Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS) is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.
We report on a case of gastric syphilis in a patient with chronic dyspepsia. The diagnosis was established by serology and the demonstration of spirochetes in diffusely inflammed gastric mucosa by staining with a fluorescent monoclonal antibody specific for pathogenic treponemes and by the detection of specific treponemal DNA sequences by a real-time PCR.
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of phlegmonous gastritis, characterized by air in the wall of the stomach due to invasion by gas-forming microorganisms. The most commonly involved microorganisms are streptococci, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostrodium perfrigens and Staphylococcus aureus. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is another rare condition, which is most frequently occurs in the stomach. Because emphysematous gastritis associated with invasive gastric mucormycosis is an extremely rare clinical condition and both are life-threatening diseases, early precise diagnosis and early treatment should be done to avoid mortality. Herein we present an extremely rare case of emphysematous gastritis associated with invasive gastric mucormycosis. A 43-yr-old man, suffering from alcoholism and diabetes, has experienced diffuse abdominal pain for 4 days. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated gas within the stomach wall. A histologic examination of the total gastrectomy specimen showed several gas-filled bubbles in the wall, along with numerous fungal hyphae throughout the necrotic stomach wall. He died of multiorgan failure secondary to disseminated mucormycosis, despite the intensive medical therapy.
Gastritis; Stomach; Mucormycosis
A 74-year-old man with diabetic nephropathy developed epigastric pain and high
fever after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer.
Gastroscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography and computed tomography showed
ulceration with a purulent lake, thickened entire gastric mucosal layers
suggesting focal abscess formation, leading to the diagnosis of phlegmonous
gastritis. He underwent total gastrectomy as an emergency. Histological findings
of the resected specimen showed severe inflammatory cell infiltration and
multiple focal abscess formation spreading to the entire gastric wall. In
patients with poorer general conditions, phlegmonous gastritis should be
considered as a serious complication after ESD, indicating a requirement of
Phlegmonous gastritis; severe complication; early gastric cancer; endoscopic submucosal dissection
Gastric adenocarcinoma with a large bowel obstruction as the first presentation of the condition is rare. The present study describes the case of a 59-year-old female who was diagnosed with a large bowel obstruction that was caused by gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient suffered from abdominal pain and had not defecated for 15 days. The patient had no significant medical history. The right epigastric region was slightly tender and active bowel sounds were identified. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a dilated fluid-filled colon with a thickened wall and adjacent fat infiltration. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed that the margin and gastric mucosa in the antrum were raised and thickened without evidence of ulcerative lesions. The patient underwent surgery and was administered adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient was followed-up for 18 months without recurrence of the tumor. This study demonstrates that the presentation of gastric cancer may vary.
gastric cancer; colon; invasion; obstruction
We report the first known case of syphilis with simultaneous manifestations of proctitis, gastritis, and hepatitis. The diagnosis of syphilitic proctitis and gastritis was established by the demonstration of spirochetes with anti-Treponema pallidum antibody staining in biopsy specimens. Unusual manifestations of secondary syphilis completely resolved after 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy.
Syphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum an anaerobic filamentous spirochete. In recent years, striking outbreaks have occurred in USA, Canada, Russia, China and some areas of Central and Eastern Europe. Main epidemiology changes reflect sex industry, sexual promiscuity, decreasing use of barrier protection (i.e. condoms) due to false sense of security that nowadays sexually transmitted diseases are curable and lack of pertinent knowledge. Considering that the initial presentation of syphilis may be the oral cavity, it is of great relevance to include this disease in the differential diagnosis of unusual oral ulcerations and white patches. Primary syphilis is a highly infectious disease in which inappropriate treatment may be apparently curative while the patient remains highly infectious. It is then of pivotal importance that clinicians maintain a high clinical index of suspicion. At the present time, clinical-pathologic correlation together with serologic studies remain essential in establishing the diagnosis of syphilis.
Syphilis; Oral cavity; Treponema pallidum
Congenital syphilis is a potentially serious pathology affecting newborns of infected mothers. Even one case of congenital syphilis is a sentinel public health event, since timely diagnosis and treatment of syphilis infected pregnant woman should prevent transmission almost entirely. Here, we are reporting a case of early symptomatic congenital syphilis presented with severe desquamating papulosquamous lesions over multiple body parts along with erosive lesions around oral cavity and nostrils.
Congenital syphilis; treponema pallidum; venereal disease research laboratory
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease, remaining under-estimated, under-recognized due to the variability of clinical presentation and ageing of the population with chronic comorbidities. Hence, some manifestations of the past are nowadays superimposed on the course of chronic diseases. Clinical suspicion should be guided by past medical history of contracting any other sexual disease in a heterosexual person or man who has sex with man.
We describe a rare case of tertiary syphilis in a hemodialyzed diabetic patient whom was career of chronic liver disease due to the evolution of chronic hepatitis B virus infection complicated by a hepatocellular carcinoma. Initial orientation in diagnosing this rare presentation of progressive painless lower limbs weakness was attributed to possible side effects of ongoing anti viral therapy including lamivudine and adefovir. We continued administering both drugs while patient notified a spectacular improvement under Ceftriaxone therapy introduced empirically for a possible chest infection. Routine ophthalmologic examination realized in a teaching hospital, scheduled without knowing the course of late infection showed the presence of a syphilitic uveitis.
This case emphasizes the need for a high index of clinical suspicion for syphilis before the occurrence of symptoms related to its end organ damage dominated by neurosyphilis form. Early diagnosis is the key to preventing significant morbidity and mortality and improving prognosis. However, in the setting of chronic diseases such as chronic kidney diseases either before setting up methods of renal replacement therapy or under immune-suppressive therapy; clinical presentation might resemble any disease, delaying the certitude of the diagnosis by prescribing a rapid plasma reagin.
The number of syphilis cases has increased in the UK in recent years, but many clinicians have limited experience in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. If early diagnosis is not made and treated promptly with antibiotics, the disease may remain latent until the more serious manifestations of tertiary syphilis develop. We present the case of a 27-year-old man who presented with an acute mono-arthritis secondary to syphilis. The condition responded to antibiotic therapy. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the diagnosis and consider it in patients with an acute arthropathy.
Knee; Syphilis; Mono-arthritis
A 54 year old man presented with features of acute hepatitis and the nephrotic syndrome. A diagnosis of active syphilis was only made by chance after extensive investigation. Syphilis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of both acute hepatitis and the nephrotic syndrome occurring separately as well as together.
The allegation that John Hunter suffered from syphilis is challenged. It is suggested that he was the subject of non-luetic vascular disease, evidence for which may be found by a study of his symptoms and autopsy report. It is further suggested that John Hunter's famous inoculation experiment was performed not on himself but on another subject. It is claimed that there is in fact no scientific evidence for attributing John Hunter's illness to syphilis and it is urged that the stigma of this diagnosis should be expunged from his image.
The only gastrin-dependent gastric endocrine cells are the fundic ECL cells. Excessive hypergastrinemia stimulates ECL cell proliferation in animals and man. The growth of other gastric endocrine cells is regulated by the gastric pH. Hypergastrinemia in man results in diffuse and linear hyperplasia of the ECL cells, while micronodular hyperplasia is correlated to the grade of corpus gastritis. ECL cell dysplasia and gastric carcinoids in man have been observed only in patients with gastrinoma as part of the MEN I syndrome and with pernicious anemia. Gastrin dependence of GI adenocarcinoma has not been established. Experimental findings may be explained by the presence of gastrin receptors and the role of gastrin as an autocrine growth factor. Epidemiological data do not support gastrin dependence of carcinoma of the stomach, the pancreas and the colon.
Gastric adenocarcinoma after gastric bypass for morbid obesity is rare but has been described. The diet restriction, weight loss, and difficult assessment of the bypassed stomach, after this procedure, hinder and delay its diagnosis. We present a 52-year-old man who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass 2 years ago and whose previous upper digestive endoscopy was considered normal. He presented with weight loss, attributed to the procedure, and progressive dysphagia. Upper digestive endoscopy revealed stenosing tumor in gastric pouch whose biopsy showed diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma. He underwent total gastrectomy, left lobectomy, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, segmental colectomy, and bowel resection with esophagojejunal anastomosis. The histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of gastric cancer. The pathogenesis of gastric pouch adenocarcinoma is discussed with a literature review.
A case of alpha chain disease, involving the stomach only, is reported in an Algerian man suffering from epigastric pains. Upper digestive tract fibreoptic endoscopy showed two antral ulcers and an ulcerative gastritis pattern, which promptly disappeared with cimetidine treatment. Antral biopsies at a distance from the ulcers, but not of the ulcer crater itself, disclosed a dense infiltration of antral lamina propria by mature or sometimes atypical plasma cells. On transmural surgical antral biopsy, the infiltrate spread to the superficial part of the submucosa. No other localisation of the disease was found in spite of multiple biopsies obtained by endoscopy, with a peroral capsule and during staging laparotomy. The alpha chain disease protein was absent from serum and urine, but found in the gastric juice and in the cytoplasma of the cellular infiltrate (alpha 1 subclass). A complete clinical, endoscopic, histological and immunological remission was observed after a six months' course of oral tetracycline.
Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) caused by unresectable gastric cancer is a challenging aspect of patient care. There have been no reports involving patients with obstructing gastric cancer and several incurable factors curatively treated by multimodal treatments.
We report a case of 55-year-old man who was diagnosed with a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in the pre-pyloric antrum with GOO by gastroscopy. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed thickening of the gastric wall and adjacent fat infiltration, and a large amount of food in the stomach suggesting a passage disturbance, enlarged lymph nodes along the common hepatic and left gastric arteries, and multiple hepatic metastases. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was 343 ng/ml and the carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level was within normal limits. The patient underwent a laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy for palliation of the GOO. On the 3rd and 12th days after surgery, he received intraperitoneal chemotherapy with 40 mg of docetaxel and 150 mg of carboplatin. Simultaneously, combined chemotherapy with 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin for the 1st day and 600 mg/m2 of 5-FU for 2 days (FOLFOX regimen) was administered from the 8th post-operative day. After completion of nine courses of FOLFOX, the patient achieved a complete response (CR) with complete disappearance of the primary tumor and the metastatic foci. He underwent a radical subtotal gastrectomy with D3 lymph node dissection 4 months after the initial palliative surgery. The pathologic results revealed no residual primary tumor and no lymph node metastasis in 43 dissected lymph nodes. He has maintained a CR for 18 months since the last operation.
Combination chemotherapy with systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy following laparoscopic bypass surgery showed marked efficacy in the treatment for unresectable advanced gastric cancer with GOO.
We report the case of a 49-year-old man with a diagnosis of gastric diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, treated with two lines of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, and presented about 3 months after completing therapy with recurrent episodes of epigastric pain, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Computed tomography scan, positron emission tomography scan, and upper GI endoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening and lymphadenopathy. Biopsy and histopathology ultimately revealed Strongyloides stercoralis infection that was mimicking disease recurrence. Opportunistic parasitic infections represent one of the major challenges in the management of cancer patients.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; opportunistic infections; Strongyloides stercoralis
FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) play an essential role in modulating host responses to tumors and infections. The role of these cells in the pathogenesis of MALT lymphomas remains unknown. The aims of the study were to quantify the number of infiltrating FOXP3+ and CD3+ cells in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma at diagnosis and to study kinetics of these cells and CD20+ tumor cells after treatment and during long-term follow-up.
FOXP3+, CD3+ and CD20+ cells were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the number of cells was quantified using a micrometric ocular. Samples of 35 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma at diagnosis and after treatment were included. Diagnostic samples were compared to 19 cases of chronic gastritis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the stomach.
The median number of FOXP3+ infiltrating cells was higher (27 cells/cm2) in gastric MALT patients than in DLBCL (10 cells; p = 0.162) but similar to chronic gastritis (20 cells; p = 0.605). No characteristic or specific distribution pattern of infiltrating FOXP3+ cells was found. Gastric MALT lymphoma patients responding to bacterial eradication therapy had higher number of FOXP3+ cells at study entry. Kinetics of both infiltrating FOXP3+ cells and tumor CD20+ cells were strongly dependent on the treatment administered.
Gastric MALT lymphomas have a number of Treg cells more similar to chronic gastritis than to DLBCL. Patients with higher number of tumor infiltrating FOXP3+ cells at study entry seem to have better response to antibiotics. Kinetics of Treg and tumor cells are influenced by type of treatment.
We report the rare case of a 72-year-old man with double cancers (gastric adenocarcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma) with collision between gastric adenocarcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Abdominal computed tomography showed increased wall thickness in the fundus region of the stomach and multiple lymph node swellings in the lesser curvature, periceliac and left cardial regions. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed an ulcer approximately 5 cm in diameter with a malignant appearance in the fundus region of the stomach. On histopathologic examination, two completely different tumors were recognized in the stomach. One tumor was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma characterized by poorly developed tubular structures associated with prominent lymphoid infiltration of the stroma. The other tumor was found to have proliferated in the wall of the stomach, with diffuse granulomatous lesions and bordering the adenocarcinoma. Large atypical lymphoid cells with prominent nucleoli and enlarged mononuclei or multinuclei were seen in the latter tumor. Hodgkin's lymphoma was also found in the swollen lesser curvature lymph nodes. As a result, gastric adenocarcinoma and metastasis of Hodgkin's lymphoma were collided in the stomach. In conclusion, this case might be helpful in exploring the occurrence mechanism of tumor collision between lymphoma and carcinoma.
Synchronous; Gastric adenocarcinoma; Hodgkin's lymphoma; Collision
1. In confirmation of Gaehtgens, syphilitic human sera give positive complement fixation with cultures of so called T. pallidum (Reiter strain). Syphilitic rabbit sera are equally reactive. Syphilitic human and rabbit sera agglutinate these cultures, often in high titre (Beck). 2. Normal rabbit sera react weakly with the culture to give both agglutination and complement fixation in low titre. Normal human sera, despite the fact that they contain agglutinins in low titre, fail to fix complement with the Reiter strain of cultured spirochetes. Confirming Gaehtgens, the latter reaction is therefore of practical utility for the serum diagnosis of syphilis. 3. When syphilitic serum is heated at 63°C., there is no demonstrable difference in the thermolability of the antibody to spirochetes, and of the reagin which determines the Wassermann and flocculation tests. 4. (a) The absorption of syphilitic serum by spirochetal suspensions removes all reactivity, not only for the spirochetes, but for tissue lipoids (alcoholic beef heart extract) as well; the sera become Wassermann- and flocculation-negative. (b) Absorption of syphilitic serum with tissue lipoids renders the Wassermann and flocculation tests negative, but does not demonstrably change the reactivity of the serum with spirochetes. (c) Rabbits immunized to beef heart lipoid develop spirochetal agglutinins and complement-fixing antibodies (Reiter strain) in high titre. 5. It is concluded that these cultured spirochetes contain antigenic material serologically related to a substance present in mammalian tissue, as well as other antigenic factors not present in such extracts, but equally reactive with syphilitic serum. 6. These findings support the thesis that the primary serologic change in syphilis is the development of antibodies to T. pallidum. The Wassermann and flocculation tests would be explained on the basis that the tissue extracts used as "antigen" in these tests contain one or more substances serologically related to antigenic components of T. pallidum. Similarly, the cultured Reiter strain of spirochete is apparently sufficiently close serologically to T. pallidum to be agglutinated by and to give complement fixation with the antibodies to T. pallidum present in syphilitic serum. 7. Since suspensions of cultured spirochetes contain antigenic factors which react specifically with syphilitic serum, some of which are not present in ordinary Wassermann and flocculation "antigens," they may prove even more valuable than those tissue extracts in the serodiagnosis of syphilis.
This report describes a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric duplication cyst, with invasion to the stomach wall, in a 40 year old Japanese man. A cystic lesion was found between the stomach and the spleen. The cyst had a well circumscribed smooth muscle layer, corresponding to the muscularis propria of the stomach and the mucosa of the alimentary tract. A well differentiated adenocarcinoma was found within the duplication cyst, invading its serosa. Well differentiated adenocarcinoma was independently found in the fundus of the stomach; the tumour of the cyst was connected by fibrous tissue. Microscopically, there was neither adenocarcinoma in situ nor precancerous lesions, such as epithelial dysplasia, suggesting that the carcinoma derived from a gastric duplication cyst that invaded the stomach. Duplication cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the gastrointestinal tract, and the possibility of malignancy within these cysts should be considered.
gastric duplication cyst; adenocarcinoma; gastrointestinal duplication
A rare case of primary gastric endocrine cell carcinoma in a 79-year-old man is reported. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a large Bormann's type 2 tumour located in the middle of the stomach. On computed tomography, the gastric wall was thickened by the large tumour, and there were no distant metastases. Distal gastrectomy, lymph node dissection, and partial resection of the transverse colon were performed because the tumour involved the transverse mesocolon. The final pathological diagnosis was endocrine cell carcinoma, with tumour infiltration up to the subserous layer. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given, but metachronous remnant gastric cancer developed 2 years after surgery. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed for the early 0-IIc type gastric cancer, and the surgical margin was preserved. The patient has survived for 5 years after the primary surgery, remaining disease-free so far.
Endocrine cell carcinoma; Stomach; Long-term survival; Metachronous tumour
Gastric ulcerations in dolphins have been reported for decades. Some of these lesions were associated with parasitic infections. However, cases of nonparasitic gastric ulcers with no clearly defined etiology also have been reported in wild and captive dolphins. Considerable speculation exists as to whether dolphins have Helicobacter-associated gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. The stomachs of seven stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphins, Lagenorhynchus acutus, and 1 common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, were assessed for the presence of Helicobacter species. Novel Helicobacter species were identified by culture in the gastric mucosa of two of the eight dolphins studied and by PCR in seven of the eight dolphins. The gram-negative organisms were urease, catalase, and oxidase positive. Spiral to fusiform bacteria were detected in gastric mucosa by Warthin Starry staining. Histopathology revealed mild to moderate diffuse lymphoplasmacytic gastritis within the superficial mucosa of the main stomach. The pyloric stomach was less inflamed, and bacteria did not extend deep into the glands. The lesions parallel those observed in Helicobacter pylori-infected humans. Bacteria from two dolphins classified by 16S rRNA analysis clustered with gastric helicobacters and represent a novel Helicobacter sp. most closely related to H. pylori. These findings suggest that a novel Helicobacter sp. may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of gastritis and gastric ulcers in dolphins. To our knowledge this represents the first isolation and characterization of a novel Helicobacter sp. from a marine mammal and emphasizes the wide host distribution and pathogenic potential of this increasingly important genus.
Research on syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the non-cultivatable spirochete Treponema pallidum, has been hampered by the lack of an inbred animal model. We hypothesized that Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent responses are essential for clearance of T. pallidum and, consequently, compared infection in wild-type (WT) mice and animals lacking MyD88, the adaptor molecule required for signaling by most TLRs. MyD88-deficient mice had significantly higher pathogen burdens and more extensive inflammation than control animals. Whereas tissue infiltrates in WT mice consisted of mixed mononuclear and plasma cells, infiltrates in MyD88-deficient animals were predominantly neutrophilic. Although both WT and MyD88-deficient mice produced antibodies that promoted uptake of treponemes by WT macrophages, MyD88-deficient macrophages were deficient in opsonophagocytosis of treponemes. Our results demonstrate that TLR-mediated responses are major contributors to the resistance of mice to syphilitic disease and that MyD88 signaling and FcR-mediated opsonophagocytosis are linked to the macrophage-mediated clearance of treponemes.
We report a rare case of the coexistence of a gastric small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with a gastric adenocarcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with epigastric soreness for 1 month. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a Borrmann type I tumor at the lesser curvature of the lower body of the stomach. The patient underwent a distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection and the resected specimen exhibited a 3.5×3.5 cm sized, fungating lesion. Two separated, not intermingling, lesions with non-adenocarcinoma components encircled by well differentiated adenocarcinoma components were identified microscopically. The non-adenocarcinoma component showed neuroendocrine features, such as a solid and trabecular pattern, and the tumor cells showed a high nuclear grade with minimal cytoplasm, indistinct nucleoli, and positive response for synaptophysin, CD56. The final pathological diagnosis was a gastric mixed exocrine-endocrine carcinoma (MEEC) composed of an adenocarcinoma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the collision type.
Stomach neoplasms; Neuroendocrine tumor; Adenocarcinoma