Many colic horses are compromised due to the disease state and from hours of starvation and sometimes long trailer rides. This could influence their muscle energy reserves and affect the horses' ability to recover. The principal aim was to follow metabolic parameter before, during, and up to 7 days after anaesthesia in healthy horses and in horses undergoing abdominal surgery due to colic.
20 healthy horses given anaesthesia alone and 20 colic horses subjected to emergency abdominal surgery were anaesthetised for a mean of 228 minutes and 183 minutes respectively. Blood for analysis of haematology, electrolytes, cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, glucose and lactate was sampled before, during, and up to 7 days after anaesthesia. Arterial and venous blood gases were obtained before, during and up to 8 hours after recovery. Gluteal muscle biopsy specimens for biochemical analysis of muscle metabolites were obtained at start and end of anaesthesia and 1 h and 1 day after recovery.
Plasma cortisol, FFA, glycerol, glucose, lactate and CK were elevated and serum phosphate and potassium were lower in colic horses before anaesthesia. Muscle adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was low in several colic horses. Anaesthesia and surgery resulted in a decrease in plasma FFA and glycerol in colic horses whereas levels increased in healthy horses. During anaesthesia muscle and plasma lactate and plasma phosphate increased in both groups. In the colic horses plasma lactate increased further after recovery. Plasma FFA and glycerol increased 8 h after standing in the colic horses. In both groups, plasma concentrations of CK increased and serum phosphate decreased post-anaesthesia. On Day 7 most parameters were not different between groups. Colic horses lost on average 8% of their initial weight. Eleven colic horses completed the study.
Colic horses entered anaesthesia with altered metabolism and in a negative oxygen balance. Muscle oxygenation was insufficient during anaesthesia in both groups, although to a lesser extent in the healthy horses. The post-anaesthetic period was associated with increased lipolysis and weight loss in the colic horses, indicating a negative energy balance during the first week post-operatively.
Microdialysis sampling of lipophilic molecules in human tissues is challenging because protein binding and adhesion to the membrane limit recovery. Hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD) forms complexes with hydrophobic molecules thereby improving microdialysis recovery of lipophilic molecules in vitro and in rodents. We tested the approach in human subjects. First, we determined HP-ß-CD influences on metabolite stability, delivery, and recovery in vitro. Then, we evaluated HP-ß-CD as microdialysis perfusion fluid supplement in 20 healthy volunteers. We placed 20 kDa microdialysis catheters in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and in the vastus lateralis muscle. We perfused catheters with lactate free Ringer solution with or without 10% HP-ß-CD at flow rates of 0.3–2.0 µl/min. We assessed tissue metabolites, ultrafiltration effects, and blood flow. In both tissues, metabolite concentrations with Ringer+HP-ß-CD perfusate were equal or higher compared to Ringer alone. Addition of HP-ß-CD increased dialysate volume by 10%. Adverse local or systemic reactions to HP-ß-CD did not occur and analytical methods were not disturbed. HP-ß-CD addition allowed to measure interstitial anandamide concentrations, a highly lipophilic endogenous molecule. Our findings suggest that HP-ß-CD is a suitable supplement in clinical microdialysis to enhance recovery of lipophilic molecules from human interstitial fluid.
The prevalence and nature of arrhythmias in horses following general anaesthesia and surgery is poorly documented. It has been proposed that horses undergoing emergency surgery for gastrointestinal disorders may be at particular risk of developing arrhythmias. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence and nature of arrhythmias in horses following anaesthesia in a clinical setting and to establish if there was a difference in the prevalence of arrhythmias between horses with and without gastrointestinal disease undergoing surgery. Our secondary objective was to assess selected available risk factors for association with the development of arrhythmias following anaesthesia and surgery.
Horses with evidence of gastrointestinal disease undergoing an exploratory laparotomy and horses with no evidence of gastrointestinal disease undergoing orthopaedic surgery between September 2009 and January 2011 were recruited prospectively. A telemetric electrocardiogram (ECG) was fitted to each horse following recovery from anaesthesia and left in place for 24 hours. Selected electrolytes were measured before, during and after surgery and data was extracted from clinical records for analysis. Recorded ECGs were analysed and the arrhythmias characterised. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with the development of arrhythmias.
Sixty-seven horses with gastrointestinal disease and 37 without gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Arrhythmias were very common during the post-operative period in both groups of horses. Supra-ventricular and bradyarrhythmias predominated in both groups. There were no significant differences in prevalence of any type of arrhythmias between the horses with or without gastrointestinal disease. Post-operative tachycardia and sodium derangements were associated with the development of any type of arrhythmia.
This is the first study to report the prevalence of arrhythmias in horses during the post-operative period in a clinical setting. This study shows that arrhythmias are very common in horses following surgery. It showed no differences between those horses with or without gastrointestinal disease. Arrhythmias occurring in horses during the post-anaesthetic period require further investigation.
equine; post-anaesthetic; electrocardiography; arrhythmia
Ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by the Pringle maneuver is a well-known problem after liver surgery. The aim of this study was to monitor metabolic changes in the pig liver during warm ischemia and the following reperfusion preceded by ischemic preconditioning (IPC).
Eight Landrace pigs underwent laparotomy. Two microdialysis catheters were inserted in the liver, one in the left lobe and another in the right lobe. A reference catheter was inserted in the right biceps femoris muscle. Microdialysis samples were collected every 30 min during the study. After 2 h of baseline measurement, IPC was performed by subjecting pigs to 10 min of ischemia, followed by 10 min of reperfusion. Total ischemia for 60 min was followed by 3 h of reperfusion. The samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol. Blood samples were drawn three times to determine standard liver parameters.
All parameters remained stable during baseline. Glycerol and glucose levels increased significantly during ischemia, followed by a decrease from the start of reperfusion. During the ischemic period, lactate levels increased significantly and decreased during reperfusion. The lactate–pyruvate ratio increased significantly during ischemia and decreased rapidly during reperfusion. Only minor changes were observed in standard liver parameters.
The present study demonstrated profound metabolic changes before, during, and after warm liver ischemia under the influence of IPC. Compared with a similar study without IPC, the metabolic changes seem to be unaffected by preconditioning.
Warm liver ischemia; Portal triad clamping; Preconditioning; Metabolic changes; Microdialysis
The aim of the study was to investigate urine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9) activity, alkaline phosphatase/creatinine (U-AP/Cr) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase/creatinine (U-GGT/Cr) ratios, glucose concentration, and urine protein/creatinine (U-Prot/Cr) ratio and to compare data with plasma MMP-2 and -9 activity, cystatin-C and creatinine concentrations in colic horses and healthy controls. Horses with surgical colic (n = 5) were compared to healthy stallions (n = 7) that came for castration. Blood and urine samples were collected. MMP gelatinolytic activity was measured by zymography.
We found out that horses with colic had significantly higher urinary MMP-9 complex and proMMP-9 activities than horses in the control group. Colic horses also had higher plasma MMP-2 activity than the control horses. Serum creatinine, although within reference range, was significantly higher in the colic horses than in the control group. There was no significant increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase or total proteins in the colic horses compared to the control group. A human cystatin-C test (Dako Cytomation latex immunoassay® based on turbidimetry) did not cross react with equine cystatin-C.
The results indicate that plasma MMP-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of equine colic and urinary MMP-9 in equine kidney damage.
Gastrointestinal disorders, especially strangulating intestinal obstructions, are still a major cause of illness and death in the horse. Circulating lipopolysaccharides may activate both neutrophils and monocytes. The activated neutrophils release myeloperoxidase (MPO), a specific enzyme with strong oxidative activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate MPO concentrations in the plasma and peritoneal fluid (PF) of horses with colic and to check the hypothesis that these concentrations would be higher in a case of strangulating obstruction than in cases of nonstrangulating disease. By using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for equine MPO, we determined the MPO concentrations in horses admitted to a clinic for colic. Horses with nonstrangulating or strangulating obstruction of the large intestine (NSLI or SLI), strangulating obstruction of the small intestine (SSI), or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were compared with healthy horses. The horses with SLI, SSI, or IBD had significantly higher MPO levels in plasma and PF than did those in the other 2 groups. The mean plasma level was significantly higher in the horses with NSLI than in the healthy horses. High MPO values in PF indicated necrotic bowel. These results show that neutrophil activation occurs during nonstrangulating and strangulating intestinal obstruction in horses and that the plasma and PF MPO concentrations may be a marker of the severity of the disease.
Paraspinal muscle damage is inevitable during conventional posterior lumbar fusion surgery. Minimal invasive surgery is postulated to result in less muscle damage and better outcome. The aim of this study was to monitor metabolic changes of the paraspinal muscle and to evaluate paraspinal muscle damage during surgery using microdialysis (MD). The basic interstitial metabolisms of the paraspinal muscle and the deltoid muscle were monitored using the MD technique in eight patients, who underwent posterior lumbar fusion surgery (six male and two female, median age 57.7 years, range 37–74) and eight healthy individuals for different positions (five male and three female, age 24.1 ± 0.8 years). Concentrations of glucose, glycerol, and lactate pyruvate ratio (L/P) in both tissues were compared. In the healthy group, the glucose and glycerol concentrations and L/P were unchanged in the paraspinal muscle when the body position changed from prone to supine. The glucose concentration and L/P were stable in the paraspinal muscle during the surgery. Glycerol concentrations increased significantly to 243.0 ± 144.1 μM in the paraspinal muscle and 118.9 ± 79.8 μM in the deltoid muscle in the surgery group. Mean glycerol concentration difference (GCD) between the paraspinal muscle and the deltoid tissue was 124.1 μM (P = 0.003, with 95% confidence interval 83.4–164.9 μM). The key metabolism of paraspinal muscle can be monitored by MD during the conventional posterior lumbar fusion surgery. The glycerol concentration in the paraspinal muscle is markedly increased compared with the deltoid muscle during the surgery. It is proposed that GCD can be used to evaluate surgery related paraspinal muscle damage. Changing body position did not affect the paraspinal muscle metabolism in the healthy subjects.
Glucose; Lactate pyruvate ratio; Glycerol; Paraspinal muscle; Microdialysis
The objective of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry and capnography in healthy and compromised horses during general anesthesia with spontaneous and controlled ventilation. Horses anesthetized in a dorsal recumbency position for arthroscopy (n = 20) or colic surgery (n = 16) were instrumented with an earlobe probe from the pulse oximeter positioned on the tip of the tongue and a sample line inserted at the Y-piece for capnography. The horses were allowed to breathe spontaneously (SV) for the first 20 min after induction, and thereafter ventilation was controlled (IPPV). Arterial blood, for blood gas analysis, was drawn 20 min after induction and 20 min after IPPV was started. Relationships between oxygen saturation as determined by pulse oximetry (SpO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), and end tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO2), several physiological variables, and the accuracy of pulse oximetry and capnography, were evaluated by Bland–Altman or regression analysis. In the present study, both SpO2 and P(et)CO2 provided a relatively poor indication of SaO2 and PaCO2, respectively, in both healthy and compromised horses, especially during SV. A difference in heart rate obtained by pulse oximetry, ECG, or palpation is significantly correlated with any pulse oximeter inaccuracy. If blood gas analysis is not available, ventilation to P(et)CO2 of 35 to 45 mmHg should maintain the PaCO2 within a normal range. However, especially in compromised horses, it should never substitute blood gas analysis.
The case records of 13 horses with acquired incarcerated inguinal hernia in January-August 1983, were reviewed. Nine cases were in stallions. The remaining four involved eventration 5-48 hours following castration. Ages ranged from 1-17 years. Horses showed a variable degree of colic. Bowel was felt to pass through the internal inguinal ring on rectal examination in most cases. The physical features of the scrotum varied considerably. Resection of ischemic jejunum and/or ileum was necessary in three horses. Two horses were euthanized at surgery (one with bilateral ischemic jejunum, one with bowel perforation), and a further horse on day 16 postsurgery following development of multiple adhesions. All stallions were castrated. Follow-up for 6-24 months (mean 12.7) disclosed that all ten discharged horses were alive and healthy (recovery rate 77%).
Horses; inguinal hernia; scrotal hernia; incarceration
The development of intra-abdominal hypertension [IAH] in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU is an independent predictor of mortality. In an attempt to find an early, clinically relevant metabolic signal of modest IAH, we investigated abdominal wall metabolite concentrations in a small group of patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. We hypothesized that elevated intra-abdominal pressure [IAP] due to pneumoperitoneum leads to an increased lactate/pyruvate [L/P] ratio in the rectus abdominis muscle [RAM], indicating anaerobic metabolism.
Six patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic gastric fundoplication were studied. Two hours before surgery, a microdialysis catheter (CMA 60, CMA Small Systems AB, Solna, Sweden) was inserted into the RAM under local anaesthesia. Catheter placement was confirmed by ultrasound. The microdialysis perfusion rate was set at 0.3 μL/min. Dialysate was collected hourly prior to pneumoperitoneum, during pneumoperitoneum, and for 2 h after pneumoperitoneum resolution. IAP was maintained at 12 to 13 mmHg during the surgery. The glucose, glycerol, pyruvate and lactate contents of the dialysate were measured.
The median (interquartile range) L/P ratio was 10.3 (7.1 to 15.5) mmol/L at baseline. One hour of pneumoperitoneum increased the L/P ratio to 16.0 (13.6 to 35.3) mmol/L (p = 0.03). The median pneumoperitoneum duration was 86 (77 to 111) min. The L/P ratio at 2 h post-pneumoperitoneum was not different from that at baseline (p = 1.0). No changes in glycerol or glucose levels were observed.
IAH of 12 to 13 mmHg, even for a relatively short duration, is associated with metabolic changes in the abdominal wall muscle tissue of patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. We suggest that tissue hypoperfusion occurs even during a modest increase in IAP, and intramuscular metabolic monitoring could therefore serve as an early warning sign of deteriorating tissue perfusion.
microdialysis; intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; lactate-to-pyruvate ratio; muscle ischemia; early clinical sign
A retrospective survey of 300 surgical treatments for colic involving 341 interventions was carried out to determine mortality rates and associated factors. These horses had been referred to the Ontario Veterinary College over the period September 1974 to February 1980. Data from the case records was collected and stored on a computer and statistical analysis was carried out using X2 tests.
Fifty percent (150/300) of the horses survived to be discharged from the hospital. Fifty-two horses were euthanized during the operation and another ten horses should have been; if these cases are excluded the overall survival rate is 64.7% (150/232). A wide range of breeds were involved but the breed did not significantly affect survival. There was a significantly greater occurrence of serious colic in the two week to two month and one to two year age groups and significantly less in the two to four year age groups when compared with the total number of horses admitted over the same period. There was an even distribution of male and female horses but males showed a significantly lower mortality rate (57% of the males survived compared with 43% of the females). The size of the animal did not affect survival significantly. There was no seasonal variation when compared with the total number of equine patients.
Survival was significantly influenced by the lesion, the preoperative packed cell volume and total plasma protein and by the length of the surgical procedure.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acid-base status and the concentration of organic acids in horses with colic caused by various disorders. Blood samples were collected from 50 horses with colic and from 20 controls. No intravenous fluids had been given prior to sample collection. Identified causes of colic included gastric ulceration, small intestinal volvulus, cecal intussusception, cecal rupture, colonic impaction, left dorsal colon displacement, right dorsal colon displacement, colonic volvulus, colitis, peritonitis, and uterine torsion. Thirty-seven horses recovered from treatment of colic, 8 horses were euthanized, and 5 died. Most cases were not in severe metabolic acidosis. In previous studies, most horses presented for diagnosis and treatment of colic were in metabolic acidosis and in shock.
Minimizing peritoneal tissue injury during abdominal surgery has the benefit of reducing postoperative inflammatory response, pain, and adhesion formation. Ultrasonic dissection seems to reduce tissue damage. This study aimed to compare electrocautery and ultrasonic dissection in terms of peritoneal tissue ischemia measured by microdialysis.
In this study, 18 Wistar rats underwent a median laparotomy and had a peritoneal microdialysis catheter implanted in the left lateral sidewall. The animals were randomly assigned to receive two standard peritoneal incisions parallel to the catheter by either ultrasonic dissection or electrocautery. After the operation, samples of microdialysis dialysate were taken every 2 h until 72 h postoperatively for measurements of pyruvate, lactate, glucose, and glycerol, and ratios were calculated.
The mean lactate–pyruvate ratio (LPR), lactate–glucose ratio (LGR), and glycerol concentration were significantly higher in the electrocautery group than in the ultrasonic dissection group until respectively 34, 48, and 48 h after surgery. The mean areas under the curve (AUC) of LPR, LGR, and glycerol concentration also were higher in the electrocautery group than in the ultrasonic dissection group (4,387 vs. 1,639, P = 0.011; 59 vs. 21, P = 0.008; 7,438 vs. 4,169, P = 0.008, respectively).
Electrosurgery causes more ischemic peritoneal tissue damage than ultrasonic dissection.
Adhesions; Electrocautery; Ischemia; Microdialysis; Ultrasonic dissection
A valved gas collection system for horses was validated, then used to examine the relationship between the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and plasma and muscle lactate in exercising horses. Four healthy Standardbred horses were trained to breathe through the apparatus while exercising on a treadmill. Comparisons of arterial blood gas tensions were made at 3 work levels for each horse, without (control), and with the gas collection system present. At the highest work level, the arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) was significantly lower (P < 0.05), and the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) was significantly higher (P < 0.05), than control levels when the apparatus was present; however arterial oxygen content remained unchanged. The horses completed a standardized incremental treadmill test on 4 occasions to determine the repeatability of measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), inspired minute ventilation (VI), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VI/VO2), tidal volume (VT), and ventilatory frequency (VF). All gas exchange and respiratory measurements showed good reproducibility with the mean coefficient of variation of the 4 horses ranging from 3.8 to 12%. We examined the relationship between 3 indices of energy metabolism in horses performing treadmill exercise: respiratory exchange ratio (RER), central venous plasma and muscle lactate concentrations. A relationship between RER and plasma lactate concentration was established. To compare muscle and plasma lactate concentrations, the horses completed a discontinuous exercise test without the gas collection apparatus present. Significant relationships (P < 0.05), between plasma lactate concentration and RER, and between plasma and muscle lactate concentration, were described for each horse. The valved gas collection system produced a measurable but tolerable degree of interference to respiration, and provided reproducible measurements of gas exchange and ventilatory measurements. It was concluded that measurements of both gas exchange and blood lactate may be used to indicate increased glycolytic activity within exercising skeletal muscle.
Extensive resection (50-75%) of the large colon was performed in 12 horses. Indications for resection were: loss of viability due to large colon volvulus (seven), thromboembolic episode (three), impairment of flow of ingesta due to adhesions (one), or congenital abnormalities (one). The time required to correct the primary cause of abdominal pain and complete the resection ranged from 2.5 to 4.75 hours. Three horses had severe musculoskeletal problems postoperatively and were euthanized in the recovery stall. Four other horses were euthanized early in the postoperative period because of: further large colon infarction (two), ileus (one), or small intestinal problems (one). Five horses survived with no apparent nutritional or metabolic problems during two to three weeks of hospitalization. Clinical data were obtained from these horses from nine months to eighteen months postoperatively and revealed no clinical or clinicopathological abnormalities in four of them; the fifth horse exhibited diarrhea and weight loss four months postoperatively but responded to diet change.
Colic; intestinal obstruction; colonic diseases
This study was designed to investigate the effect of the nasotracheal insufflation of oxygen at a flow rate of 15 L/min on the arterial partial pressure of oxygen during the recovery period following inhalation anesthesia in the horse. It has been stated that this is a suitable flow rate to prevent postoperative hypoxemia but without any experimental evidence to support those statements. Horses being used for the study of healing of cartilage were anesthetized on two separate occasions. Following one period of anesthesia they were allowed to recover breathing room air, and following the other period of anesthesia oxygen was insufflated into the trachea at 15 L/min throughout the recovery period. This permitted each horse to act as its own control and allowed statistical analysis using Student's t-test for paired samples.
The insufflated horses had a higher arterial partial pressure of oxygen during the recovery period than did the noninsufflated horses (p < 0.05).
To try to determine whether fluid therapy during surgery should be on a large or a small scale 23 patients and six control subjects were studied. The control subjects were fasted and transfused with 2 litres of Ringer-lactate solution in one hour, the volume of urine output being measured at intervals for four hours. The patients were transfused similarly under varying conditions of anaesthesia and surgery. The characteristic urine output during abdominal hysterectomy followed a low, irregular pattern, and this occurred whether or not substantial amounts of fluid were transfused. In two patients anaesthesia and minimal trauma were associated with oliguria. An established diuresis was altered by anaesthesia and inhibited by surgery. These results indicate that excess Ringer-lactate solution administered during surgery may not be excreted and that overtransfusion could easily occur.
Closed loop anaesthesia delivery systems (CLADSs) are a recent advancement in accurate titration of anaesthetic drugs. They have been shown to be superior in maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia with few fluctuations as compared with target-controlled infusion or manual titration of drug delivery.
Twenty patients scheduled to undergo general abdominal or orthopaedic procedures under general anaesthesia at Leh (3505 m above sea level) were recruited as subjects. Anaesthesia was delivered by a patented closed loop system that uses the Bispectral Index (BIS™) as a feedback parameter to titrate the rate of propofol infusion. All vital parameters, drug infusion rate and the BIS™ values were continuously recorded and stored online by the system. The data generated was analysed for the adequacy of anaesthetic depth, haemodynamic stability and post-operative recovery parameters.
The CLADS was able to maintain a BIS™ within ±10 of the target of 50 for 85.0±7.8% of the time. Haemodynamics were appropriately maintained (heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were within 25% of baseline values for 91.2±2.2% and 94.1±3% of the total anaesthesia time, respectively). Subjects were awake within a median of 3 min from cessation of drug infusion and achieved fitness to recovery room discharge within a median of 15 min. There were no adverse events or report of awareness under anaesthesia.
The study demonstrates the safety of our CLADS at high altitude. It seeks to extend the use of our system in challenging anaesthesia environments. The system performance was also adequate and no adverse events were recorded.
Bispectral index; closed loop anaesthesia; high altitude; propofol
The aim was to evaluate intravascular microdialysis as a method for measuring blood glucose and lactate in a clinical setting during and after cardiac surgery.
Ten patients undergoing cardiac surgery were included. A microdialysis catheter was percutaneously placed in the superior vena cava or right atrium. Glucose and lactate values measured by the microdialysis technique were analyzed and compared with reference methods, i.e., arterial and venous blood gas values, once every hour up to 24 hours postoperatively. Laboratory plasma glucose was additionally analyzed every 4 hours for reference value.
Mean absolute differences were low between microdialysis and reference methods for both glucose and lactate values. All microdialysis glucose values were in the clinically acceptable zone of error grid analysis when compared with plasma glucose values. Accuracy of glucose values was 92% according to International Organization for Standardization criteria.
Intravascular microdialysis is a novel and promising technique for real-time and accurate measurement of glucose and lactate during and after open heart surgery. Development of sensor technology may allow for continuous measurement of blood glucose and lactate using intravascular microdialysis.
glucose; heart surgery; lactate; microdialysis
The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle and the main indicator of diaphragmatic contractility is the trans-diaphragmatic pressure (Pdi). The aim of this clinical study was to determine the effect of four different anaesthetic protocols on Pdi in anaesthetized healthy dogs. Eighty client-owned dogs were recruited in this clinical study. All the animals received dexmedetomidine and morphine as premedication and propofol for induction. Anaesthesia was maintained with one of four protocols: isoflurane (I), isoflurane with CRI of propofol (IP), isoflurane with CRI of fentanyl (IF), and isoflurane with CRI of ketamine (IK). When the surgical plane of anaesthesia was achieved, two balloon catheters were inserted, one into the stomach and one into the mid-third of the oesophagus for Pdi measurement. Pdi value was the highest in groups I (14.9±4.7 mmHg) and IK (15.2±3.5 mmHg) and the lowest in groups IP (12.2±3.2 mmHg) and IF (12.0±5.9 mmHg). There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.029) between groups IK and IF. PE’CO2 was statistically significantly higher (p<0.0005) in group IF (7.7±0.8 kPa) than in group IK (6.5±0.7 kPa). Isoflurane alone or isoflurane with ketamine for the maintenance of anaesthesia seem to better preserve the respiratory function and the diaphragmatic contractility than isoflurane with either propofol or fentanyl in dogs. Therefore, the use of isoflurane or isoflurane with ketamine may be of benefit when animals with respiratory problems have to be anaesthetized.
The purpose of this project was to attempt restoration of abduction of a recently denervated left dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle in the horse by anastomosing the first cervical nerve to the abductor branch of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. Ten horses were used in the study. In six horses the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was transected and ligated while the ventral branch of the left first cervical nerve was anastomosed to the abductor branch of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. The remaining four horses also had the left recurrent laryngeal nerve transected and ligated but had no nerve anastomosis performed. Each horse was evaluated preoperatively, and at one week, three and six months after surgery, by endoscopy and determination of upper airway resistance. The endoscopy was performed with the horses breathing room air and while breathing 10% carbon dioxide. All ten horses showed endoscopic signs of complete laryngeal hemiplegia immediately postoperatively. Starting at three months postoperatively clonic movements of the left arytenoid cartilage were observed in four of the six reinnervated horses but not in the sham operated horses. At the sixth postoperative month five reinnervated horses had clonic movements of the left arytenoid cartilage. The comparison of upper airway resistance measurements before surgery and at one week, three and six months after surgery showed no significant differences in either control or experimental horses. Following euthanasia at six months postoperatively, the left and right dorsal crioarytenoid muscles were compared for evidence of reinnervation. No significant difference in weight was noted in the reinnervated horses but the left dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle weighed less than the control horses.
Introduction. Suxamethonium, a deepolarizing muscle relaxant, increases intraocular pressure. It is therefore advised to be avoided in open globe surgery, for fear of extruding ocular contents. Several anecdotal reports support this fear. Some workers however, dispute this claim. There is as yet no formal case report in the literature on the subject. Case Presentation. A 34-year old Nigerian male, was involved in a road traffic accident. He presented at the Accident & Emergency Unit of our hospital about 2 hours after the accident. Clinical examination revealed right corneal laceration (with intact ocular contents) and intra-abdominal visceral injury. Emergency laparotomy was scheduled, to be followed with corneal repair. Anaesthesia was induced with 10 mg midazolam, 100 mg ketamine, and 100 mg suxamethonium given intravenously in sequence. After laparotomy, the ophthalmologists reported for the corneal repair, only to find that the vitreous humour has been extruded. Conclusion. The fear about the use of suxamethonium in open globe situations is real. It will be good clinical judgment to use alternative drugs and techniques to effect rapid muscle relaxation, in the anaesthetic management of the open globe patient. This would be of interest to anaesthetists, ophthalmologists and clinical pharmacologists among others.
Systemic hypertension is a prominent feature in humans with metabolic syndrome (MS) and this is partly caused by an enhanced endothelin-1 (ET-1) mediated vasoconstriction. There are indications that systemic hypertension might be a feature in equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) but if ET-1 is involved in the development of hypertension in horses is not known. Increased levels of cortisol have also been found in humans with MS but there are no reports of this in horses. Before blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol can be evaluated in horses with EMS, it is necessary to investigate the interday variation of these parameters on clinically healthy horses. The aims of the present study were therefore to evaluate the interday variation and influence of transportation on systemic blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol in healthy Standardbred and Icelandic horses, and to detect potential breed differences.
Nine horses of each breed were included in the study. Blood pressure was measured and blood samples were collected between 6 and 9 am on two separate days. Eight of the horses (four of each breed) were transported to a new stable were they stayed overnight. The next morning, the sampling procedure was repeated.
The interday variation was higher for plasma ET-1 (37%) than for indirect pressure measurements (8-21%) and serum cortisol (18%). There were no differences in systemic blood pressure between the two breeds. The Icelandic horses had significantly lower serum cortisol and significantly higher plasma ET-1 concentrations compared to the Standardbred horses. Plasma ET-1 was significantly elevated after transportation, but systemic blood pressure and serum cortisol did not differ from the values obtained in the home environment.
Indirect blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol are of interest as markers for cardiovascular dysfunction in horses with EMS. The elevated plasma ET-1 concentrations recorded after transportation was likely caused by a stress response. This needs to be considered when evaluating plasma ET-1 in horses after transportation. The differences detected in plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol between the two breeds might be related to differences in genetic setup, training status as well as management conditions.
Horse; Plasma endothelin-1; Cortisol; Blood pressure; Transportation
The feasibility of leaving the ovaries within the peritoneal cavity after laparoscopic coagulation and transection of the ovarian pedicle was assessed in the juvenile horse. Elective ovariectomy was performed on 10 quarter horses, aged 4 to 5 mo, with the fillies in a Trendelenburg position. The mesovarium was isolated, and multiple coagulation and transection cycles were performed until all ovarian attachments had been severed. The ovaries were dropped within the abdomen, and hemostasis of the transected mesovarium was evaluated before closure. The mean surgical time was 33 min (range, 23 to 48 min). Ten weeks after surgery the fillies were humanely euthanized. At postmortem examination, the ovary location within the abdomen was noted. In 1 horse, there was an abdominal adhesion; viscera had been punctured during insufflation. Of the 20 ovaries, 4 were free-floating within the abdominal cavity; the other 16 were enveloped in the free portion of the greater omentum in the cranioventral abdomen. Histologic examination of the ovaries was performed to assess follicle cell viability. In both the free-floating and the attached ovaries, the deep blood vessels and all examined follicular structures were necrotic and partially mineralized. Laparoscopic electrosurgical transection of the ovarian pedicle without removal of the ovaries should be considered an alternative to other ovariectomy techniques that may be performed in young female horses.
Ten cases of pheochromocytoma in horses were obtained from the literature and a computer search of medical records. The clinical, laboratory and pathological features of pheochromocytoma in horses were reviewed. Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine secreting tumor which tends to occur in older horses without breed or sex predisposition. It is usually unilateral adrenal medullary in location and benign. Malignancy was present in one horse. The most common clinical signs were sweating, tachycardia, tachypnea, muscle tremor and anxiety; however the tumor may be asymptomatic. Clinical signs were nonspecific and could be confused with other diseases, especially abdominal pain. Hyperglycemia is a consistent finding. Venous norepinephrine levels were measured in normal horses. Norepinephrine measurements may prove to be a diagnostic aid in horses with pheochromocytoma.