Nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that is closely associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). The clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK or T cells is also seen in patients with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection, suggesting that two diseases might share a partially similar mechanism by which EBV affects host cellular gene expression. To understand the pathogenesis of EBV-associated NK/T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) and design new therapies, we employed a novel EBV DNA microarray to compare patterns of EBV expression in six cell lines established from EBV-associated NK/T-cell LPD. We found that expression of BZLF1, which encodes the immediate-early gene product Zta, was expressed in SNK/T cells and the expression levels were preferentially high in cell lines from CAEBV infection. We also analyzsd the gene expression patterns of host cellular genes using a human oligonucleotide DNA microarray. We identified a subset of pathogenically and clinically relevant host cellular genes, including TNFRSF10D, CDK2, HSPCA, IL12A as a common molecular biological properties of EBV-associated NK/T-cell LPD and a subset of genes, such as PDCD4 as a putative contributor for disease progression. This study describes a novel approach from the aspects of viral and host gene expression, which could identify novel therapeutic targets in EBV-associated NK/T-cell LPD.
Epstein Barr virus; nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma; EBV DNA microarray; CAEBV infection
Background: Recently novel Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) have been identified in non-immunocompromised hosts, both in Asia and Western countries. These include aggressive T-cell and NK-cell LPDs often subsumed under the heading of chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (CAEBV) infection and EBV-driven B-cell LPDs mainly affecting the elderly.
Design: To better define the pathogenesis, classification, and treatment of these disorders, participants from Asia, The Americas, Europe, and Australia presented clinical and experimental data at an international meeting.
Results: The term systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD, as adopted by the WHO classification, is preferred as a pathological classification over CAEBV (the favored clinical term) for those cases that are clonal. The disease has an aggressive clinical course, but may arise in the background of CAEBV. Hydroa vacciniforme (HV) and HV-like lymphoma represent a spectrum of clonal EBV-positive T-cell LPDs, which have a more protracted clinical course; spontaneous regression may occur in adult life. Severe mosquito bite allergy is a related syndrome usually of NK cell origin. Immune senescence in the elderly is associated with both reactive and neoplastic EBV-driven LPDs, including EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Conclusion: The participants proposed an international consortium to facilitate further clinical and biological studies of novel EBV-driven LPDs.
chronic active EBV infection; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; hemophagocytic syndrome; hydroa vacciniforme; immune senescence; senile EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease; systemic EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease
Diseases associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, such as infectious mononucleosis (IM), EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) are not rare in Chinese children. The association of type 1 or type 2 EBV and variants of the EBV BZLF1 promoter zone (Zp) with these diseases is unclear.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between EBV genotypes (Zp variants and EBV type 1 and 2) and the clinical phenotypes of EBV-associated diseases in Chinese children. The Zp region was directly sequenced in 206 EBV-positive DNA samples from the blood of patients with IM, EBV-HLH, CAEBV, and healthy controls. Type 1 or type 2 EBV was examined by PCR for EBNA2 and EBNA3C subtypes. Four polymorphic Zp variants were identified: Zp-P, Zp-V3, Zp-P4 and Zp-V1, a new variant. The Zp-V3 variant was significantly associated with CAEBV (P ≤ 0.01). The frequency of co-infection with Zp variants was higher in patients with CAEBV and EBV-HLH, compared with IM and healthy controls, mostly as Zp-P+V3 co-infection. Type 1 EBV was predominant in all categories (81.3-95%) and there was no significant difference in the frequency of the EBV types 1 and 2 in different categories (P > 0.05).
Type 1 EBV and BZLF1 Zp-P of EBV were the predominant genotypes in nonmalignant EBV associated diseases in Chinese children and Zp-V3 variant may correlates with the developing of severe EBV infection diseases, such as CAEBV and EBV-HLH.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, ectopically infects T or NK cells to cause severe diseases of unknown pathogenesis, including chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH). We developed xenograft models of CAEBV and EBV-HLH by transplanting patients' PBMC to immunodeficient mice of the NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull strain. In these models, EBV-infected T, NK, or B cells proliferated systemically and reproduced histological characteristics of the two diseases. Analysis of the TCR repertoire expression revealed that identical predominant EBV-infected T-cell clones proliferated in patients and corresponding mice transplanted with their PBMC. Expression of the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and LMP2, but not EBNA2, in the engrafted cells is consistent with the latency II program of EBV gene expression known in CAEBV. High levels of human cytokines, including IL-8, IFN-γ, and RANTES, were detected in the peripheral blood of the model mice, mirroring hypercytokinemia characteristic to both CAEBV and EBV-HLH. Transplantation of individual immunophenotypic subsets isolated from patients' PBMC as well as that of various combinations of these subsets revealed a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the engraftment of EBV-infected T and NK cells. In accordance with this finding, in vivo depletion of CD4+ T cells by the administration of the OKT4 antibody following transplantation of PBMC prevented the engraftment of EBV-infected T and NK cells. This is the first report of animal models of CAEBV and EBV-HLH that are expected to be useful tools in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the diseases.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that infects more than 90% of the adult human population in the world. EBV usually infects B lymphocytes and does not produce symptoms in infected individuals, but in rare occasions it infects T or NK lymphocytes and causes severe diseases such as chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH). We developed mouse models of these two human diseases in which EBV-infected T or NK lymphocytes proliferate in mouse tissues and reproduce human pathologic conditions such as overproduction of small proteins called “cytokines” that produce inflammatory responses in the body. These mouse models are thought to be very useful for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of CAEBV and EBV-HLH as well as for the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these diseases. Experiments with the models demonstrated that a subset of lymphocytes called CD4-positive lymphocytes are essential for the proliferation of EBV-infected T and NK cells. This result implies that removal of CD4-positive lymphocytes or suppression of their functions may be an effective strategy for the treatment of CAEBV and EBV-HLH.
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas (NHL) are common in African children, with endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) being the most common subtype. While the role of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in endemic BL is known, no data are available about clinical presentations of NHL subtypes and their relationship to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) load in peripheral blood of children in north-western, Tanzania.
A matched case control study of NHL subtypes was performed in children under 15 years of age and their respective controls admitted to Bugando Medical Centre, Sengerema and Shirati district designated hospitals in north-western, Tanzania, between September 2010 and April 2011. Peripheral blood samples were collected on Whatman 903 filter papers and EBV DNA levels were estimated by multiplex real-time PCR. Clinical and laboratory data were collected using a structured data collection tool and analysed using chi-square, Fisher and Wilcoxon rank sum tests where appropriate. The association between NHL and detection of EBV in peripheral blood was assessed using conditional logistic regression model and presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
A total of 35 NHL cases and 70 controls matched for age and sex were enrolled. Of NHLs, 32 had BL with equal distribution between jaw and abdominal tumour, 2 had large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 1 had NHL-not otherwise specified (NHL-NOS). Central nervous system (CNS) presentation occurred only in 1 BL patient; 19 NHLs had stage I and II of disease. Only 1 NHL was found to be HIV-seropositive. Twenty-one of 35 (60%) NHL and 21 of 70 (30%) controls had detectable EBV in peripheral blood (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.71 – 13.33, p = 0.003). In addition, levels of EBV in blood were significantly higher in NHL cases than in controls (p = 0.024).
BL is the most common childhood NHL subtype in north-western Tanzania. NHLs are not associated with HIV infection, but are strongly associated with EBV load in peripheral blood. The findings suggest that high levels of EBV in blood might have diagnostic and prognostic relevance in African children.
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma; Children; HIV; EBV
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific”
target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies.
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) comprises primary and secondary forms; the secondary form is most commonly triggered by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV; EBV‐HLH). Patients with EBV‐HLH usually exhibit oligoclonal or monoclonal T cell proliferation, which may mimic T cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T‐LPD). This article reports on EBV‐HLH in a 17‐month‐old girl with an extreme surge of reactive T lymphocytosis (absolute count 167×109/l) with CD5 down regulation. Bone marrow aspirate and trephine contained florid haemophagocytosis and massive infiltration of CD3+ Epstein–Barr virus‐encoded RNA+ lymphocytes, as seen by double labelling. These lymphocytes were monoclonal for EBV and T cell receptor γ chain gene rearrangement. The patient responded dramatically to intravenous immunoglobulin, interferon α2b, ganciclovir and prednisolone, suggesting restoration of her immune system and eradication of the clonal T cells through these immunoregulatory agents. Thus, careful clinicopathological correlation is warranted in the interpretation of immunophenotyping and clonality data in T cell proliferation in association with EBV‐HLH to avoid erroneous diagnosis of T‐LPD.
Since the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from a cultured Burkitt's lymphoma cell line in 1964, the virus has been associated with Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and infectious mononucleosis. During the recent decade, EBV has been etiologically implicated in a broad spectrum of human diseases. The precise role of this virus in these diseases is not well understood, but clearly, defective immunosurveillance against the virus may permit an uncontrolled proliferation of EBV-infected cells. As a result, a growing number of cases of EBV-associated B-cell proliferative diseases or lymphoma have been noted in patients with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. These lymphoproliferative diseases and others, such as chronic mononucleosis syndrome, are leading to new areas of investigation which are providing information regarding the pathogenetic mechanisms of EBV-induced diseases. The early accurate diagnosis of EBV infection can be achieved by performing EBV-specific serology, detecting for EBV-determined nuclear antigen in tissues, establishing spontaneous lymphoid cell lines, and using molecular hybridization techniques for demonstrating the presence of viral genome in affected lesions.
Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of B-lymphoproliferative disorders, T-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease. In this report, we performed an in situ hybridization study on EBV genome in 10 cases of nasal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(NHL), 20 cases of Waldeyer's ring(WR) NHL, and 20 cases of nodal NHLs to document EBV association with lymphomas in Koreans. For immunophenotyping, monoclonal antibodies for CD 20, MB 2, CD 45Ro & CD 43 were used. For in situ hybridization study, EBV DNA probe for Bam HI 'V' fragment and EBV RNA probe for EBER and BHLF were used. Twenty two cases(44%) of malignant lymphomas were positive for EBV genome. Generally, T-cell lymphomas showed a higher positive rate(61%) than B-cell lymphomas(24%). Among T-cell lymphomas, nasal lymphomas showed a higher positive rate(80%) than WR(50%) or nodal lymphomas(50%). Of 22 EBV genome positive cases, 10 cases were positive for EBER, 10 cases for BHLF, and 2 cases for both EBER and BHLF. The histologic types by Working Formulation(WF) were not correlated with EBV genome positive rate, whereas lymphomas showing the histologic spectrum of polymorphic reticulosis(PR) showed a higher positive rate(65%) than lymphomas without PR-like features(40%). These results indicate that nasal T-cell lymphomas with the histologic spectrum of PR are strongly associated with EBV and that the anatomic site may be an important factor in this association.
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is one of the most common viral infections in human population. EBV has a significant role in pathogenesis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The role of EBV in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, diffuse large B cell (NHL - DLBL) in the head and neck is controversial.
The purpose of this study is to find out the difference between the presence of Epstein Barr virus in nodal and extra nodal lymphoma of head and neck.
Patients and Methods
A total of 30 cases of DLBL in two separate groups were collected from pathology department. The first group was consisted of 15 patients with DLBL of neck lymph node and the other was consisted of 15 patients with extra nodal DLBL of head and neck mainly in palatine tonsil. Both immune-histo-chemical (IHC) study and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of late membrane antigen (LMP) were performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue.
All 30 cases were negative for EBV in IHC method. But in PCR method, 10% of patients were positive for LMP gene. There were 2 positive cases in nodal lymphoma and 1 positive case in extra nodal lymphoma group.
Compare with PCR method, it seems that IHC is not a sensitive method for detection of EBV. Overall, the finding of EBV in NHL depends on site, type of lymphoma and the detection method.
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Antigens; Head and Neck
HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders represent a heterogeneous group of diseases, arising in the presence of HIV-associated immunodeficiency. The overall prevalence of HIV-associated lymphoma is significantly higher compared to that of the general population and it continues to be relevant even after the wide availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (1). Moreover, they still represent one of the most frequent cause of death in HIV-infected patients. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), a γ-Herpesviruses, is involved in human lymphomagenesis, particularly in HIV immunocompromised patients. It has been largely implicated in the development of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders as Burkitt lymphoma (BL), Hodgkin disease (HD), systemic non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC). Virus-associated lymphomas are becoming of significant concern for the mortality of long-lived HIV immunocompromised patients, and therefore, research of advanced strategies for AIDS-related lymphomas is an important field in cancer chemotherapy. Detailed understanding of the EBV lifecycle and related cancers at the molecular level is required for novel strategies of molecular-targeted cancer chemotherapy The linkage of HIV-related lymphoma with EBV infection of the tumor clone has several pathogenetic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications which are reviewed herein.
Fulminant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) is rare and most patients are of Asian origin. The disease usually develops shortly after primary acute EBV infection and the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we report such a rare case in a 28-year-old Caucasian female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Immunophenotypic and molecular studies revealed that the proliferating lymphoid cells displayed a CD8+ T-cell phenotype with clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gamma gene. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA was also observed in the clonal lymphoid cells by in situ hybridization. The patient subsequently developed fatal virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome one month after the primary acute EBV infection. The case represents the first report of fulminant EBV-driven CD8+ T-LPD occurring in an immunocompromised Caucasian SLE patient. This study, along with studies of similar Asian cases reported in the literature, suggests that dysregulated immunity due to either acquired or genetically determined susceptibility may result in an abnormal response to primary EBV infection and contribute to the pathogenesis of EBV-mediated fatal T-LPD.
Fatal infectious mononuleosis; Epstein-Barr virus; T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder; virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome; hemophagocytosis; systemic lupus erythematosus
Latent EBV infection is associated with several malignancies, including EBV post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt lymphoma. The range of expression of latent EBV antigens varies in these tumors, which influences how susceptible the tumors are to immunotherapeutic approaches. Tumors expressing type III latency, such as in LPD, express the widest array of EBV antigens making them the most susceptible to immunotherapy. Treatment strategies for EBV-related tumors include restoring normal cellular immunity by adoptive immunotherapy with EBV-specific T cells and targeting the malignant B cells with monoclonal antibodies. We review the current immunotherapies and future studies aimed at targeting EBV antigen expression in these tumors.
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human γ-herpes virus infecting more than 90% of the population worldwide. EBV is associated with certain malignancies (e.g. Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma). Recent studies have raised the possibility that EBV may also be involved in the pathogenesis of breast carcinoma, the most common carcinoma of females. If substantiated, this finding would have major implications regarding prevention and therapy of the disease. The studies published so far have employed diverse methods, however, and the results have been controversial.
Using the EBV DNA PCR, EBV DNA in situ hybridisation and in situ hybridisation for the detection of the EBV-encoded RNAs, and using immunohistochemistry for the demonstration of the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1, we have studied a series of 59 invasive breast carcinomas for evidence of EBV infection.
EBV-encoded RNA-specific in situ hybridisation and EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 immunohistochemistry were negative in all cases. Using the PCR, EBV DNA was detected in four out of 59 cases. These cases were further studied by EBV DNA in situ hybridisation, showing an absence of viral DNA from the tumour cells.
These results indicate that breast carcinoma is not an EBV-associated tumour.
breast carcinoma; Epstein–Barr virus; immunohistology; in situ hybridisation
Hodgkin-like cells (HLC) have been described in a variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). There have been rare reports in the Japanese population of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus-1 (HTLV-1)-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) harboring HLC; however, no similar cases have been described in western patients. We report a 53-year-old African-American man that presented with progressive weakness and lethargy, and was found to have generalized lymphadenopathy and hypercalcemia. A lymph node biopsy showed involvement by ATLL with scattered Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cells, some of which resembled Hodgkin cells that had a B-cell phenotype, consistent with an Epstein-Barr virus-lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The patient had stage 4 disease with bone marrow involvement. In light of the associated B-cell lymphoproliferative process, the patient was treated with six cycles of intensive chemotherapy that targeted both the ATLL and the EBV-LPD that resulted in a complete response. An awareness of the association of EBV-LPD with Hodgkin-like cells in the context of ATLL is necessary to avoid potential misdiagnosis and to aid in therapeutic decisions.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma; Epstein-Barr virus; flow cytometry; Hodgkin-like; human T-cell lymphotrophic virus-1; immunohistochemistry
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated to the etio-pathogenesis of an increasing number of tumors. Detection of EBV in pathology samples is relevant since its high prevalence in some cancers makes the virus a promising target of specific therapies. RNA in situ hybridization (RISH) is the standard diagnostic procedure, while polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are used for strain (EBV type-1 or 2) distinction. We performed a systematic comparison between RISH and PCR for EBV detection, in a group of childhood B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), aiming to validate PCR as a first, rapid method for the diagnosis of EBV-associated B-cell NHL.
EBV infection was investigated in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples of 41 children with B-cell NHL, including 35 Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by in situ hybridization of EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER-RISH) and PCR assays based on EBNA2 amplification.
EBV genomes were detected in 68% of all NHL. Type 1 and 2 accounted for 80% and 20% of EBV infection, respectively. PCR and RISH were highly concordant (95%), as well as single- and nested-PCR results, allowing the use of a single PCR round for diagnostic purposes. PCR assays showed a sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 100%, respectively, with a detection level of 1 EBV genome in 5,000–10,000 EBV-negative cells, excluding the possibility of detecting low-number EBV-bearing memory cells.
We describe adequate PCR conditions with similar sensitivity and reliability to RISH, to be used for EBV diagnostic screening in high grade B-NHL, in "at risk" geographic regions.
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies including several subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) . Lymphoproliferative disease and NHL occurring in severely immunosuppressed individuals almost all involve EBV and have been extensively studied and modeled in vitro. EBV has also been causally associated with some cases of NHL occurring in otherwise immunocompetent individuals. However, a direct role for EBV in the pathogenesis of neoplasms developing in the presence of an otherwise competent immune system has not been established. We investigated potential interactions between dithiocarbamates (DTC), an important class of thiono-sulfur compounds, and EBV leading to immortalization of human B lymphocytes and evasion of cell-mediated immune response in culture. Primary lymphocyte cultures employing wild-type and recombinant EBV mutants were used to assess the respective roles of DTC and viral genes in lymphocyte transformation and survival. Pretreatment of EBV-infected human B lymphocytes with DTC directly enhanced transformation in the absence of T cells (5 nM) and independently increased survival of transformed cells in the presence of competent autologous T cells (10 nM). Both DTC-induced transformation and immortalization of EBV-infected B lymphocytes were dependent on the expression of viral IL-10. These results provide a biological basis for studying collaborations between chemical and virus that alter lymphocyte biology, and provide a rationale for further molecular epidemiology studies to better understand the potential influence of these interactions on the development of NHL and perhaps other viral-associated malignancies.
dithiocarbamates; Epstein-Barr virus; IL-10; immune evasion; B lymphocytes
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is a rare inherited immunodeficiency by an extreme vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, frequently resulting in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). XLP are now divided into type 1 (XLP-1) and type 2 (XLP-2), which are caused by mutations of SH2D1A/SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) genes, respectively. The diagnosis of XLP in individuals with EBV-associated HLH (EBV-HLH) is generally difficult because they show basically similar symptoms to sporadic EBV-HLH. Although EBV-infected cells in sporadic EBV-HLH are known to be mainly in CD8+ T cells, the cell-type of EBV-infected cells in EBV-HLH seen in XLP patients remains undetermined.
EBV-infected cells in two patients (XLP-1 and XLP-2) presenting EBV-HLH were evaluated by in EBER-1 in situ hybridization or quantitative PCR methods.
Both XLP patients showed that the dominant population of EBV-infected cells was CD19+ B cells, whereas EBV-infected CD8+ T cells were very few.
In XLP-related EBV-HLH, EBV-infected cells appear to be predominantly B cells. B cell directed therapy such as rituximab may be a valuable option in the treatment of EBV-HLH in XLP patients.
B cells; Epstein Barr virus; Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome
Patients with primary immunodeficiencies such as the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) are prone to develop Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). EBV LPD is most frequently seen in patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment after organ transplantation (post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder), but can also arise in the primary immunodeficiencies. Typically, EBV LPD presents as a diffuse systemic disease with lymphadenopathy and organ involvement. A rare angiocentric and angiodestructive form of EBV associated B cell LPD, lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LyG), has also been reported in association with WAS. LyG most commonly involves the lung, but can also be seen in brain, kidney, liver, and skin. This report describes the case of a 16 year old boy with WAS who presented with an isolated non-healing ulcerating skin lesion. Biopsy revealed an EBV related LPD with the histological features of LyG. This cutaneous lesion responded dramatically to treatment with specific anti-CD20 immunotherapy and the patient remains clinically free of LPD at 18 months.
Wiskott-Aldrich; lymphomatoid granulomatosis; Epstein-Barr virus; lymphoproliferative disorder; immunotherapy; anti-CD20; Rituximab
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes various diseases, such as infectious mononucleosis (IM), fatal IM, EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBVAHS), and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV). In the present study, cell-free EBV DNA was detected in the plasma of patients with EBV-associated diseases by PCR assay. The patients included 20 patients with IM, 2 patients with fatal IM, 4 patients with EBVAHS, 4 patients with CAEBV, and 38 healthy children (20 EBV seropositive and 18 EBV seronegative). In patients with IM, plasma samples were positive for EBV DNA in all patients (100%) in the acute phase and in 44% of the patients in the convalescent phase, but plasma samples from the 38 healthy control children were negative (0%) for EBV DNA. Quantitative PCR assay revealed that plasma from patients with IM contained the highest amount of virus DNA within 7 days following the onset of disease (mean, 6 x 10(4) copies per ml). The EBV DNA concentration decreased thereafter as the patients recovered. Plasma from patients with fatal IM contained more than 100 times more copies of EBV DNA (3 x 10(7) copies per ml) than plasma from patients with IM. Plasma from patients with the acute phase of EBVAHS contained 10 times more copies of EBV DNA (5 x 10(5) copies per ml) than plasma from IM, and then patients with the number of copies decreased similarly in both groups of patients in the convalescent phase (2 x 10(4) copies per ml). The amount of virus DNA in patients with CAEBV (6 x 10(4) copies per ml) was similar to that noted in patients with IM; however, it became higher (1 x 10(6) copies per ml) when the patients' clinical status deteriorated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Most Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive tumor cells contain one of the latent forms of viral infection. The role of lytic viral gene expression in EBV-associated malignancies is unknown. Here we show that EBV mutants that cannot undergo lytic viral replication are defective in promoting EBV-mediated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). Early-passage lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from EBV mutants with a deletion of either viral immediate-early gene grew similarly to wild-type (WT) virus LCLs in vitro but were deficient in producing LPD when inoculated into SCID mice. Restoration of lytic EBV gene expression enhanced growth in SCID mice. Acyclovir, which prevents lytic viral replication but not expression of early lytic viral genes, did not inhibit the growth of WT LCLs in SCID mice. Early-passage LCLs derived from the lytic-defective viruses had substantially decreased expression of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and restoration of lytic gene expression reversed this defect. Expression of cellular IL-10 and viral IL-10 was also diminished in lytic-defective LCLs. These results suggest that lytic EBV gene expression contributes to EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease, potentially through induction of paracrine B-cell growth factors.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations that develop as a consequence of immunosuppression in a recipient of a solid organ, bone marrow or stem cell allograft. The development of PTLDs is usually associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the disorder is also termed EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The development of PTLD is a rare complication in autologous bone marrow/peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we report a case of EBV-associated LPD which developed following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for relapsing Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A 51-year-old male presented with swelling of the left cervical lymph nodes. A biopsy revealed nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Following four courses of ABVd (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) therapy, the Hodgkin’s lymphoma relapsed. CHASE (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, cytarabine, dexamethasone) therapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were performed. In the 128 days following the transplantation, lymph node swelling was noted and a biopsy specimen demonstrated EBV-associated LPD. The serum copy number of EBV-DNA was 2.7×103 copies/ml. The occurrence of EBV-associated LPD may be on the rise due to the increased number of patients undergoing immunosuppression therapy. The measurement of the serum EBV-DNA copy number and the detection of EBV-infected atypical lymphocytes using in situ hybridization are significant in establishing an early accurate diagnosis and initiating the correct treatment for EBV-associated LPD in patients with immunosuppression.
Epstein-Barr virus; lymphoproliferative disorder; Hodgkin’s lymphoma; autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
The World Health Organization (WHO) recently defined systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) of childhood as a life-threatening illness. However, this rare disease has not been extensively studied. Here we report a case of systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD in a previously healthy middle-aged man with a chief complaint of chronic diarrhea. The initial colon biopsy showed focal infiltration of EBV-positive small lymphocytes without any atypia. However, the disease rapidly progressed and the patient required a total colectomy due to severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Three and half months after admission, the patient died from a complication of disseminated intravascular coagulation. The resected colon showed diffuse infiltration of EBV-positive atypical lymphocytes with ischemic change. Most atypical lymphocytes were CD3+ or CD5+. The monoclonality of EBV was demonstrated by sequence variation analysis of the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene in the colectomy specimen as well as in the initial biopsy.
Epstein-Bar Virus Infections; Lymphoproliferatife Disorders; Atypical T-cell Proliferation
Epstein–Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-LPD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or solid-organ transplantation remain a serious and potentially life-threatening complication. In the last decade, outcomes for EBV-LPD have significantly improved. Key to this success was the development of early detection methods, such as serial measurements of EBV-DNA load in the peripheral blood of transplant recipients. Immunotherapeutic interventions for EBV-LPD include reduction of immunosuppression, CD20 monoclonal antibodies (rituximab) as monotherapy or in conjunction with chemotherapy, and adoptive immunotherapy with EBV-specific T cells. Pre-emptive immunotherapeutic interventions can prevent the development of EBV-LPD. As monotherapy, immunotherapy is effective in inducing remissions of EBV-LPD with low-risk features. For high-risk disease, combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies has led to superior outcomes. Current challenges consist of risk stratifying patients so that patients receive the most efficacious therapy without suffering from unwanted side effects.
Epstein–Barr virus; lymphoproliferative disease; monoclonal antibody; rituximab; T-cell therapy; transplantation
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, fatal disorder of children, affecting predominantly the mononuclear phagocytic system. Previous reports indicate that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) can also be fatal in many cases, although the prognosis for EBV-HLH is better than for the familial form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We treated four patients with EBV-HLH using immunochemotherapy including steroid, etoposide (VP-16), and cyclosporin, according to the HLH-94 protocol. All patients experienced persistent fever, cytopenia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Serological testing for EBV showed reactivated EBV infections in all patients. EBV DNA detected by PCR and EBV-encoded small RNA measured by in situ hybridization were confirmed in the patients' bone marrow specimens. Hemophagocytosis was shown in bone marrow aspirates and liver biopsy specimen. Complete remission was achieved in all patients after induction and continuation therapy for 4-10 months (median, 7 months) and was maintained for 15-27 months (median, 19 months) without the need for bone marrow transplantation. These results suggest that EBV-HLH can be effectively controlled by immunochemotherapy using the HLH-94 protocol.
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell; Etoposide; Cyclosporine; HLH-94; Child