of one’s situation), reactivity to behaviour problems, etc.;
rate of institutionalization; and
cost-effectiveness.
Assessment of Quality of Evidence
The quality of the evidence was assessed as High, Moderate, Low, or Very low according to the GRADE methodology and GRADE Working Group. As per GRADE the following definitions apply:
Summary of Findings
Conclusions in Table 1 are drawn from Sections 2.1 and 2.2 of the report.
Summary of Conclusions on Caregiver-Directed Interventions
There is limited evidence from RCTs that respite care is effective in improving outcomes for those caring for seniors with dementia.
There is considerable qualitative evidence of the perceived benefits of respite care.
Respite care is known as one of the key formal support services for alleviating caregiver burden in those caring for dementia patients.
Respite care services need to be tailored to individual caregiver needs as there are vast differences among caregivers and patients with dementia (severity, type of dementia, amount of informal/formal support available, housing situation, etc.)
There is moderate- to high-quality evidence that individual behavioural interventions (≥ 6 sessions), directed towards the caregiver (or combined with the patient) are effective in improving psychological health in dementia caregivers.
There is moderate- to high-quality evidence that multicomponent interventions improve caregiver psychosocial health and may affect rates of institutionalization of dementia patients.
RCT indicates randomized controlled trial.
Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia
Objective
The section on patient-directed interventions for dementia is broken down into 4 subsections with the following questions:
3.1 Physical Exercise for Seniors with Dementia – Secondary Prevention
What is the effectiveness of physical exercise for the improvement or maintenance of basic activities of daily living (ADLs), such as eating, bathing, toileting, and functional ability, in seniors with mild to moderate dementia?
3.2 Nonpharmacologic and Nonexercise Interventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning in Seniors With Dementia – Secondary Prevention
What is the effectiveness of nonpharmacologic interventions to improve cognitive functioning in seniors with mild to moderate dementia?
3.3 Physical Exercise for Delaying the Onset of Dementia – Primary Prevention
Can exercise decrease the risk of subsequent cognitive decline/dementia?
3.4 Cognitive Interventions for Delaying the Onset of Dementia – Primary Prevention
Does cognitive training decrease the risk of cognitive impairment, deterioration in the performance of basic ADLs or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs),1 or incidence of dementia in seniors with good cognitive and physical functioning?
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Secondary Prevention2
Exercise
Physical deterioration is linked to dementia. This is thought to be due to reduced muscle mass leading to decreased activity levels and muscle atrophy, increasing the potential for unsafe mobility while performing basic ADLs such as eating, bathing, toileting, and functional ability.
Improved physical conditioning for seniors with dementia may extend their independent mobility and maintain performance of ADL.
Nonpharmacologic and Nonexercise Interventions
Cognitive impairments, including memory problems, are a defining feature of dementia. These impairments can lead to anxiety, depression, and withdrawal from activities. The impact of these cognitive problems on daily activities increases pressure on caregivers.
Cognitive interventions aim to improve these impairments in people with mild to moderate dementia.
Primary Prevention3
Exercise
Various vascular risk factors have been found to contribute to the development of dementia (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, overweight).
Physical exercise is important in promoting overall and vascular health. However, it is unclear whether physical exercise can decrease the risk of cognitive decline/dementia.
Nonpharmacologic and Nonexercise Interventions
Having more years of education (i.e., a higher cognitive reserve) is associated with a lower prevalence of dementia in crossectional population-based studies and a lower incidence of dementia in cohorts followed longitudinally. However, it is unclear whether cognitive training can increase cognitive reserve or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment, prevent or delay deterioration in the performance of ADLs or IADLs or reduce the incidence of dementia.
Description of Interventions
Physical exercise and nonpharmacologic/nonexercise interventions (e.g., cognitive training) for the primary and secondary prevention of dementia are assessed in this review.
Evidence-Based Analysis Methods
A comprehensive search strategy was used to identify systematic reviews and RCTs that examined the effectiveness, safety and cost effectiveness of exercise and cognitive interventions for the primary and secondary prevention of dementia.
Questions
Section 3.1: What is the effectiveness of physical exercise for the improvement or maintenance of ADLs in seniors with mild to moderate dementia?
Section 3.2: What is the effectiveness of nonpharmacologic/nonexercise interventions to improve cognitive functioning in seniors with mild to moderate dementia?
Section 3.3: Can exercise decrease the risk of subsequent cognitive decline/dementia?
Section 3.4: Does cognitive training decrease the risk of cognitive impairment, prevent or delay deterioration in the performance of ADLs or IADLs, or reduce the incidence of dementia in seniors with good cognitive and physical functioning?
Assessment of Quality of Evidence
The quality of the evidence was assessed as High, Moderate, Low, or Very low according to the GRADE methodology. As per GRADE the following definitions apply:
Summary of Findings
Table 2 summarizes the conclusions from Sections 3.1 through 3.4.
Summary of Conclusions on Patient-Directed Interventions*
Previous systematic review indicated that “cognitive training” is not effective in patients with dementia.
A recent RCT suggests that CST (up to 7 weeks) is effective for improving cognitive function and quality of life in patients with dementia.
Regular leisure time physical activity in midlife is associated with a reduced risk of dementia in later life (mean follow-up 21 years).
Regular physical activity in seniors is associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline (mean follow-up 2 years).
Regular physical activity in seniors is associated with a reduced risk of dementia (mean follow-up 6–7 years).
Evidence that cognitive training for specific functions (memory, reasoning, and speed of processing) produces improvements in these specific domains.
Limited inconclusive evidence that cognitive training can offset deterioration in the performance of self-reported IADL scores and performance assessments.
1° indicates primary; 2°, secondary; CST, cognitive stimulation therapy; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living; RCT, randomized controlled trial.
Benefit/Risk Analysis
As per the GRADE Working Group, the overall recommendations consider 4 main factors:
the trade-offs, taking into account the estimated size of the effect for the main outcome, the confidence limits around those estimates, and the relative value placed on the outcome;
the quality of the evidence;
translation of the evidence into practice in a specific setting, taking into consideration important factors that could be expected to modify the size of the expected effects such as proximity to a hospital or availability of necessary expertise; and
uncertainty about the baseline risk for the population of interest.
The GRADE Working Group also recommends that incremental costs of health care alternatives should be considered explicitly alongside the expected health benefits and harms. Recommendations rely on judgments about the value of the incremental health benefits in relation to the incremental costs. The last column in Table 3 reflects the overall trade-off between benefits and harms (adverse events) and incorporates any risk/uncertainty (cost-effectiveness).
Overall Summary Statement of the Benefit and Risk for Patient-Directed Interventions*
Economic Analysis
Budget Impact Analysis of Effective Interventions for Dementia
Caregiver-directed behavioural techniques and patient-directed exercise programs were found to be effective when assessing mild to moderate dementia outcomes in seniors living in the community. Therefore, an annual budget impact was calculated based on eligible seniors in the community with mild and moderate dementia and their respective caregivers who were willing to participate in interventional home sessions. Table 4 describes the annual budget impact for these interventions.
Annual Budget Impact (2008 Canadian Dollars)
Assumed 7% prevalence of dementia aged 65+ in Ontario.
Assumed 8 weekly sessions plus 4 monthly phone calls.
Assumed 12 weekly sessions plus biweekly sessions thereafter (total of 20).
Assumed 2 sessions per week for first 5 weeks. Assumed 90% of seniors in the community with dementia have mild to moderate disease. Assumed 4.5% of seniors 65+ are in long-term care, and the remainder are in the community. Assumed a rate of participation of 60% for both patients and caregivers and of 41% for patient-directed exercise. Assumed 100% compliance since intervention administered at the home. Cost for trained staff from Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care data source. Assumed cost of personal support worker to be equivalent to in-home support. Cost for recreation therapist from Alberta government Website.
Note: This budget impact analysis was calculated for the first year after introducing the interventions from the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care perspective using prevalence data only. Prevalence estimates are for seniors in the community with mild to moderate dementia and their respective caregivers who are willing to participate in an interventional session administered at the home setting. Incidence and mortality rates were not factored in. Current expenditures in the province are unknown and therefore were not included in the analysis. Numbers may change based on population trends, rate of intervention uptake, trends in current programs in place in the province, and assumptions on costs. The number of patients was based on patients likely to access these interventions in Ontario based on assumptions stated below from the literature. An expert panel confirmed resource consumption.
PMCID: PMC3377513  PMID: 23074509
16.  An undiagnosed bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation after a seizure: a case report 
Cases Journal  2008;1:342.
Introduction
Late diagnoses of orthopaedic injuries after epileptic crisis are a matter of concern. The rarity of correlation between seizure and specific trauma incidences such as bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation, may lead to improper estimation of the patient's clinical state, wrong treatment and unpleasant complications.
Case presentation
We report the rare case of an undiagnosed bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation in an epileptic young man of 25 years of age. The way of treatment is described as well as the treating alterations, if needed, because of the 3 weeks delay from injury. The article focuses on the reasons of the non-diagnosis at the first place and proposes a possible explanation for the mechanism of the injury. This is the second documented case of a missed bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following a seizure and the first one that was treated not earlier than 3 weeks post injury.
Conclusion
Although not a matter of routine, the high importance of radiographic control after seizure, in case of suspicion, is concluded. The etiology causing the injury shall not disorientate the doctors from the possible diagnoses.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-342
PMCID: PMC2596117  PMID: 19025598
17.  Fractures of the Femur. End Results* 
Melvin Starkey Henderson was born in St. Paul, Minnesota and received his early schooling there and in Winnipeg, Manitoba [4]. He received his undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Toronto. He then interned in the City and County Hospital in his home town of St. Paul, and in 1907 went to work as an assistant with the founders of the recently formed Mayo Clinic, William James and Charles Horace Mayo. To further his training and evidently at the suggestion of the Mayo brothers, in 1911 Dr. Henderson went abroad to work under Sir Robert Jones in Liverpool and then Sir Harold Stiles in Edinburgh. He returned to organize and direct the section of orthopaedic surgery at the Mayo Clinic and spent his entire professional career there.
Dr. Henderson was involved in many national and international organizations, and was a founder and first President of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgeons when it was established at the Kahler Hotel in Rochester, Minnesota, on June 5, 1934, after several previous organizational meetings [5]. Wickstrom [5], describing the organization of the Board, commented, “After all, in the opinion of the East coast establishment, Dr. Henderson (who was born in St. Paul, was educated in Canada, and had his beginning with the Mayo brothers as a clinical assistant riding a bicycle around Rochester, making house calls on the Mayo brothers’ patients) was a mere upstart.” However, at the time Dr. Henderson was 50 years old and had been President of the American Orthopaedic Association and Clinical Orthopaedic Society, as well as prominent in the American Medical Association and other organizations. Dr. Henderson was one of three of the first 15 AAOS Presidents (the other two being Drs. Philip D. Wilson and John C. Wilson, Sr.) who had a son who succeeded him as President. He was greatly respected for his organizational abilities, particularly at the Board, whose objectives were uncertain in the beginning and required sage guidance [5].
We reproduce here an article in which Dr. Henderson reviewed 222 consecutive cases of femur fractures, 165 of which had been referred late because of complications of fractures treated elsewhere (clearly, by 1921, the Mayo Clinic was a referral source for others) [2]. Followup could not have been easy at a time when patients often came from a distance and travel was difficult, but it was described when available and in 40 of the 57 recent fractures, Henderson reported 87.5% were “cured.” Of the 165 old fractures, he was able to trace 143 (87%), a remarkable figure even today. He reported 90% of the femoral neck fractures were cured by various sorts of nonsurgical (6 patients) or surgical reconstructive (39 patients) means; 85% of the femoral shaft fractures were cured by either nonoperative (29 patients) or operative (69 patients) means. While he did not use the sort of outcomes we use today (the earliest orthopaedic outcome instruments were not introduced for four more decades: by Carroll B. Larson in 1963 [3] and William H. Harris in 1969 [1]), we can only presume Henderson meant union was achieved when patients were “cured” since nonunion or malunion would not have likely produced good results. That being the case, his rate of union was remarkable and would be enviable today in these sometimes difficult situations, attesting to his understanding of the individual situations and his skills. Melvin S. Henderson, MD is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983.
References
Harris WH. Traumatic arthritis of the hip after dislocation and acetabular fractures: treatment by mold arthroplasty: an end-result study using a new method of result evaluation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51:737–755.Henderson MS. Fractures of the femur: end results. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1921;3:520–528.Larson CB. Rating scale for hip disabilities. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1963;31:85–93.Mostofi SB. Who's Who in Orthopedics. London, UK: Springer; 2005.Wickstrom JK. Fifty years of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery: 1934. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1990;257:3–10.
doi:10.1007/s11999-007-0033-2
PMCID: PMC2505283  PMID: 18196372
18.  Paediatric fracture clinic design – current practice and implications for change 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:96.
Background
In our region there has been considerable success in the redesign of adult fracture clinics. The aim of this study was to define our paediatric fracture clinic load, to assess the feasibility of increasing efficiency by decreasing inappropriate attendance.
Findings
Prospective case notes review of all attendees at 6 serial fracture clinics at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children (Glasgow) which has both local and tertiary referrals. Of 234 consecutive attendances across 6 fracture clinics, 34 (15%) were judged inappropriate: 13 had fractures not requiring orthopaedic follow-up (radial torus/clavicle/undisplaced metacarpal), and 21 had diagnoses or situations that were not appropriate. Of the 200 attendances deemed appropriate (172 fractures, 11 soft-tissue injuries, 9 infections and 8 acute atraumatic limps), there were 33 new referrals from the emergency department, and a further 39 were first-time attenders at the fracture clinic after an acute admission (37 were post-operative and 2 were non-operative). Of these 200, the treatment plan was changed for 67 (34%), a cast removed or exchanged for 92 (46%), and radiographs taken for 153 (77%). The overall discharge to return ratio was 76:158 (1:2.1), and for appropriate attenders 61:139 (1:2.3).
Conclusions
Tighter discipline can be applied to indications for fracture clinic appointments, including certain fracture types being discharged from the emergency department without unnecessary review - our particular fracture clinic numbers can be decreased by 15%. In the remaining attendances there are high radiograph and intervention rates, such that it seems unlikely that further reductions in attendance would be feasible.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-96
PMCID: PMC3933002  PMID: 24555762
Fracture clinic; Paediatric; Efficiency; Torus; Buckle
19.  Quality of data in the Manchester orthopaedic database. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1992;304(6820):159-162.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the completeness and accuracy of data in a computerised clinical information system (Manchester orthopaedic database) in comparison with the data available through the Hospital Activity Analysis. DESIGN--Retrospective review of case notes, computer data, and Hospital Activity Analysis data. SETTING--Orthopaedic unit in a district general hospital in Manchester. SUBJECTS--200 random patient records distributed through the period of use of the computer system (1 October 1988 to 31 March 1990) and 121 records for random admissions between 1 April 1989 and 31 March 1990, 71 of which were included in the previous sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Conformity of the computer record key words and Hospital Activity Analysis codes to an ideal key word record and ideal code record drawn up by one investigator from the clinical notes; overall quality (completeness times accuracy). RESULTS--Overall completeness of the data in the orthopaedic database was 62% and the accuracy was 96%. Completeness improved after feedback to doctors on the use of key words in regular audit meetings. Completeness was higher in inpatient than outpatient records (69.9% v 53.7%, p less than 0.001) and when a new key word was required compared with missing and incorrect key words (both p less than 0.001). Completeness was lower when the key word was required of a senior registrar (p less than 0.05). Accuracy was not significantly different. The completeness of Hospital Activity Analysis data was 90.5% and accuracy 69.5%. Thus the overall data quality was similar in both systems. CONCLUSIONS--Even in a system designed for simple and efficient data capture, compliance by users was poor. Accuracy was high, suggesting that users understood the principles of data entry. Completeness of data capture can be improved by providing feedback to users on use of the system and performance. Improvements in future versions of the software should improve performance.
PMCID: PMC1881150  PMID: 1737162
20.  Missed upper cervical spine fracture: clinical and radiological considerations 
Objective:
This report presents a case of missed upper cervical spine fracture following a motor vehicle accident and illustrates various clinical and radiographic considerations necessary in the evaluation of post traumatic cervical spine injuries. Specific clinical signs and symptoms, as well as radiographic clues should prompt the astute clinician to suspect a fracture even when plain film radiographs have been reported as normal.
Clinical features:
A 44-year-old male was referred for an orthopaedic consultation for assessment of headaches following a high speed head-on motor vehicle accident eleven weeks prior to his presentation. Cervical spine radiographs taken at an emergency ward the day of the collision were reported as essentially normal.
Subsequent radiographs taken eleven weeks later revealed a fracture through the body of axis with anterior displacement of atlas. A review of the initial radiographs clearly demonstrated signs suggesting an upper cervical fracture.
Intervention and outcome:
Initially the patient was prescribed a soft collar which he wore daily until an orthopaedic consultation eleven weeks later. Fifteen weeks following trauma, the patient was considered for surgical intervention, due to persistent headaches associated with the development of neurological signs suggestive of early onset of cervical myelopathy.
Conclusion:
Cervical spine fractures can have disastrous consequences if not detected early. A thorough clinical and radiological evaluation is essential in any patient presenting with a history of neck or head trauma. Repeated plain film radiographs are imperative in the event of inadequate visualization of the cervical vertebrae. When in doubt, further imaging studies such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are required to rule out a fracture.
Images
PMCID: PMC2485171
upper cervical fracture; odontoid fracture; cervical spine trauma; chiropractic
21.  Acute psychiatric admissions from an out-of-hours Casualty Clinic; how do referring doctors and admitting specialists agree? 
Background
Over the last decades there has been an increasing pressure on the acute psychiatric wards in Norway. The major contributor to psychiatric acute admissions at the University Hospital of North Norway in the city of Tromsø in 2001 was the GP-based Tromsø Casualty Clinic, only open out-of-hours. We explored all acute psychiatric referrals from Tromsø Casualty Clinic in 2001. The purpose of the study was to characterize the admissions and assess the agreement between the referring doctors and the hospital specialists according to the need for hospitalization, agreement on application of the law and the diagnostic evaluation to assess whether the admissions were appropriate.
Methods
Retrospective, record based, descriptive study comprising 101 psychiatric acute referrals from the Tromsø Casualty Clinic to the psychiatric acute wards at the University Hospital of North Norway.
Results
The specialists accepted all referrals except one, they mostly agreed upon the diagnoses suggested by the referring doctors and they mostly confirmed the application of the law.
Seventy-five percent of the admissions took place during weekends, public holidays or nighttimes. Diagnoses of psychoses or suicidal attempts accounted for 76 % of the total referrals. Substance abuse was noted for 43 %, and in 22 % of all admissions the patients had stopped taking their psychopharmacological medication. The police assisted the referring doctors in one third of all admissions, and was the legal representative in 52 out of 59 involuntary admissions. Thirty percent of the admissions were first- time admissions. Thirty-two percent of the hospital stays lasted for three days or less. Median length of stay was 6.5 days.
Conclusion
The casualty clinic physicians and the hospital specialists mostly agreed in their evaluation of patients indicating that most of the admissions were appropriate. The police was more often involved in the involuntary admissions than intended in the law. The proportion of patients with substance abuse was significant. Alternative treatment strategies should be developed for non-psychotic patients in need of short-term stays.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-41
PMCID: PMC1552062  PMID: 16571113
22.  11 March 2004: The terrorist bomb explosions in Madrid, Spain – an analysis of the logistics, injuries sustained and clinical management of casualties treated at the closest hospital 
Critical Care  2004;9(1):104-111.
At 07:39 on 11 March 2004, 10 terrorist bomb explosions occurred almost simultaneously in four commuter trains in Madrid, Spain, killing 177 people instantly and injuring more than 2000. There were 14 subsequent in-hospital deaths, bringing the ultimate death toll to 191. This report describes the organization of clinical management and patterns of injuries in casualties who were taken to the closest hospital, with an emphasis on the critically ill. A total of 312 patients were taken to the hospital and 91 patients were hospitalized, of whom 89 (28.5%) remained in hospital for longer than 24 hours. Sixty-two patients had only superficial bruises or emotional shock, but the remaining 250 patients had more severe injuries. Data on 243 of these 250 patients form the basis of this report. Tympanic perforation occurred in 41% of 243 victims with moderate-to-severe trauma, chest injuries in 40%, shrapnel wounds in 36%, fractures in 18%, first-degree or second-degree burns in 18%, eye lesions in 18%, head trauma in 12% and abdominal injuries in 5%. Between 08:00 and 17:00, 34 surgical interventions were performed in 32 patients. Twenty-nine casualties (12% of the total, or 32.5% of those hospitalized) were deemed to be in a critical condition, and two of these died within minutes of arrival. The other 27 survived to admission to intensive care units, and three of them died, bringing the critical mortality rate to 17.2% (5/29). The mean Injury Severity Score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores for critically ill patients were 34 and 23, respectively. Among these critically ill patients, soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries predominated in 85% of cases, ear blast injury was identified in 67% and blast lung injury was present in 63%. Fifty-two per cent suffered head trauma. Over-triage to the closest hospital probably occurred, and the time of the blasts proved to be crucial to the the adequacy of the medical and surgical response. The number of blast lung injuries seen is probably the largest reported by a single institution, and the critical mortality rate was reasonably low.
doi:10.1186/cc2995
PMCID: PMC1065101  PMID: 15693992
blast lung injury; casualties; explosions; terrorism
23.  Effect of a redesigned fracture management pathway and ‘virtual’ fracture clinic on ED performance 
BMJ Open  2014;4(6):e005282.
Objectives
Collaboration between the orthopaedic and emergency medicine (ED) services has resulted in standardised treatment pathways, leaflet supported discharge and a virtual fracture clinic review. Patients with minor, stable fractures are discharged with no further follow-up arranged. We aimed to examine the time taken to assess and treat these patients in the ED along with the rate of unplanned reattendance.
Design
A retrospective study was undertaken that covered 1 year before the change and 1 year after. Prospectively collected administrative data from the electronic patient record system were analysed and compared before and after the change.
Setting
An ED and orthopaedic unit, serving a population of 300 000, in a publicly funded health system.
Participants
2840 patients treated with referral to a traditional fracture clinic and 3374 patients managed according to the newly redesigned protocol.
Outcome measures
Time for assessment and treatment of patients with orthopaedic injuries not requiring immediate operative management, and 7-day unplanned reattendance.
Results
Where plaster backslabs were replaced with removable splints, the consultation time was reduced. There was no change in treatment time for other injuries treated by the new discharge protocol. There was no increase in unplanned ED attendance, related to the injury, within 7 days (p=0.149). There was a decrease in patients reattending the ED due to a missed fracture clinic appointment.
Conclusions
This process did not require any new time resources from the ED staff. This process brought significant benefits to the ED as treatment pathways were agreed. The pathway reduced unnecessary reattendance of patients at face-to-face fracture clinics for a review of stable, self-limiting injuries.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005282
PMCID: PMC4067811  PMID: 24928593
Accident & Emergency Medicine; Audit; Health Services Administration & Management; Orthopaedic & Trauma Surgery
24.  Does a Multidisciplinary Team Decrease Complications in Male Patients With Hip Fractures? 
Background
Men with hip fractures are more likely to experience postoperative complications than women. The Medical Orthopaedic Trauma Service program at New York Presbyterian Hospital utilizes a multidisciplinary team approach to care for patients with hip fractures. The service is comanaged by an attending hospitalist and orthopaedic surgeon, with daily walking rounds attended by the hospitalist, orthopaedic resident, physical therapist, social worker, and a dedicated Medical Orthopaedic Trauma Service physician assistant.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether a multidisciplinary service for patients with hip fracture decreases (1) the incidence of inpatient complications in men, (2) the length of hospitalization, and (3) 90-day and 1-year mortality.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 74 men who had surgery for a nonperiprosthetic femoral neck, intertrochanteric, or subtrochanteric fracture for two 7-month periods before and after implementation of the Medical Orthopaedic Trauma Service. Age, ethnicity, comorbidity status, time to surgery, and postoperative complication data were collected. Regression modeling was used to evaluate the likelihood of postoperative complications, length of hospitalization, and 90-day and 1-year mortality while controlling for age, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, fracture type, and time from admission to surgery.
Results
We observed a decrease in the likelihood of experiencing at least one inpatient complication in male patients after implementation of the Medical Orthopaedic Trauma Service (odds ratio = 0.264). There was no difference in length of hospitalization, 90-day mortality, or 1-year mortality.
Conclusions
Multidisciplinary collaboration for patients with hip fractures can decrease the likelihood of experiencing inpatient complications in male patients.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-1825-y
PMCID: PMC3111804  PMID: 21350887
25.  Missed injuries in trauma patients: A literature review 
Background
Overlooked injuries and delayed diagnoses are still common problems in the treatment of polytrauma patients. Therefore, ongoing documentation describing the incidence rates of missed injuries, clinically significant missed injuries, contributing factors and outcome is necessary to improve the quality of trauma care. This review summarizes the available literature on missed injuries, focusing on overlooked muscoloskeletal injuries.
Methods
Manuscripts dealing with missed injuries after trauma were reviewed. The following search modules were selected in PubMed: Missed injuries, Delayed diagnoses, Trauma, Musculoskeletal injuires. Three time periods were differentiated: (n = 2, 1980–1990), (n = 6, 1990–2000), and (n = 9, 2000-Present).
Results
We found a wide spread distribution of missed injuries and delayed diagnoses incidence rates (1.3% to 39%). Approximately 15 to 22.3% of patients with missed injuries had clinically significant missed injuries. Furthermore, we observed a decrease of missed pelvic and hip injuries within the last decade.
Conclusion
The lack of standardized studies using comparable definitions for missed injuries and clinically significant missed injuries call for further investigations, which are necessary to produce more reliable data. Furthermore, improvements in diagnostic techniques (e.g. the use of multi-slice CT) may lead to a decreased incidence of missed pelvic injuries. Finally, the standardized tertiary trauma survey is vitally important in the detection of clinically significant missed injuries and should be included in trauma care.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-2-20
PMCID: PMC2553050  PMID: 18721480

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