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1.  Fibrogenic Potential of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Injured Liver 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(8):e6657.
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are currently investigated clinically as cellular therapy for a variety of diseases. Differentiation of MSC toward endodermal lineages, including hepatocytes and their therapeutic effect on fibrosis has been described but remains controversial. Recent evidence attributed a fibrotic potential to MSC. As differentiation potential might be dependent of donor age, we studied MSC derived from adult and pediatric human bone marrow and their potential to differentiate into hepatocytes or myofibroblasts in vitro and in vivo. Following characterization, expanded adult and pediatric MSC were co-cultured with a human hepatoma cell line, Huh-7, in a hepatogenic differentiation medium containing Hepatocyte growth factor, Fibroblast growth factor 4 and oncostatin M. In vivo, MSC were transplanted into spleen or liver of NOD/SCID mice undergoing partial hepatectomy and retrorsine treatment. Expression of mesenchymal and hepatic markers was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, adult and pediatric MSC expressed characteristic surface antigens of MSC. Expansion capacity of pediatric MSC was significantly higher when compared to adult MSC. In co-culture with Huh-7 cells in hepatogenic differentiation medium, albumin expression was more frequently detected in pediatric MSC (5/8 experiments) when compared to adult MSC (2/10 experiments). However, in such condition pediatric MSC expressed alpha smooth muscle more strongly than adult MSC. Stable engraftment in the liver was not achieved after intrasplenic injection of pediatric or adult MSC. After intrahepatic injection, MSC permanently remained in liver tissue, kept a mesenchymal morphology and expressed vimentin and alpha smooth muscle actin, but no hepatic markers. Further, MSC localization merges with collagen deposition in transplanted liver and no difference was observed using adult or pediatric MSC. In conclusion, when transplanted into an injured or regenerating liver, MSC differentiated into myofibroblasts with development of fibrous tissue, regardless of donor age. These results indicate that MSC in certain circumstances might be harmful due to their fibrogenic potential and this should be considered before potential use of MSC for cell therapy.
PMCID: PMC2722022  PMID: 19684854
2.  Mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cord segments provide stromal support for the maintenance of cord blood hematopoietic stem cells during long-term ex vivo culture 
Transfusion  2008;48(12):2638-2644.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are routinely obtained from marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are traditionally isolated from marrow. Bone marrow–derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) have previously demonstrated their ability to act as a feeder layer in support of ex vivo cord blood expansion. However, the use of BM-MSCs to support the growth, differentiation, and engraftment of cord blood may not be ideal for transplant purposes. Therefore, the potential of MSCs from a novel source, the Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cords, to act as stromal support for the long-term culture of cord blood HSC was evaluated.
Umbilical cord–derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) were cultured from the Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cord segments. The UC-MSCs were then profiled for expression of 12 cell surface receptors and tested for their ability to support cord blood HSCs in a long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay.
Upon culture, UC-MSCs express a defined set of cell surface markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD166, and HLA-A) and lack other markers (CD45, CD34, CD38, CD117, and HLA-DR) similar to BM-MSCs. Like BM-MSCs, UC-MSCs effectively support the growth of CD34+ cord blood cells in LTC-IC assays.
These data suggest the potential therapeutic application of Wharton’s jelly–derived UC-MSCs to provide stromal support structure for the long-term culture of cord blood HSCs as well as the possibility of cotransplantation of genetically identical, HLA-matched, or unmatched cord blood HSCs and UC-MSCs in the setting of HSC transplantation.
PMCID: PMC3444149  PMID: 18798803
3.  Co-transplantation with mesenchymal stem cells expressing a SDF-1/HOXB4 fusion protein markedly improves hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and hematogenesis in irradiated mice 
Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the engraftment of transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). MSCs also accelerate hematological recovery by secreting SDF-1 and enabling HSCs to enter the bone marrow (BM) via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. HOXB4 has been shown to stimulate HSC self-renewal. In this study, we examined whether SDF-1 and HOXB4 expression in MSCs co-transplanted with HSCs could synergistically improve hematopoietic recovery in irradiated mice. Methods: Using recombinant adenoviruses, we generated genetically modified BM-MSCs that expressed SDF-1, HOXB4, and an SDF-1/HOXB4 fusion gene. We then co-transplanted these modified MSCs with HSCs and investigated blood cell counts, BM cellularity, degree of human HSC engraftment, and survival rate in irradiated mice. Results: We found that co-culturing the SDF-1/HOXB4 fusion gene-modified MSCs (SDF-1/HOXB4-MSCs) and human umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells significantly improved HSC cell expansion in vitro. More importantly, co-transplantation of CD34+ cells and SDF-1/HOXB4-MSCs markedly increased the hematopoietic potential of irradiated mice as evidenced by the rapid recovery of WBC, PLT and HGB levels in peripheral blood and of BM cellularity. Co-transplantation also markedly improved engraftment of human CD45+ cells in mouse BM. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that SDF-1/HOXB4-MSCs markedly accelerate hematopoietic recovery and significantly improve survival among mice treated with a lethal dose of irradiation. Therefore, SDF-1/HOXB4-MSCs could have therapeutic value by improving the efficacy of clinical transplantations in patients with defective hematopoiesis.
PMCID: PMC4297337  PMID: 25628780
Mesenchymal stem cells; hematopoietic stem cells; SDF-1 gene; HOXB4 gene; irradiation; hematopoietic reconstitution; NOD/SCID mice
4.  Co-transplantation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Human CD34+ Cells Engraftment in a Dose-dependent Fashion in NOD/SCID Mice 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(3):412-419.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been identified and characterized in humans. Moreover, MSC secrete cytokines that can support hematopoietic progenitor growth. In the present study, we evaluated whether the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is improved by their co-transplantation with MSC, and whether this is positively correlated with the dose of infused MSCs. Accordingly, irradiated NOD/SCID mice were transplanted with 1×105 human CD34+ cells in the presence or absence of culture expanded MSCs (1×106 or 5×106). We evaluated human hematopoietic cell engraftment by flow cytometry and assessed MSC tissue distributions by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found that CD45+ and CD34+ cell levels were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner in cotransplanted mice 4 weeks after transplantation. The engraftments of CD33+ and CD19+ cells also increased dose-dependently. However, the engraftment of CD3+ cells did not increase after co-transplantation with MSCs. Human Y chromosome+ cells were observed in multiple tissues and were more frequently observed in mice co-transplanted with 5×106 rather than 1×106 MSCs. These results suggest that MSCs are capable of enhancing hematopoietic cell engraftment and distribution in multiple organs in a dose-dependent fashion.
PMCID: PMC2693630  PMID: 17596646
Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Hematopoietic Stem Cells; Transplantation
5.  Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stroma Cells (hES-MSCs) Engraft In Vivo and Support Hematopoiesis without Suppressing Immune Function: Implications for Off-The Shelf ES-MSC Therapies 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e55319.
Mesenchymal stroma cells (MSCs) have a high potential for novel cell therapy approaches in clinical transplantation. Commonly used bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs), however, have a restricted proliferative capacity and cultures are difficult to standardize. Recently developed human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stroma cells (hES-MSCs) might represent an alternative and unlimited source of hMSCs. We therefore compared human ES-cell-derived MSCs (hES-MP002.5 cells) to normal human bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). hES-MP002.5 cells had lower yet reasonable CFU-F capacity compared with BM-MSC (8±3 versus 29±13 CFU-F per 100 cells). Both cell types showed similar immunophenotypic properties, i.e. cells were positive for CD105, CD73, CD166, HLA-ABC, CD44, CD146, CD90, and negative for CD45, CD34, CD14, CD31, CD117, CD19, CD 271, SSEA-4 and HLA-DR. hES-MP002.5 cells, like BM-MSCs, could be differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro. Neither hES-MP002.5 cells nor BM-MSCs homed to the bone marrow of immune-deficient NSG mice following intravenous transplantation, whereas intra-femoral transplantation into NSG mice resulted in engraftment for both cell types. In vitro long-term culture-initiating cell assays and in vivo co-transplantation experiments with cord blood CD34+ hematopoietic cells demonstrated furthermore that hES-MP002.5 cells, like BM-MSCs, possess potent stroma support function. In contrast to BM-MSCs, however, hES-MP002.5 cells showed no or only little activity in mixed lymphocyte cultures and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) lymphocyte stimulation assays. In summary, ES-cell derived MSCs might be an attractive unlimited source for stroma transplantation approaches without suppressing immune function.
PMCID: PMC3558469  PMID: 23383153
6.  Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Improving Hematopoietic Function: An In Vitro and In Vivo Model. Part 2: Effect on Bone Marrow Microenvironment 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26241.
The aim of the present study was to determine how mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) could improve bone marrow (BM) stroma function after damage, both in vitro and in vivo. Human MSC from 20 healthy donors were isolated and expanded. Mobilized selected CD34+ progenitor cells were obtained from 20 HSCT donors. For in vitro study, long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) were performed using a etoposide damaged stromal model to test MSC effect in stromal confluence, capability of MSC to lodge in stromal layer as well as some molecules (SDF1, osteopontin,) involved in hematopoietic niche maintenance were analyzed. For the in vivo model, 64 NOD/SCID recipients were transplanted with CD34+ cells administered either by intravenous (IV) or intrabone (IB) route, with or without BM derived MSC. MSC lodgement within the BM niche was assessed by FISH analysis and the expression of SDF1 and osteopontin by immunohistochemistry. In vivo study showed that when the stromal damage was severe, TP-MSC could lodge in the etoposide-treated BM stroma, as shown by FISH analysis. Osteopontin and SDF1 were differently expressed in damaged stroma and their expression restored after TP-MSC addition. Human in vivo MSC lodgement was observed within BM niche by FISH, but MSC only were detected and not in the contralateral femurs. Human MSC were located around blood vessels in the subendoestal region of femurs and expressed SDF1 and osteopontin. In summary, our data show that MSC can restore BM stromal function and also engraft when a higher stromal damage was done. Interestingly, MSC were detected locally where they were administered but not in the contralateral femur.
PMCID: PMC3197625  PMID: 22028841
7.  Effect of Human Parathyroid Hormone on Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells in NOD/SCID Mice Co-Transplanted with Human Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;54(1):238-245.
We evaluated the effect of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) on the engraftment and/or in vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells in an umbilical cord blood (UCB)-xenotransplantation model. In addition, we assessed its effect on the expression of cell adhesion molecules.
Materials and Methods
Female NOD/SCID mice received sublethal total body irradiation with a single dose of 250 cGy. Eighteen to 24 hours after irradiation, 1×107 human UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) and 5×106 human UCB-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were infused via the tail vein. Mice were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 mice received MNCs only, Group 2 received MNCs only and were then treated with hPTH, Group 3 mice received MNCs and MSCs, and were treated with hPTH.
Engraftment was achieved in all the mice. Bone marrow cellularity was approximately 20% in Group 1, but 70-80% in the hPTH treated groups. Transplantation of MNCs together with MSCs had no additional effect on bone marrow cellularity. However, the proportion of human CD13 and CD33 myeloid progenitor cells was higher in Group 3, while the proportion of human CD34 did not differ significantly between the three groups. The proportion of CXCR4 cells in Group 3 was larger than in Groups 1 and 2 but without statistical significance.
We have demonstrated a positive effect of hPTH on stem cell proliferation and a possible synergistic effect of MSCs and hPTH on the proportion of human hematopoietic progenitor cells, in a xenotransplantation model. Clinical trials of the use of hPTH after stem cell transplantation should be considered.
PMCID: PMC3521258  PMID: 23225826
Umbilical cord blood; parathyroid hormone; bone marrow niches
8.  The Stromal Activity of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells 
The mechanism that regulates self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is a central question in stem cell biology that might ultimately lead to reliable protocols for in vitro expansion of HSC. Cellular fate is governed by cell-cell interaction with the microenvironment in the bone marrow, the stem cell niche. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are precursors of the cellular components, and they secrete extracellular matrix proteins of the bone marrow stroma. Therefore, MSC feeder layer might provide a suitable in vitro model system for the stem cell niche. In vitro assays demonstrate that MSC maintain the stem cell function of HSC and that MSC from bone marrow have a higher hematopoiesis supportive activity than MSC from adipose tissue. Co-cultivation with MSC might pave the way for expansion of long-term repopulating HSC, and various clinical trials indicate that co-transplantation of HSC and MSC might enhance engraftment. Thus, MSC are promising tools to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the cellular microenvironment. The large variety of preparative protocols for isolation and cultivation of MSC affects their stromal activity. Standardized isolation methods and molecular characterization of MSC are of utmost importance for reproducible isolation of hematopoiesis supportive stromal cells and for their potential clinical application.
PMCID: PMC3083286  PMID: 21547116
Mesenchymal stem cell; Culture conditions; Microenvironment; Differentiation; Hematopoietic stem cells; Cell-cell interaction
9.  Lentiviral-Transduced Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Persistently Express Therapeutic Levels of Enzyme in a Xenotransplantation Model of Human Disease 
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)  2008;26(7):1713-1722.
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising platform for cell- and gene-based treatment of inherited and acquired disorders. We recently showed that human MSCs distribute widely in a murine xenotransplantation model. In the current study, we have determined the distribution, persistence, and ability of lentivirally transduced human MSCs to express therapeutic levels of enzyme in a xenotransplantation model of human disease (nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mucopolysaccharidosis type VII [NOD-SCID MPSVII]). Primary human bone marrow-derived MSCs were transduced ex vivo with a lentiviral vector expressing either enhanced green fluorescent protein or the lysosomal enzyme β-glucuronidase (MSCs-GUSB). Lentiviral transduction did not affect any in vitro parameters of MSC function or potency. One million cells from each population were transplanted intraperitoneally into separate groups of neonatal NOD-SCID MPSVII mice. Transduced MSCs persisted in the animals that underwent transplantation, and comparable numbers of donor MSCs were detected at 2 and 4 months after transplantation in multiple organs. MSCs-GUSB expressed therapeutic levels of protein in the recipients, raising circulating serum levels of GUSB to nearly 40% of normal. This level of circulating enzyme was sufficient to normalize the secondary elevation of other lysosomal enzymes and reduce lysosomal distention in several tissues. In addition, at least one physiologic marker of disease, retinal function, was normalized following transplantation of MSCs-GUSB. These data provide evidence that transduced human MSCs retain their normal trafficking ability in vivo and persist for at least 4 months, delivering therapeutic levels of protein in an authentic xenotransplantation model of human disease.
PMCID: PMC2736639  PMID: 18436861
Mesenchymal stem cells; Xenotransplantation; Ex vivo gene therapy; Adult stem cells; Lysosomal storage disease; Lentiviral vector
10.  Derivation of Lung Epithelium from Human Cord Blood–derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells 
Rationale: Recent studies have suggested that both embryonic stem cells and adult bone marrow stem cells can participate in the regeneration and repair of diseased adult organs, including the lungs. However, the extent of airway epithelial remodeling with adult marrow stem cells is low, and there are no available in vivo data with embryonic stem cells. Human umbilical cord blood contains both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic stem cells, which have been used clinically as an alternative to bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies and other diseases.
Objectives: We hypothesized that human umbilical cord blood stem cells might be an effective alternative to adult bone marrow and embryonic stem cells for regeneration and repair of injured airway epithelium.
Methods: Human cord blood was obtained from normal deliveries at the University of Vermont. Cultured plastic adherent cells were characterized as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by flow cytometry and differentiation assays. Cord blood–derived MSCs (CB-MSCs) were cultured in specialized airway growth media or with specific growth factors, including keratinocyte growth factor and retinoic acid. mRNA and protein expression were analyzed with PCR and immunofluorescent staining. CB-MSCs were systematically administered to immunotolerant, nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD-SCID) mice. Lungs were analyzed for presence of human cells.
Measurements and Main Results: When cultured in specialized airway growth media or with specific growth factors, CB-MSCs differentially expressed Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), surfactant protein C, and thyroid transcription factor-1 mRNA, and CCSP and CFTR protein. Furthermore, CB-MSCs were easily transduced with recombinant lentiviral vectors to express human CFTR. After systemic administration to immunotolerant, NOD-SCID, mice, rare cells were found in the airway epithelium that had acquired cytokeratin and human CFTR expression.
Conclusions: CB-MSCs appear to be comparable to MSCs obtained from adult bone marrow in ability to express phenotypic markers of airway epithelium and to participate in airway remodeling in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2277209  PMID: 18063840
cord blood stem cells; lung epithelium; lung remodeling; mesenchymal stem cells
11.  Cotransplantation of Cord Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Culture-Expanded and GM-CSF-/SCF-Transfected Mesenchymal Stem Cells in SCID Mice 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(2):242-247.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent in nature and believed to facilitate the engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) when transplanted simultaneously in animal studies and even in human trials. In this study, we transfected culture-expanded MSC with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) cytokine genes and then cotransplanted with mononuclear cells (MNC) to further promote HSC engraftment. MNC were harvested from cord blood and seeded in long-term culture for ex vivo MSC expansion. A total of 1×107 MNC plus MSC/µL were introduced to the tail vein of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. After 6-8 weeks later, homing and engraftment of human cells were determined by flow cytometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. The total nucleated cell count and the engraftment of CD45+/CD34+ cells and XX or XY positive human cells were significantly increased in cotransplanted mice and even higher with the cytokine gene-transfected MSC (GM-CSF>SCF, p<0.05) than in transplantation of MNC alone. These results suggest that MSC transfected with hematopoietic growth factor genes are capable of enhancing the hematopoietic engraftment. Delivering genes involved in homing and cell adhesions, CXCR4 or VLA, would further increase the efficiency of stem cell transplantation in the future.
PMCID: PMC2693589  PMID: 17449931
Mesenchymal Stem Cell; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; GM-CSF; Stem Cell Factor; Engraftment, Transfection; Cord Blood
12.  Synergistic Actions of Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells in Vascularizing Bioengineered Tissues 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(12):e3922.
Poor angiogenesis is a major road block for tissue repair. The regeneration of virtually all tissues is limited by angiogenesis, given the diffusion of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products is limited to a few hundred micrometers. We postulated that co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells improves angiogenesis of tissue repair and hence the outcome of regeneration. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by using bone as a model whose regeneration is impaired unless it is vascularized. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) were isolated from each of three healthy human bone marrow samples and reconstituted in a porous scaffold. MSCs were seeded in micropores of 3D calcium phosphate (CP) scaffolds, followed by infusion of gel-suspended CD34+ hematopoietic cells. Co-transplantation of CD34+ HSCs and CD34− MSCs in microporous CP scaffolds subcutaneously in the dorsum of immunocompromized mice yielded vascularized tissue. The average vascular number of co-transplanted CD34+ and MSC scaffolds was substantially greater than MSC transplantation alone. Human osteocalcin was expressed in the micropores of CP scaffolds and was significantly increased upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34+ cells. Human nuclear staining revealed the engraftment of transplanted human cells in vascular endothelium upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34+ cells. Based on additional in vitro results of endothelial differentiation of CD34+ cells by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), we adsorbed VEGF with co-transplanted CD34+ and MSCs in the microporous CP scaffolds in vivo, and discovered that vascular number and diameter further increased, likely owing to the promotion of endothelial differentiation of CD34+ cells by VEGF. Together, co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells may improve the regeneration of vascular dependent tissues such as bone, adipose, muscle and dermal grafts, and may have implications in the regeneration of internal organs.
PMCID: PMC2597748  PMID: 19081793
13.  NOD-Rag2null IL-2Rγnull Mice: An Alternative to NOG Mice for Generation of Humanized Mice 
Experimental Animals  2014;63(3):321-330.
We have developed NOD-Rag2null IL-2Rγnull (NR2G) mice similar to NOD-scidIL-2Rγnull (NOG) mice that are known as an excellent host to generate humanized mice. To evaluate the usefulness of NR2G mice as a host for humanized mice, the engraftment rates and differentiation of human cells after human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation were compared among NR2G, NOG, and NOD-scid mice. For this purpose, the appropriate irradiation doses to expand the niche for human stem cells in the bone marrow were first determined. As a result, 8 and 2.5 Gy in adult, and 4 and 1 Gy in newborn NR2G and NOG mice, respectively, were found to be appropriate. Next, 5 × 104 human umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells were intravenously inoculated into irradiated adult or newborn of the immunodeficient mice. These HSC transplantation experiments demonstrated that both NR2G and NOG mice showed high engraftment rates compared with NOD-scid mice, although NOG mice showed a slightly higher engraftment rate than that for NR2G mice. However, no difference was found in the human cell populations differentiated from HSCs between NR2G and NOG mice. The HSC transplantation experiments to adults and newborns of two immunodeficient mice also revealed that the HSC transplantation into newborn mice resulted in higher engraftment rate than those into adults. These results showed that NR2G mice could be used as an alternative host to NOG mice to generate humanized mice.
PMCID: PMC4206736  PMID: 25077762
humanized mice; immunodeficient mice; NOD-Rag2null IL-2Rγnull mice; NOG mice
14.  Chimerism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation 
Chimerism  2013;4(3):78-83.
Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively used as a transplantable cell source for regenerative medicine and immunomodulatory therapy. Specifically in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), co-transplantation or post-transplant infusion of MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM) of non-self donors has been implicated in accelerating hematopoietic recovery, ameliorating graft-vs.-host disease, and promoting tissue regeneration. However, irrespective of the use of MSC co-administration, post-transplant chimerism of BM-derived MSCs after allogeneic HSCT has been reported to remain of host origin, suggesting that the infused donor MSCs are immunologically rejected or not capable of long-term engraftment in the host microenvironment. Also, hematopoietic cell allografts currently used for HSCT do not seem to contain sufficient amount of MSCs or their precursors to reconstitute host BM microenvironment. Since the toxic conditioning employed in allo-HSCT may impair the function of host MSCs to maintain hematopoietic/regenerative stem cell niches and to provide a local immunomodulatory milieu, we propose that new directions for enhancing immunohematopoietic reconstitution and tissue repair after allogeneic HSCT include the development of strategies to support functional replenishment of residual host MSCs or to support more efficient engraftment of infused donor MSCs. Future areas of research should include in vivo tracking of infused MSCs and detection of their microchimeric presence in extra-marrow sites as well as in BM.
PMCID: PMC3782548  PMID: 23880502
mesenchymal stem/stromal cells; hematopoietic cell transplantation; stem cell niches; hematopoietic reconstitution; graft-versus-host disease
15.  Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Their Conditioned Medium Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Nude Mice 
Tissue Engineering. Part A  2013;19(5-6):685-696.
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has recently been recognized as a new source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for use in stem cell therapy. We studied the effects of systemic injection of human UCB-MSCs and their conditioned medium (CM) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in nude mice. Ten-week-old female nude mice were divided into six groups: Sham-operated mice treated with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), OVX mice subjected to UCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC), or human dermal fibroblast (OVX-DFB) transplantation, OVX mice treated with UCB-MSC CM (OVX-CM), zoledronate (OVX-Zol), or vehicle (OVX-Vehicle). Although the OVX-Vehicle group exhibited significantly less bone mineral density (BMD) gain compared with the Sham-Vehicle group, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC group) has effectively prevented OVX-induced bone mass attenuation. Notably, the OVX-CM group also showed BMD preservation comparable to the OVX-MSC group. In addition, microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated improved trabecular parameters in both the OVX-MSC and OVX-CM groups compared to the OVX-Vehicle or OVX-DFB group. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased bone formation parameters, accompanied by increased serum procollagen type-I N-telopeptide levels in OVX-MSC and OVX-CM mice. However, cell-trafficking analysis failed to demonstrate engraftment of MSCs in bone tissue 48 h after cell infusion. In vitro, hUCB-MSC CM increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human bone marrow-derived MSCs and mRNA expression of collagen type 1, Runx2, osterix, and ALP in C3H10T1/2 cells. Furthermore, hUCB-MSC CM significantly increased survival of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells, while it inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. To summarize, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs could effectively prevent OVX-mediated bone loss in nude mice, which appears to be mediated by a paracrine mechanism rather than direct engraftment of the MSCs.
PMCID: PMC3568969  PMID: 23215868
16.  Inositol pyrophosphates mediate the effects of aging on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by inhibiting Akt signaling 
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been proposed as an ideal autologous stem cell source for cell-based therapy for myocardial infarction (MI). However, decreased viability and impaired function of aged MSCs hampered the therapeutic efficacy of engrafted MSCs, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclarified. Here, we investigated the role of inositol phosphates 6 kinase (IP6Ks) inhibition on the therapeutic efficacy of BM-MSCs and its underlying mechanism.
BM-MSCs isolated from young (8-week-old) or aged (18-month-old) donor male C57BL/6 mice, were subjected to hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD) injury with or without administration of inositol phosphates 6 kinase (IP6Ks) inhibitor TNP (10 μM). MSC apoptosis induced by H/SD was determined by flow cytometry and TUNEL assays. Protein expressions were evaluated by Western blot assay. Furthermore, the paracrine effects of MSCs were measured by reverse transcriptase–polymerized chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses.
Aged BM-MSCs exhibited more Inositol pyrophosphate 7 (IP7) production, compared with young BM-MSCs. Meanwhile, the expression of phospho-Akt (Thr308) was significantly decreased in the aged MSCs, resulting in enhanced Bad activation and decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, the apoptosis in aged BM-MSCs was increased, compared with young BM-MSCs. Furthermore, TNP administration significantly inhibited IP7 production and increased the phosphorylation of Akt under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Meanwhile, IP6Ks inhibition reduced apoptotic index of aged MSCs, associated with decreased expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad and increased anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. The expressions of angiogenic factors, including VEGF, bFGF, IGF-1 and HGF, were decreased in MSCs from aged mice. In addition, TNP administration enhanced the paracrine efficiency of aged BM-MSCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.
This study demonstrates for the first time that IP6Ks and IP7 play critical role in the aging related vulnerability to hypoxic injury and impaired paracrine efficiency of BM-MSCs, which is associated with impaired Akt activation.
PMCID: PMC4055148  PMID: 24670364
17.  Preclinical transplantation and safety of HS/PCs expanded from human umbilical cord blood 
World Journal of Stem Cells  2011;3(5):43-52.
AIM: To expand hematopoietic/progenitor stem cells (HS/PCs) from umbilical cord blood (UCB) and prepare the HS/PC product, and analyze preclinical transplantation and safety of HS/PC product.
METHODS: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used as feeder cells to expand HS/PCs from UCB in a serum-free culture system. The proliferation potential of HS/PCs was analyzed. The expanded HS/PCs were suspended in the L-15 medium to prepare the HS/PC product. The contamination of bacteria, fungi and mycoplasmas, the infection of exogenous virus, the concentration of bacterial endotoxin, and the SCF residual in HS/PC product were determined. Finally, cells from the HS/PC product with or without bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were transplanted into the irradiated NOD/SCID mice to determine the in vivo engraftment potential.
RESULTS: After co-culture for 10 d, the total nuclear cells (TNCs) increased 125-fold, and CD34+ cells increased 43-fold. The granulocyte-macrophage colony- forming cells (GM-CFCs) and erythroid colony-forming cells (E-CFCs) increased 3.3- and 4.7-fold respectively. The expanded cells were collected and prepared as the expanded product of HS/PCs by re-suspending cells in L-15 medium. For preclinical safety, the HS/PC product was analysed for contamination by bacteria, fungi and mycoplasmas, the bacterial endotoxin concentration and the SCF content. The results showed that the HS/PC product contained no bacteria, fungi or mycoplasmas. The bacterial endotoxin concentration was less than the detection limit of 6 EU/mL, and residual SCF was 75 pg/mL. Based on clinical safety, the HS/PC product was qualified for clinical transplantation. Finally, the HS/PC product was transplanted the irradiated mice where it resulted in rapid engraftment of hematopoietic cells.
CONCLUSION: HSPC product prepared from UCB in the serum-free culture system with hMSCs as feeder cells should be clinically safe and effective for clinical transplantation.
PMCID: PMC3110917  PMID: 21666821
Hematopoietic stem cells; Ex vivo expansion; Preclinical safeties; Transplantation
18.  Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells Prevent Bone loss, Stimulate Bone formation, and Suppress Growth of Multiple Myeloma in Bone 
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)  2011;29(2):10.1002/stem.572.
Human placenta has emerged as a valuable source of transplantable cells of mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin for multiple cytotherapeutic purposes, including enhanced engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells, modulation of inflammation, bone repair, and cancer. Placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are mesenchymal-like stem cells isolated from postpartum human placenta. Multiple myeloma is closely associated with induction of bone disease and large lytic lesions, which are often not repaired and are usually the sites of relapses. We evaluated the antimyeloma therapeutic potential, in vivo survival, and trafficking of PDACs in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)–rab model of medullary myeloma-associated bone loss. Intrabone injection of PDACs into non-myelomatous and myelomatous implanted bone in SCID-rab mice promoted bone formation by stimulating endogenous osteoblastogenesis, and most PDACs disappeared from bone within 4 weeks. PDACs inhibitory effects on myeloma bone disease and tumor growth were dose-dependent and comparable with those of fetal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Intrabone, but not subcutaneous, engraftment of PDACs inhibited bone disease and tumor growth in SCID-rab mice. Intratumor injection of PDACs had no effect on subcutaneous growth of myeloma cells. A small number of intravenously injected PDACs trafficked into myelomatous bone. Myeloma cell growth rate in vitro was lower in coculture with PDACs than with MSCs from human fetal bone or myeloma patients. PDACs also promoted apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and inhibited their differentiation. This study suggests that altering the bone marrow microenvironment with PDAC cytotherapy attenuates growth of myeloma and that PDAC cytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for myeloma osteolysis.
PMCID: PMC3175303  PMID: 21732484
Myeloma; Bone disease; Cytotherapy; Osteoblasts; Placenta; Mesenchymal stem cells
19.  Comparison of the Population Capacity of Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Colitis Rat Model 
Transplantation  2009;88(1):42-48.
This study compares the population and repair ability of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in experimental colitis (EC) rat model after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT).
EC was induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The HSCs, MSCs, HSCs+MSCs, derived from male Sprague-Dawley rats, were cultured and labeled with bromodeoxyuridine and then transplanted into the EC rat. The colon samples were collected for histologic evaluation at days 7, 14, and 21 posttransplantation. Immunohistochemical staining, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to detect donor stem cells population.
EC induced by TNBS had characteristics similar to those of Crohn's disease. A large number of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled HSCs or MSCs were detected on days 7, 14, and 21 posttransplantation. Sex-determining region of Y chromosomes (sry) was found in all EC regions, but not in control and normal tissues. A clear localization of Y chromosomes in the colons of EC rat was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that HSCs or MSCs had similar population ability. When HSCs and MSCs were combined, gross morphologic scores significantly improved 21 days post-SCT compared with the control without SCT, but only slightly better than that of HSCs or MSCs alone.
Allogeneic transplantation of HSCs or MSCs alone could populate in the injured regions of the colons, both showed similar population ability in the colons of the TNBS-induced EC model rats. Combination transplantation of HSCs with MSCs could improve the gross morphologic scores of EC.
PMCID: PMC3991233  PMID: 19584679
Hematopoietic stem cell; Mesenchymal stem cells; Transplantation; Experimental colitis
20.  Isoform-Specific Potentiation of Stem and Progenitor Cell Engraftment by AML1/RUNX1  
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(5):e172.
AML1/RUNX1 is the most frequently mutated gene in leukaemia and is central to the normal biology of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the role of different AML1 isoforms within these primitive compartments is unclear. Here we investigate whether altering relative expression of AML1 isoforms impacts the balance between cell self-renewal and differentiation in vitro and in vivo.
Methods and Findings
The human AML1a isoform encodes a truncated molecule with DNA-binding but no transactivation capacity. We used a retrovirus-based approach to transduce AML1a into primitive haematopoietic cells isolated from the mouse. We observed that enforced AML1a expression increased the competitive engraftment potential of murine long-term reconstituting stem cells with the proportion of AML1a-expressing cells increasing over time in both primary and secondary recipients. Furthermore, AML1a expression dramatically increased primitive and committed progenitor activity in engrafted animals as assessed by long-term culture, cobblestone formation, and colony assays. In contrast, expression of the full-length isoform AML1b abrogated engraftment potential. In vitro, AML1b promoted differentiation while AML1a promoted proliferation of progenitors capable of short-term lymphomyeloid engraftment. Consistent with these findings, the relative abundance of AML1a was highest in the primitive stem/progenitor compartment of human cord blood, and forced expression of AML1a in these cells enhanced maintenance of primitive potential both in vitro and in vivo.
These data demonstrate that the “a” isoform of AML1 has the capacity to potentiate stem and progenitor cell engraftment, both of which are required for successful clinical transplantation. This activity is consistent with its expression pattern in both normal and leukaemic cells. Manipulating the balance of AML1 isoform expression may offer novel therapeutic strategies, exploitable in the contexts of leukaemia and also in cord blood transplantation in adults, in whom stem and progenitor cell numbers are often limiting.
The truncated "a" isoform of AML1 is shown to have the capacity to potentiate stem and progenitor cell engraftment, both of which are required for successful clinical transplantation.
Editors' Summary
Blood contains red blood cells (which carry oxygen round the body), platelets (which help the blood to clot), and white blood cells (which fight off infections). All these cells, which are regularly replaced, are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, blood-forming cells present in the bone marrow. Like all stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells self-renew (reproduce themselves) and produce committed progenitor cells, which develop into mature blood cells in a process called hematopoiesis. Many proteins control hematopoiesis, some of which are called transcription factors; these factors bind to DNA through their DNA-binding domain and then control the expression of genes (that is, how DNA is turned into proteins) through particular parts of the protein (their transcription regulatory domains). An important hematopoietic transcription factor is AML1—a protein first identified because of its involvement in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, a form of blood cancer). Mutations (changes) in the AML1 gene are now known to be present in other types of leukemia, which are often characterized by overproliferation of immature blood cells.
Why Was This Study Done?
Because of AML1′s crucial role in hematopoiesis, knowing more about which genes it regulates and how its activity is regulated could provide clues to treating leukemia and to improving hematopoietic cell transplantation. Many cancer treatments destroy hematopoietic stem cells, leaving patients vulnerable to infection. Transplants of bone marrow or cord blood (the cord that links mother and baby during pregnancy contains peripheral blood stem cells) can replace the missing cells, but cord blood in particular often contains insufficient stem cells for successful transplantation. It would be useful, therefore, to expand the stem cell content of these tissues before transplantation. In this study, the researchers investigated the effect of AML1 on self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the laboratory (in vitro) and in animals (in vivo). In particular, they have asked how two isoforms (closely related versions) of AML1 affect the ability of these cells to grow and differentiate (engraft) in mice after transplantation.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers artificially expressed AML1a and AML1b (both isoforms contain a DNA binding domain, but only AML1b has transcription regulatory domains) in mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and then tested the cells' ability to engraft in mice. AML1a-expressing cells engrafted better than unaltered cells and outgrew unaltered cells when transplanted as a mixture. AML1b-expressing cells, however, did not engraft. In vitro, AML1a-expressing cells grew more than AML1b-expressing cells, whereas differentiation was promoted in AML1b-expressing cells. To investigate whether the isoforms have the same effects in human cells, the researchers measured the amount of AML1a and AML1b mRNA (the template for protein production) made by progenitor cells in human cord blood. Although AML1b (together with AML1c, an isoform with similar characteristics) mRNA predominated in all the progenitor cell types, the relative abundance of AML1a was greatest in the stem and progenitor cells. Furthermore, forced expression of AML1a in these cells improved their ability to divide in vitro and to engraft in mice.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that AML1a expression increases the self-renewal capacity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and consequently improves their ability to engraft in mice, whereas AML1b expression encourages the differentiation of these cell types. These activities are consistent with the expression patterns of the two isoforms in normal hematopoietic cells and in leukemic cells—the mutated AML made by many leukemic cells resembles AML1a. Because the AML1 isoforms were expressed at higher than normal levels in these experiments, the physiological relevance of these findings needs to be confirmed by showing that normal levels of AML1a and AML1b produce similar results. Nevertheless, these results suggest that manipulating the balance of AML1 isoforms made by hematopoietic cells might be useful clinically. In leukemia, a shift toward AML1b expression might slow the proliferation of leukemic cells and encourage their differentiation. Conversely, in cord blood transplantation, a shift toward AML1a expression might improve patient outcomes by expanding the stem and progenitor cell populations.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
Wikipedia has pages on hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cells (note: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
The US National Cancer Institute has a fact sheet on bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (in English and Spanish) and information for patients and professionals on leukemia (in English)
The American Society of Hematology provides patient information about blood diseases, including information on bone marrow and stem cell transplantation
PMCID: PMC1868041  PMID: 17503961
21.  Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into damaged rabbit heart to improve heart function*  
Objective: The present study was designed to test whether transplantation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in New Zealand rabbits with myocardial infarction can improve heart function; and whether engrafted donor cells can survive and transdifferentiated into cardiomyocytes. Methods: Twenty milliliters bone marrow was obtained from healthy men by bone biopsy. A gradient centrifugation method was used to separate bone marrow cells (BMCs) and red blood cells. BMCs were incubated for 48 h and then washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The culture medium was changed twice a week for 28 d. Finally, hematopoietic cells were washed away to leave only MSCs. Human MSCs (hMSCs) were premarked by BrdU 72 h before the transplantation. Thirty-four New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into myocardial infarction (MI) control group and cell treated group, which received hMSCs (MI+MSCs) through intramyocardial injection, while the control group received the same volume of PBS. Myocardial infarction was induced by ligation of the left coronary artery. Cell treated rabbits were treated with 5×106 MSCs transplanted into the infarcted region after ligation of the coronary artery for 1 h, and the control group received the same volume of PBS. Cyclosporin A (oral solution; 10 mg/kg) was provided alone, 24 h before surgery and once a day after MI for 4 weeks. Echocardiography was measured in each group before the surgery and 4 weeks after the surgery to test heart function change. The hearts were harvested for HE staining and immunohistochemical studies after MI and cell transplantation for 4 weeks. Results: Our data showed that cardiac function was significantly improved by hMSC transplantation in rabbit infarcted hearts 4 weeks after MI (ejection fraction: 0.695±0.038 in the cell treated group (n=12) versus 0.554±0.065 in the control group (n=13) (P<0.05)). Surviving hMSCs were identified by BrdU positive spots in infarcted region and transdifferentiated into cardiomyocytes characterized with a positive cardiac phenotype: troponin I. Conclusion: Transplantation of hMSCs could transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes and regenerate vascular structures, contributing to functional improvement.
PMCID: PMC1389731  PMID: 15754420
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; Transplantation; Myocardial infarction (MI)
22.  Increased Potency of Cardiac Stem Cells Compared with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cardiac Repair 
Whereas cardiac-derived c-kit+ stem cells (CSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are undergoing clinical trials testing safety and efficacy as a cell-based therapy, the relative therapeutic and biologic efficacy of these two cell types is unknown. We hypothesized that human CSCs have greater ability than MSCs to engraft, differentiate, and improve cardiac function. We compared intramyocardial injection of human fetal CSCs (36,000) with two doses of adult MSCs (36,000 and 1,000,000) or control (phosphate buffered saline) in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune deficiency mice after coronary artery ligation. The myocardial infarction-induced enlargement in left ventricular chamber dimensions was ameliorated by CSCs (p < .05 for diastolic and systolic volumes), as was the decline in ejection fraction (EF; p < .05). Whereas 1 × 106 MSCs partially ameliorated ventricular remodeling and improved EF to a similar degree as CSCs, 36,000 MSCs did not influence chamber architecture or function. All cell therapies improved myocardial contractility, but CSCs preferentially reduced scar size and reduced vascular afterload. Engraftment and trilineage differentiation was substantially greater with CSCs than with MSCs. Adult-cultured c-kit+CSCs were less effective than fetal, but were still more potent than high-dose MSCs. These data demonstrate enhanced CSC engraftment, differentiation, and improved cardiac remodeling and function in ischemic heart failure. MSCs required a 30-fold greater dose than CSCs to improve cardiac function and anatomy. Together, these findings demonstrate a greater potency of CSCs than bone marrow MSCs in cardiac repair.
PMCID: PMC3659683  PMID: 23197758
Mesenchymal stem cells; Cardiac; c-kit; Myocardial infarction; Ventricular remodeling
23.  Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote growth and angiogenesis of breast and prostate tumors 
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to migrate to tumor tissues. This behavior of MSCs has been exploited as a tumor-targeting strategy for cell-based cancer therapy. However, the effects of MSCs on tumor growth are controversial. This study was designed to determine the effect of MSCs on the growth of breast and prostate tumors.
Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) were isolated and characterized. Effects of BM-MSCs on tumor cell proliferation were analyzed in a co-culture system with mouse breast cancer cell 4T1 or human prostate cancer cell DU145. Tumor cells were injected into nude mice subcutaneously either alone or coupled with BM-MSCs. The expression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis-related proteins in tumor tissues were immunofluorescence analyzed. The angiogenic effect of BM-MSCs was detected using a tube formation assay. The effects of the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs on expression of angiogenesis related markers were examined by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR.
Both co-culturing with mice BM-MSCs (mBM-MSCs) and treatment with mBM-MSC-conditioned medium enhanced the growth of 4T1 cells. Co-injection of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs into nude mice led to increased tumor size compared with injection of 4T1 cells alone. Similar experiments using DU145 cells and human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) instead of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs obtained consistent results. Compared with tumors induced by injection of tumor cells alone, the blood vessel area was greater in tumors from co-injection of tumor cells with BM-MSCs, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, both conditioned medium from hBM-MSCs alone and co-cultures of hBM-MSCs with DU145 cells were able to promote tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. When hBM-MSCs are exposed to the DU145 cell environment, the expression of markers associated with neovascularization (macrophage inflammatory protein-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and IL-6) was increased.
These results indicate that BM-MSCs promote tumor growth and suggest that the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs increased the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, which may have induced tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis thereby increasing solid tumor growth.
PMCID: PMC3707041  PMID: 23763837
Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Tumor Growth; Angiogenesis
24.  Canine Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Suppress Allo-Reactive Lymphocyte Proliferation in Vitro but Fail to Enhance Engraftment in Canine Bone Marrow Transplantation 
Stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism has been consistently established in dogs mildly immunosuppressed by 200 cGy of total body irradiation (TBI) before and given a brief course of immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (28 days) and cyclosporine (35 days) after dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical marrow transplantation. However, when TBI was reduced from 200 to 100 cGy, grafts were nearly uniformly rejected within 3 to 12 weeks. Here we asked whether stable engraftment could be accomplished after a suboptimal dose of 100 cGy TBI with host immunosuppression enhanced by donor-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) given after transplantation. MSC were cultured from marrow cells and evaluated in vitro for antigen expression. They showed profound immunosuppressive properties in mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR) in a cell dose-dependent manner not restricted by DLA. MSC and lymphocyte contact was not required, indicating immunosuppression was mediated by soluble factors. Prostaglandin E2 was increased in culture supernatant when MSC were co-cultured in MLR. Adding indomethacin restored lymphocyte proliferation in cultures containing MSC. MSC expressed CD10, CD13, CD29, CD44, CD73/SH-3, CD90/Thy-1, and CD106/VCAM-1. For in vivo studies, MSC were injected on the day of marrow grafting and on day 35, the day of discontinuation of postgrafting cyclosporine. MSC derived from the respective marrow donors failed to avert marrow graft rejection in 4 dogs given DLA-identical grafts after nonmyeloablative conditioning with 100 cGy in a time course not significantly different from control dogs not given MSC. While MSC displayed in vitro characteristics similar to those reported for MSC from other species, their immunosuppressive qualities failed to sustain stable marrow engraftment in vivo in this canine model.
PMCID: PMC3233364  PMID: 20457265
canine mesenchymal stromal cells; mixed lymphocyte reaction; TGF-beta; prostaglandin E2; immunosuppression; hematopoietic cell engraftment
25.  High doses of purified stem cells cause early hematopoietic recovery in syngeneic and allogeneic hosts. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;101(5):961-966.
In humans, autologous transplants derived from bone marrow (BM) usually engraft more slowly than transplants derived from mobilized peripheral blood. Allogeneic BM transplants show a further delay in engraftment and have an apparent requirement for donor T cells to facilitate engraftment. In mice, Thy-1.1(lo)Lin-/loSca-1+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the principal population in BM which is responsible for engraftment in syngeneic hosts at radioprotective doses, and higher doses of HSCs can radioprotect an allogeneic host in the absence of donor T cells. Using the mouse as a preclinical model, we wished to test to what extent engraftment kinetics was a function of HSC content, and whether at high doses of c-Kit+Thy-1.1(lo)Lin-/loSca-1+ (KTLS) cells rapid allogeneic engraftment could also be achieved. Here we demonstrate that engraftment kinetics varied greatly over the range of KTLS doses tested (100-10,000 cells), with the most rapid engraftment being obtained with a dose of 5,000 or more syngeneic cells. Mobilized splenic KTLS cells and the rhodamine 123(lo) subset of KTLS cells were also able to engraft rapidly. Higher doses of allogeneic cells were needed to produce equivalent engraftment kinetics. This suggests that in mice even fully allogeneic barriers can be traversed with high doses of HSCs, and that in humans it may be possible to obtain rapid engraftment in an allogeneic context with clinically achievable doses of purified HSCs.
PMCID: PMC508646  PMID: 9486965

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