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1.  Apoptosis inhibition or inflammation: the role of NAIP protein expression in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas compared to non-neoplastic lymph node 
Background
Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAP) family play a critical role in apoptosis and inflammatory response. Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein (NAIP), as a member of both IAPs and NLR families (NOD-Like Receptor), is a unique IAP harboring NOD (Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain) and LLR (Leucine Rich Repeat) motifs. Considering these motifs in NAIP, it has been suggested that the main function of NAIP is distinct from other members of IAPs. As a member of NLR, NAIP mediates the assembly of 'Inflammasome' for inflammatory caspase activation. Pathologic expression of NAIP has been reported not only in some infectious and inflammatory diseases but also in some malignancies. However, there is no report to elucidate NAIP expression in lymphomatic malignancies.
Methods
In this study, we examined NAIP protein expression in 101 Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded blocks including samples from 39 Hodgkin Lymphoma and 23 Non Hodgkin Lymphoma cases in comparison with 39 control samples (30 normal and 9 Reactive Lymphoid Hyperplasia (RLH) lymph nodes) using semi-quantitative immuno-flourecent Staining.
Results
NAIP expression was not statistically different in lymphoma samples neither in HL nor in NHL cases comparing to normal samples. However, we evaluated NAIP expression in normal and RLH lymph nodes. Surprisingly, we have found a statistically significant-difference between the NAIP expression in RLH (M.R of NAIP/GAPDH expression = 0.6365 ± 0.017) and normal lymph node samples (M.R of NAIP/GAPDH expression = 0.5882 ± 0.047) (P < 0.01).
Conclusions
These findings show that the regulation of apoptosis could not be the main function of NAIP in the cell, so the pathologic expression of NAIP is not involved in lymphoma. But, we concluded that the over expression of NAIP has more effective role in the inflammatory response. Also, this study clarifies the NAIP expression level in lymphoma which is required for IAPs profiling in order to be used in potential translational applications of IAPs.
doi:10.1186/1476-9255-9-4
PMCID: PMC3297494  PMID: 22357131
Inhibitor of apoptosis protein; NAIP/BIRC1; Inflammatory caspases; Inflammasome; Hodgkin lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Semi-quantitative immuno-flourecent staining
2.  Genotype-phenotype correlation of survival motor neuron and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein genes in spinal muscular atrophy patients from Iran 
Background:
Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by symmetrical proximal muscle weakness and atrophy. According to the severity of the disease and the age of onset, SMA can be divided into three groups. The survival motor neuron (SMN) gene that is located on 5q13 is identified as the disease determining gene. Another gene in this region is neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP), and its functional role in the pathogenesis of SMA has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the correlation between deletions in SMN and NAIP genes with clinical features of SMA patients.
Materials and Methods:
In the current study, 71 unrelated Iranian patients were investigated for the detection of deletions in SMN1 and NAIP genes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the deletions of exon 4 and 5 of the NAIP gene. Deletions in exon 7 and 8 of SMN1 gene were detected by RFLP-PCR with DraI and DdeI, respectively.
Results:
Our results showed that 51 patients have homozygous deletions in SMN1 and/or NAIP genes. Among these 51 patients, deletion in NAIP gene were found in 35 patients (65.7% of type I, 22.5% type II and 11.42% type III).
Conclusion:
Defect in SMN1 gene plays a major role in manifesting of the disease and NAIP (4 and 5) gene acts as a modifying factor in severity of symptoms. Correlation between NAIP gene defect and severity of the disease is confirmed. However, the exact role of NAIP gene in SMA has yet to be fully clarified.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.125872
PMCID: PMC3950840  PMID: 24627882
Deletion; neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene; severity; spinal muscular atrophy; survival motor neuron gene
3.  Induction of Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein Expression in Response to Androgen Deprivation in Prostate Cancer 
Cancer letters  2009;292(2):176-185.
A mechanism for survival of prostate cancer cells in an androgen-deprived environment remains elusive. Here, we find that expression of neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) was significantly increased in vivo and in vitro in response to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Increased expression of NAIP corresponded to increased DNA-binding activity of NF-κB that physically associated to previously uncharacterized κB-like sites in the NAIP locus. Importantly, expression of NAIP was significantly increased (p=0.04) in clinical samples of CaP from patients receiving ADT. Expression of NAIP may be associated with enhanced survival of prostate cancer in response to castration.
doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2009.11.023
PMCID: PMC3433396  PMID: 20044205
prostate cancer; androgen deprivation; nuclear factor-κB; inhibitors of apoptosis; neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein
4.  A Novel Protein Isoform of the Multicopy Human NAIP Gene Derives from Intragenic Alu SINE Promoters 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(6):e5761.
The human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is no longer principally considered a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family, as its domain structure and functions in innate immunity also warrant inclusion in the Nod-Like Receptor (NLR) superfamily. NAIP is located in a region of copy number variation, with one full length and four partly deleted copies in the reference human genome. We demonstrate that several of the NAIP paralogues are expressed, and that novel transcripts arise from both internal and upstream transcription start sites. Remarkably, two internal start sites initiate within Alu short interspersed element (SINE) retrotransposons, and a third novel transcription start site exists within the final intron of the GUSBP1 gene, upstream of only two NAIP copies. One Alu functions alone as a promoter in transient assays, while the other likely combines with upstream L1 sequences to form a composite promoter. The novel transcripts encode shortened open reading frames and we show that corresponding proteins are translated in a number of cell lines and primary tissues, in some cases above the level of full length NAIP. Interestingly, some NAIP isoforms lack their caspase-sequestering motifs, suggesting that they have novel functions. Moreover, given that human and mouse NAIP have previously been shown to employ endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats as promoters, exaptation of Alu repeats as additional promoters provides a fascinating illustration of regulatory innovations adopted by a single gene.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005761
PMCID: PMC2685007  PMID: 19488400
5.  Repeated Recruitment of LTR Retrotransposons as Promoters by the Anti-Apoptotic Locus NAIP during Mammalian Evolution 
PLoS Genetics  2007;3(1):e10.
Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP, also known as BIRC1) is a member of the conserved inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. Lineage-specific rearrangements and expansions of this locus have yielded different copy numbers among primates and rodents, with human retaining a single functional copy and mouse possessing several copies, depending on the strain. Roles for this gene in disease have been documented, but little is known about transcriptional regulation of NAIP. We show here that NAIP has multiple promoters sharing no similarity between human and rodents. Moreover, we demonstrate that multiple, domesticated long terminal repeats (LTRs) of endogenous retroviral elements provide NAIP promoter function in human, mouse, and rat. In human, an LTR serves as a tissue-specific promoter, active primarily in testis. However, in rodents, our evidence indicates that an ancestral LTR common to all rodent genes is the major, constitutive promoter for these genes, and that a second LTR found in two of the mouse genes is a minor promoter. Thus, independently acquired LTRs have assumed regulatory roles for orthologous genes, a remarkable evolutionary scenario. We also demonstrate that 5′ flanking regions of IAP family genes as a group, in both human and mouse are enriched for LTR insertions compared to average genes. We propose several potential explanations for these findings, including a hypothesis that recruitment of LTRs near NAIP or other IAP genes may represent a host-cell adaptation to modulate apoptotic responses.
Author Summary
When retroviruses infect cells, the viral DNA inserts into the cellular genome. If this happens in gametes (egg or sperm), the viral DNA will be transmitted from parent to offspring, like all chromosomal DNA. Through evolutionary time, such infections of gametes have been so prevalent that 8%–10% of the normal human and mouse genomes are now composed of ancient viral DNA, termed endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). In human, these ERVs are mutated or “dead” but it has been shown that ERV regulatory regions can be employed by the host to help control expression of cellular genes. Here, we report on a remarkable example of this phenomenon. We demonstrate that both the human and rodent neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) genes, involved in preventing cell death, use different ERV sequences to drive gene expression. Moreover, in each of the primate and rodent lineages, two separate ERVs contribute to NAIP gene expression. This repeated ERV recruitment by NAIP genes throughout evolution is very unlikely to have occurred by chance. We offer a number of potential explanations, including the intriguing possibility that it may be advantageous for anti-cell death genes like NAIP to use ERVs to control their expression. These results support the view that not all retroviral remnants in our genome are simply junk DNA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030010
PMCID: PMC1781489  PMID: 17222062
6.  Emerging Concepts about NAIP/NLRC4 Inflammasomes 
Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP)/NOD-like receptor (NLR) containing a caspase activating and recruitment domain (CARD) 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome complexes are activated in response to proteins from virulent bacteria that reach the cell cytosol. Specific NAIP proteins bind to the agonists and then physically associate with NLRC4 to form an inflammasome complex able to recruit and activate pro-caspase-1. NAIP5 and NAIP6 sense flagellin, component of flagella from motile bacteria, whereas NAIP1 and NAIP2 detect needle and rod components from bacterial type III secretion systems, respectively. Active caspase-1 mediates the maturation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and is responsible for the induction of pyroptosis, a pro-inflammatory form of cell death. In addition to these well-known effector mechanisms, novel roles have been described for NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes, such as phagosomal maturation, activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, regulation of autophagy, secretion of inflammatory mediators, antibody production, activation of T cells, among others. These effector mechanisms mediated by NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes have been extensively studied in the context of resistance of infections and the potential of their agonists has been exploited in therapeutic strategies to non-infectious pathologies, such as tumor protection. Thus, this review will discuss current knowledge about the activation of NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes and their effector mechanisms.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00309
PMCID: PMC4078251  PMID: 25071770
NAIP; NLRC4; flagellin; caspase-1; inflammasomes; lysosomes; cell death
7.  Deletion analysis of SMN1 and NAIP genes in southern Chinese children with spinal muscular atrophy*  
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons and occasionally bulbar motor neurons leading to progressive limb and trunk paralysis as well as muscular atrophy. Three types of SMA are recognized depending on the age of onset, the maximum muscular activity achieved, and survivorship: SMA1, SMA2, and SMA3. The survival of motor neuron (SMN) gene has been identified as an SMA determining gene, whereas the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is considered to be a modifying factor of the severity of SMA. The main objective of this study was to analyze the deletion of SMN1 and NAIP genes in southern Chinese children with SMA. Here, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed to detect the deletion of both exon 7 and exon 8 of SMN1 and exon 5 of NAIP in 62 southern Chinese children with strongly suspected clinical symptoms of SMA. All the 32 SMA1 patients and 76% (13/17) of SMA2 patients showed homozygous deletions for exon 7 and exon 8, and all the 13 SMA3 patients showed single deletion of SMN1 exon 7 along with 24% (4/17) of SMA2 patients. Eleven out of 32 (34%) SMA1 patients showed NAIP deletion, and none of SMA2 and SMA3 patients was found to have NAIP deletion. The findings of homozygous deletions of exon 7 and/or exon 8 of SMN1 gene confirmed the diagnosis of SMA, and suggested that the deletion of SMN1 exon 7 is a major cause of SMA in southern Chinese children, and that the NAIP gene may be a modifying factor for disease severity of SMA1. The molecular diagnosis system based on PCR-RFLP analysis can conveniently be applied in the clinical testing, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis of SMA.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B0820125
PMCID: PMC2613960  PMID: 19198020
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA); Survival motor neuron (SMN) gene; Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene; Mutation
8.  Spinal muscular atrophy: untangling the knot? 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1999;36(1):1-8.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neuromuscular diseases, is a disorder of motor neurones characterised by degeneration of spinal cord anterior horn cells and muscular atrophy.
SMA is an autosomal recessive disorder with a carrier frequency of about 1/50. Three candidate genes, the survival motor neurone (SMN) gene, the neuronal inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene, and the p44 (subunit of basal transcription factor TFIIH) gene, have been considered as genes involved in this condition. The region spanning these genes has a complex organisation including duplications, repetitive sequences, truncated genes, and pseudogenes, which makes molecular analysis of this condition difficult. Although deletions have been found in the majority of SMA patients, a few microrearrangements (like duplications, missense mutations, microdeletions, and gene conversions) localised in the telomeric form of the SMN gene have also been reported.
The function of the protein encoded by the SMN gene is still not fully understood but recent studies have indicated that it is found intracellularly in gems, novel nuclear structures. Its interaction with other proteins suggests a role in mRNA processing and metabolism. Whether the NAIP gene protein and other apoptosis associated proteins are directly involved in the initial stages of neurone degeneration and apoptosis, or acting downstream on the pathological pathway, has been difficult to determine. Further studies will be required to elucidate possible functional interactions between these proteins.


Keywords: SMA; SMN; NAIP
PMCID: PMC1762953  PMID: 9950358
9.  Differential regulation of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in Alzheimer's disease brains 
Neurobiology of disease  2007;26(1):165-173.
Neuronal degeneration linked to apoptosis can be inhibited by a family of proteins known as inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). We examined three members of the IAP family that are implicated in the regulation of neuronal death. We assessed NAIP, XIAP, and cIAP-2 protein levels in the entorhinal cortex of non-demented, cognitively impaired and Alzheimer's disease cases. Levels of paired helical filament-1 (PHF-1), a marker of neurofibrillary tangles, were assessed to determine their relationship to IAP levels. NAIP was decreased in AD cases compared to mildly-impaired and unimpaired cases, and this decrease was associated with increased PHF-1 levels. Low NAIP levels were associated with higher Braak and Braak tangle stage and cognitive dysfunction. XIAP levels were higher in AD cases and cIAP-2 levels did not vary with clinical status. Our data suggest that decreased NAIP may place neurons at risk for the development of tangles and apoptosis.
doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2006.12.017
PMCID: PMC2198925  PMID: 17292615
inhibitor of apoptosis; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer's disease; NAIP; XIAP; cIAP-2; caspase activation; tau; neurofibrillary tangles; MMSE
10.  Genetic Susceptibility and Caspase Activation in Mouse and Human Macrophages Are Distinct for Legionella longbeachae and L. pneumophila▿  
Infection and Immunity  2007;75(4):1933-1945.
Legionella pneumophila is the predominant cause of Legionnaires' disease in the United States and Europe, while Legionella longbeachae is the common cause of the disease in Western Australia. Although clinical manifestations by both intracellular pathogens are very similar, recent studies have shown that phagosome biogeneses of both species within human macrophages are distinct (R. Asare and Y. Abu Kwaik, Cell. Microbiol., in press). Most inbred mouse strains are resistant to infection by L. pneumophila, with the exception of the A/J mouse strain, and this genetic susceptibility is associated with polymorphism in the naip5 allele and flagellin-mediated early activation of caspase 1 and pyropoptosis in nonpermissive mouse macrophages. Here, we show that genetic susceptibility of mice to infection by L. longbeachae is independent of allelic polymorphism of naip5. L. longbeachae replicates within bone marrow-derived macrophages and in the lungs of A/J, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice, while L. pneumophila replicates in macrophages in vitro and in the lungs of the A/J mouse strain only. Quantitative real-time PCR studies on infected A/J and C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages show that both L. longbeachae and L. pneumophila trigger similar levels of naip5 expression, but the levels are higher in infected C57BL/6 mouse macrophages. In contrast to L. pneumophila, L. longbeachae has no detectable pore-forming activity and does not activate caspase 1 in A/J and C57BL/6 mouse or human macrophages, despite flagellation. Unlike L. pneumophila, L. longbeachae triggers only a modest activation of caspase 3 and low levels of apoptosis in human and murine macrophages in vitro and in the lungs of infected mice at late stages of infection. We conclude that despite flagellation, infection by L. longbeachae is independent of polymorphism in the naip5 allele and L. longbeachae does not trigger the activation of caspase 1, caspase 3, or late-stage apoptosis in mouse and human macrophages. Neither species triggers caspase 1 activation in human macrophages.
doi:10.1128/IAI.00025-07
PMCID: PMC1865702  PMID: 17261610
11.  A randomized controlled trial of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in Iranian infertile couples: oocyte gene expression 
Background
The main objective of the present work was to compare the effects of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) and GnRH antagonist (GnRH-ant) on the gene expression profiles of oocytes obtained from Iranian infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Methods
Fifty infertile couples who underwent IVF between June 2012 and November 2013 at the Infertility Center of Tehran Women General Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were included in this study. We included women that had undergone IVF treatment because of male factor, tubal factor, or unexplained infertility. The women randomly underwent controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with either the GnRH-a (n = 26) or the GnRH-ant (n = 24). We obtained 50 germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes donated by women in each group. After the sampling, pool of 50 GV oocytes for each group was separately analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).
Result
The expression levels of Adenosine triphosphatase 6 (ATPase 6), Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), and Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) genes were significantly upregulated in the GnRH-ant group compared to the GnRH-a group, with the fold change of 3.990 (SD ± 1.325), 6.274 (SD ± 1.542), and 2.156 (SD ± 1.443), respectively, (P < 0.001). Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) mRNA did not have any expression in the GnRH-a group; however, GDF9 mRNA was expressed in the GnRH-ant group. Finally, it was found that the genes involved in the DNA repairing and cell cycle checkpoint did not have any expression in either group.
Conclusion
The present study showed, for the first time, the expression levels of genes involved in the cytoplasmic maturity (BMP15, GDF9), adenosine triphosphate production (ATPase 6), and antiapoptotic process (NAIP), in human GV oocytes were significantly higher in the GnRH-anta group than in the GnRH-a group in COS. Higher expression level of these genes when GnRH-ant protocol is applied, this protocol seems to be a more appropriate choice for women with poly cystic ovarian syndrome, because it can probably improve the expression of the aforementioned genes.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials: IRCT 2014031112307 N3.
doi:10.1186/s40199-014-0067-4
PMCID: PMC4197229  PMID: 25288473
Gene expression; Controlled ovarian stimulation; GnRH antagonist; GnRH agonist
12.  Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIPs dictates inflammasome specificity 
Nature  2011;477(7366):592-595.
Inflammasomes are a family of cytosolic multiprotein complexes that initiate innate immune responses to pathogenic microbes by activating the CASPASE1 (CASP1) protease1,2. Although genetic data support a critical role for inflammasomes in immune defense and inflammatory diseases3, the molecular basis by which individual inflammasomes respond to specific stimuli remains poorly understood. The inflammasome that contains the NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing C4) protein was previously shown to be activated in response to two distinct bacterial proteins, flagellin4,5 and PrgJ6, a conserved component of pathogen-associated type III secretion systems. However, direct binding between NLRC4 and flagellin or PrgJ has never been demonstrated. A homolog of NLRC4, NAIP5 (NLR family, Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein 5), has been implicated in activation of NLRC47–11, but is widely assumed to play only an auxiliary role1,2, since NAIP5 is often dispensable for NLRC4 activation7,8. However, Naip5 is a member of a small multigene family12, raising the possibility of redundancy and functional specialization among Naip genes. Indeed, we show here that different NAIP paralogs dictate the specificity of the NLRC4 inflammasome for distinct bacterial ligands. In particular, we found that activation of endogenous NLRC4 by bacterial PrgJ requires NAIP2, a previously uncharacterized member of the NAIP gene family, whereas NAIP5 and NAIP6 activate NLRC4 specifically in response to bacterial flagellin. We dissected the biochemical mechanism underlying the requirement for NAIP proteins by use of a reconstituted NLRC4 inflammasome system. We found that NAIP proteins control ligand-dependent oligomerization of NLRC4 and that NAIP2/NLRC4 physically associates with PrgJ but not flagellin, whereas NAIP5/NLRC4 associates with flagellin but not PrgJ. Taken together, our results identify NAIPs as immune sensor proteins and provide biochemical evidence for a simple receptor-ligand model for activation of the NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes.
doi:10.1038/nature10394
PMCID: PMC3184209  PMID: 21874021
13.  Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 triggers proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in mice 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)  2010;51(4):1226-1236.
Regulation of hepatocellular apoptosis is crucial for liver homeostasis. Increased sensitivity of hepatocytes towards apoptosis results in chronic liver injury, whereas apoptosis resistance is linked to hepatocarcinogenesis and non-responsiveness to therapy-induced cell death. Recently, we have demonstrated an essential role of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in hepatocyte survival. In mice lacking Mcl-1 specifically in hepatocytes (Mcl-1Δhep) spontaneous apoptosis caused severe liver damage. Here, we demonstrate that chronically increased apoptosis of hepatocytes coincides with strong hepatocyte proliferation resulting in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver cell tumor formation was observed in >50% of Mcl-1Δhep mice already by the age of 8 months, whereas 12 month-old wild-type and heterozygous Mcl-1flox/wt mice lacked tumors. Tumors revealed a heterogenous spectrum ranging from small dysplastic nodules to HCC. The neoplastic nature of the tumors was confirmed by histology, expression of the HCC marker glutamine synthetase and chromosomal aberrations. Liver carcinogenesis in Mcl-1Δhep mice was paralleled by markedly increased levels of survivin, an important regulator of mitosis which is selectively overexpressed in common human cancers.
Conclusion
The present study provides in vivo evidence that increased apoptosis of hepatocytes not only impairs liver homeostasis but is also accompanied by hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis. Our findings might have implications for understanding apoptosis-related human liver diseases.
The survival of multicellular organisms depends on the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Under physiological conditions apoptosis contributes to liver homeostasis by removing damaged hepatocytes. Proliferation, growth and programmed hepatocyte cell death are highly coordinated and tightly controlled events in the normal liver (1).
On the one hand, increased apoptosis sensitivity contributes to liver injury. On the other hand, defective apoptosis was demonstrated to lead to excessive hepatocellular survival and has emerged as a major mechanism by which pre-malignant hepatocytes obtain a competitive advantage over normal liver cells (2). Various molecular alterations have been characterized causing an imbalance in the regulation of apoptosis. Among these are alterations in p53 signalling, expression of death receptors, growth factors and mitochondrial integrity (3). Decreased activity of pro-apoptotic signalling as well as increased activity of anti-apoptotic events are associated with HCC development and progression (4).
Among the main cellular changes that trigger apoptosis of hepatocytes is the permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane followed by the release of pro-apoptotic factors (5). The Bcl-2 protein family plays a pivotal role for mitochondrial integrity and the selective interactions between pro- and anti-apoptotic family members regulate mitochondrial activation (6). Bcl-2 family members are similar within the Bcl-2 homology regions (BH1-BH4) and can be divided in pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins.
Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins comprise (1) multi-domain members, which lack the BH4 domain (e.g. Bax, Bak), and (2) BH3-only proteins, which lack BH1, 2 and 4 domains (e.g. Bid, Noxa, Puma). BH3-only proteins initiate the mitochondrial signalling cascade by sensing cellular damage (7). After activation, BH3-only proteins are released to neutralise anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Subsequently, Bax and Bak trigger mitochondrial membrane leakage and the release of mitochondrial proteins, including cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein with low pI) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Smac/DIABLO proteins inactivate the IAP (inhibitors of apoptosis proteins) family, which consists of IAP1/2, BRUCE, NAIP, ILP2, ML-IAP, survivin and XIAP. XIAP is a direct caspase inhibitor. Other IAPs including survivin have several functions apart from caspase inhibition, eg, triggering of ubiquitination processes (8). Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (eg, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), interact with Bax and Bak to inhibit the activation of mitochondria (7).
Both Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 have been identified as major anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in the liver (9-11). Liver homeostasis is severely disturbed in Mcl-1Δhep mice (10, 11). Spontaneous hepatocyte apoptosis was observed in livers of Mcl-1Δhep mice in profound liver cell damage and increased susceptibility of hepatocytes towards pro-apoptotic stimuli (10). In addition, Mcl-1 has been shown to be highly expressed in a subset of human HCC, contributing to apoptosis resistance of cancer cells (12, 13). Thus, abrogation of the pro-survival function of Mcl-1 (1) either by diminishing its levels or (2) by inactivating its function, have shown promising results with regards to treatment of HCC (12, 13).
In this study, we show that liver-specific depletion of Mcl-1 increases hepatocyte apoptosis, induces hepatocellular proliferation and causes HCC in the absence of overt inflammation.
doi:10.1002/hep.23479
PMCID: PMC2936921  PMID: 20099303
liver; hepatocellular carcinoma; apoptosis; Bcl-2 proteins; survivin
14.  Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia: effects of serenoa repens, selenium and lycopene 
Background
The apoptosis machinery is a promising target against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) modulate apoptosis by direct inhibition of caspases. Serenoa Repens (SeR) may be combined with other natural compounds such as Lycopene (Ly) and Selenium (Se) to maximize its therapeutic activity in BPH. We investigated the effects of SeR, Se and Ly, alone or in association, on the expression of four IAPs, cIAP-1, cIAP-2, NAIP and survivin in rats with experimental testosterone-dependent BPH. Moreover, caspase-3, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been evaluated.
Rats were administered, daily, with testosterone propionate (3 mg/kg/sc) or its vehicle for 14 days. Testosterone injected animals (BPH) were randomized to receive vehicle, SeR (25 mg/kg/sc), Se (3 mg/kg/sc), Ly (1 mg/kg/sc) or the SeR-Se-Ly association for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed and prostate removed for analysis.
Results
BPH animals treated with vehicle showed unchanged expression of cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 and increased expression of NAIP, survivin, caspase-3, IL-6 and PSMA levels when compared with sham animals. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed the enhanced expression of NAIP and survivin with a characteristic pattern of cellular localization. SeR-Se-Ly association showed the highest efficacy in reawakening apoptosis; additionally, this therapeutic cocktail significantly reduced IL-6 and PSMA levels. The administration of SeR, Se and Ly significantly blunted prostate overweight and growth; moreover, the SeR-Se-Ly association was most effective in reducing prostate enlargement and growth by 43.3% in treated animals.
Conclusions
The results indicate that IAPs may represent interesting targets for drug therapy of BPH.
doi:10.1186/1423-0127-21-19
PMCID: PMC3995880  PMID: 24606563
Apoptosis; BPH; IAPs; Lycopene; Selenium; Serenoa Repens
15.  Large scale deletions of the 5q13 region are specific to Werdnig-Hoffmann disease. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1996;33(4):281-283.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterised by degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and represents the second most common, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder after cystic fibrosis. Based on the criteria of the Internatinal SMA Consortium, childhood SMAs are classified into type I (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Recently, two genes have been found to be associated with SMA. The survival motor neurone gene (SMN) is an SMA determining gene as it is absent in 98.6% of patients. A second gene, XS2G3, or the highly homologous neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene (NAIP) have been found to be more frequently deleted in type I than in the milder forms (types II and III). We investigated the correlation between the clinical phenotype and the genotype at this loci. A total of 106 patients were classified into type I (44), type II (31), and type III (31) and analysed using SMN, markers C212 and C272, and NAIP mapping upstream and downstream from SMN respectively. The combined analysis of all markers showed a large proportion of type I patients (43%) carried deletions of both SMN and its flanking markers (C212/272) and NAIP exon 5), as compared with none of the patients with type II or III SMA. The presence of large scale deletions involving these loci is specific to Werdnig-Hoffman disease (type I) and allows one to predict the severity of the disease in our series.
Images
PMCID: PMC1050575  PMID: 8730281
16.  Shigella Type III Secretion Protein MxiI Is Recognized by Naip2 to Induce Nlrc4 Inflammasome Activation Independently of Pkcδ 
PLoS Pathogens  2014;10(2):e1003926.
Recognition of intracellular pathogenic bacteria by members of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) family triggers immune responses against bacterial infection. A major response induced by several Gram-negative bacteria is the activation of caspase-1 via the Nlrc4 inflammasome. Upon activation, caspase-1 regulates the processing of proIL-1β and proIL-18 leading to the release of mature IL-1β and IL-18, and induction of pyroptosis. The activation of the Nlrc4 inflammasome requires the presence of an intact type III or IV secretion system that mediates the translocation of small amounts of flagellin or PrgJ-like rod proteins into the host cytosol to induce Nlrc4 activation. Using the Salmonella system, it was shown that Naip2 and Naip5 link flagellin and the rod protein PrgJ, respectively, to Nlrc4. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Nlrc4 at Ser533 by Pkcδ was found to be critical for the activation of the Nlrc4 inflammasome. Here, we show that Naip2 recognizes the Shigella T3SS inner rod protein MxiI and induces Nlrc4 inflammasome activation. The expression of MxiI in primary macrophages was sufficient to induce pyroptosis and IL-1β release, which were prevented in macrophages deficient in Nlrc4. In the presence of MxiI or Shigella infection, MxiI associated with Naip2, and Naip2 interacted with Nlrc4. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Naip2, but not Naip5, inhibited Shigella-induced caspase-1 activation, IL-1β maturation and Asc pyroptosome formation. Notably, the Pkcδ kinase was dispensable for caspase-1 activation and secretion of IL-1β induced by Shigella or Salmonella infection. These results indicate that activation of caspase-1 by Shigella is triggered by the rod protein MxiI that interacts with Naip2 to induce activation of the Nlrc4 inflammasome independently of the Pkcδ kinase.
Author Summary
Shigella are bacterial pathogens that are the cause of bacillary dysentery. An important feature of Shigella is their ability to invade the cytoplasm of host epithelial cells and macrophages. A major component of host recognition of Shigella invasion is the activation of the inflammasome, a molecular platform that drives the activation of caspase-1 in macrophages. Although Shigella is known to induce the activation of the Nlrc4 inflammasome, the mechanism by which the bacterium activates Nlrc4 is largely unknown. We discovered that the Shigella T3SS inner rod protein MxiI induces Nlrc4 inflammasome activation through the interaction with host Naip2, which promoted the association of Naip2 with Nlrc4 in macrophages. Expression of MxiI induced caspase-1 activation, Asc oligomerization, pyroptosis and IL-1β release which required Naip2, but not Naip5. Significantly, caspase-1 activation induced by Shigella infection was unaffected by deficiency of the Pkcδ kinase. This study elucidates the microbial-host interactions that drive the activation of the Nlrc4 inflammasome in Shigella-infected macrophages.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003926
PMCID: PMC3916413  PMID: 24516390
17.  Deletion of SMN and NAIP genes in Korean patients with spinal muscular atrophy. 
Childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are an autosomal recessive, clinically heterogeneous group of neuronopathies characterized by selective degeneration of anterior horn cells. The causative genes to be reported are survival motor neuron (SMN) and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) genes. The deletion of telomeric copy of SMN (SMN(T)) gene was observed in over 95% of SMAs. The deletion rate of NAIP gene is 20-50% according to disease severity. The objective of this article is to genetically characterize the childhood-onset spinal muscular atrophy in Koreans. Five Korean families (14 constituents containing 5 probands) with SMA were included in this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used for the deletion analysis of SMN(T). Multiplex PCR method was used for NAIP analysis. Four probands showed deletion of SMNT gene. Deletion of SMN(C) (centromeric SMN) gene was found in one proband who did not show the deletion of SMN(T) gene and in the father of one proband who showed the deletion of SMN(T) gene. The deletion of NAIP gene was not found among all the studied individuals. The extent of deletion in Koreans was smaller than that in other studied population. PCR-RFLP deletion analysis can be applied to diagnose SMA and make a prenatal diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3054589  PMID: 10719817
18.  Mouse NAIP1 detects the type III secretion system needle protein 
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)  2013;191(8):10.4049/jimmunol.1301549.
The NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes activate caspase-1 in response to bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SS). Inadvertent injection of the T3SS rod protein and flagellin into the cytosol are detected through murine NAIP2 and NAIP5/6, respectively. Here, we identify the agonist for the orphan murine NAIP1 receptor as the T3SS needle protein. NAIP1 is poorly expressed in resting mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), however, priming with poly(I:C) induces it, and confers needle protein sensitivity. Further, overexpression of NAIP1 in immortalized BMMs by retroviral transduction enabled needle detection. In contrast, peritoneal cavity macrophages basally express NAIP1 and respond to needle protein robustly independent of priming. Human macrophages are known to only express one NAIP gene, which detects the needle protein, but not rod or flagellin. Thus, murine NAIP1 is functionally analogous to human NAIP.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1301549
PMCID: PMC3819181  PMID: 24043898
Naip1; NLRC4; inflammasomes; T3SS; needle
19.  Role of Positive Selection in Functional Divergence of Mammalian Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitor Proteins during Evolution 
Neuronal apoptosis inhibitor proteins (NAIPs) are members of Nod-like receptor (NLR) protein family. Recent research demostrated that some NAIP genes were strongly associated with both innate immunity and many inflammatory diseases in humans. However, no similar phenomena have been reported in other mammals. Furthermore, some NAIP genes have undergone pseudogenization or have been lost during the evolution of some higher mammals. We therefore aimed to determine if functional divergence had occurred, and if natural selection had played an important role in the evolution of these genes. The results showed that NAIP genes have undergone pseudogenization and functional divergence, driven by positive selection. Positive selection has also influenced NAIP protein structure, resulting in further functional divergence.
doi:10.1155/2011/809765
PMCID: PMC3216670  PMID: 22131819
20.  Androgen deprivation therapy sensitizes prostate cancer cells to T-cell killing through androgen receptor dependent modulation of the apoptotic pathway 
Oncotarget  2014;5(19):9335-9348.
Despite recent advances in diagnosis and management, prostrate cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in American men, after lung cancer. Failure of chemotherapies and hormone-deprivation therapies is the major cause of death in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Currently, the androgen inhibitors enzalutamide and abiraterone are approved for treatment of metastatic CRPC. Here we show for the first time that both enzalutamide and abiraterone render prostate tumor cells more sensitive to T cell-mediated lysis through immunogenic modulation, and that these immunomodulatory activities are androgen receptor (AR)-dependent. In studies reported here, the NAIP gene was significantly down-regulated in human prostate tumor cells treated in vitro and in vivo with enzalutamide. Functional analysis revealed that NAIP played a critical role in inducing CTL sensitivity. Amplification of AR is a major mechanism of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Here, we show that enzalutamide enhances sensitivity to immune-mediated killing of prostate tumor cells that overexpress AR. The immunomodulatory properties of enzalutamide and abiraterone provide a rationale for their use in combination with immunotherapeutic agents in CRPC, especially for patients with minimal response to enzalutamide or abiraterone alone, or for patients who have developed resistance to ADT.
PMCID: PMC4253438  PMID: 25344864
enzalutamide; abiraterone; ADT; cancer vaccine; immunogenic modulation; prostate cancer; immunotherapy
21.  Molecular diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1998;78(6):531-535.
The frequency of deletions within the survival motor neurone (SMN) and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) genes in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and the impact of this on the diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis of SMA, were investigated by molecular analysis of stored DNA and retrospective review of case notes. In type I SMA, 16 of 17 cases were homozygously deleted for exons 7 and 8 of SMN, 14 of 17 were homozygously deleted for exon 5 of NAIP, and 13 of 17 were deleted for both. In types II and III SMA, seven of nine cases were deleted for exons 7 and 8 of SMN. Deletions of SMN and NAIP occurred in four of nine cases. With one exception, the deletion genotypes of probands, affected siblings, and terminated fetuses were identical. Molecular studies are replacing conventional investigations for SMA and have a high uptake prenatally.


PMCID: PMC1717602  PMID: 9713008
22.  Role of IAPs in prostate cancer progression: immunohistochemical study in normal and pathological (benign hyperplastic, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer) human prostate 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:18.
Background
In this study was investigate IAPs in normal human prostate (NP), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic carcinoma (PC), and their involvement in apoptosis/proliferation via NF-kB (TNF-α, IL-1) stimulation.
Methods
Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed in 10 samples of normal prostates, 35 samples of BPH, 27 samples diagnosis of PIN (with low-grade PIN or high-grade PIN) and 95 samples of PC (with low, medium or high Gleason grades).
Results
In NP, cytoplasm of epithelial cells were positive to c-IAP1/2 (80% of samples), c-IAP-2 (60%), ILP (20%), XIAP (20%); negative to NAIP and survivin. In BPH, epithelial cells were immunostained to c-IAP1/2 (57.57%), c-IAP-2 (57.57%), ILP (66.6%), NAIP (60.6%), XIAP (27.27%), survivin (9.1%). Whereas low-grade PIN showed intermediate results between NP and BPH; results in high-grade PIN were similar to those found in PC. In PC, epithelial cells were immunostained to c-IAP1/2, c-IAP-2, ILP, NAIP, XIAP (no Gleason variation) and survivin (increasing with Gleason).
Conclusions
IAPs could be involved in prostate disorder (BPH, PIN and PC) development since might be provoke inhibition of apoptosis and subsequently cell proliferation. At the same time, different transduction pathway such as IL-1/NIK/NF-kB or TNF/NF-kB (NIK or p38) also promotes proliferation. Inhibitions of IAPs, IL-1α and TNFα might be a possible target for PC treatment since IAPs are the proteins that inhibited apoptosis (favour proliferation) and IL-1α and TNFα would affect all the transduction pathway involucrate in the activation of transcription factors related to survival or proliferation (NF-kB, Elk-1 or ATF-2).
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-18
PMCID: PMC2838819  PMID: 20078866
23.  A Crucial Role of Flagellin in the Induction of Airway Mucus Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e39888.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections. Flagellin is a P. aeruginosa virulence factor involved in host response to this pathogen. We examined the role of flagellin in P. aeruginosa-induced mucus secretion. Using a mouse model of pulmonary infection we showed that PAK, a wild type strain of P. aeruginosa, induced airway mucus secretion and mucin muc5ac expression at higher levels than its flagellin-deficient mutant (ΔFliC). PAK induced expression of MUC5AC and MUC2 in both human airway epithelial NCI-H292 cell line and in primary epithelial cells. In contrast, ΔFliC infection had lower to no effect on MUC5AC and MUC2 expressions. A purified P. aeruginosa flagellin induced MUC5AC expression in parallel to IL-8 secretion in NCI-H292 cells. Accordingly, ΔFliC mutant stimulated IL-8 secretion at significantly lower levels compared to PAK. Incubation of NCI-H292 cells with exogenous IL-8 induced MUC5AC expression and pre-incubation of these cells with an anti-IL-8 antibody abrogated flagellin-mediated MUC5AC expression. Silencing of TLR5 and Naip, siRNA inhibited both flagellin-induced MUC5AC expression and IL-8 secretion. Finally, inhibition of ERK abolished the expression of both PAK- and flagellin-induced MUC5AC. We conclude that: (i) flagellin is crucial in P. aeruginosa-induced mucus hyper-secretion through TLR5 and Naip pathways; (ii) this process is mediated by ERK and amplified by IL-8. Our findings help understand the mechanisms involved in mucus secretion during pulmonary infectious disease induced by P. aeruginosa, such as in cystic fibrosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039888
PMCID: PMC3388098  PMID: 22768318
24.  Structures of BIR domains from human NAIP and cIAP2 
The crystal structures of the human NAIP BIR2 and cIAP2 BIR3 domains have been determined. Both BIR domains harbors an amino-terminal tetrapeptide in its peptide-binding groove.
The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins contains key modulators of apoptosis and inflammation that interact with caspases through baculovirus IAP-repeat (BIR) domains. Overexpression of IAP proteins frequently occurs in cancer cells, thus counteracting the activated apoptotic program. The IAP proteins have therefore emerged as promising targets for cancer therapy. In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to determine the first structures of BIR domains from human NAIP and cIAP2. Both structures harbour an N-terminal tetrapeptide in the conserved peptide-binding groove. The structures reveal that these two proteins bind the tetrapeptides in a similar mode as do other BIR domains. Detailed interactions are described for the P1′–P4′ side chains of the peptide, providing a structural basis for peptide-specific recognition. An arginine side chain in the P3′ position reveals favourable interactions with its hydrophobic moiety in the binding pocket, while hydrophobic residues in the P2′ and P4′ pockets make similar interactions to those seen in other BIR domain–peptide complexes. The structures also reveal how a serine in the P1′ position is accommodated in the binding pockets of NAIP and cIAP2. In addition to shedding light on the specificity determinants of these two proteins, the structures should now also provide a framework for future structure-based work targeting these proteins.
doi:10.1107/S1744309109038597
PMCID: PMC2777033  PMID: 19923725
apoptosis; cancer; inflammation; IAP; NAIP; cIAP; BIR
25.  Loss of Activity-Induced Phosphorylation of MeCP2 Enhances Synaptogenesis, LTP, and Spatial Memory 
Nature Neuroscience  2011;14(8):1001-1008.
DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic mechanisms underlie the development and function of the mammalian brain. MeCP2 expresses highly in neurons, and functions as a molecular linker between DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. Previous in vitro studies showed neuronal activity-induced phosphorylation (NAIP) of MeCP2 precedes its release from the Bdnf promoter and the ensuing Bdnf transcription. However, the in vivo function of this phosphorylation event remains elusive. We generated knockin mice that lack NAIP of MeCP2, and show here the Mecp2 phospho-mutant mice perform better in hippocampus-dependent memory tests, present enhanced LTP at two synapses in the hippocampus, and show increased excitatory synaptogenesis. At the molecular level, the phospho-mutant MeCP2 protein binds more tightly to several MeCP2 target gene promoters and alters the expression of these genes. Our results supply the first genetic evidence that NAIP of MeCP2 is required in modulating dynamic functions of the adult mouse brain.
doi:10.1038/nn.2866
PMCID: PMC3273496  PMID: 21765426

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