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1.  Endoscopic Aspects of Gastric Syphilis 
Case Reports in Medicine  2012;2012:646525.
Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS) is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.
doi:10.1155/2012/646525
PMCID: PMC3423921  PMID: 22924047
2.  Diagnosis of Gastric Syphilis by Direct Immunofluorescence Staining and Real-Time PCR Testing 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(9):3452-3456.
We report on a case of gastric syphilis in a patient with chronic dyspepsia. The diagnosis was established by serology and the demonstration of spirochetes in diffusely inflammed gastric mucosa by staining with a fluorescent monoclonal antibody specific for pathogenic treponemes and by the detection of specific treponemal DNA sequences by a real-time PCR.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00721-06
PMCID: PMC1594693  PMID: 16954299
3.  Case of Secondary Syphilis Presenting with Unusual Complications: Syphilitic Proctitis, Gastritis, and Hepatitis▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(12):4394-4396.
We report the first known case of syphilis with simultaneous manifestations of proctitis, gastritis, and hepatitis. The diagnosis of syphilitic proctitis and gastritis was established by the demonstration of spirochetes with anti-Treponema pallidum antibody staining in biopsy specimens. Unusual manifestations of secondary syphilis completely resolved after 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01240-11
PMCID: PMC3233005  PMID: 21998411
4.  Congenital syphilis, still a reality 
Congenital syphilis is a potentially serious pathology affecting newborns of infected mothers. Even one case of congenital syphilis is a sentinel public health event, since timely diagnosis and treatment of syphilis infected pregnant woman should prevent transmission almost entirely. Here, we are reporting a case of early symptomatic congenital syphilis presented with severe desquamating papulosquamous lesions over multiple body parts along with erosive lesions around oral cavity and nostrils.
doi:10.4103/0253-7184.112941
PMCID: PMC3730478  PMID: 23919058
Congenital syphilis; treponema pallidum; venereal disease research laboratory
5.  John Hunter's alleged syphilis 
The allegation that John Hunter suffered from syphilis is challenged. It is suggested that he was the subject of non-luetic vascular disease, evidence for which may be found by a study of his symptoms and autopsy report. It is further suggested that John Hunter's famous inoculation experiment was performed not on himself but on another subject. It is claimed that there is in fact no scientific evidence for attributing John Hunter's illness to syphilis and it is urged that the stigma of this diagnosis should be expunged from his image.
PMCID: PMC2491756  PMID: 324336
6.  Syphilis: The Renaissance of an Old Disease with Oral Implications 
Head and Neck Pathology  2009;3(3):195-206.
Syphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum an anaerobic filamentous spirochete. In recent years, striking outbreaks have occurred in USA, Canada, Russia, China and some areas of Central and Eastern Europe. Main epidemiology changes reflect sex industry, sexual promiscuity, decreasing use of barrier protection (i.e. condoms) due to false sense of security that nowadays sexually transmitted diseases are curable and lack of pertinent knowledge. Considering that the initial presentation of syphilis may be the oral cavity, it is of great relevance to include this disease in the differential diagnosis of unusual oral ulcerations and white patches. Primary syphilis is a highly infectious disease in which inappropriate treatment may be apparently curative while the patient remains highly infectious. It is then of pivotal importance that clinicians maintain a high clinical index of suspicion. At the present time, clinical-pathologic correlation together with serologic studies remain essential in establishing the diagnosis of syphilis.
doi:10.1007/s12105-009-0127-0
PMCID: PMC2811633  PMID: 20596972
Syphilis; Oral cavity; Treponema pallidum
7.  Acute monoarthritis in a delayed diagnosis of syphilis patient with persistent rupioid psoriasis-like lesions 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:338.
Background
The incidence of syphilis is increasing in many parts of the world. Clinicians may have limited experience in the diagnosis when the clinical appearance is unusual. If early diagnosis is not made and prompt treatment not given, then the disease may remain quiescent until more serious symptoms or systemic involvement develops.
Case presentation
We report the first case of a delayed diagnosis of syphilis with a ten-year history of persistent rupioid psoriasis-like lesions. Acute monoarthritis and high fever together with aggravation of skin lesions led to a careful clinical examination. Skin biopsies demonstrated syphilis spirochetes on immunohistochemical stain, and syphilis serological titers were positive. Standard treatment with benzathine penicillin brought a partial and transient improvement. A complete clinical and serological resolution of the disease was achieved by a prolonged and repeated penicillin treatment combined with methylprednisolone. A 7-year follow-up of the patient proved a full recovery.
Conclusion
Our case highlights the fact that clinical signs of syphilis can be diverse and complicated. Unusual clinical manifestations can happen in an immunocompetent individual. Treatment strategy may need to be adjusted in a difficult case.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-338
PMCID: PMC3524466  PMID: 23216913
Syphilis; Monoarthritis; Rupioid psoriasis-like plaque
8.  Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child 
Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.
doi:10.1155/2014/527471
PMCID: PMC3965945
9.  Is Congenital Syphilis Really Congenital Syphilis? 
Detroit has recently been distinguished as having the highest congenital syphilis rate in the United States (250.3 cases per 100 000 live births in Detroit versus 10.3 in the US). However, depending on each health department's followup and CDC reporting, these data may not accurately reflect the true congenital syphilis rate. This study examines the reported cases over a three-year time period with focus on the criteria used for diagnosis. All local health department congenital syphilis CDC collection forms (form 73.126) were reviewed for the years in question. The reported congenital syphilis cases in the year 2002–2004 in Detroit were reviewed. No cases met confirmed case criteria and few probable cases were based on neonatal evaluations. The majority of “congenital syphilis” cases were established based on incomplete maternal data such as missing followup serologic titers in the absence of complete neonatal information. In conclusion, although the reported congenital syphilis rate in Detroit is alarmingly high, the true occurrence of congenital syphilis is likely to have been overstated. A health department reporting program that includes more diligent neonatal followup would allow for a more accurate representation of this public health concern.
doi:10.1155/IDOG/2006/81629
PMCID: PMC1779614  PMID: 17485812
10.  Syphilis manifesting as a nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cervical lymphadenopathy: A case report 
The present case report describes a case of syphilitic lymphadenopathy and raises the awareness of the differential diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy. A 50-year-old male worker presented with a 6-month history of enlarged and growing lymph nodes in the right upper neck and a blood-tinged post-nasal drip. Physical examination showed multiple enlarged lymph nodes located in the right upper neck. On nasopharyngoscopy, a mass was found in the nasopharynx. The histopathology of both the nasopharyngeal mass and the enlarged lymph nodes revealed non-specific inflammation. Rapid plasma reagin test results (titer, 1:1280) and Treponema pallidum particle assay results (titer, 1:2560) were positive. Subsequently, a diagnosis of syphilis was confirmed clinically and serologically. The reaction after penicillin treatment further confirmed the syphilis diagnosis. Thus, syphilis should be considered as a possibility in the differential diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy.
doi:10.3892/etm.2012.535
PMCID: PMC3438706  PMID: 22970011
syphilis; cervical lymphadenopathy; nasopharyngeal carcinoma; differential diagnosis
11.  Rectal Syphilis Mimicking Rectal Cancer 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(2):276-278.
Rectal syphilis, known as a great masquerader, can be difficult to diagnose because of its variable symptoms. Gastroenterologists should be aware of the possibility of rectal syphilis when confronted with anorectal ulcers, and should gather a detailed history about sexual preferences and practices, including homosexuality. We report a case of primary rectal syphilis mimicking rectal cancer on radiologic imaging. In this report, we described the clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic features of this rare case.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.2.276
PMCID: PMC2824876  PMID: 20191023
Rectum; syphilis; ulcer; chancre; Treponema pallidum
12.  Congenital syphilis after treatment of maternal syphilis with a penicillin regimen exceeding CDC guidelines. 
BACKGROUND: Although congenital syphilis usually occurs as a result of a failure to detect and treat syphilis in pregnant women, failures of the currently recommended regimen to prevent congenital syphilis have been reported. CASE: This report describes an infant with congenital syphilis despite maternal treatment with a regimen exceeding current CDC guidelines. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the regimen used to treat syphilis during pregnancy, clinicians should recognize the possibility of occasional treatment failures and the importance of adequate follow-up of infants at risk for congenital syphilis.
doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-0997(1998)6:3<134::AID-IDOG7>3.0.CO;2-X
PMCID: PMC1784788  PMID: 9785110
13.  Early prenatal syphilis 
Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed early periosteal changes in lower end of humerus and lower end of tibia. Diagnosis of early pre-natal syphilis was confirmed by Child's Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Antibody test [S.RPR] being positive with 1:64 dilution while that of mother was 1:8.
doi:10.4103/2229-5178.73259
PMCID: PMC3481403  PMID: 23130193
Prenatal syphilis; serological screening
14.  Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease 
Western Journal of Medicine  1984;140(1):35-42.
Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection.
Images
PMCID: PMC1011033  PMID: 6702190
15.  Syphilis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0920114813.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of yet unknown aetiology affecting predominantly obese females of childbearing age. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion as raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure may occur secondary to numerous other medical conditions. An atypical phenotype or an atypical disease course should alert the physician to reevaluate a presumed IIH-diagnosis. The authors report a case of a 32-year-old non-obese male with intracranial hypertension, secondary to a syphilitic central nervous system infection, initially misdiagnosed as being idiopathic. Upon relevant antibiotic treatment, signs and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure resolved completely. Syphilis is a rare, but very important, differential diagnosis that in this case was clinically indistinguishable from IIH.
doi:10.1136/bcr.09.2011.4813
PMCID: PMC3214225  PMID: 22674114
16.  Posterior placoid chorioretinitis: An unusual ocular manifestation of syphilis 
There appears to be a re-emergence of syphilis in recent times despite a steady decline in incidence for the past decade. Diagnosis of syphilis can be clinically challenging and ocular manifestations of syphilis have a myriad of presentations and severity. Ocular syphilis can occur at any stage of the disease and may also be the only presenting sign of syphilis. We report a case of acute unilateral maculopathy, due to posterior placoid chorioretinitis associated with syphilis, in an immunocompetent patient. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a unilateral yellowish placoid lesion at the macula. Syphilis serology was positive confirming active infection. There were no other systemic signs of syphilis. The patient was treated with intravenous benzylpenicillin 1.2 g every four hours for two weeks. The lesion resolved with treatment and the retinal appearance returned to normal. This case highlights the importance of raising clinical suspicion of syphilis in view of unexplained decreased vision and ocular inflammation.
PMCID: PMC2694006  PMID: 19668773
syphilis; treponema; chorioretinitis; posterior uveitis; syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis
17.  A Case of Palmoplantar Lichen Planus Mimicking Secondary Syphilis 
Annals of Dermatology  2009;21(4):429-431.
Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects skin, mucous membranes, hairs, and nails. According to the site of involvement, lichen planus can be subdivided into palmoplantar, mucosal, nail, or scalp types. Palmoplantar lichen planus is a rare subtype of lichen planus which may create difficulty in diagnosis, as the lesion is limited to the palms and soles. We report a case of a 37-year-old male with lichen planus who presented with multiple erythematous, scaly, hyperkeratotic papules on his palms and soles mimicking secondary syphilis.
doi:10.5021/ad.2009.21.4.429
PMCID: PMC2861259  PMID: 20523841
Palmoplantar lichen planus; Secondary syphilis
18.  Peliosis and gummatous syphilis of the liver: A case report 
Peliosis hepatis is a rare benign vascular disorder of the liver that may be associated with malignancy, infection and drugs. The imaging manifestation of this disorder is often variable and nonspecific making its diagnosis difficult. We describe a rare case of peliosis hepatis and gummatous syphilis of the liver with emphasis on CT findings. Image characteristics of our patient included pseudotumoral appearance of peliosis hepatis, isodensity to the adjacent liver parenchyma on unenhanced and dual-phase scanning. To our knowledge, peliosis hepatis associated with syphilis and unique enhancement pattern has not been reported. Considering the imaging features of peliosis hepatis, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical focal hepatic lesion.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.1961
PMCID: PMC2700425  PMID: 18350643
Focal liver lesion; Peliosis hepatis; Syphilis; Computed tomography
19.  Early congenital syphilis presenting with skin eruption alone: a case report 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(12):512-514.
Congenital syphilis is one of the most well-known congenital infections, yet it remains a worldwide public health problem. Congenital syphilis can involve any organ system and present with various symptoms. However, early diagnosis of congenital syphilis is difficult because more than half of the affected infants are asymptomatic, and the signs in symptomatic infants may be subtle and nonspecific. Here, we report a case of congenital syphilis with only a skin rash, which led to a delay in diagnosis. This case indicates that congenital syphilis should be considered throughout early childhood.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.12.512
PMCID: PMC3274658  PMID: 22323908
Congenital syphilis; Skin rash
20.  Gastric cancer with large bowel obstruction as the first presentation: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(5):1377-1379.
Gastric adenocarcinoma with a large bowel obstruction as the first presentation of the condition is rare. The present study describes the case of a 59-year-old female who was diagnosed with a large bowel obstruction that was caused by gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient suffered from abdominal pain and had not defecated for 15 days. The patient had no significant medical history. The right epigastric region was slightly tender and active bowel sounds were identified. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a dilated fluid-filled colon with a thickened wall and adjacent fat infiltration. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed that the margin and gastric mucosa in the antrum were raised and thickened without evidence of ulcerative lesions. The patient underwent surgery and was administered adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient was followed-up for 18 months without recurrence of the tumor. This study demonstrates that the presentation of gastric cancer may vary.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1540
PMCID: PMC3813741  PMID: 24179527
gastric cancer; colon; invasion; obstruction
21.  Marshall syndrome: a condition resembling congenital syphilis. 
Marshall syndrome (ectodermal dysplasia) was diagnosed in a 14-year-old boy and is thought to be the first case reported from West Africa. Because of the saddle-nose deformity and bilateral cataracts all patients suspected of having congenital syphilis should be investigated for ocular or auditory defects, which would confirm the diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia.
Images
PMCID: PMC1045883  PMID: 7214117
22.  Emphysematous Gastritis Associated with Invasive Gastric Mucormycosis: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(5):923-927.
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of phlegmonous gastritis, characterized by air in the wall of the stomach due to invasion by gas-forming microorganisms. The most commonly involved microorganisms are streptococci, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostrodium perfrigens and Staphylococcus aureus. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is another rare condition, which is most frequently occurs in the stomach. Because emphysematous gastritis associated with invasive gastric mucormycosis is an extremely rare clinical condition and both are life-threatening diseases, early precise diagnosis and early treatment should be done to avoid mortality. Herein we present an extremely rare case of emphysematous gastritis associated with invasive gastric mucormycosis. A 43-yr-old man, suffering from alcoholism and diabetes, has experienced diffuse abdominal pain for 4 days. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated gas within the stomach wall. A histologic examination of the total gastrectomy specimen showed several gas-filled bubbles in the wall, along with numerous fungal hyphae throughout the necrotic stomach wall. He died of multiorgan failure secondary to disseminated mucormycosis, despite the intensive medical therapy.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.5.923
PMCID: PMC2693866  PMID: 17982248
Gastritis; Stomach; Mucormycosis
23.  Phlegmonous Gastritis after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for early Gastric Cancer 
A 74-year-old man with diabetic nephropathy developed epigastric pain and high fever after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer. Gastroscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography and computed tomography showed ulceration with a purulent lake, thickened entire gastric mucosal layers suggesting focal abscess formation, leading to the diagnosis of phlegmonous gastritis. He underwent total gastrectomy as an emergency. Histological findings of the resected specimen showed severe inflammatory cell infiltration and multiple focal abscess formation spreading to the entire gastric wall. In patients with poorer general conditions, phlegmonous gastritis should be considered as a serious complication after ESD, indicating a requirement of antibiotic prophylaxis.
doi:10.1177/1756283X08095746
PMCID: PMC3002497  PMID: 21180517
Phlegmonous gastritis; severe complication; early gastric cancer; endoscopic submucosal dissection
24.  Isolation and Characterization of a Helicobacter sp. from the Gastric Mucosa of Dolphins, Lagenorhynchus acutus and Delphinus delphis 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2000;66(11):4751-4757.
Gastric ulcerations in dolphins have been reported for decades. Some of these lesions were associated with parasitic infections. However, cases of nonparasitic gastric ulcers with no clearly defined etiology also have been reported in wild and captive dolphins. Considerable speculation exists as to whether dolphins have Helicobacter-associated gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. The stomachs of seven stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphins, Lagenorhynchus acutus, and 1 common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, were assessed for the presence of Helicobacter species. Novel Helicobacter species were identified by culture in the gastric mucosa of two of the eight dolphins studied and by PCR in seven of the eight dolphins. The gram-negative organisms were urease, catalase, and oxidase positive. Spiral to fusiform bacteria were detected in gastric mucosa by Warthin Starry staining. Histopathology revealed mild to moderate diffuse lymphoplasmacytic gastritis within the superficial mucosa of the main stomach. The pyloric stomach was less inflamed, and bacteria did not extend deep into the glands. The lesions parallel those observed in Helicobacter pylori-infected humans. Bacteria from two dolphins classified by 16S rRNA analysis clustered with gastric helicobacters and represent a novel Helicobacter sp. most closely related to H. pylori. These findings suggest that a novel Helicobacter sp. may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of gastritis and gastric ulcers in dolphins. To our knowledge this represents the first isolation and characterization of a novel Helicobacter sp. from a marine mammal and emphasizes the wide host distribution and pathogenic potential of this increasingly important genus.
PMCID: PMC92375  PMID: 11055919
25.  A Case of Gastric Tuberculosis Mimicking Advanced Gastric Cancer 
Tuberculosis of the stomach is quite rare, both as a primary or secondary infection. It can present as a facet of a multiorgan disease process or may result from immunodeficiency. Here, we report a rare, interesting case of gastric tuberculosis which morphologically mimicked advanced gastric cancer in a young, immunocompetent patient presenting with hematemesis and melena. The disease was diagnosed by biopsy, and responded well to antituberculosis medication without surgery.
Clinicians must bear in mind that, even in the absence of immunodeficiency, as in this case, tuberculosis can involve any site in the gastrointestinal tract and may present with a variety of characteristics. Gastric tuberculosis should always be part of the differential diagnosis of chronic infiltrative lesions in the stomach.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2006.21.1.62
PMCID: PMC3891067  PMID: 16646568
Gastric tuberculosis; Hematemesis; Mass

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