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1.  Socioeconomic Disparities and Smoking Habits in Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program 
Background
The metabolic syndrome (Mets) consists of major clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study determines the association of socioeconomic determinants and smoking behavior in a population-based sample of Iranians with Mets.
Methods
This cross-sectional survey comprised 12600 randomly selected men and women aged ≥ 19 years living in three counties in central part of Iran. They participated in the baseline survey of a community-based program for CVD prevention entitled” Isfahan Healthy Heart Program” in 2000-2001. Subjects with Mets were selected based on NCEP- ATPIII criteria. Demographic data, medical history, lifestyle, smoking habits, physical examination, blood pressure, obesity indices and serum lipids were determined.
Results
The mean age of subjects with Mets was significantly higher. The mean age of smokers in both groups was higher than non-smokers but with lower WC and WHR. Marital status, age and residency were not significantly different in smokers with Mets and non-smokers with Mets. Smoking was more common in the middle educational group in the income category of Quartile 1-3. Mets was significantly related to age, sex and education. Middle-aged and elderly smokers were at approximately 4-5 times higher risk among Mets subjects. Low education decreased the risk of Mets by 0.48; similarly in non-smokers, 6-12 years of education decreased the risk of Mets by 0.72.
Conclusion
More educated persons had a better awareness and behavior related to their health and role of smoking. In the lower social strata of the Iranian population, more efforts are needed against smoking habits.
PMCID: PMC3371999  PMID: 22737524
Socioeconomic status; Smoking; Metabolic syndrome; Iran
2.  Physical activity, sex, and socioeconomic status: A population based study 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):51-60.
BACKGROUND
The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical activity by socioeconomic status (SES) and sex in an Iranian adult population.
METHODS
In a cross-sectional study, 6622 adults, who participated in the Isfahan Healthy Heart program (IHHP) surveys in 2004 and 2005 and were living in urban areas, were studied. Daily leisure time, household, occupational, and transportation physical activity, and total physical activity were calculated and compared in 3 socioeconomic status groups classified by the two-step cluster analysis procedure.
RESULTS
Statistically significant variations were found in all physical activity levels, except transportation, by sex. Men were more active than women in all fields, except household physical activity. Leisure time physical activity of men and women were significantly higher in higher SES levels. There was an opposite correlation between SES and total physical activity in men.
CONCLUSION
Considering the importance of physical activity as a component of a healthy lifestyle, differences among varying socioeconomic status and sex must be considered while planning for healthy lifestyle programs. Women with low SES, in particular, may need more attention.
PMCID: PMC3653259  PMID: 23696760
Physical Activity; Socioeconomic Status; Leisure Time; Gender; Cluster Analysis
3.  Metabolic syndrome in menopausal transition: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, a population based study 
Introduction
There is a remarkable increase in cardiovascular disease after menopause. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome as a collection of risk factors has a known effect on cardiovascular diseases. Hormone changes are considered as one of the main relevant factor regarding cardiovascular disease as well as some recognized relationship with metabolic syndrome's components. This study was carried out in order to search for prevalence of metabolic syndrome during menopausal transition.
Method
In a cross sectional study in urban and rural areas of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak cities, 1596 women aged more than 45 years were investigated using Isfahan Healthy Heart Program's (IHHP) samples. Participants were categorized into three groups of pre-menopause, menopause and post-menopause. Leisure time physical activity and global dietary index were included as life style factors. The association of metabolic syndrome and its components with menopausal transition considering other factors such as age and life style was analyzed.
Results
there were 303, 233 and 987 women in premenopausal, early menopausal and postmenopausal groups respectively. Metabolic syndrome was found in 136(44.9%) premenopausal participants and significantly increased to 135(57.9%) and 634(64.3%) in early menopausal and postmenopausal participants respectively, when age was considered (P = 0.010). Except for hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia, there was no significant difference between three groups of menopausal transition when metabolic syndrome's components were considered.
Conclusion
In contrary to the claims regarding the role of waist circumference and blood glucose in increasing of metabolic syndrome during the menopausal transition, this study showed this phenomenon could be independence of them.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-2-59
PMCID: PMC2958965  PMID: 20923542
4.  Smoking cessation support in Iran: Availability, sources & predictors 
Background & objectives:
Smoking cessation advice is known as an important factor in motivating smokers to quit smoking. We investigated the extent, sources and predictors of receiving unsolicited advice and seeking active advice for smoking cessation in Iran.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study was performed as a part of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) on 9093 adult individuals (both men and women) in 2004-2005. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, sources and preferences for smoking cessation support were recorded.
Results:
In the studied population, 66.8 and 14.4 per cent had received and asked for cessation support, respectively. Smokers had received advice from family (92.2%), friends (48.9%), physician (27.9%) and other health care providers (16.2%). Smokers had asked for cessation help more frequently from family (64.5%) and friends (42.0%). Women (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.94) and singles (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.36-0.71) received less advice. Hookah smokers received (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.14-0.38) and asked (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.68) for cessation help less than cigarette smokers. Receiving advice increased the odds of seeking support (OR: 7.98; 95% CI: 4.37-14.57).
Interpretation & conclusions:
Smokers’ family and friends were more frequent sources for smoking cessation support. Tobacco control programmes can count on smokers’ family and friends as available sources for smoking cessation support in countries where smoking cessation counselling services are less available. However, the role of physicians and health care workers in the smoking cessation counselling needs to be strengthened.
PMCID: PMC3135990  PMID: 21727661
Cigarettes; hookah; Iran; smoking; smoking cessation
5.  How does the impact of a community trial on cardio-metabolic risk factors differ in terms of gender and living area? Findings from the Isfahan healthy heart program 
Objective:
To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program.
Design:
Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001) and after (2007) a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA) and reference area (RA) by gender and living area.
Setting:
The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Najaf-Abad counties as IA and Arak as RA.
Participants:
Overall, 12 514 individuals who were more than 19 years of age were studied at baseline, and 9570 were studied in postintervention phase.
Interventions:
Multiple activities were conducted in connection with each of the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increasing physical activity, tobacco control, and coping with stress.
Main Outcomes:
Comparing serum lipids levels, blood pressure, blood glucose and obesity indices changes between IA and RA based on sex and living areas during the study.
Results:
In IA, while the prevalence of hypertension declined in urban and rural females (P < 0.05). In IA, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both females and males of urban and rural areas except for hypercholesterolemia in rural males (P < 0.01). In RA, the significant changes include both decrease in the hypercholesterolemia among rural males (P < 0.001) and hypertriglyceridemia in urban females (P < 0.01), while hypertriglyceridemia was significantly increased in rural females (P < 0.01).
Conclusions:
This comprehensive community trial was effective in controlling many risk factors in both sexes in urban and rural areas. These findings also reflect the transitional status of rural population in adopting urban lifestyle behaviors.
PMCID: PMC3687879  PMID: 23798939
Age; cardiovascular risk factor; community health program; health promotion; rural; sex; urban
6.  The impact of obesity on hypertension and diabetes control following healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program in a developing country setting 
BACKGROUND:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity and overweight on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) control in a healthy lifestyle intervention program in Iran.
METHODS:
Within the framework of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a community trial that was conducted to prevent and control cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, two intervention counties (Isfahan and Najafabad) and one reference county (Arak) were selected. Demographic information, medical history, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive medications use were asked by trained interviewers in addition to physical examination and laboratory tests for 12514 adults aged more than 19 years in 2001 and were repeated for 9572 adults in 2007.
RESULTS:
In women, the frequency of HTN control change significantly neither in normal weight nor in those with high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist to hip ratio (WHR). In men, the frequency of HTN control was only significant among those with high WHR, whereas the interaction between changes in intervention compared to reference area from 2001 to 2007 was significant in men with normal or high WC or WHR. In intervention area, the number of women with high BMI who controlled their DM increased significantly from 2001 to 2007 (p = 0.008), however, this figure decreased in men. In reference area, obesity indices had no significant association with DM control. The percentage of diabetic subjects with high WC who controlled their DM decreased non-significantly in intervention area compared to reference area in 2007. A non-significant increase in controlled DM among men and women with high WHR was observed between intervention and reference areas.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our lifestyle interventions did not show any improving effect on HTN or DM control among obese subjects based on different obesity indices. Other lifestyle intervention strategies are suggested.
PMCID: PMC3252770  PMID: 22247721
Hypertension; Diabetes; Obesity; Control; Prevention; Iran
7.  White Rice Consumption and CVD Risk Factors among Iranian Population 
Association between white rice intake and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases remained uncertain. Most of the previous published studies have been done in western countries with different lifestyles, and scant data are available from the Middle East region, including Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the structure of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) to assess the association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, 3,006 men were included from three counties of Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak by multistage cluster random-sampling method. Dietary intake was assessed with a 49-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Laboratory assessment was done in a standardized central laboratory. Outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, serum lipid levels, and anthropometric variables. Socioeconomic and demographic data, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) were considered covariates and were adjusted in analysis. In this study, Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Means of BMI among those subjects who consumed white rice less than 7 times per week and people who consumed 7-14 times per week were almost similar—24.8±4.3 vs 24.5±4.7 kg/m2. There was no significant association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, such as fasting blood sugar and serum lipid profiles. Although whole grain consumption has undeniable effect on preventing cardiovascular disease risk, white rice consumption was not associated with cardiovascular risks among Iranian men in the present study. Further prospective studies with a semi-quantitative FFQ or dietary record questionnaire, representing type and portion-size of rice intake as well as cooking methods and other foods consumed with rice that affect glycaemic index (GI) of rice, are required to support our finding and to illustrate the probable mechanism.
PMCID: PMC3702347  PMID: 23930344
Cardiovascular diseases; Diet; Risk factors; White rice; Iran
8.  When does cardiovascular risk start? Past and present socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors in adulthood 
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare associations of childhood and adult socioeconomic position with cardiovascular risk factors measured in adulthood. To estimate the effects of adult socioeconomic position after adjustment for childhood circumstances. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, using the relative index of inequality method to compare socioeconomic differences at different life stages. SETTING: The Whitehall II longitudinal study of men and women employed in London offices of the Civil Service at study baseline in 1985-88. PARTICIPANTS: 4774 men and 2206 women born in the period 1930-53 who were administered questions on early socioeconomic circumstances. MAIN RESULTS: Adult occupational position (employment grade) was inversely associated (high status-low risk) with current smoking and leisure time physical inactivity, with waist/height, and with metabolic risk factors HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, post-load glucose and fibrinogen. Associations of these variables with childhood socioeconomic position (father's Registrar General Social Class) were weaker or absent, with the exception of smoking in women. Childhood social position was associated with adult weight in both sexes and with current smoking, waist/height, HDL cholesterol and fibrinogen in women. Height, a measure of health capital or constitution, was weakly linked with father's social class and more strongly linked with own employment grade. The combination of childhood disadvantage (low father's class) together with a low status clerical occupation in men was particularly associated with higher body mass index as an adult (interaction test p < 0.001). Adjustment for earlier socioeconomic position--using father's class and own education level simultaneously--did not weaken the effects of adult socioeconomic position, except in the case of smoking in women, when the grade effect was reduced by 59 per cent. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood were in general more strongly related to adult than to childhood socioeconomic position. Among women but not men there was a strong but unexplained link between father's class and adult smoking habit. In both sexes degree of obesity was associated with both childhood and adulthood social position. These findings suggest that the socially patterned accumulation of health capital and cardiovascular risk begins in childhood and continues, according to socioeconomic position, during adulthood.
 
PMCID: PMC1756821  PMID: 10656084
9.  Examining the Correlates of Engagement and Disengagement Coping Among Help-Seeking Battered Women 
Violence and victims  2007;22(1):3-17.
This study examined several potential correlates of engagement and disengagement coping, including abuse-related factors, socioeconomic and social coping resources, and childhood trauma variables among a sample of battered women (N = 388). Relationship abuse frequency, particularly psychological aggression, and peritraumatic dissociation were the strongest positive predictors of the use of disengagement coping. Social coping resources, including tangible support and appraisals of social support and belonging, were associated with higher engagement coping and lower disengagement coping. A positive association was also found between interparental domestic violence and disengagement coping, and negative associations were found between both childhood physical and sexual abuse and engagement coping. Results suggest that coping strategies used by battered women are multidetermined and deserve further exploration.
PMCID: PMC2977516  PMID: 17390560
relationship abuse; partner violence; psychological aggression; social support; childhood trauma; dissociation
10.  The effectiveness of stress management intervention in a community-based program: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;7(4):176-183.
BACKGROUND:
This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of stress management training in improving the ability of coping with stress in a large population.
METHODS:
Five cross-sectional studies using multistage cluster random sampling were performed on adults aged ≥ 19 years between 2000 to 2005 in Isfahan and Najafabad (Iran) as intervention cities and Arak, Iran as the control city within the context of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Stress management training was adapted according to age and education levels of the target groups. In a 45-minute home interview, demographic data, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and stress management questionnaires were collected. Data was analyzed by t-test, linear regression and general linear model.
RESULTS:
Trends of both adaptive and maladaptive coping skills and GHQ scores from baseline to the last survey were statistically significant in both intervention and reference areas (P < 0.001). While adaptive coping skills increased significantly, maladaptive coping skills decreased significantly in the intervention areas. Furthermore, stress levels decreased significantly in the intervention compared to the reference area.
CONCLUSION:
Stress management programs could improve coping strategies at the community level and can be considered in designing behavioral interventions
PMCID: PMC3413087  PMID: 23205052
Stress Management; Community; Intervention; Coping Strategies
11.  Socioeconomic differences in attitudes and beliefs about healthy lifestyles 
Study objectives: The factors underlying socioeconomic status differences in smoking, leisure time physical activity, and dietary choice are poorly understood. This study investigated attitudes and beliefs that might underlie behavioural choices, including health locus of control, future salience, subjective life expectancy, and health consciousness, in a nationally representative sample.
Design: Data were collected as part of the monthly Omnibus survey of the Office of National Statistics in Britain.
Participants: A stratified, probability sample of 2728 households was selected by random sampling of addresses. One adult from each household was interviewed.
Main results: Higher SES respondents were less likely to smoke and more likely to exercise and eat fruit and vegetables daily. Lower SES was associated with less health consciousness (thinking about things to do to keep healthy), stronger beliefs in the influence of chance on health, less thinking about the future, and lower life expectancies. These attitudinal factors were in turn associated with unhealthy behavioural choices, independently of age, sex, and self rated health.
Conclusions: Socioeconomic differences in healthy lifestyles are associated with differences in attitudes to health that may themselves arise through variations in life opportunities and exposure to material hardship and ill health over the life course.
doi:10.1136/jech.57.6.440
PMCID: PMC1732468  PMID: 12775791
12.  Coping strategies, quality of life and pain in women with breast cancer 
Background:
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among Iranian women and is a significant stressor in women's life that may affect their coping strategies and quality of life. This study aimed to investigate coping strategies, quality of life and pain of women with breast cancer.
Materials and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study which held in Seyed-AL shohada hospital and two private offices in Isfahan, Iran. Target population was women with confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer in a recent year and between 18 and 60 years old. Data were collected via3 questionnaires (Brief cope, EORTC QLQ-C30 and Brief pain Inventory). The reliability and validity of these questionnaires were confirmed in different studies. Sixty-two patients completed the questionnaires. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient and t-test where necessary. All analysis were conducted using the SPSS version 16.0 and P-value of less than 0.05 considered as statistically significant.
Results:
Sixty-two women with breast cancer completed questionnaires. The mean age of respondents was 45/81±6/78 years; most married (93/5%), high school-educated (41/97%), house wife (82/3%) and stage II (46/8%).
The most common coping strategies were religion, acceptance, self-distraction, planning, active coping, positive reframing and denial. Mean score for the worst pain during the past 24 hours was 6/24 ± 2/55 and for the least pain was 3/19 ± 2/17. The global health scale was 60.34 ± 21.10. Emotion-focused coping strategies were positively and significantly related to symptom aspect of quality of life (r = 0/43 P ≤ 0/01) and affective interference of pain (r = 0/36 P = 0/004) and also was inversely correlated to functional health status (r = −0/38 P = 0/002). There was no significant correlation between problem-focused coping strategies and dimensions of quality of life and also different aspects of pain.
Conclusions:
The findings of this study indicated that the care of breast cancer should address physical, psychological and social wellbeing and the findings point to the importance of taking individual coping strategies into account when evaluating the impact of breast cancer on psychosocial wellbeing. Description of coping strategies might be useful for identifying patients in need to particular counseling and support.
PMCID: PMC3748564  PMID: 23983738
Breast cancer; coping strategies; Iran; pain; quality of life
13.  Determinants of resilience to cigarette smoking among young Australians at risk: an exploratory study 
Background
Numerous researchers studied risk factors associated with smoking uptake, however, few examined protective factors associated with smoking resilience. This study therefore aims to explore determinants of smoking resilience among young people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who are at risk of smoking.
Methods
Overall, 92 out of 92 vocational education students accepted invitation to participate in this exploratory study. The Adelaide Technical and Further Education (TAFE) Arts campus was chosen for the study given the focus on studying resilience in young people of lower socioeconomic status i.e. resilient despite the odds. A self-report questionnaire comprising a measure of resilience: sense of coherence, sense of humour, coping styles, depression, anxiety and stress, and family, peers and community support, was distributed among participants aged 15 to 29. Additional factors researched are parental approval and disapproval, course type, and reasons for not smoking. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 13.0), analyses were undertaken using frequencies, means, standard deviations, independent sample t-tests, correlations, analysis of variance, logistic regression, and chi-square test.
Results
Twenty five (27%) out of 92 students smoked. Young people with peer support tended to smoke (p < .05). A relationship between daily smoking and depression, anxiety and stress was also found (p < .05). When both mothers and fathers disapproved of their children smoking, it had a greater influence on females not smoking, compared with males. The majority of students chose 'health and fitness' as a reason for not smoking. Students in the Dance course tended to not smoke.
Conclusions
The current study showed that most students chose 'health and fitness' as the reason for not smoking. Single anti-smoking messages cannot be generalised to all young people, but should recognise that people within different contexts, groups and subcultures will have different reasons for choosing whether or not to smoke. Future studies should use larger samples with a mixed methods design (quantitative and qualitative).
doi:10.1186/1617-9625-8-7
PMCID: PMC2914043  PMID: 20609260
14.  Improvement of dietary oil consumption following a community trial in a developing country: The role of translational research in health promotion 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):29-37.
BACKGROUND
This study aimed to determine the effects of the interventions of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) on the type of oil consumed at the population level. It also tried to assess how this strategy has been effective as a health policy.
METHODS
The IHHP, a six-year community intervention program (2001-07), aimed at health promotion through the modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors. It was performed in Isfahan and Najafabad counties (intervention area) and Arak county (reference area), all in central Iran. This study targeted the whole population of over 2,000,000 in the intervention area. The findings of annual independent sample surveys were compared with the reference area. Dietary interventions were performed as educational, environmental, and/or legislative strategies.
RESULTS
From 2001 to 2007, the mean of changes for hydrogenated oil consumption was -3.2 and -3.6, and for liquid oil it was 3.6 and 2.8 times per week in the intervention and reference areas, respectively (P < 0.001). According to Commerce office record, the increase in liquid oil distribution during 2000-2007 was significantly higher in Isfahan than Arak (34% vs. 25%).
CONCLUSION
The effects of the simple, comprehensive, and integrated action-oriented interventions of our program could influence policy making and its results at the community level. It can be adopted by other developing countries.
PMCID: PMC3653266  PMID: 23696757
Oil Consumption; Hydrogenated Oil; Liquid Oil; Community Trial
15.  Life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life in attempted suicide: A case-control study 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2013;55(1):46-51.
Background:
Though deliberate self-harm encompasses a wide variety of medical and social disciplines some of the important psychosocial variable such as life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life have not yet been explored in depth in India.
Aims:
The aim was to analyze and compare the type and severity of life events, coping strategies, social support, and quality of life of suicide attempters versus matched normal controls, and to identify the risk factors leading to suicide.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 50 consecutive suicide attempters were compared with same number of age, sex, and martial status matched healthy controls using Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, AECOM Coping Style Scale, and WHO QOL-Bref.
Results:
Attempters experienced significantly more life events especially untoward events whereas the control group experienced more desirable and impersonal life events. Social support, positive coping, and of QOL were significantly lower in attempters. Among all risk factors desirable life events, good education, and good social support were protective against suicide.
Conclusion:
Suicide attempters were differentiated from healthy controls based on more stressful life events, lower social support, less healthy coping, and poor QOL. Positive life events, good education, and good social support were protective factors against suicide. However, it is difficult to pinpoint a single factor responsible for suicidal behavior. It is the complex interplay of various interrelated factors and the resultant buffering effect, which is protecting the individual against deliberate self-harm.
doi:10.4103/0019-5545.105504
PMCID: PMC3574455  PMID: 23439644
Coping; deliberate self harm; life events; quality of life; social support
16.  Process evaluation of a community-based program for prevention and control of non-communicable disease in a developing country: The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:57.
Background
Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of mortality in Iran. A six-year, comprehensive, integrated community-based demonstration study entitled Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) conducted in Iran, and it started in 2000. Evaluation and monitoring are integrated parts of this quasi-experimental trial, and consists of process, as well as short and long-term impact evaluations. This paper presents the design of the "process evaluation" for IHHP, and the results pertaining to some interventional strategies that were implemented in workplaces
Methods
The process evaluation addresses the internal validity of IHHP by ascertaining the degree to which the program was implemented as intended. The IHHP process evaluation is a triangulated study conducted for all interventions at their respective venues. All interventional activities are monitored to determine why and how some are successful and sustainable, to identify mechanisms as well as barriers and facilitators of implementation.
Results
The results suggest that factory workers and managers are satisfied with the interventions. In the current study, success was mainly shaped by the organizational readiness and timing of the implementation. Integrating most of activities of the project to the existing ongoing activities of public health officers in worksites is suggested to be the most effective means of implementation of the health promoting activities in workplaces.
Conclusion
The results of our experience may help other developing countries to plan for similar interventions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-57
PMCID: PMC2647538  PMID: 19216762
17.  FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH STRESS AND COPING AT 5 AND 10 YEARS AFTER HEART TRANSPLANTATION 
Background
Heart transplant-related stressors and coping are related to poor outcomes early after transplant. The purposes of our study were to (1) identify the most frequent and bothersome stressors and most used and effective coping strategies, and (2) compare the most frequent and bothersome stresses and most used and effective coping styles between patients at 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation. We also examined differences in coping styles by patient characteristics, and factors associated with frequency and intensity of stress at both 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation.
Methods
This report is a secondary analysis of data from a prospective, multi-site study of quality of life outcomes. Data are from 199 and 98 patients at 5 and 10 years after transplant, respectively. Patients completed the Heart Transplant Stressor Scale and Jalowiec Coping Scale. Statistical analyses included frequencies, measures of central tendency, t-tests, Chi-square and generalized linear models.
Results
At 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation, the most bothersome stressors were regarding work, school, and financial issues. Patients who were 10 years post transplant reported less stress, similar stress intensity, and less use and perceived effectiveness of negative coping than patients who were 5 years post transplant. Long-term after transplant, demographic characteristics, psychological problems, negative coping, and clinical factors were related to stress frequency and/or intensity.
Conclusions
Heart transplant-related stress occurs long-term after surgery. Types of transplant-related stress and factors related to stress confirm the importance of ongoing psychological and clinical support after heart transplantation.
doi:10.1016/j.healun.2012.12.012
PMCID: PMC3602911  PMID: 23498164
18.  Socioeconomic factors and physical activity in relation to cardiovascular disease and death. A 12 year follow up of participants in a population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. 
British Heart Journal  1986;55(3):295-301.
In a prospective population study of middle aged women socioeconomic factors and physical activity as initially reported were related to the 12 year incidence of ischaemic heart disease and to total mortality. There was a significant age specific correlation between low socioeconomic status according to the husband's occupation and myocardial infarction. No such association was seen between the socioeconomic status of the women themselves and myocardial infarction. Women with a low educational level had a significantly increased age specific incidence of angina pectoris. There was no significant correlation between marital status or number of children and incidence of ischaemic heart disease or overall mortality. Women who initially reported low physical activity at work during the last year had a significantly increased age specific 12 year incidence of stroke and death, as did those who reported low physical activity during leisure hours in whom the incidence of myocardial infarction and electrocardiographic changes indicating ischaemic heart disease were also increased. Multivariate analyses showed that the association between low educational level and incidence of angina pectoris was independent of socioeconomic group, smoking habits, systolic blood pressure, indices of obesity, serum triglycerides, and serum cholesterol. Similarly, low physical activity during leisure hours seemed to be an independent risk factor for stroke, and low physical activity at work was an independent risk factor for overall mortality.
PMCID: PMC1232169  PMID: 3954912
19.  Short-term results of community-based interventions for improving physical activity: Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme 
Introduction
To assess the effect of a comprehensive community-based programme for increasing physical activity (PA) after 2 years of interventions.
Material and methods
A 6-year, action-oriented, comprehensive, and integrated community-based study, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme, was conducted in Iran from the year 2000. The interventions targeted the whole population of nearly 2,180,000 living in two cities, and were compared with another city considered as a reference. Educational, environmental and legislative interventions were conducted at the community level. Annual evaluations were performed among 6,000 representative individuals. This paper presents the changes in PA habits after 2 years of interventions for increasing PA. The PA habits were assessed by using the Baecke questionnaire, and an energy expenditure of 150 kcal for daily leisure time physical activity was adopted as a cut-off for defining active and inactive lifestyle.
Results
In the intervention and reference areas, respectively 85 and 83% of the population were physically inactive. From 2000 to 2002, the daily PA among both genders decreased in both intervention and reference communities. Meanwhile, the leisure-time PA increased significantly in the intervention area, but decreased in the reference area. The transportation PA did not significantly change in the intervention area, but showed a remarkable decline in the reference area.
Conclusions
We suggest that the synergism resulting from community collaborations has been effective in improving some aspects of PA in our community. The ongoing changes in environmental factors and policies can help in increasing the worksite and transportation PA in later stages of this community-based programme.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2010.13504
PMCID: PMC3278940  PMID: 22371717
lifestyle; physical activity; community-based intervention; prevention; non-communicable diseases
20.  Stress Level and Smoking Status in Central Iran: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;6(4):144-148.
BACKGROUND
Individuals are faced with numerous stressful life events which can negatively influence mental health. Many individuals use smoking as a means of confronting stress. Given the relatively high prevalence of smoking in central Iran, the present study was conducted to compare stress levels in smokers, non-smokers and those who had quit smoking.
METHODS
This study was conducted as part of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Program on 9752 individuals in the cities of Isfahan, Arak, and Najafabad in 2008. Sampling was performed using multi-stage cluster randomization method. Data on age, sex, demographic characteristics, and smoking status was collected through interviews. Stress level detected by General Health questionnaire.Logistic regression and chi- squere test was used for data analyzing.
RESULTS
In the present study, 30% of non-smokers, 32.1% ex- smoker and 36.9% of smokers had GHQ of 4 and higher (P=0.01). In regression analysis, the final model which was controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic statues (including place of residence, marital status and education level) showed that the odds ratio of stress in smokers and ex- smoker was significantly higher than in non-smokers (OR=1.66 and OR=1.12, respectively).
CONCLUSION
Since in conducted studies, mental problems and stresses have had an important role in people's smoking, it seems suitable to use the results of this study to present intervention for correct methods of coping with stress towards reducing the prevalence of smoking in the community.
PMCID: PMC3347833  PMID: 22577433
Cigarette; Stress; Community-based Program.
21.  Correlations of work, leisure, and sports physical activities and health status with socioeconomic factors: a national study in Israel 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2005;81(954):262-265.
Objective: To evaluate levels of physical activities at work, leisure, and sports and to correlate them with socioeconomic and health factors.
Methods: Validated questionnaire administered to a random sample of 406 adults. Items covered demographic data, health status, smoking, and duration, frequency, intensity of physical activities. Indices of physical activity at work, leisure, and sports were analysed.
Results: Adults (both sexes) with poor self perceived health status and less than 13 years of education, regardless of their body mass index, perform no or few physical activities during their leisure time.
Conclusions: The correlations of physical activity with socioeconomic and health factors differ significantly for work, leisure, and sports. Physicians should differentiate physical activities by type and intensity during anamneses.
doi:10.1136/pgmj.2004.022293
PMCID: PMC1743245  PMID: 15811893
22.  Is parental coping associated with quality of life in juvenile idiopathic arthritis? 
Parents of children with a chronic condition such as juvenile arthritis must cope with greater demands than those living with a healthy child. They must adopt different behaviours in order to lessen the impact on the family structure. Parental coping refers to the parent's specific cognitive and behavioural efforts to reduce or manage a demand on the family system. The aims of this study were: to describe coping in a cohort of parents of children with JIA; to determine whether quality of life is associated with parental coping; to explore whether socio-demographic factors such as child's age, family socioeconomic status and family structure are associated with parental coping. One hundred eighty-two parents caring for a child with JIA completed a postal survey at three times over a one-year period, which included the Juvenile Arthritis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JAQQ), the Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP) and questionnaires describing socio-demographic characteristics. Linear mixed models were employed to analyse the association between the child's quality of life and parental coping. Mean total QoL scores (JAQQ) showed that children experienced difficulty in completing specified activities at most just below 25% of the time and results fall off slightly following the 6 month time point. Mean parental coping scores for the CHIP subscales at baseline were 38.4 ± 9.0, 33.4 ± 11.6, 16.5 ± 6.1, for Maintaining Family Integration (maximum score 57), Maintaining Social Support (maximum score 54) and Understanding the Medical Situation (maximum score 24), respectively. Understanding the Medical Situation was deemed most useful. The child's QoL was associated with parental coping. Parents of children with greater psychosocial dysfunction used more coping behaviours related to Understanding the Medical Situation (β coefficient, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.01, 1.45). These findings underscore the importance of helping parents of children with JIA better understand their child's medical situation.
doi:10.1186/1546-0096-7-7
PMCID: PMC2662836  PMID: 19284585
23.  An investigation of coping styles of hemodialysis patients 
Background:
Hemodialysis patients are exposed to different stressful factors and have to use coping strategies as supportive processes. The goal of the present study is to investigate coping styles of hemodialysis patients.
Materials and Methods:
This is a descriptive analytical study conducted on 96 patients referring to hemodialysis centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The data, collected by a questionnaire including two sections of demographic characteristics and patients’ coping with the disease, were analyzed by parametric and non- parametric statistical tests.
Results:
Patients used emotion focused coping strategies more (mean = 20.07, SD = 4.39) to adapt with the disease compared to problem focused coping strategies (mean = 14.65, SD = 5.08). There was a significant association in coping (P = 0.027) and emotion focused dimension (P = 0.008) in various ages, but there was no significant association in problem focused dimension (P = 0.134).
Conclusion:
Since most of the hemodialysis patients use emotion focused coping styles, it is suggested to consider educational programs on application of problem focused coping styles for these patients in order to decrease the pressures of the disease and treatment, and to promote their mental health, quality of life and efficiency.
PMCID: PMC3748554  PMID: 23983727
Coping; hemodialysis; Iran; renal disease
24.  How can the results of a qualitative process evaluation be applied in management, improvement and modification of a preventive community trial? The IHHP Study 
Background
This study reports the results of the qualitative process evaluation (PE) of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), an integrated community-based trial for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases in Iran.
Methods
The study explored the overall quality of program implementation. The participants, including designers of IHHP, stakeholders and community members (n = 60) were purposefully recruited from the intervention areas. Data collected from semi-structured interviews and field notes were analyzed using a modified thematic analysis.
Results
Four main themes were identified. Our findings highlighted the key role of the resources as both facilitating and hindering factors. IHHP directors faced incompatibilities arising from negative perceptions/attitudes which resulted in decreased adherence to the program. Hence various strategies were used to motivate, strengthen and organize the human workforce implementing the program.
Conclusion
Recommendations arising from evaluation of the program were used in subsequent stages of implementation. Qualitative research is an important component of community trials which can improve their implementation.
doi:10.1186/0778-7367-69-9
PMCID: PMC3436741  PMID: 22958679
Community interventions; Health behavior; Health; Cardiovascular; program evaluation
25.  Risk factors of atherosclerosis in male smokers, passive smokers, and hypertensive nonsmokers in central Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(2):90-95.
BACKGROUND
Some studies showed that smoking follows an upward trend in Asian countries as compared with other countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with hypertension.
METHODS
This study was conducted on 6123 men residing in central Iran (Isfahan and Markazi Provinces) that participated in Isfahan Healthy Heart Project (IHHP). Subjects were randomly selected using cluster sampling method. All the subjects were studied in terms of their history of cardiovascular disease, demographic characteristics, smoking, blood pressure, physical examination, pulse rate, respiratory rate, weight, height, waist circumference, and blood measurements including LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood sugar and 2-hour post prandial test.
RESULTS
While 893 subjects suffered from hypertension, 5230 subjects were healthy. The hypertension prevalence was 2.5 times more in urban areas compared to rural areas that showed a significant difference as it increased to 3.5 times smoking factor was considered. The prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and also cardiovascular complications in patients with hypertension were significantly higher than healthy people. Furthermore, they were higher in smokers with hypertension and those exposed to the cigarette smoke than nonsmokers.
CONCLUSION
Smoking and passive smoking had an increasing effect on the prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and consequently the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypertension.
PMCID: PMC3463995  PMID: 23056110
Hypertension; Cigarette Smoking; Cardiovascular Disease; Risk Factor

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