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1.  Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in adolescents and young adults in Taiwan 
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent decade from Taiwan, adds to the understanding of these rare diseases with variable clinical and histopathological presentations.
PMCID: PMC4069894  PMID: 24966953
Epstein-Barr virus; hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; infectious mononucleosis; systemic T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disease; T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferation; Taiwan
2.  Transcriptional profiling of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) genes and host cellular genes in nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma and chronic active EBV infection 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;94(4):599-608.
Nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that is closely associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). The clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK or T cells is also seen in patients with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection, suggesting that two diseases might share a partially similar mechanism by which EBV affects host cellular gene expression. To understand the pathogenesis of EBV-associated NK/T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) and design new therapies, we employed a novel EBV DNA microarray to compare patterns of EBV expression in six cell lines established from EBV-associated NK/T-cell LPD. We found that expression of BZLF1, which encodes the immediate-early gene product Zta, was expressed in SNK/T cells and the expression levels were preferentially high in cell lines from CAEBV infection. We also analyzsd the gene expression patterns of host cellular genes using a human oligonucleotide DNA microarray. We identified a subset of pathogenically and clinically relevant host cellular genes, including TNFRSF10D, CDK2, HSPCA, IL12A as a common molecular biological properties of EBV-associated NK/T-cell LPD and a subset of genes, such as PDCD4 as a putative contributor for disease progression. This study describes a novel approach from the aspects of viral and host gene expression, which could identify novel therapeutic targets in EBV-associated NK/T-cell LPD.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602968
PMCID: PMC2361178  PMID: 16449999
Epstein Barr virus; nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma; EBV DNA microarray; CAEBV infection
3.  EBV-Positive T/NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disease of Childhood 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(2):137-147.
Background
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), EBV-positive systemic T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (STLPD) of childhood, and chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection may develop after primary EBV infection. This study reviewed the clinicopathological spectrum of EBV-associated T- and natural killer (NK)-cell LPD, including STLPD and CAEBV infection, with an analysis of T-cell clonality.
Methods
Clinicopathological features of seven patients with EBV-associated HLH or STLPD and 12 patients with CAEBV infection were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining and a T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement study were performed.
Results
STLPD and EBV-positive HLH showed significantly overlapping clinicopathological findings. One patient with STLPD and one patient with EBV-positive HLH demonstrated moderate to severe atypia of the infiltrating lymphocytes, whereas the remaining patients lacked significant atypia. Twelve patients had CAEBV infection, four of whom suffered mosquito-bite hypersensitivity, five showed NK lymphocytosis, and one suffered hydroa vacciniforme. Infiltrating lymphocytes were predominantly small and devoid of atypia. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was found in seven of 11 patients. Monoclonality was detected in three (50%) of the six patients with successful TCR gene analysis.
Conclusions
EBV-positive HLH and STLPD share similar clinicopathological findings and may constitute a continuous spectrum of acute EBV-associated T- or NK-cell proliferative disorders. The distinction of EBV-positive T-cell LPD from EBV-positive HLH may be difficult during routine diagnoses because of the technical limitations of clonality assessment.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.2.137
PMCID: PMC3647126  PMID: 23667373
Epstein-Barr virus infections; Lymphoma, T-cell; Killer cells, natural; Lymphoproliferative disorders; Clonality
4.  Epstein–Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease in non-immunocompromised hosts: a status report and summary of an international meeting, 8–9 September 2008 
Annals of Oncology  2009;20(9):1472-1482.
Background: Recently novel Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) have been identified in non-immunocompromised hosts, both in Asia and Western countries. These include aggressive T-cell and NK-cell LPDs often subsumed under the heading of chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (CAEBV) infection and EBV-driven B-cell LPDs mainly affecting the elderly.
Design: To better define the pathogenesis, classification, and treatment of these disorders, participants from Asia, The Americas, Europe, and Australia presented clinical and experimental data at an international meeting.
Results: The term systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD, as adopted by the WHO classification, is preferred as a pathological classification over CAEBV (the favored clinical term) for those cases that are clonal. The disease has an aggressive clinical course, but may arise in the background of CAEBV. Hydroa vacciniforme (HV) and HV-like lymphoma represent a spectrum of clonal EBV-positive T-cell LPDs, which have a more protracted clinical course; spontaneous regression may occur in adult life. Severe mosquito bite allergy is a related syndrome usually of NK cell origin. Immune senescence in the elderly is associated with both reactive and neoplastic EBV-driven LPDs, including EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Conclusion: The participants proposed an international consortium to facilitate further clinical and biological studies of novel EBV-driven LPDs.
doi:10.1093/annonc/mdp064
PMCID: PMC2731018  PMID: 19515747
chronic active EBV infection; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; hemophagocytic syndrome; hydroa vacciniforme; immune senescence; senile EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease; systemic EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease
5.  Clinicopathological characteristics of four cases of EBV positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of childhood in China 
A new category, “EBV positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) of childhood”, was proposed in the 2008 World Health Organization’s (WHO) classifications of lymphoma. This series of lymphoproliferative disorders is rare. There are two major types of this series of disorders: systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood and hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma (HVLL). In this study, we describe the distinct features of four cases of EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood in China. Two were systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood, one was HVLL and one was chronic active EBV (CAEBV). The main manifestations were lymphadenopathy, fever, hepatosplenomegaly and skin rashes. The structure of the lymph nodes in the patients ranged from preserved to partially or totally destroyed. Small- to medium-sized, atypical T cells had infiltrated the lymph nodes. In HVLL, the neoplastic cells had infiltrated the dermis and subcutaneous region surrounding sweat glands and nerves. All of the cases tested positive for CD8, other T cells, cytotoxic markers and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) without CD56 expression. Molecular analysis was performed in three cases. All of the three analyses showed a TCRγ rearrangement and one case also had an IGH rearrangement. One of the patients with systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood experienced rapid evolved and died within five months of onset. CAEBV, systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD of childhood and HVLL are distinct but overlapping diseases within the category of EBV-positive T-cell LPD of childhood. They constitute a continuous spectrum of EBV-infected associated disorders.
PMCID: PMC4152060  PMID: 25197370
Epstein-Barr virus; T cells; lymphoproliferative disease; pediatric
6.  EBV Chronic Infections 
The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpes viruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS) aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.
Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA), really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.). However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious).
Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse. Thanks to both these studies it was possibile to confirm the etiologic links between the syndrome and EBV or other herpesviruses or other persistent infectious agents.
The mechanisms of EBV latency have been carefully examined both because they represent the virus strategy to elude the response of the immune system of the host, and because they are correlated with those oncologic conditions associated to the viral persistence, particularly lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders. Just these malignancies, for which a pathogenetic role of EBV is clearly documented, should represent the main clinical expression of a first group of chronic EBV infections characterized by a natural history where the neoplastic event aroused from the viral persistence in the resting B cells for all the life, from the genetic predisposition of the host and from the oncogenic potentialities of the virus that chronically persists and incurs reactivations.
Really, these oncological diseases should be considered more complications than chronic forms of the illness, as well as other malignancies for which a viral – or even infectious - etiology is well recognized. The chronic diseases, in fact, should be linked in a pathogenetic and temporal way to the acute infection, from whom start the natural history of the following disease. So, as for the chronic liver diseases from HBV and HCV, it was conied the acronym of CAEBV (Chronic Active EBV infection), distinguishing within these pathologies the more severe forms (SCAEBV) mostly reported in Far East and among children or adolescents. Probably only these forms have to be considered expressions of a chronic EBV infection “sensu scrictu”, together with those forms of CFS where the etiopathogenetic and temporal link with the acute EBV infection is well documented. As for CFS, also for CAEBV the criteria for a case definition were defined, even on the basis of serological and virological findings. However, the lymphoproliferative disorders are excluded from these forms and mantain their nosographic (e.g. T or B cell or NK type lymphomas) and pathogenetic collocation, even when they occur within chronic forms of EBV infection. In the pathogenesis, near to the programs of latency of the virus, the genetic and environmental factors, independent from the real natural history of EBV infection, play a crucial role.
Finally, it was realized a review of cases - not much numerous in literature – of chronic EBV infection associated to chronic liver and neurological diseases, where the modern techniques of molecular biology should be useful to obtain a more exact etiologic definition, not always possibile to reach in the past.
The wide variety of clinical forms associated to the EBV chronic infection makes difficult the finding of a univocal pathogenetic link. There is no doubt, however, that a careful examination of the different clinical forms described in this review should be useful to open new horizons to the study of the persistent viral infections and the still not well cleared pathologies that they can induce in the human host.
doi:10.4084/MJHID.2010.022
PMCID: PMC3033110  PMID: 21415952
7.  Novel Mouse Xenograft Models Reveal a Critical Role of CD4+ T Cells in the Proliferation of EBV-Infected T and NK Cells 
PLoS Pathogens  2011;7(10):e1002326.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, ectopically infects T or NK cells to cause severe diseases of unknown pathogenesis, including chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH). We developed xenograft models of CAEBV and EBV-HLH by transplanting patients' PBMC to immunodeficient mice of the NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull strain. In these models, EBV-infected T, NK, or B cells proliferated systemically and reproduced histological characteristics of the two diseases. Analysis of the TCR repertoire expression revealed that identical predominant EBV-infected T-cell clones proliferated in patients and corresponding mice transplanted with their PBMC. Expression of the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and LMP2, but not EBNA2, in the engrafted cells is consistent with the latency II program of EBV gene expression known in CAEBV. High levels of human cytokines, including IL-8, IFN-γ, and RANTES, were detected in the peripheral blood of the model mice, mirroring hypercytokinemia characteristic to both CAEBV and EBV-HLH. Transplantation of individual immunophenotypic subsets isolated from patients' PBMC as well as that of various combinations of these subsets revealed a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the engraftment of EBV-infected T and NK cells. In accordance with this finding, in vivo depletion of CD4+ T cells by the administration of the OKT4 antibody following transplantation of PBMC prevented the engraftment of EBV-infected T and NK cells. This is the first report of animal models of CAEBV and EBV-HLH that are expected to be useful tools in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the diseases.
Author Summary
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that infects more than 90% of the adult human population in the world. EBV usually infects B lymphocytes and does not produce symptoms in infected individuals, but in rare occasions it infects T or NK lymphocytes and causes severe diseases such as chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH). We developed mouse models of these two human diseases in which EBV-infected T or NK lymphocytes proliferate in mouse tissues and reproduce human pathologic conditions such as overproduction of small proteins called “cytokines” that produce inflammatory responses in the body. These mouse models are thought to be very useful for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of CAEBV and EBV-HLH as well as for the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these diseases. Experiments with the models demonstrated that a subset of lymphocytes called CD4-positive lymphocytes are essential for the proliferation of EBV-infected T and NK cells. This result implies that removal of CD4-positive lymphocytes or suppression of their functions may be an effective strategy for the treatment of CAEBV and EBV-HLH.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002326
PMCID: PMC3197618  PMID: 22028658
8.  Relationship between Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and blood levels of Epstein-Barr Virus in children in north-western Tanzania: a case control study 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:4.
Background
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas (NHL) are common in African children, with endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) being the most common subtype. While the role of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in endemic BL is known, no data are available about clinical presentations of NHL subtypes and their relationship to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) load in peripheral blood of children in north-western, Tanzania.
Methods
A matched case control study of NHL subtypes was performed in children under 15 years of age and their respective controls admitted to Bugando Medical Centre, Sengerema and Shirati district designated hospitals in north-western, Tanzania, between September 2010 and April 2011. Peripheral blood samples were collected on Whatman 903 filter papers and EBV DNA levels were estimated by multiplex real-time PCR. Clinical and laboratory data were collected using a structured data collection tool and analysed using chi-square, Fisher and Wilcoxon rank sum tests where appropriate. The association between NHL and detection of EBV in peripheral blood was assessed using conditional logistic regression model and presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results
A total of 35 NHL cases and 70 controls matched for age and sex were enrolled. Of NHLs, 32 had BL with equal distribution between jaw and abdominal tumour, 2 had large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 1 had NHL-not otherwise specified (NHL-NOS). Central nervous system (CNS) presentation occurred only in 1 BL patient; 19 NHLs had stage I and II of disease. Only 1 NHL was found to be HIV-seropositive. Twenty-one of 35 (60%) NHL and 21 of 70 (30%) controls had detectable EBV in peripheral blood (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.71 – 13.33, p = 0.003). In addition, levels of EBV in blood were significantly higher in NHL cases than in controls (p = 0.024).
Conclusions
BL is the most common childhood NHL subtype in north-western Tanzania. NHLs are not associated with HIV infection, but are strongly associated with EBV load in peripheral blood. The findings suggest that high levels of EBV in blood might have diagnostic and prognostic relevance in African children.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-4
PMCID: PMC3547779  PMID: 23294539
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma; Children; HIV; EBV
9.  Role of latent membrane protein 1 in chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection-derived T/NK-cell proliferation 
Cancer Medicine  2014;3(4):787-795.
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) predominantly infects B cells and causes B-cell lymphomas, such as Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. However, it also infects other types of cells, including T and natural killer (NK) cells, and causes disorders, such as chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and T/NK-cell lymphoma. The CAEBV is a lymphoproliferative disease with poor prognosis, where EBV-positive T or NK cells grow rapidly, although the molecular mechanisms that cause the cell expansion still remain to be elucidated. EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an oncogene that can transform some cell types, such as B cells and mouse fibroblasts, and thus may stimulate cell proliferation in CAEBV. Here, we examined the effect of LMP1 on EBV-negative cells using the cells conditionally expressing LMP1, and on CAEBV-derived EBV-positive cells by inhibiting the function of LMP1 using a dominant negative form of LMP1. We demonstrated that LMP1 was responsible for the increased cell proliferation in the cell lines derived from CAEBV, while LMP1 did not give any proliferative advantage to the EBV-negative cell line.
doi:10.1002/cam4.256
PMCID: PMC4303147  PMID: 24799376
AKT; CAEBV; dominant negative; LMP1; NFκB
10.  Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphomagenesis in the context of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection 
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human γ-herpes virus which establishes a life-long asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients, the impaired immunosurveillance against EBV may favor the development of EBV-related diseases, ranging from lymphoproliferative disorders to B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly modified the natural course of HIV-1 infection, resulting in decreased HIV-1 plasmaviremia, increased CD4 lymphocytes, and decreased opportunistic infections, indicating a restoration of immune functions. However, the impact of ART appears to be less favorable on EBV-related malignancies than on other AIDS-defining tumors, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, and NHL remains the most common cancer during the ART era. EBV-driven tumors are associated with selective expression of latent oncogenic proteins, but uncontrolled lytic cycle with virus replication and/or reactivation may favor cell transformation, at least in the early phases. Several host’s factors may promote EBV reactivation and replication; besides immunodepression, inflammation/chronic immune stimulation may play an important role. Microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns, through Toll-like receptors, activate the immune system and may promote EBV reactivation and/or polyclonal expansion of EBV-infected cells. A body of evidence suggests that chronic immune stimulation is a hallmark of HIV-1 pathogenesis and may persist even in ART-treated patients. This review focuses on lymphomagenesis driven by EBV both in the context of the natural history of HIV-1 infection and in ART-treated patients. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the expansion of EBV-infected cells is a premise for the identification of prognostic markers of EBV-associated malignancies.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00311
PMCID: PMC3799006  PMID: 24151490
EBV; HIV-1; B cell activation; chronic immune activation; EBV-related malignancies; antiretroviral therapy; EBV lytic reactivation
11.  The ambiguous boundary between EBV-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and systemic EBV-driven T cell lymphoproliferative disorder 
Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) is a form of acquired, infection-related HLH which typically represents a fulminant presentation of an acute EBV infection of CD8+ T cells with 30-50% mortality rate. Systemic EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease of childhood (SE-LPD) is a rare T cell lymphoproliferative disorder predominantly arising in the setting of acute EBV infection, often presenting with HLH. Since both entities have been associated with clonal T cell populations, the discrimination between these diseases is often ambiguous. We report a unique case of a 21 years old female who presented with clinical and laboratory findings of florid HLH in the setting of markedly elevated EBV titers (>1 million) and an aberrant T cell population shown to be clonal by flow cytometry, karyotype, and molecular studies. This case raises the differential of EBV-HLH versus SE-LPD. Review of the literature identified 74 cases of reported EBV-HLH and 21 cases of SE-LPD with associated HLH in 25 studies. Of those cases with available outcome data, 62 of 92 cases (67%) were fatal. Of 60 cases in which molecular clonality was demonstrated, 37 (62%) were fatal, while all 14 cases (100%) demonstrating karyotypic abnormalities were fatal. Given the karyotypic findings in this sentinel case, a diagnosis of SE-LPD was rendered. The overlapping clinical and pathologic findings suggest that EBV-HLH and SE-LPD are a biologic continuum, rather than discrete entities. The most clinically useful marker of mortality was an abnormal karyotype rather than other standards of clonality assessment.
PMCID: PMC4203186  PMID: 25337215
Systemic EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease of childhood; EBV-related HLH; clonal EBV-related HLH; atypical T cell population; EBV-related T cell lymphoma
12.  Characterization of variants in the promoter of BZLF1 gene of EBV in nonmalignant EBV-associated diseases in Chinese children 
Virology Journal  2010;7:92.
Background
Diseases associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, such as infectious mononucleosis (IM), EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) are not rare in Chinese children. The association of type 1 or type 2 EBV and variants of the EBV BZLF1 promoter zone (Zp) with these diseases is unclear.
Results
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between EBV genotypes (Zp variants and EBV type 1 and 2) and the clinical phenotypes of EBV-associated diseases in Chinese children. The Zp region was directly sequenced in 206 EBV-positive DNA samples from the blood of patients with IM, EBV-HLH, CAEBV, and healthy controls. Type 1 or type 2 EBV was examined by PCR for EBNA2 and EBNA3C subtypes. Four polymorphic Zp variants were identified: Zp-P, Zp-V3, Zp-P4 and Zp-V1, a new variant. The Zp-V3 variant was significantly associated with CAEBV (P ≤ 0.01). The frequency of co-infection with Zp variants was higher in patients with CAEBV and EBV-HLH, compared with IM and healthy controls, mostly as Zp-P+V3 co-infection. Type 1 EBV was predominant in all categories (81.3-95%) and there was no significant difference in the frequency of the EBV types 1 and 2 in different categories (P > 0.05).
Conclusions
Type 1 EBV and BZLF1 Zp-P of EBV were the predominant genotypes in nonmalignant EBV associated diseases in Chinese children and Zp-V3 variant may correlates with the developing of severe EBV infection diseases, such as CAEBV and EBV-HLH.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-92
PMCID: PMC2879250  PMID: 20459737
13.  EBV in situ hybridization study for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. 
Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of B-lymphoproliferative disorders, T-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease. In this report, we performed an in situ hybridization study on EBV genome in 10 cases of nasal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(NHL), 20 cases of Waldeyer's ring(WR) NHL, and 20 cases of nodal NHLs to document EBV association with lymphomas in Koreans. For immunophenotyping, monoclonal antibodies for CD 20, MB 2, CD 45Ro & CD 43 were used. For in situ hybridization study, EBV DNA probe for Bam HI 'V' fragment and EBV RNA probe for EBER and BHLF were used. Twenty two cases(44%) of malignant lymphomas were positive for EBV genome. Generally, T-cell lymphomas showed a higher positive rate(61%) than B-cell lymphomas(24%). Among T-cell lymphomas, nasal lymphomas showed a higher positive rate(80%) than WR(50%) or nodal lymphomas(50%). Of 22 EBV genome positive cases, 10 cases were positive for EBER, 10 cases for BHLF, and 2 cases for both EBER and BHLF. The histologic types by Working Formulation(WF) were not correlated with EBV genome positive rate, whereas lymphomas showing the histologic spectrum of polymorphic reticulosis(PR) showed a higher positive rate(65%) than lymphomas without PR-like features(40%). These results indicate that nasal T-cell lymphomas with the histologic spectrum of PR are strongly associated with EBV and that the anatomic site may be an important factor in this association.
PMCID: PMC3054072  PMID: 7993589
14.  Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma with EBV-positive Hodgkin-like cells 
Human pathology  2011;42(7):1042-1046.
SUMMARY
Hodgkin-like cells (HLC) have been described in a variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). There have been rare reports in the Japanese population of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus-1 (HTLV-1)-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) harboring HLC; however, no similar cases have been described in western patients. We report a 53-year-old African-American man that presented with progressive weakness and lethargy, and was found to have generalized lymphadenopathy and hypercalcemia. A lymph node biopsy showed involvement by ATLL with scattered Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cells, some of which resembled Hodgkin cells that had a B-cell phenotype, consistent with an Epstein-Barr virus-lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The patient had stage 4 disease with bone marrow involvement. In light of the associated B-cell lymphoproliferative process, the patient was treated with six cycles of intensive chemotherapy that targeted both the ATLL and the EBV-LPD that resulted in a complete response. An awareness of the association of EBV-LPD with Hodgkin-like cells in the context of ATLL is necessary to avoid potential misdiagnosis and to aid in therapeutic decisions.
doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2010.10.014
PMCID: PMC3118938  PMID: 21315416
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma; Epstein-Barr virus; flow cytometry; Hodgkin-like; human T-cell lymphotrophic virus-1; immunohistochemistry
15.  Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) detection and typing by PCR: a contribution to diagnostic screening of EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma 
Diagnostic Pathology  2006;1:17.
Background
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated to the etio-pathogenesis of an increasing number of tumors. Detection of EBV in pathology samples is relevant since its high prevalence in some cancers makes the virus a promising target of specific therapies. RNA in situ hybridization (RISH) is the standard diagnostic procedure, while polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are used for strain (EBV type-1 or 2) distinction. We performed a systematic comparison between RISH and PCR for EBV detection, in a group of childhood B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), aiming to validate PCR as a first, rapid method for the diagnosis of EBV-associated B-cell NHL.
Methods
EBV infection was investigated in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples of 41 children with B-cell NHL, including 35 Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by in situ hybridization of EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER-RISH) and PCR assays based on EBNA2 amplification.
Results
EBV genomes were detected in 68% of all NHL. Type 1 and 2 accounted for 80% and 20% of EBV infection, respectively. PCR and RISH were highly concordant (95%), as well as single- and nested-PCR results, allowing the use of a single PCR round for diagnostic purposes. PCR assays showed a sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 100%, respectively, with a detection level of 1 EBV genome in 5,000–10,000 EBV-negative cells, excluding the possibility of detecting low-number EBV-bearing memory cells.
Conclusion
We describe adequate PCR conditions with similar sensitivity and reliability to RISH, to be used for EBV diagnostic screening in high grade B-NHL, in "at risk" geographic regions.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-1-17
PMCID: PMC1559641  PMID: 16893464
16.  HIV Patients Developing Primary CNS Lymphoma Lack EBV-Specific CD4+ T Cell Function Irrespective of Absolute CD4+ T Cell Counts 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(3):e96.
Background
In chronic HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy–induced normalization of CD4+ T cell counts (immune reconstitution [IR]) is associated with a decreased incidence of opportunistic diseases. However, some individuals remain at risk for opportunistic diseases despite prolonged normalization of CD4+ T cell counts. Deficient Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD4+ T cell function may explain the occurrence of EBV-associated opportunistic malignancy—such as primary central nervous system (PCNS) lymphoma—despite recovery of absolute CD4+ T cell counts.
Methods and Findings
Absolute CD4+ T cell counts and EBV-specific CD4+ T cell-dependent interferon-γ production were assessed in six HIV-positive individuals prior to development of PCNS lymphoma (“cases”), and these values were compared with those in 16 HIV-infected matched participants with no sign of EBV-associated pathology (“matched controls”) and 11 nonmatched HIV-negative blood donors. Half of the PCNS lymphoma patients fulfilled IR criteria (defined here as CD4+ T cell counts ≥500/μl blood). EBV-specific CD4+ T cells were assessed 0.5–4.7 y prior to diagnosis of lymphoma. In 0/6 cases versus 13/16 matched controls an EBV-specific CD4+ T cell response was detected (p = 0.007; confidence interval for odds ratio [0–0.40]). PCNS lymphoma patients also differed with regards to this response significantly from HIV-negative blood donors (p < 0.001, confidence interval for odds ratio [0–0.14]), but there was no evidence for a difference between HIV-negative participants and the HIV-positive matched controls (p = 0.47).
Conclusions
Irrespective of absolute CD4+ T cell counts, HIV-positive patients who subsequently developed PCNS lymphoma lacked EBV-specific CD4+ T cell function. Larger, ideally prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary data, and clarify the impact of pathogen-specific versus surrogate marker-based assessment of IR on clinical outcome.
In a case-control study from the Swiss HIV cohort, Hess and colleagues report that T-helper responses against Epstein-Barr virus are specifically absent in patients developing CNS lymphoma.
Editors' Summary
Background.
AIDS causes disease by inactivating the body's immune responses. Most severely affected are the white blood cells known as T lymphocytes, particularly the CD4+ T cells that recognize infection and enable other cells of the immune system to respond. Advanced HIV infection, marked by very low numbers of CD4+ cells, is associated with a variety of infections and tumors that are rarely seen in people with intact immune systems. People with advanced HIV who receive highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) tend to have increases in their CD4+ cell counts and lose their susceptibility to these so-called opportunistic infections and cancers. For several common opportunistic infections, it is considered safe to discontinue preventive antibiotics after a patient's total CD4+ cell count has returned to normal levels on HAART. Some treated individuals, however, will develop these conditions even after their CD4+ cell counts have returned to normal levels. The reason this happens is unclear.
Why Was This Study Done?
For several years, scientists have speculated that susceptibility to a given opportunistic infection might be due not simply to low total CD4+ cells, but to loss of the specific CD4+ cells that recognize the infection in question. If this theory is correct, then those individuals who develop an opportunistic condition after their total CD4+ cell counts return to normal might be missing the specific cells that respond to the microbe causing the condition. The researchers wanted to test this theory in HIV patients with a brain tumor called primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNS lymphoma). The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which causes mononucleosis in the general population, has been shown to be a cause of PCNS lymphoma in people with AIDS.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers studied patients who developed PCNS lymphoma while enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort, an ongoing study that has enrolled more than 14,000 people. A large cohort was needed to address this question because PCNS lymphoma is uncommon, and indeed only six patients with a confirmed diagnosis were identified. Because they had been followed as part of the cohort study, these patients had given blood samples that could be tested in retrospect. Three of these patients had low CD4+ cell counts prior to lymphoma diagnosis and three had normal CD4+ cell counts, but CD4 responses specifically against EBV were absent or very low in all six patients before they were diagnosed with PCNS lymphoma. The researchers also studied a comparison group of cohort participants with comparable CD4+ cell counts but no PCNS lymphoma, and found that 13/16 of those participants did have CD4 responses to EBV.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These results support the idea that the action of EBV-specific CD4+ cells, rather than a given level of total CD4+ cells, is needed to prevent PCNS lymphoma. Because only a small number of cases were identified, this must be considered a preliminary result. Given the rarity of PCNS lymphoma, however, especially in people receiving HAART, it seems unlikely that a larger cohort will be available in the near future to provide a more definitive conclusion. Based on this result, it may be useful to perform similar studies of other opportunistic infections. If a “gap” in the CD4+ cell response can be shown to increase the risk of a specific condition, it may become appropriate to test specific CD4 responses before deciding to discontinue preventive treatment as CD4+ cell counts increase on HAART.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040096.
Read the accompanying Perspective by Mark Jacobson, MD
The Swiss Cohort Study Web site contains information on related research projects
The UCSF Center for HIV Information's HIV InSite includes resources on HIV immunology and opportunistic infections
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040096
PMCID: PMC1831733  PMID: 17388662
17.  Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder developed following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for relapsing Hodgkin’s lymphoma 
Oncology Letters  2012;3(6):1203-1206.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations that develop as a consequence of immunosuppression in a recipient of a solid organ, bone marrow or stem cell allograft. The development of PTLDs is usually associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the disorder is also termed EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The development of PTLD is a rare complication in autologous bone marrow/peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we report a case of EBV-associated LPD which developed following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for relapsing Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A 51-year-old male presented with swelling of the left cervical lymph nodes. A biopsy revealed nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Following four courses of ABVd (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) therapy, the Hodgkin’s lymphoma relapsed. CHASE (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, cytarabine, dexamethasone) therapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were performed. In the 128 days following the transplantation, lymph node swelling was noted and a biopsy specimen demonstrated EBV-associated LPD. The serum copy number of EBV-DNA was 2.7×103 copies/ml. The occurrence of EBV-associated LPD may be on the rise due to the increased number of patients undergoing immunosuppression therapy. The measurement of the serum EBV-DNA copy number and the detection of EBV-infected atypical lymphocytes using in situ hybridization are significant in establishing an early accurate diagnosis and initiating the correct treatment for EBV-associated LPD in patients with immunosuppression.
doi:10.3892/ol.2012.670
PMCID: PMC3392596  PMID: 22783418
Epstein-Barr virus; lymphoproliferative disorder; Hodgkin’s lymphoma; autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
18.  Soluble Rhesus Lymphocryptovirus gp350 Protects against Infection and Reduces Viral Loads in Animals that Become Infected with Virus after Challenge 
PLoS Pathogens  2011;7(10):e1002308.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human lymphocryptovirus that is associated with several malignancies. Elevated EBV DNA in the blood is observed in transplant recipients prior to, and at the time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease; thus, a vaccine that either prevents EBV infection or lowers the viral load might reduce certain EBV malignancies. Two major approaches have been suggested for an EBV vaccine- immunization with either EBV glycoprotein 350 (gp350) or EBV latency proteins (e.g. EBV nuclear antigens [EBNAs]). No comparative trials, however, have been performed. Rhesus lymphocryptovirus (LCV) encodes a homolog for each gene in EBV and infection of monkeys reproduces the clinical, immunologic, and virologic features of both acute and latent EBV infection. We vaccinated rhesus monkeys at 0, 4 and 12 weeks with (a) soluble rhesus LCV gp350, (b) virus-like replicon particles (VRPs) expressing rhesus LCV gp350, (c) VRPs expressing rhesus LCV gp350, EBNA-3A, and EBNA-3B, or (d) PBS. Animals vaccinated with soluble gp350 produced higher levels of antibody to the glycoprotein than those vaccinated with VRPs expressing gp350. Animals vaccinated with VRPs expressing EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B developed LCV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity to these proteins, while VRPs expressing gp350 did not induce detectable T cell immunity to gp350. After challenge with rhesus LCV, animals vaccinated with soluble rhesus LCV gp350 had the best level of protection against infection based on seroconversion, viral DNA, and viral RNA in the blood after challenge. Surprisingly, animals vaccinated with gp350 that became infected had the lowest LCV DNA loads in the blood at 23 months after challenge. These studies indicate that gp350 is critical for both protection against infection with rhesus LCV and for reducing the viral load in animals that become infected after challenge. Our results suggest that additional trials with soluble EBV gp350 alone, or in combination with other EBV proteins, should be considered to reduce EBV infection or virus-associated malignancies in humans.
Author Summary
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several cancers. Presently there is no licensed vaccine to prevent EBV diseases. Two types of candidate vaccines are under development; one involves immunization with the major glycoprotein (gp350) on the outside of the virus, while the other involves vaccination with EBV proteins expressed during latency. We compared these two types of candidate vaccines in a rhesus monkey model of EBV and found that the gp350 vaccine induced better protection from infection. In addition, animals that received the rhesus EBV glycoprotein and became infected had a lower level of rhesus EBV DNA in the blood at 23 months after challenge than animals that received the rhesus EBV latency protein vaccine that subsequently were infected. Since levels of EBV DNA in the blood have been predictive for EBV lymphomas in transplant patients, the ability of rhesus EBV gp350 to reduce levels of rhesus EBV in the blood after infection suggests the EBV gp350 could have a role in reducing certain EBV-associated cancers. This is the first test of candidate vaccines in the rhesus monkey model of EBV and shows that this model should be useful in further evaluation of EBV vaccines.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002308
PMCID: PMC3197588  PMID: 22028652
19.  Comparison Between Presence of Epstein Barr Virus in Nodal and Extra Nodal Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Head and Neck, an Iranian Experience 
Background
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is one of the most common viral infections in human population. EBV has a significant role in pathogenesis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The role of EBV in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, diffuse large B cell (NHL - DLBL) in the head and neck is controversial.
Objectives
The purpose of this study is to find out the difference between the presence of Epstein Barr virus in nodal and extra nodal lymphoma of head and neck.
Patients and Methods
A total of 30 cases of DLBL in two separate groups were collected from pathology department. The first group was consisted of 15 patients with DLBL of neck lymph node and the other was consisted of 15 patients with extra nodal DLBL of head and neck mainly in palatine tonsil. Both immune-histo-chemical (IHC) study and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of late membrane antigen (LMP) were performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue.
Results
All 30 cases were negative for EBV in IHC method. But in PCR method, 10% of patients were positive for LMP gene. There were 2 positive cases in nodal lymphoma and 1 positive case in extra nodal lymphoma group.
Conclusions
Compare with PCR method, it seems that IHC is not a sensitive method for detection of EBV. Overall, the finding of EBV in NHL depends on site, type of lymphoma and the detection method.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.1302
PMCID: PMC3587864  PMID: 23482890
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Antigens; Head and Neck
20.  Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–encoded small RNA is released from EBV-infected cells and activates signaling from toll-like receptor 3 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2009;206(10):2091-2099.
Epstein-Barr virus–encoded small RNA (EBER) is nonpolyadenylated, noncoding RNA that forms stem-loop structure by intermolecular base-pairing, giving rise to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)–like molecules, and exists abundantly in EBV-infected cells. Here, we report that EBER induces signaling from the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is a sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and induces type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. A substantial amount of EBER, which was sufficient to induce signaling from TLR3, was released from EBV-infected cells, and the majority of the released EBER existed as a complex with a cellular EBER-binding protein La, suggesting that EBER was released from the cells by active secretion of La. Sera from patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), whose general symptoms are caused by proinflammatory cytokines contained EBER, and addition of RNA purified from the sera into culture medium induced signaling from TLR3 in EBV-transformed lymphocytes and peripheral mononuclear cells. Furthermore, DCs treated with EBER showed mature phenotype and antigen presentation capacity. These findings suggest that EBER, which is released from EBV-infected cells, is responsible for immune activation by EBV, inducing type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. EBER-induced activation of innate immunity would account for immunopathologic diseases caused by active EBV infection.
doi:10.1084/jem.20081761
PMCID: PMC2757889  PMID: 19720839
21.  A20 (TNFAIP3) Deletion in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders/Lymphomas 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56741.
A negative regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, A20 (TNFAIP3), is inactivated in several types of lymphomas; particularly in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. These findings suggest that the NF-κB activation is related to A20 inactivation. Recently, A20 inactivation has also been observed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphomas; however, this occurrence has not been well investigated. Moreover, NF-κB is a key molecule in activated B-cell-like (ABC)-type DLBCL; EBV-associated DLBCL is of the ABC type. Therefore, we focused on A20 deletions in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders/lymphomas. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, A20 deletions were identified in 4 of 13 samples from patients with pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) (31%), 3 of 20 samples from nasal-type NK/T cell lymphomas (NKTLs) (15%), 1 of 8 samples of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly (DLBCL-e) (13%), but not in any of the 11 samples from individuals with methotrexate-related lymphoproliferative disorder (MTX-LPD) (0%). Among the samples with A20 deletions, EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) expression was detected in all 4 of the PAL samples with A20 deletions and in the DLBCL-e sample with an A20 deletion, but not in any of the 3 NKTL samples. This finding indicated that A20 deletions were not directly related to the EBV latency pattern of lymphomas, although such deletions might be related to the diagnostic category. Immunohistologically, the A20 protein was absent in 2 (15%) of the13 PAL samples, 1 (9%) of 11 MTX-LPD samples, and in none of the 20 NKTL (0%) or 8 DLBCL-e samples. In conclusion, A20 deletion and/or dysfunctional expression are frequently associated with PALs, and A20 abnormalities may be related to the pathogenesis of PAL.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056741
PMCID: PMC3572056  PMID: 23418597
22.  Dithiocarbamates and Viral IL-10 Collaborate in the Immortalization and Evasion of Immune Response in EBV-infected Human B Lymphocytes 
Chemico-biological interactions  2007;172(1):81-92.
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies including several subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) [1]. Lymphoproliferative disease and NHL occurring in severely immunosuppressed individuals almost all involve EBV and have been extensively studied and modeled in vitro. EBV has also been causally associated with some cases of NHL occurring in otherwise immunocompetent individuals. However, a direct role for EBV in the pathogenesis of neoplasms developing in the presence of an otherwise competent immune system has not been established. We investigated potential interactions between dithiocarbamates (DTC), an important class of thiono-sulfur compounds, and EBV leading to immortalization of human B lymphocytes and evasion of cell-mediated immune response in culture. Primary lymphocyte cultures employing wild-type and recombinant EBV mutants were used to assess the respective roles of DTC and viral genes in lymphocyte transformation and survival. Pretreatment of EBV-infected human B lymphocytes with DTC directly enhanced transformation in the absence of T cells (5 nM) and independently increased survival of transformed cells in the presence of competent autologous T cells (10 nM). Both DTC-induced transformation and immortalization of EBV-infected B lymphocytes were dependent on the expression of viral IL-10. These results provide a biological basis for studying collaborations between chemical and virus that alter lymphocyte biology, and provide a rationale for further molecular epidemiology studies to better understand the potential influence of these interactions on the development of NHL and perhaps other viral-associated malignancies.
doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2007.11.005
PMCID: PMC2293282  PMID: 18163983
dithiocarbamates; Epstein-Barr virus; IL-10; immune evasion; B lymphocytes
23.  Aggressive Peripheral CD70-positive T-cell Lymphoma Associated with Severe Chronic Active EBV Infection 
Pediatric blood & cancer  2011;59(4):758-761.
Severe chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) in T or NK cells is a rare complication of latent EBV infection. CAEBV associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) consists of polyclonal lesions as well as aggressive lymphomas. Here we report such a patient. In addition, we show that this primary CAEBV associated T-cell lymphoma expresses CD70 and is sensitive to killing by CD70-specific T cells, identifying CD70 as a potential immunotherapeutic target for CAEBV-associated T-cell lymphoma.
doi:10.1002/pbc.23352
PMCID: PMC3258475  PMID: 21994111
EBV; CD70; Lymphoma; Immunotherapy
24.  A Case of Age-Related Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV)-Associated B Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder, so-called Polymorphous Subtype, of the Mandible, with a Review of the Literature 
Head and Neck Pathology  2012;7(2):178-187.
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is known to be associated with the development of lymphomas in immunocompromised patients. Recently, age-related immune impairment has been recognized as a predisposing factor in the development of EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in elderly patients without any known immunodeficiency or prior lymphoma. In approximately 70 % of reported cases, the affected sites have been extranodal, such as the skin, lung, tonsil and stomach. However, age-related EBV-associated B cell (EBV + B cell) LPD is extremely rare in the oral cavity. Here we report a 71-year-old Japanese man who developed an EBV + B cell LPD resembling classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL)—so-called polymorphous subtype—of the mandible. Histopathologically, infiltration of large atypical lymphoid cells including Hodgkin or Reed-Sternberg-like cells into granulation tissue with marked necrosis was found in the mandibular bone. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the large atypical Hodgkin or Reed-Sternberg-like cells were CD3–, CD15–, CD20+, CD30+ and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-latent infection membrane protein-1 (LMP-1)+. In situ hybridization (ISH) demonstrated EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) + in numerous Hodgkin or Reed-Sternberg-like cells. EBNA-2 was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using an extract from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the polymorphous subtype of age-related EBV + B cell LPD affecting the mandible.
doi:10.1007/s12105-012-0392-1
PMCID: PMC3642255  PMID: 22869357
Age-related Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (age-related EBV + B cell LPD); Epstein–Barr virus (EBV); Polymorphous subtype; Mandible
25.  EBV, HHV8 and HIV in B cell non Hodgkin lymphoma in Kampala, Uganda 
Background
B cell non Hodgkin lymphomas account for the majority of lymphomas in Uganda. The commonest is endemic Burkitt lymphoma, followed by diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). There has been an increase in incidence of malignant lymphoma since the onset of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. However, the possible linkages of HHV8 and EBV to the condition of impaired immunity present in AIDS are still not yet very clearly understood.
Objectives
1. To describe the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus, Human Herpes virus 8 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in B cell non Hodgkin lymphoma biopsy specimens in Kampala, Uganda.
2. To describe the histopathology of non Hodgkin lymphoma by HIV serology test result in Kampala, Uganda
Method
Tumour biopsies specimens from 119 patients with B cell non Hodgkin lymphoma were classified according to the WHO classification. Immunohistochemistry was used for detection of HHV8 and in situ hybridization with Epstein Barr virus encoded RNA (EBER) for EBV. Real time and nested PCR were used for the detection of HIV.
The patients from whom the 1991-2000 NHL biopsies had been taken did not have HIV serology results therefore 145 patients biopsies where serology results were available were used to describe the association of HIV with non Hodgkin lymphoma type during 2008-2009.
Results
In this study, the majority (92%) of the Burkitt lymphomas and only 34.8% of the diffuse large B cell lymphomas were EBV positive. None of the precursor B lymphoblastic lymphomas or the mantle cell lymphomas showed EBV integration in the lymphoma cells.
None of the Burkitt lymphoma biopsies had HIV by PCR. Of the 121 non Hodgkin B cell lymphoma patients with HIV test results, 19% had HIV. However, only 1(0.04%) case of Burkitt lymphoma had HIV. All the tumours were HHV8 negative.
Conclusions
The majority of the Burkitt lymphomas and two fifths of the diffuse large B cell lymphomas had EBV. All the tumours were HHV8 negative. Generally, the relationship of NHL and HIV was weaker than what has been reported from the developed countries. We discuss the role of these viruses in lymphomagenesis in light of current knowledge.
doi:10.1186/1750-9378-5-12
PMCID: PMC2907314  PMID: 20591151

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