Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule, but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, especially on mitochondrial function, remains unclear. In this study, rats were randomized into Sham, I/R, ischemia preconditioning (IPC) or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) preconditioning groups. To establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia, the hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60 min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Preconditioning with 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/kg NaHS prior to the I/R insult significantly increased serum H2S levels, and, similar to IPC, NaHS preconditioning decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the plasma and prevented hepatocytes from undergoing I/R-induced necrosis. Moreover, a sub-toxic dose of NaHS (25 μmol/kg) did not disrupt the systemic hemodynamics but dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that NaHS preconditioning markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and decreased the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3/9 levels. Therefore, NaHS administration prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through the inhibition of MPTP opening and the activation of Akt-GSK-3β signaling. Furthermore, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical use of H2S to reduce liver damage after perioperative I/R injury.
Although recent studies indicate that renal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects the kidney from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, the precise protective mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated whether early IPC could upregulate hypoxia inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and could reduce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress after renal I/R and whether pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production would abolish these protective effects.
Kidneys of Wistar rats were subjected to 60 min of warm ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion (I/R group), or to 2 preceding cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion (IPC group), or to intravenously injection of NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg) 5 min before IPC (L-NAME+IPC group). The results of these experimental groups were compared to those of a sham-operated group. Sodium reabsorption rate, creatinine clearance, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, tissues concentrations of malonedialdehyde (MDA), HIF-1α and nitrite/nitrate were determined. In addition, Western blot analyses were performed to identify the amounts of Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and ER stress parameters.
IPC decreased cytolysis, lipid peroxidation and improved renal function. Parallely, IPC enhanced Akt phosphorylation, eNOS, nitrite/nitrate and HIF-1α levels as compared to I/R group. Moreover, our results showed that IPC increased the relative amounts of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and decreased those of RNA activated protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and TNF-receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) as judged to I/R group. However, pre treatment with L-NAME abolished these beneficial effects of IPC against renal I/R insults.
These findings suggest that early IPC protects kidney against renal I/R injury via reducing oxidative and ER stresses. These effects are associated with phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS activation and NO production contributing thus to HIF-1α stabilization. The beneficial impact of IPC was abolished when NO production is inhibited before IPC application.
kidney; ischemia-reperfusion; ischemic preconditioning; Akt; eNOS, HIF1-α; ER stress
During renal transplantation, the kidney remains without blood flow for a period of time. The following reperfusion of this ischemic kidney causes functional and structural injury. Formation of oxygen-derived free radicals (OFR) and subsequent lipid peroxidation (LP) has been implicated as the causative factors of these injuries. Vitamin E is known to be the main endogenous antioxidant that stabilizes cell membranes by interfering with LP. The present study was designed to examine the role of ischemic-preconditioning (repeated brief periods of ischemia, IPC) in prevention of renal injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in rats.
IPC included sequential clamping of the right renal artery for 5 min and release of the clamp for another 5 min for a 3 cycles. IR was induced by 30 min ischemia followed by 10 min reperfusion. Four groups of male rats were used: Control, IPC, IR and IPC-IR. Vitamin E, an endogenous antioxidant and as an index of LP, was measured by HPLC and UV detection in renal venous plasma and tissue. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine and BUN levels. Renal damage was assessed in sections stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin.
In the IR group, there was a significant decrease in vitamin E in plasma and tissue compared to a control group (p,0.05). In the IPC-IR group, vitamin E concentration was significantly higher than in the IR group (p,0.01). The results showed that 30 min ischemia in the IR group significantly (p,0.05) reduced renal function demonstrated by an increase in serum creatinine levels as compared with the control group. These results in the IPC group also showed a significant difference with the IR group but no significant difference in serum BUN and creatinine between IR and IPC-IR group were detected. Histological evaluation showed no structural damage in the IPC group and an improvement in the IPC-IR group compared to IR alone.
In this study, IPC preserved vitamin E levels, but it could not markedly improve renal function in the early phase (1–2 h) of reperfusion. IPC may be a useful method for antioxidant preservation in organ transplantation.
In ischemic preconditioning (IPC) brief ischemia/reperfusion renders the heart resistant to infarction from any subsequent ischemic insult. Protection results from binding of surface receptors by ligands released during the preconditioning ischemia. The downstream pathway involves redox signaling as IPC will not protect in the presence of a free radical scavenger. To determine when the redox signaling occurs, five groups of isolated rabbit hearts were studied. All hearts underwent 30 min of coronary branch occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. IPC groups were subjected to 5 min of regional ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion prior to the 30-min coronary occlusion. The Control group had only the 30-min occlusion and 2-h reperfusion. The second group had IPC alone. The third group was also preconditioned, but the free radical scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine (MPG, 300 µM) was infused during the 10-min reperfusion and therefore was present in the myocardium in the distribution of the snared coronary artery during the entire reperfusion phase and also during the subsequent 30-min ischemia. In another preconditioned group MPG was added to the perfusate before the preconditioning ischemia and therefore was present in the tissue only during the preconditioning ischemia and then was washed out during reperfusion. In the fifth group MPG was added to the perfusate for only the last 5 min of the preconditioning reperfusion and therefore was present in the tissue during the last minutes of the reperfusion phase and the 30 min of ischemia. Infarct size and risk size were measured by triphenyltetrazolium staining and fluorescent microspheres, resp. IPC reduced infarct size from 31.3±2.7% of the ischemic zone in control hearts to only 8.4±1.9%. MPG completely blocked IPC’s protection in the 3rd group (39.4±2.8%) but did not affect its protection in groups 4 (8.1±1.5%) or 5 (7.8±1.1%). Hence redox signaling occurs during the reperfusion phase of IPC.
Ischemic pre- and postconditioning protects the liver against ischemia/reperfusion injuries. The aim of the present study was to examine how ischemic pre- and postconditioning affects gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in liver tissue.
28 rats were randomized into five groups: control; ischemia/reperfusion; ischemic preconditioning (IPC); ischemic postconditioning (IPO); combined IPC and IPO. IPC consisted of 10 min of ischemia and 10 min of reperfusion. IPO consisted of three cycles of 30 sec. reperfusion and 30 sec. of ischemia.
HIF-1α mRNA expression was significantly increased after liver ischemia compared to controls (p = 0.010). HIF-1α mRNA expression was significantly lower in groups subjected to IPC or combined IPC and IPO when compared to the ischemia/reperfusion group (p = 0.002). VEGF-A mRNA expression increased in the ischemia/reperfusion or combined IPC and IPO groups when compared to the control group (p < 0.05).
Ischemic conditioning seems to prevent HIF-1α mRNA induction in the rat liver after ischemia and reperfusion. This suggests that the protective effects of ischemic conditioning do not involve the HIF-1 system. On the other hand, the magnitude of the HIF-1α response might be a marker for the degree of I/R injuries after liver ischemia. Further studies are needed to clarify this issue.
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a potent form of endogenous protection. However, IPC-induced cardioprotective effect is significantly blunted in insulin resistance-related diseases and the underlying mechanism is unclear. This study aimed to determine the role of glucose metabolism in IPC-reduced reperfusion injury.
Normal or streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats subjected to 2 cycles of 5 min ischemia/5 min reperfusion prior to myocardial ischemia (30 min)/reperfusion (3 h). Myocardial glucose uptake was determined by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) scan and gamma-counter biodistribution assay.
IPC exerted significant cardioprotection and markedly improved myocardial glucose uptake 1 h after reperfusion (P<0.01) as evidenced by PET images and gamma-counter biodistribution assay in ischemia/reperfused rats. Meanwhile, myocardial translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to plasma membrane together with myocardial Akt and AMPK phosphorylation were significantly enhanced in preconditioned hearts. Intramyocardial injection of GLUT4 siRNA markedly decreased GLUT4 expression and blocked the cardioprotection of IPC as evidence by increased myocardial infarct size. Moreover, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin significantly inhibited activation of Akt and AMPK, reduced GLUT4 translocation, glucose uptake and ultimately, depressed IPC-induced cardioprotection. Furthermore, IPC-afforded antiapoptotic effect was markedly blunted in STZ-treated diabetic rats. Exogenous insulin supplementation significantly improved glucose uptake via co-activation of myocardial AMPK and Akt and alleviated ischemia/reperfusion injury as evidenced by reduced myocardial apoptosis and infarction size in STZ-treated rats (P<0.05).
The present study firstly examined the role of myocardial glucose metabolism during reperfusion in IPC using direct genetic modulation in vivo. Augmented glucose uptake via co-activation of myocardial AMPK and Akt in reperfused myocardium is essential to IPC-alleviated reperfusion injury. This intrinsic metabolic modulation and cardioprotective capacity are present in STZ-treated hearts and can be triggered by insulin.
During liver resection surgery for cancer or liver transplantation, the liver is subject to ischaemia (reduction in blood flow) followed by reperfusion (restoration of blood flow), which results in liver injury [ischemia-reperfusion (IR) or IR injury]. Modulation of IR injury can be achieved in various ways. These include hypothermia, ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) (brief cycles of ischaemia followed by reperfusion of the organ before the prolonged period of ischaemia i.e. a conditioning response), ischaemic postconditioning (conditioning after the prolonged period of ischaemia but before the reperfusion), pharmacological agents to decrease IR injury, genetic modulation of IR injury, and machine perfusion (pulsatile perfusion). Hypothermia decreases the metabolic functions and the oxygen consumption of organs. Static cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution reduces IR injury and has prolonged organ storage and improved the function of transplanted grafts. There is currently no evidence for any clinical advantage in the use of alternate solutions for static cold storage. Although experimental data from animal models suggest that IPC, ischaemic postconditioning, various pharmacological agents, gene therapy, and machine perfusion decrease IR injury, none of these interventions can be recommended in clinical practice. This is because of the lack of randomized controlled trials assessing the safety and efficacy of ischaemic postconditioning, gene therapy, and machine perfusion. Randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials assessing the safety and efficacy of IPC and various pharmacological agents have demonstrated biochemical or histological improvements but this has not translated to clinical benefit. Further well designed randomized controlled trials are necessary to assess the various new protective strategies in liver resection.
Liver; Hepatectomy; Liver transplantation; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Hypothermia; Ischaemic preconditioning
Ischemia associated injury of the myocardium is caused by oxidative damage during reperfusion. Myocardial protection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) was shown to be mediated by a transient ‘iron-signal’ that leads to the accumulation of apoferritin and sequestration of reactive iron released during the ischemia. Here we identified the source of this ‘iron signal’ and evaluated its role in the mechanisms of cardiac protection by hypoxic preconditioning. Rat hearts were retrogradely perfused and the effect of proteasomal and lysosomal protease inhibitors on ferritin levels were measured. The iron-signal was abolished, ferritin levels were not increased and cardiac protection was diminished by inhibition of the proteasome prior to IPC. Similarly, double amounts of ferritin and better recovery after ex vivo ischemia-and-reperfusion (I/R) were found in hearts from in vivo hypoxia pre-conditioned animals. IPC followed by normoxic perfusion for 30 min (‘delay’) prior to I/R caused a reduced ferritin accumulation at the end of the ischemia phase and reduced protection. Full restoration of the IPC-mediated cardiac protection was achieved by employing lysosomal inhibitors during the ‘delay’. In conclusion, proteasomal protein degradation of iron-proteins causes the generation of the ‘iron-signal’ by IPC, ensuing de-novo apoferritin synthesis and thus, sequestering reactive iron. Lysosomal proteases are involved in subsequent ferritin breakdown as revealed by the use of specific pathway inhibitors during the ‘delay’. We suggest that proteasomal iron-protein degradation is a stress response causing an expeditious cytosolic iron release thus, altering iron homeostasis to protect the myocardium during I/R, while lysosomal ferritin degradation is part of housekeeping iron homeostasis.
Short non-lethal ischemic episodes administered to hearts prior to (ischemic preconditioning, IPC) or directly after (ischemic postconditioning, IPost) ischemic events facilitate myocardial protection. Transferring coronary effluent collected during IPC treatment to un-preconditioned recipient hearts protects from lethal ischemic insults. We propose that coronary IPC effluent contains hydrophobic cytoprotective mediators acting via PI3K/Akt-dependent pro-survival signaling at ischemic reperfusion. Ex vivo rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of regional ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. IPC effluent administered for 10 min prior to index ischemia attenuated infarct size by ≥55% versus control hearts (P < 0.05). Effluent administration for 10 min at immediate reperfusion (reperfusion therapy) or as a mimetic of pharmacological postconditioning (remote postconditioning, RIPost) significantly reduced infarct size compared to control (P < 0.05). The IPC effluent significantly increased Akt phosphorylation in un-preconditioned hearts when administered before ischemia or at reperfusion, while pharmacological inhibition of PI3K/Akt-signaling at reperfusion completely abrogated the cardioprotection offered by effluent administration. Fractionation of coronary IPC effluent revealed that cytoprotective humoral mediator(s) released during the conditioning phase were of hydrophobic nature as all hydrophobic fractions with molecules under 30 kDa significantly reduced infarct size versus the control and hydrophilic fraction-treated hearts (P < 0.05). The total hydrophobic effluent fraction significantly reduced infarct size independently of temporal administration (before ischemia, at reperfusion or as remote postconditioning). In conclusion, the IPC effluent retains strong cardioprotective properties, containing hydrophobic mediator(s) < 30 kDa offering cytoprotection via PI3K/Akt-dependent signaling at ischemic reperfusion.
Postconditioning; Preconditioning; Cardioprotection; Ischemia; Reperfusion; Akt
To test the hypothesis that remote ischaemic preconditioning (rIPC) reduces injury after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).
Randomised study with an experimental model of CPB (3 h CPB with 2 h of cardioplegic arrest). Twelve 15 kg pigs were randomly assigned to control or rIPC before CPB and followed up for 6 h.
rIPC was induced by four 5 min cycles of lower limb ischaemia before CPB.
Main outcome measures
Troponin I, glial protein S‐100B, lactate concentrations, load‐independent indices (conductance catheter) of systolic and diastolic function, and pulmonary resistance and compliance were measured before and for 6 h after CPB.
Troponin I increased after CPB in both groups but during reperfusion the rIPC group had lower concentrations than controls (mean area under the curve −57.3 (SEM 7.3) v 89.0 (11.6) ng·h/ml, p = 0.02). Lactate increased after CPB in both groups but during reperfusion the control group had significantly more prolonged hyperlactataemia (p = 0.04). S‐100B did not differ between groups. Indices of ventricular function did not differ. There was a tendency to improved lung compliance (p = 0.07), and pulmonary resistance changed less in the rIPC than in the control group during reperfusion (p = 0.02). Subsequently, peak inspiratory pressure was lower (p = 0.001).
rIPC significantly attenuated clinically relevant markers of myocardial and pulmonary injury after CPB. Transient limb ischaemia as an rIPC stimulus has potentially important clinical applications.
We previously demonstrated that there are acute and delayed phases of renal protection against renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury with renal ischemic preconditioning (IPC). This study assessed whether hepatic IPC could also reduce distant renal IR injury through the blood stream-mediated supply of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: group I, sham operated including right nephrectomy; group II (IR), left renal ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion injury; group III (IPC-IR), hepatic ischemia for 10 min followed by 10 min of reperfusion before left renal IR injury; group IV (MPG - IPC + IR), pretreated with 100 mg/kg N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (MPG) 15 min before hepatic IPC and left renal IR injury. Renal function, histopathologic findings, proinflammatory cytokines, and cytoprotective proteins were evaluated 15 min or 24 hr after reperfusion. Hepatic IPC attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and induced inducible nitric-oxide synthase, and the phosphorylation of Akt in the murine kidney. Renal function was better preserved in mice with hepatic IPC (group III) than groups II or IV. Hepatic IPC protects against distant renal IR injury through the blood stream-delivery of hepatic IPC-induced ROS, by inducing cytoprotective proteins, and by inhibiting inflammatory reactions.
Cytoprotective Proteins; Ischemic Preconditioning (IPC); Ischemia and Reperfusion (IR) Injury; Proinflammatory Cytokines
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the modulation of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a partial nephrectomy (PN) rat model using early-phase ischemic preconditioning (IPC).
Materials and Methods
Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups following right-side nephrectomy: Sham-operated rats (surgery without vascular clamping); PN rats (renal blood vessels were clamped for 40 min and PN was performed); and IPC rats (pretreated with 15 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion). At 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h, and 3 days after reperfusion, the pool of circulating EPCs and kidneys were harvested. The extent of renal injury was assessed, along with EPC number, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and vascular growth factor expression.
Pretreated rats exhibited significant improvements in renal function and morphology. EPC numbers in the kidneys were increased at 12 h following reperfusion in the IPC group as compared to the PN or Sham groups. Cell proliferation (including endothelial and tubular epithelial cells) and angiogenesis in peritubular capillaries were markedly increased in kidneys treated with IPC. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) expression in the kidneys of pretreated rats was increased compared to rats subjected to PN.
Our investigation suggested that: (1) the early phase of IPC may attenuate renal IRI induced by PN; (2) EPCs play an important role in renal protection, involving promotion of cell proliferation and angiogenesis through release of several angiogenic factors.
Although protein kinase C (PKC) plays a key role in ischemic preconditioning (IPC), the actual mechanism of that protection is unknown. We recently found that protection from IPC requires activation of adenosine receptors during early reperfusion. We, therefore, hypothesized PKC might act to increase the heart’s sensitivity to adenosine. IPC limited infarct size in isolated rabbit hearts subjected to 30-min regional ischemia/2-h reperfusion and IPC’s protection was blocked by the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine given during early reperfusion revealing involvement of PKC at reperfusion. Similarly chelerythrine infused in the early reperfusion period blocked the increased phosphorylation of the protective kinases Akt and ERK1/2 observed after IPC. Infusing phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, during early reperfusion mimicked IPC’s protection. As expected, the protection triggered by PMA at reperfusion was blocked by chelerythrine, but surprisingly it was also blocked by MRS1754, an adenosine A2b receptor–selective antagonist, suggesting that PKC was somehow facilitating signaling from the A2b receptors. NECA [5′-(N-ethylcarboxamido) adenosine], a potent but not selective A2b receptor agonist, increased phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreating hearts with PMA or brief preconditioning ischemia had no effect on phosphorylation of Akt or ERK1/2 per se, but markedly lowered the threshold for NECA to induce their phosphorylation. BAY 60-6583, a highly selective A2b agonist, also caused phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt. MRS1754 prevented phosphorylation induced by BAY 60-6583. BAY 60-6583 limited infarct size when given to ischemic hearts at reperfusion. These results suggest that activation of cardiac A2b receptors at reperfusion is protective, but because of the very low affinity of the receptors endogenous cardiac adenosine is unable to trigger their signaling. We propose that the key protective event in IPC occurs when PKC increases the heart’s sensitivity to adenosine so that endogenous adenosine can activate A2b-dependent signaling.
adenosine A2b receptors; BAY 60-6583; NECA; preconditioning; protein kinase C
Background. Several approaches have been proposed to pharmacologically ameliorate hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a preconditioning oral nutritional supplement (pONS) containing glutamine, antioxidants, and green tea extract on hepatic warm IRI in pigs. Methods. pONS (70 g per serving, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) was dissolved in 250 mL tap water and given to pigs 24, 12, and 2 hrs before warm ischemia of the liver. A fourth dose was given 3 hrs after reperfusion. Controls were given the same amount of cellulose with the same volume of water. Two hours after the third dose of pONS, both the portal vein and the hepatic artery were clamped for 40 min. 0.5, 3, 6, and 8 hrs after reperfusion, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic arterial flow (HAF), bile flow, and transaminases were measured. Liver tissue was taken 8 hrs after reperfusion for histology and immunohistochemistry. Results. HR, MAP, CVP, HAF, and PVF were comparable between the two groups. pONS significantly increased bile flow 8 hrs after reperfusion. ALT and AST were significantly lower after pONS. Histology showed significantly more severe necrosis and neutrophil infiltration in controls. pONS significantly decreased the index of immunohistochemical expression for TNF-α, MPO, and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Administration of pONS before and after tissue damage protects the liver from warm IRI via mechanisms including decreasing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and necrosis.
The protective effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2) on cardiac tissue during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have not yet been fully elucidated.
To assess the protective effects of short- and long-term E2 treatments on cardiac tissue exposed to I/R, and to assess the effects of these treatments in combination with ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on cardiac protection from I/R injury.
Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to the following treatment protocols: control (no preconditioning); IPC (isolated hearts were subjected to two cycles of 5 min global ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion); E2 preconditioning (E2PC; isolated hearts were subjected to E2 pharmacological perfusion for 15 min); short-term in vivo E2 pretreatment for 3 h; long-term in vivo E2 pretreatment or withdrawal (ovariectomy followed by a six-week treatment with E2 or a placebo); combined IPC and E2PC; combined IPC and short- or long-term E2 pretreatments or withdrawal. All hearts were isolated and stabilized for at least 30 min before being subjected to 40 min of global ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion; left ventricular function and vascular hemodynamics were then assessed.
IPC, E2PC and short-term E2 pretreatment led to the recovery of left ventricle function and vascular hemodynamics. Long-term E2 and placebo treatments did not result in any protection compared with untreated controls. The combination of E2PC or short-term E2 treatments with IPC did not block the IPC protection or result in any additional protection to the heart. Long-term E2 treatment blocked IPC protection; however, placebo treatment did not.
Short-term treatment with E2 protected the heart against I/R injury through a pathway involving the regulation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The combination of short-term E2 treatment with IPC did not provide additional protection to the heart. Short-term E2 treatment may be a suitable alternative for classical estrogen replacement therapy.
Estrogen; Ischemia; Preconditioning; Reperfusion; Tumour necrosis factor-alpha
AIM: To investigate the effect of different secondary warm ischemia time (SWIT) on bile duct injury in liver-transplanted rats.
METHODS: Forty-eight male inbred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: a sham-operation group and three groups with secondary biliary warm ischemia time of 0 min, 10 min and 20 min. A rat model of autologous liver transplantation under ether anesthesia was established, and six rats were killed in each group and blood samples and the median lobe of the liver were collected for assay at 6 h and 24 h after hepatic arterial reperfusion.
RESULTS: With prolongation of biliary warm ischemia time, the level of vascular endothelial growth factor-A was significantly decreased, and the value at 24 h was higher than that at 6 h after hepatic arterial reperfusion, but with no significant difference. The extended biliary SWIT led to a significant increase in bile duct epithelial cell apoptosis, and a decrease in the number of blood vessels, the bile duct surrounding the blood vessels and bile duct epithelial cell proliferation in the early postoperative portal area. Pathologic examinations showed that inflammation of the rat portal area was aggravated, and biliary epithelial cell injury was significantly worsened.
CONCLUSION: A prolonged biliary warm ischemia time results in aggravated injury of the bile duct and the surrounding vascular plexus in rat autologous orthotopic liver transplantation.
Bile duct; Liver; Transplantation; Warm ischemia; Rat
Beside lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass, isolated lung perfusion and sleeve resection result in serious pulmonary ischemia–reperfusion injury, clinically known as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Very little is known about cells infiltrating the lung during ischemia–reperfusion. Therefore, a model of warm ischemia–reperfusion injury was applied to differentiate cellular infiltrates and to quantify tissue damage.
Fifty rats were randomized into eight groups. Five groups underwent warm ischemia for 60 min followed by 30 min and 1–4 hours of warm reperfusion. An additional group was flushed with the use of isolated lung perfusion after 4 hours of reperfusion. One of two sham groups was also flushed. Neutrophils and oedema were investigated by using samples processed with hematoxylin/eosin stain at a magnification of ×500. Immunohistochemistry with antibody ED-1 (magnification ×250) and antibody 1F4 (magnification ×400) was applied to visualize macrophages and T cells. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling was used for detecting apoptosis. Statistical significance was accepted at P < 0.05.
Neutrophils were increased after 30 min until 4 hours of reperfusion as well as after flushing. A doubling in number of macrophages and a fourfold increase in T cells were observed after 30 min until 1 and 2 hours of reperfusion, respectively. Apoptosis with significant oedema in the absence of necrosis was seen after 30 min to 4 hours of reperfusion.
After warm ischemia–reperfusion a significant increase in infiltration of neutrophils, T cells and macrophages was observed. This study showed apoptosis with serious oedema in the absence of necrosis after all periods of reperfusion.
acute lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome; neutrophils; T cells; warm pulmonary ischemia–reperfusion injury
AIM: To investigate the structural and biochemical changes in the early stage of reperfusion in the rat livers exposed to lobar ischemia-reperfusion (IR).
METHODS: The median and left lobes of the liver were subjected to 60 min ischemia followed by 5, 10, 30, 45, 60 and 120 min reperfusion. Blood samples were taken at different time intervals to test enzyme activities and biochemical alterations induced by reperfusion. At the end of each reperfusion period, the animals were killed by euthanasia and tissue samples were taken for histological examination and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Cell vacuolation, bleb formation and focal hepatitis were the most important changes occur during ischemia. While some changes including bleb formation were removed during reperfusion, other alterations including portal hepatitis, inflammation and the induction of apoptosis were seen during this stage. The occurrence of apoptosis, as demonstrated by apoptotic cells and bodies, was the most important histological change during reperfusion. The severity of apoptosis was dependent on the time of reperfusion, and by increasing the time of reperfusion, the numbers of apoptotic bodies was significantly enhanced. The amounts of lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine and urea were significantly increased in serum obtained from animals exposed to hepatic IR.
CONCLUSION: Inflammation and subsequent apoptotic cell death were the most important changes in early-stage hepatic reperfusion injury, and the number of apoptotic bodies increased with time of reperfusion.
Lobar ischemia; Liver; Reperfusion injury; Apoptosis; Immunohistochemistry
Hepatic resection is currently still the best choice of therapeutic strategies for liver cancer, but the long-term survival rate after surgery is unsatisfactory. Most patients develop intra- and/or extrahepatic recurrence. The reasons for this high recurrence rate are not entirely clear. Recent studies have indicated that ischemia-reperfusion injury to the liver may be a significant factor promoting tumor recurrence and metastasis in animal models. If this is also true in humans, the effects of the Pringle maneuver, which has been widely used in hepatectomy for the past century, should be examined. To date, there are no reported data or randomized controlled studies examining the relationship between use of the Pringle maneuver and local tumor recurrence. We hypothesize that the long-term prognosis of patients with liver cancer could be worsened by use of the Pringle maneuver due to an increase in the rate of tumor recurrence in the liver remnant. We designed a multicenter, prospective, randomized surgical trial to test this hypothesis.
At least 498 eligible patients from five participating centers will be enrolled and randomized into either the Pringle group or the non-Pringle group in a ratio of 1:1 using a permuted-blocks randomization protocol. After the completion of surgical intervention, patients will be included in a 3-year follow-up program.
This multicenter surgical trial will examine whether the Pringle maneuver has a negative effect on the long-term outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The trial will also provide information about prognostic differences, safety, advantages and disadvantages between Pringle and non-Pringle surgical procedures. Ultimately, the results will increase the available information about the effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury on tumor recurrence, which will be of immense benefit to general surgery.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Ischemia/reperfusion; Hepatectomy; Pringle maneuver
AIM: To characterize the impact of the Pringle maneuver (PM) and ischemic preconditioning (IP) on total blood supply to the liver following hepatectomies.
METHODS: Sixty one consecutive patients who underwent hepatic resection under inflow occlusion were randomized either to receive PM alone (n = 31) or IP (10 min of ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion) prior to PM (n = 30). Quantification of liver perfusion was measured by Doppler probes at the hepatic artery and portal vein at various time points after reperfusion of remnant livers.
RESULTS: Occlusion times of 33 ± 12 min (mean ± SD) and 34 ± 14 min and the extent of resected liver tissue (2.7 segments) were similar in both groups. In controls (PM), on reperfusion of liver remnants for 15 min, portal perfusion markedly decreased by 29% while there was a slight increase of 8% in the arterial blood flow. In contrast, following IP + PM the portal vein flow remained unchanged during reperfusion and a significantly increased arterial blood flow (+56% vs baseline) was observed. In accordance with a better postischemic blood supply of the liver, hepatocellular injury, as measured by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels on day 1 was considerably lower in group B compared to group A (247 ± 210 U/I vs 550 ± 650 U/I, P < 0.05). Additionally, ALT levels were significantly correlated to the hepatic artery inflow.
CONCLUSION: IP prevents postischemic flow reduction of the portal vein and simultaneously increases arterial perfusion, suggesting that improved hepatic macrocirculation is a protective mechanism following hepatectomy.
Ischemic preconditioning; Reperfusion injury; Liver; Surgery; Liver blood flow
Background & objectives:
Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) associated with major liver surgery compromises liver function. Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) may be effective in minimizing hepatic I/R injury. This study aimed to investigate the impact of liver ischaemic manipulations on lipid metabolism in rat during the process of liver recovery after liver surgery.
Sixty three male Wistar rats were assigned to three groups: the sham group, the I/R group which underwent warm ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R), and the IPC group. The animals were subdivided in 3 groups [1st, 3rdand 7th postoperative day (PO)]. Hepatic lipase (HL) and total lipase (TL) activity and the levels of aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST, ALT), triglycerides, HDL and cholesterol were measured in plasma.
There was no significant difference in the activity of HL and TL between the groups. Significant higher levels of HDL (P<0.0001) were observed in the IPC group when compared to the other groups on the 3rd PO day. Triglycerides (P<0.0001) and HDL (P=0.003) in the IPC group were higher than the sham group on the 7th PO day while HDL was also higher in the I/R group. Significantly higher cholesterol levels were found in the I/R and IPC groups on the 7th PO day, which were not observed in the sham group. There was a similar curve for triglycerides in the sham and IPC groups while there were significantly higher levels of triglycerides on day 7 for the I/R group. The levels of HDL in the IPC group were higher on the 3rd and 7th PO day, compared to day 1.
Interpretation & conclusion:
Warm ischaemia and I/R injury do not seem to affect lipolytic enzyme activity after the 1st PO day despite the effects on plasma lipids. IPC seems to prevent accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma.
Hepatic lipase; lipid metabolism; preconditioning; rat liver; warm ischaemia
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects organs from ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) through unknown mechanisms. Effector T cell populations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IRI, and T regulatory cells (Treg) have become a putative therapeutic target, with suggested involvement in IPC. We explored the role of Treg in hepatic IRI and IPC in detail. IPC significantly reduced injury following ischemia reperfusion insults. Treg were mobilized rapidly to the circulation and liver after IRI, but IPC did not further increase Treg numbers, nor was it associated with modulation of circulating pro-inflammatory chemokine or cytokine profiles. We used two techniques to deplete Treg from mice prior to IRI. Neither Treg depleted FoxP3.LuciDTR mice, nor wildtyoe mice depleted of Tregs with PC61, were more susceptible to IRI compared with controls. Despite successful enrichment of Treg in the liver, by adoptive transfer of both iTreg and nTreg or by in vivo expansion of Treg with IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes, no protection against IRI was observed.We have explored the role of Treg in IRI and IPC using a variety of techniques to deplete and enrich them within both the liver and systemically. This work represents an important negative finding that Treg are not implicated in IPC and are unlikely to have translational potential in hepatic IRI.
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of 18–24 nucleotides that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of protein expression. Their role in ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is currently unknown. We hypothesized that miRNAs induced after IPC in the heart may create a preconditioned phenotype through up-regulating proteins including eNOS/iNOS and HSP70 which are implicated in the late phase protection of IPC. miRNAs were extracted from hearts of ICR mice following IPC. The purified miRNAs were injected in vivo into the left ventricle wall of mice and, 48 h later, the hearts were subjected to regional ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by LAD ligation for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. IPC caused no changes in miRNA-23b and miRNA-483 whereas miRNA-1, miRNA-21 and miRNA-24 were significantly increased. The IPC-miRNA treatment caused an increase in eNOS mRNA and protein, whereas iNOS was not changed. Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF-1) and HSP-70 were also increased with IPC-miRNA treatment versus control. Moreover, injection of IPC-miRNA protected the hearts against I/R injury as shown by a reduction of infarct size as compared with saline or non-IPC miRNA-treated control. We conclude that IPC-induced miRNAs trigger cardioprotection similar to the delayed phase of IPC, possibly through up-regulating eNOS, HSP70 and its transcription factor HSF-1.
miRNA; eNOS; HSP-70; ischemia-reperfusion; preconditioning
AIM: To investigate the effect of mild steatotic liver on ischemia-reperfusion injury by focusing on Kupffer cells (KCs) and platelets.
METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into a normal liver group (N group) and a mild steatotic liver group (S group) induced by feeding a choline-deficient diet for 2 wk. Both groups were subjected to 20 min of warm ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The number of labeled KCs and platelets in sinusoids and the blood perfusion in sinusoids were observed by intravital microscopy (IVM), which was performed at 30, 60 and 120 min after reperfusion. To evaluate serum alanine aminotransferase as a marker of liver deterioration, blood samples were taken at the same time as IVM.
RESULTS: In the S group, the number of platelets adhering to KCs decreased significantly compared with the N group (120 after reperfusion; 2.9 ± 1.1 cells/acinus vs 4.8 ± 1.2 cells/acinus, P < 0.01). The number of KCs in sinusoids was significantly less in the S group than in the N group throughout the observation periods (before ischemia, 19.6 ± 3.3 cells/acinus vs 28.2 ± 4.1 cells/acinus, P < 0.01 and 120 min after reperfusion, 29.0 ± 4.3 cells/acinus vs 40.2 ± 3.3 cells/acinus, P < 0.01). The blood perfusion of sinusoids 120 min after reperfusion was maintained in the S group more than in the N group. Furthermore, elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase was lower in the S group than in the N group 120 min after reperfusion (99.7 ± 19.8 IU/L vs 166.3 ± 61.1 IU/L, P = 0.041), and histological impairment of hepatocyte structure was prevented in the S group.
CONCLUSION: Ischemia-reperfusion injury in mild steatotic liver was attenuated compared with normal liver due to the decreased number of KCs and the reduction of the KC-platelet interaction.
Steatotic liver; Mild steatotic liver; Kupffer cell; Platelet; Ischemia-reperfusion; Intravital microscopy
Background: Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in liver surgery, and hepatic steatosis is a primary factor aggravating cellular injury during IRI. Both pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of hepatic IRI. Ischemic preconditioning (IpreC), remote ischemia preconditioning (RIPC) and ischemic postconditioning (IpostC) have offered protections on hepatic IRI, but all these methods have their own shortcomings. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) has a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties against oxidative stress. Thus, GSP has potential protective effects against hepatic IRI.
Methods: C57BL/6 mice suffering 30mins hepatic ischemia process were sacrificed after 1h reperfusion to build murine warm hepatic IRI model. The mice were injected GSP intraperitoneally 10, 20, 40mg/kg/day for 3 weeks as pharmacological preconditioning. Obese mice fed with high-fat diet for 24 weeks before used. Three pathways related to IRI, including ROS elimination, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and hypoxia responses were examined.
Results: Our data show that GSP could significantly reduce hepatic IRI by protecting hepatocyte function and increasing the activity of ROS scavengers, as well as decreasing cytokines levels. At the same time, GSP also enhance the hypoxia tolerance response. Combined GSP and postconditioning can provided synergistic protection. In the obese mice suffering hepatic IRI group, GSP was more effective than postconditioning on protecting liver against IRI, and the combined strategy was obviously superior to the solo treatment.
Conclusion: GSP could protect liver against IRI: particularly in high-fat diet induced obese mice. GSP used as pharmacological preconditioning and combined with other protocols have huge potential to be used in clinical.
Grape seed proanthocyanidins; postconditioning; preconditioning; ischemia; reperfusion injury.