The terminal oxygenase component (Oxy) of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) catalyzes dihydroxylation of the aromatic ring. The Oxy of CARDO from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.1 Å.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) is the initial dioxygenase in the carbazole-degradation pathway of Novosphingobium sp. KA1. The CARDO from KA1 consists of a terminal oxygenase (Oxy), a putidaredoxin-type ferredoxin and a ferredoxin reductase. The Oxy from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized at 277 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.1 Å. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21. Self-rotation function analysis suggested that the asymmetric unit contained two Oxy trimers; the Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 5.9 Å3 Da−1 and 79.1%, respectively.
carbazole; Novosphingobium; Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenases; sphingomonads; terminal oxygenases
The electron-transfer complex between the terminal oxygenase and ferredoxin of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.90 Å resolution.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase, which consists of an oxygenase component (CARDO-O) and the electron-transport components ferredoxin (CARDO-F) and ferredoxin reductase (CARDO-R), catalyzes dihydroxylation at the C1 and C9a positions of carbazole. The electron-transport complex between CARDO-O and CARDO-F crystallizes at 293 K using hanging-drop vapour diffusion with the precipitant PEG MME 2000 (type I crystals) or PEG 3350 (type II). Blossom-shaped crystals form from a pile of triangular plate-shaped crystals. The type I crystal diffracts to a maximum resolution of 1.90 Å and belongs to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 97.1, b = 89.8, c = 104.9 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 103.8°. Diffraction data for the type I crystal gave an overall R
merge of 8.0% and a completeness of 100%. Its V
M value is 2.63 Å3 Da−1, indicating a solvent content of 53.2%.
angular dioxygenases; carbazole; electron-transfer complexes; Rieske non-haem iron oxygenase systems; Rieske-type ferredoxins; Rieske-type proteins
The ferredoxin reductase component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (Red) is involved in electron transfer from NAD(P)H to ferredoxin. The class IIA Red from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized and the crystal diffracted to a resolution of 1.58 Å.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) is the initial enzyme of the carbazole-degradation pathway. The CARDO of Novosphingobium sp. KA1 consists of a terminal oxygenase, a putidaredoxin-type ferredoxin and a ferredoxin-NADH oxidoreductase (Red) and is classified as a class IIA Rieske oxygenase. Red from KA1 was crystallized at 278 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystal diffracted to 1.58 Å resolution and belonged to space group P32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 92.2, c = 78.6 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 120°. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray diffraction data revealed that the asymmetric unit contained two Red monomers. The crystal appeared to be a merohedral twin, with a twin fraction of 0.32 and twin law (−h, −k, l).
carbazole; Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenases; ferredoxin reductases
The ferredoxin component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO-F) is involved in an electron-transfer reaction. The CARDO-F from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized under anaerobic conditions and diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å.
Novosphingobium sp. KA1 uses carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) as the first dioxygenase in its carbazole-degradation pathway. The CARDO of KA1 contains a terminal oxygenase component and two electron-transfer components: ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. In contrast to the CARDO systems of other species, the ferredoxin component of KA1 is a putidaredoxin-type protein. This novel ferredoxin was crystallized at 293 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG MME 550 as the precipitant under anaerobic conditions. The crystals belong to space group C2221 and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.9 Å (the diffraction limit was 1.6 Å).
carbazole; putidaredoxin-type proteins; Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenases
The terminal oxygenase component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from N. aromaticivorans IC177 was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.30 Å resolution.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of carbazole by angular-position (C9a) carbon bonding to the imino nitrogen and its adjacent C1 carbon. CARDO consists of a terminal oxygenase component and two electron-transfer components: ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. The terminal oxygenase component (43.9 kDa) of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Nocardioides aromaticivorans IC177 was crystallized at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and belong to space group C2.
angular dioxygenases; carbazole; Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenase system; Rieske-type protein
The ferredoxin component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from N. aromaticivorans IC177 was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution.
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of carbazole by angular position (C9a) carbon bonding to the imino nitrogen and its adjacent C1 carbon. CARDO consists of a terminal oxygenase component and two electron-transfer components: ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. The ferredoxin component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Nocardioides aromaticivorans IC177 was crystallized at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. The crystals, which were improved by macroseeding, diffract to 2.0 Å resolution and belong to space group P41212.
ferredoxins; carbazole; Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenase system; Rieske-type proteins
Dihydroxylation of tandemly linked aromatic carbons in a cis-configuration, catalyzed by multicomponent oxygenase systems known as Rieske nonheme iron oxygenase systems (ROs), often constitute the initial step of aerobic degradation pathways for various aromatic compounds. Because such RO reactions inherently govern whether downstream degradation processes occur, novel oxygenation mechanisms involving oxygenase components of ROs (RO-Os) is of great interest. Despite substantial progress in structural and physicochemical analyses, no consensus exists on the chemical steps in the catalytic cycles of ROs. Thus, determining whether conformational changes at the active site of RO-O occur by substrate and/or oxygen binding is important. Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO), a RO member consists of catalytic terminal oxygenase (CARDO-O), ferredoxin (CARDO-F), and ferredoxin reductase. We have succeeded in determining the crystal structures of oxidized CARDO-O, oxidized CARDO-F, and both oxidized and reduced forms of the CARDO-O: CARDO-F binary complex.
In the present study, we determined the crystal structures of the reduced carbazole (CAR)-bound, dioxygen-bound, and both CAR- and dioxygen-bound CARDO-O: CARDO-F binary complex structures at 1.95, 1.85, and 2.00 Å resolution. These structures revealed the conformational changes that occur in the catalytic cycle. Structural comparison between complex structures in each step of the catalytic mechanism provides several implications, such as the order of substrate and dioxygen bindings, the iron-dioxygen species likely being Fe(III)-(hydro)peroxo, and the creation of room for dioxygen binding and the promotion of dioxygen binding in desirable fashion by preceding substrate binding.
The RO catalytic mechanism is proposed as follows: When the Rieske cluster is reduced, substrate binding induces several conformational changes (e.g., movements of the nonheme iron and the ligand residue) that create room for oxygen binding. Dioxygen bound in a side-on fashion onto nonheme iron is activated by reduction to the peroxo state [Fe(III)-(hydro)peroxo]. This state may react directly with the bound substrate, or O–O bond cleavage may occur to generate Fe(V)-oxo-hydroxo species prior to the reaction. After producing a cis-dihydrodiol, the product is released by reducing the nonheme iron. This proposed scheme describes the catalytic cycle of ROs and provides important information for a better understanding of the mechanism.
The carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) system of Pseudomonas resinovorans strain CA10 consists of terminal oxygenase (CarAa), ferredoxin (CarAc), and ferredoxin reductase (CarAd). Each component of CARDO was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) as a native form (CarAa) or a His-tagged form (CarAc and CarAd) and was purified to apparent homogeneity. CarAa was found to be trimeric and to have one Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster and one mononuclear iron center in each monomer. Both His-tagged proteins were found to be monomeric and to contain the prosthetic groups predicted from the deduced amino acid sequence (His-tagged CarAd, one FAD and one [2Fe-2S] cluster per monomer protein; His-tagged CarAc, one Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster per monomer protein). Both NADH and NADPH were effective as electron donors for His-tagged CarAd. However, since the kcat/Km for NADH is 22.3-fold higher than that for NADPH in the 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase assay, NADH was supposed to be the physiological electron donor of CarAd. In the presence of NADH, His-tagged CarAc was reduced by His-tagged CarAd. Similarly, CarAa was reduced by His-tagged CarAc, His-tagged CarAd, and NADH. The three purified proteins could reconstitute the CARDO activity in vitro. In the reconstituted CARDO system, His-tagged CarAc seemed to be indispensable for electron transport, while His-tagged CarAd could be replaced by some unrelated reductases.
The carbazole degradative car-I gene cluster (carAaIBaIBbICIAcI) of Sphingomonas sp. strain KA1 is located on the 254-kb circular plasmid pCAR3. Carbazole conversion to anthranilate is catalyzed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO; CarAaIAcI), meta-cleavage enzyme (CarBaIBbI), and hydrolase (CarCI). CARDO is a three-component dioxygenase, and CarAaI and CarAcI are its terminal oxygenase and ferredoxin components. The car-I gene cluster lacks the gene encoding the ferredoxin reductase component of CARDO. In the present study, based on the draft sequence of pCAR3, we found multiple carbazole degradation genes dispersed in four loci on pCAR3, including a second copy of the car gene cluster (carAaIIBaIIBbIICIIAcII) and the ferredoxin/reductase genes fdxI-fdrI and fdrII. Biotransformation experiments showed that FdrI (or FdrII) could drive the electron transfer chain from NAD(P)H to CarAaI (or CarAaII) with the aid of ferredoxin (CarAcI, CarAcII, or FdxI). Because this electron transfer chain showed phylogenetic relatedness to that consisting of putidaredoxin and putidaredoxin reductase of the P450cam monooxygenase system of Pseudomonas putida, CARDO systems of KA1 can be classified in the class IIA Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase system. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that two car gene clusters constituted operons, and their expression was induced when KA1 was exposed to carbazole, although the fdxI-fdrI and fdrII genes were expressed constitutively. Both terminal oxygenases of KA1 showed roughly the same substrate specificity as that from the well-characterized carbazole degrader Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, although slight differences were observed.
BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement calculation yielded a satisfactory solution.
BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin component of a biphenyl dioxygenase (BphA) from Pseudomonas sp. strain KKS102, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two crystal forms were obtained from the same conditions. The form I crystal belongs to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.3, b = 144.3, c = 61.5 Å, and diffracted to 2.45 Å resolution. The form II crystal belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.2, b = 121.3, c = 142.7 Å, and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. A molecular-replacement calculation using BphF as a search model yielded a satisfactory solution for both forms.
ferredoxins; electron transfer; Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] clusters
All three components of the toluene dioxygenase system have been expressed, purified and crystallized.
Pseudomonas putida F1 can grow with toluene as its sole source of carbon and energy. The initial reaction of the degradation of toluene is catalyzed by a three-component toluene dioxygenase enzyme system consisting of a reductase (ReductaseTOL), a ferredoxin (FerredoxinTOL) and a Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenase (OxygenaseTOL). The three components and the apoenzyme of the dioxygenase (apo-OxygenaseTOL) were overexpressed, purified and crystallized. ReductaseTOL diffracts to 1.8 Å and belongs to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 77.1, c = 156.3 Å. FerredoxinTOL diffracts to 1.2 Å and belongs to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 30.5, b = 52.0, c = 30.95 Å, β = 113.7°. Apo-OxygenaseTOL and OxygenaseTOL diffract to 3.2 Å and belong to space group P4332, with unit-cell parameters a = 235.9 Å and a = 234.5 Å, respectively.
toluene 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme system
Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10 is a multicomponent enzyme that catalyzes the angular dioxygenation of carbazole, dibenzofuran, and dibenzo-p-dioxin. It was revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses that xanthene and phenoxathiin were converted to 2,2′,3-trihydroxydiphenylmethane and 2,2′,3-trihydroxydiphenyl sulfide, respectively. Thus, for xanthene and phenoxathiin, angular dioxygenation by CARDO occurred at the angular position adjacent to the oxygen atom to yield hetero ring-cleaved compounds. In addition to the angular dioxygenation, CARDO catalyzed the cis dihydroxylation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biphenyl. Naphthalene and biphenyl were converted by CARDO to cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene and cis-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl, respectively. On the other hand, CARDO also catalyzed the monooxygenation of sulfur heteroatoms in dibenzothiophene and of the benzylic methylenic group in fluorene to yield dibenzothiophene-5-oxide and 9-hydroxyfluorene, respectively. These results indicate that CARDO has a broad substrate range and can catalyze diverse oxygenation: angular dioxygenation, cis dihydroxylation, and monooxygenation. The diverse oxygenation catalyzed by CARDO for several aromatic compounds might reflect the differences in the binding of the substrates to the reaction center of CARDO.
The reduced form of BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin, was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. A molecular-replacement calculation yielded a satisfactory solution.
The reduced form of BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin component of the biphenyl dioxygenase BphA from Pseudomonas sp. strain KKS102, was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The crystal belongs to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.6, c = 171.9 Å, and diffracts to a resolution of 1.95 Å. A molecular-replacement calculation using oxidized BphA3 as a search model yielded a satisfactory solution.
ferredoxins; electron transfer; Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] cluster; reduced form; anaerobic conditions
The X-ray crystal structure of a soluble Rieske ferredoxin from M. musculus was solved at 2.07 Å resolution, revealing an iron–sulfur cluster-binding domain with similar architecture to the Rieske-type domains of bacterial aromatic dioxygenases. The ferredoxin was also shown to be capable of accepting electrons from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic oxidoreductases.
The 2.07 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a soluble Rieske-type ferredoxin from Mus musculus encoded by the gene Mm.266515 is reported. Although they are present as covalent domains in eukaryotic membrane oxidase complexes, soluble Rieske-type ferredoxins have not previously been observed in eukaryotes. The overall structure of the mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin is typical of this class of iron–sulfur proteins and consists of a larger partial β-barrel domain and a smaller domain containing Cys57, His59, Cys80 and His83 that binds the [2Fe–2S] cluster. The S atoms of the cluster are hydrogen-bonded by six backbone amide N atoms in a pattern typical of membrane-bound high-potential eukaryotic respiratory Rieske ferredoxins. However, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin was more closely related to bacterial Rieske-type ferredoxins. Correspondingly, the structure revealed an extended loop most similar to that seen in Rieske-type ferredoxin subunits of bacterial aromatic dioxygenases, including the positioning of an aromatic side chain (Tyr85) between this loop and the [2Fe–2S] cluster. The mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin was shown to be capable of accepting electrons from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic oxidoreductases, although it was unable to serve as an electron donor for a bacterial monooxygenase complex. The human homolog of mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin was also cloned and purified. It behaved identically to mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin in all biochemical characterizations but did not crystallize. Based on its high sequence identity, the structure of the human homolog is likely to be modeled well by the mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin structure.
Rieske-type ferredoxins; iron–sulfur proteins; oxidoreductases
The crystal structures of the three-component toluene 2,3-dioxygenase system provide a model for electron transfer among bacterial Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenases.
Bacterial Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases catalyze the initial hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbon substrates. The structures of all three components of one such system, the toluene 2,3-dioxygenase system, have now been determined. This system consists of a reductase, a ferredoxin and a terminal dioxygenase. The dioxygenase, which was cocrystallized with toluene, is a heterohexamer containing a catalytic and a structural subunit. The catalytic subunit contains a Rieske [2Fe–2S] cluster and mononuclear iron at the active site. This iron is not strongly bound and is easily removed during enzyme purification. The structures of the enzyme with and without mononuclear iron demonstrate that part of the structure is flexible in the absence of iron. The orientation of the toluene substrate in the active site is consistent with the regiospecificity of oxygen incorporation seen in the product formed. The ferredoxin is Rieske type and contains a [2Fe–2S] cluster close to the protein surface. The reductase belongs to the glutathione reductase family of flavoenzymes and consists of three domains: an FAD-binding domain, an NADH-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. A model for electron transfer from NADH via FAD in the reductase and the ferredoxin to the terminal active-site mononuclear iron of the dioxygenase is proposed.
toluene; dioxygenases; electron transfer; Rieske clusters; reductases; ferredoxins; NADH; FAD
The initial step involved in oxidative hydroxylation of monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds by the microorganism Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain B1 (B1), previously known as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain B1 and Beijerinckia sp. strain B1, is performed by a set of multiple terminal Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases. These enzymes share a single electron donor system consisting of a reductase and a ferredoxin (BPDO-FB1). One of the terminal Rieske oxygenases, biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO-OB1), is responsible for B1's ability to dihydroxylate large aromatic compounds, such as chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene.
In this study, crystal structures of BPDO-OB1 in both native and biphenyl bound forms are described. Sequence and structural comparisons to other Rieske oxygenases show this enzyme to be most similar, with 43.5 % sequence identity, to naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. While structurally similar to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase, the active site entrance is significantly larger than the entrance for naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase. Differences in active site residues also allow the binding of large aromatic substrates. There are no major structural changes observed upon binding of the substrate. BPDO-FB1 has large sequence identity to other bacterial Rieske ferredoxins whose structures are known and demonstrates a high structural homology; however, differences in side chain composition and conformation around the Rieske cluster binding site are noted.
This is the first structure of a Rieske oxygenase that oxidizes substrates with five aromatic rings to be reported. This ability to catalyze the oxidation of larger substrates is a result of both a larger entrance to the active site as well as the ability of the active site to accommodate larger substrates. While the biphenyl ferredoxin is structurally similar to other Rieske ferredoxins, there are distinct changes in the amino acids near the iron-sulfur cluster. Because this ferredoxin is used by multiple oxygenases present in the B1 organism, this ferredoxin-oxygenase system provides the structural platform to dissect the balance between promiscuity and selectivity in protein-protein electron transport systems.
Palustrisredoxin reductase (RPA3782, PuR), a flavin-dependent ferredoxin reductase, is an essential component of the Class I cytochrome P450 systems in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009. Crystals of PuR that diffract to 2.2 Å resolution have been obtained.
Palustrisredoxin reductase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009, a member of the oxygenase-coupled NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductase (ONFR) family, catalyzes electron transfer from NADH to ferredoxins. It is an essential component of the cytochrome P450 systems in R. palustris CGA009, a model organism with diverse metabolic pathways. Here, the crystallization of palustrisredoxin reductase is reported. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = 107.5, b = 107.5, c = 69.9 Å, and diffract to 2.2 Å resolution on a synchrotron source.
palustrisredoxin reductase; ferredoxin reductases
The Rieske nonheme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases (RHOs) NidAB and NidA3B3 from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 have been implicated in the initial oxidation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), forming cis-dihydrodiols. To clarify how these two RHOs are functionally different with respect to the degradation of HMW PAHs, we investigated their substrate specificities to 13 representative aromatic substrates (toluene, m-xylene, phthalate, biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene) by enzyme reconstitution studies of Escherichia coli. Both Nid systems were identified to be compatible with type V electron transport chain (ETC) components, consisting of a [3Fe-4S]-type ferredoxin and a glutathione reductase (GR)-type reductase. Metabolite profiles indicated that the Nid systems oxidize a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, producing various isomeric dihydrodiol and phenolic compounds. NidAB and NidA3B3 showed the highest conversion rates for pyrene and fluoranthene, respectively, with high product regiospecificity, whereas other aromatic substrates were converted at relatively low regiospecificity. Structural characteristics of the active sites of the Nid systems were investigated and compared to those of other RHOs. The NidAB and NidA3B3 systems showed the largest substrate-binding pockets in the active sites, which satisfies spatial requirements for accepting HMW PAHs. Spatially conserved aromatic amino acids, Phe-Phe-Phe, in the substrate-binding pockets of the Nid systems appeared to play an important role in keeping aromatic substrates within the reactive distance from the iron atom, which allows each oxygen to attack the neighboring carbons.
Since the discovery of microbial ring-hydroxylating oxygenases (RHOs) in 1970, the sequences, structures, and enzyme biochemistry, including enantiospecific products, of RHOs have been studied and discussed extensively from the perspective of biodegradation, biotransformation, and biocatalysis processes. However, with all that effort to elucidate the enzymatic mechanisms of RHOs, little is known about the biochemistry and enzymology underlying high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation. We used Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 Nid enzymes, the first type V RHO members to display an apparent substrate preference for HMW PAHs. Here, we examine the mechanism of the RHO reaction by integrating structural information of the NidAB and NidA3B3 enzymes with substrate and product data. This study gives us an understanding of how the model RHO systems of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 metabolize HMW PAHs. The information obtained would also be helpful for successful application of RHO enzymes to the production of industrially and medically important chiral chemicals and the development of PAH bioremediation technologies.
Rieske dioxygenases catalyze the cis-dihydroxylation of a wide range of aromatic compounds to initiate their biodegradation. The archetypal Rieske dioxygenase naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase (NDOS) catalyzes dioxygenation of naphthalene to form (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. NDOS is composed of three proteins: a reductase, a ferredoxin, and an α3β3 oxygenase (NDO). In each α subunit, NDO contains a Rieske Fe2S2 cluster and a mononuclear iron site where substrate dihydroxylation occurs. NDOS also catalyzes monooxygenase reactions for many substrates. The mechanism of the reaction is unknown for either the mono- or di-oxygenase reactions, but has been postulated to involve either direct reaction of a structurally characterized Fe(III)-hydroperoxy intermediate or the electronically equivalent Fe(V)-oxo-hydroxo intermediate formed by O-O bond cleavage before reaction with substrate. The reaction for the former intermediate is expected to proceed through cationic intermediates while the latter is anticipated to initially form a radical intermediate. Here the monooxygenation reactions of the diagnostic probe molecules norcarane and bicyclohexane are investigated. In each case, a significant amount of the rearrangement product derived from a radical intermediate (lifetime of 11–18 ns) is observed while little or no ring expansion product from a cationic intermediate is formed. Thus, monooxygenation of these molecules appears to proceed via the Fe(V)-oxo-hydroxo intermediate. The formation of this high-valent intermediate shows that it must also be considered as a possible participant in the dioxygenation reaction, in contrast to computational studies but in accord with previous biomimetic studies.
Ferredoxin-NAD(P)+ reductase from C. tepidum has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution.
Ferredoxin-NAD(P)+ reductase (FNR) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of NAD(P)+ to generate NAD(P)H during the final step of the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. FNR from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum is a homodimeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 90 kDa; it shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity to thioredoxin reductase rather than to conventional plant-type FNRs. In order to understand the structural basis of the ferredoxin-dependency of this unique photosynthetic FNR, C. tepidum FNR has been heterologously expressed, purified and crystallized in two forms. Form I crystals belong to space group C2221 and contain one dimer in the asymmetric unit, while form II crystals belong to space group P4122 or P4322. Diffraction data were collected from a form I crystal to 2.4 Å resolution on the synchrotron-radiation beamline NW12 at the Photon Factory.
photosynthesis; ferredoxin-NAD(P)+ reductase
A hyperthermophilic archaeal Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin (ARF) from S. solfataricus P1 has been crystallized as a recombinant protein with a vector-derived long N-terminal extension region. The P43212 crystals of recombinant ARF diffracted to 1.85 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.
The hyperthermophilic archaeal Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin (ARF) from Sulfolobus solfataricus P1 contains a low-potential Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] cluster that has served as a tractable model for ligand-substitution studies on this protein family. Recombinant ARF harbouring a pET30a vector-derived N-terminal extension region plus a hexahistidine tag has been heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 0.05 M sodium acetate, 0.05 M HEPES, 2 M ammonium sulfate pH 5.5. The crystals diffracted to 1.85 Å resolution and belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.72, c = 83.31 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one protein molecule.
Rieske-type ferredoxins; [2Fe–2S] clusters; archaea; Sulfolobus solfataricus
Two kinds of bacteria having different-structured angular dioxygenases—a dibenzofuran (DF)-utilizing bacterium, Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63, and a carbazole (CAR)-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10—were investigated for their ability to degrade some chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) (or, together, CDF/Ds) using either wild-type strains or recombinant Escherichia coli strains. First, it was shown that CAR 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) catalyzed angular dioxygenation of all mono- to triCDF/Ds investigated in this study, but DF 4,4a-dioxygenase (DFDO) did not degrade 2,7-diCDD. Secondly, degradation of CDF/Ds by the sets of three enzymes (angular dioxygenase, extradiol dioxygenase, and meta-cleavage compound hydrolase) was examined, showing that these enzymes in both strains were able to convert 2-CDF to 5-chlorosalicylic acid but not other tested substrates to the corresponding chlorosalicylic acid (CSA) or chlorocatechol (CC). Finally, we tested the potential of both wild-type strains for cooxidation of CDF/Ds and demonstrated that both strains degraded 2-CDF, 2-CDD, and 2,3-diCDD to the corresponding CSA and CC. We investigated the sites for the attack of angular dioxygenases in each CDF/D congener, suggesting the possibility that the angular dioxygenation of 2-CDF, 2-CDD, 2,3-diCDD, and 1,2,3-triCDD (10 ppm each) by both DFDO and CARDO occurred mainly on the nonsubstituted aromatic nuclei.
The electron-transfer complex of BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin, and BphA4, a NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductase, was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions.
The electron-transfer complex of BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin, and BphA4, a NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductase, was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The obtained crystals were analyzed by SDS–PAGE, which showed that they contained both BphA3 and BphA4. The crystals belong to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.60, b = 173.72, c = 60.98 Å, β = 115.8°, and diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å.
electron-transfer complexes; ferredoxins; NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductases; anaerobic conditions
Anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate) is an important intermediate in tryptophan metabolism. In order to investigate the degradation of tryptophan through anthranilate by Burkholderia cepacia, several plasposon mutations were constructed of strain DBO1 and one mutant with the plasposon insertion in the anthranilate dioxygenase (AntDO) genes was chosen for further study. The gene sequence obtained from flanking DNA of the plasposon insertion site revealed unexpected information. B. cepacia DBO1 AntDO (designated AntDO-3C) is a three-component Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] dioxygenase composed of a reductase (AndAa), a ferredoxin (AndAb), and a two-subunit oxygenase (AndAcAd). This is in contrast to the two-component (an oxygenase and a reductase) AntDO enzyme from Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and P. putida P111. AntDO from strains ADP1, PAO1, and P111 are closely related to benzoate dioxygenase, while AntDO-3C is closely related to aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenases from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans F199 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae B1 and 2-chlorobenzoate dioxygenase from P. aeruginosa strains 142 and JB2. Escherichia coli cells expressing the functional AntDO-3C genes transform anthranilate and salicylate (but not 2-chlorobenzoate) to catechol. The enzyme includes a novel reductase whose absence results in less efficient transformation of anthranilate by the oxygenase and ferredoxin. AndR, a possible AraC/XylS-type transcriptional regulator, was shown to positively regulate expression of the andAcAdAbAa genes. Anthranilate was the only effector (of 12 aromatic compounds tested) that was able to induce expression of the genes.
The two-component anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase of the bacterium Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. This enzyme converts anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate) to catechol with insertion of both atoms of O2 and consumption of one NADH. The terminal oxygenase component formed an α3β3 hexamer of 54- and 19-kDa subunits. Biochemical analyses demonstrated one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] center and one mononuclear nonheme iron center in each large oxygenase subunit. The reductase component, which transfers electrons from NADH to the oxygenase component, was found to contain approximately one flavin adenine dinucleotide and one ferredoxin-type [2Fe-2S] center per 39-kDa monomer. Activities of the combined components were measured as rates and quantities of NADH oxidation, substrate disappearance, product appearance, and O2 consumption. Anthranilate conversion to catechol was stoichiometrically coupled to NADH oxidation and O2 consumption. The substrate analog benzoate was converted to a nonaromatic benzoate 1,2-diol with similarly tight coupling. This latter activity is identical to that of the related benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase. A variant anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase, previously found to convey temperature sensitivity in vivo because of a methionine-to-lysine change in the large oxygenase subunit, was purified and characterized. The purified M43K variant, however, did not hydroxylate anthranilate or benzoate at either the permissive (23°C) or nonpermissive (39°C) growth temperatures. The wild-type anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase did not efficiently hydroxylate methylated or halogenated benzoates, despite its sequence similarity to broad-substrate specific dioxygenases that do. Phylogenetic trees of the α and β subunits of these terminal dioxygenases that act on natural and xenobiotic substrates indicated that the subunits of each terminal oxygenase evolved from a common ancestral two-subunit component.