Type 2 diabetes is becoming more prevalent and its successful management relies on patients' self-care behaviours. Measures focusing on patients' perceptions can be effective behavioural interventions.
To gain insight into the perceptions of patients with diabetes, especially ideas of the illness course and perceived severity, and their impacts on self-care behaviour.
Design of study
Qualitative approach with in-depth patient interviews (n = 22) and seven focus groups (n = 53).
A rural town in Taiwan.
The interview protocol was mainly derived from Kleinman's explanatory model. Purposive sampling strategies of maximum variation were used. The transcript of the interviews was analysed with editing and immersion/crystallisation styles.
Diabetes is regarded as an incurable, inevitably deteriorating disorder of sugar metabolism with many chronic complications. Patients thought that renal injury, followed by blindness, leg amputation, and poor peripheral circulation, were the most frequent complications. They also assessed their perceived severity of the disease at specific points in time through different indicators in their daily lives, such as sugar level, presence of complications, and medications used. Patients felt that these aspects progressed concurrently and that the illness course followed a unidimensional process. The ever-increasing doses of medication was considered by these patients to be a side-effect of the drugs taken.
Physicians should clarify with their patients that the risks of uraemia, blindness, and leg amputation are less prevalent than expected and that patients should pay more attention to cardiovascular complications. Certain oral hypoglycaemic agents may not cause a vicious cycle of ever-increasing doses of medication and the drugs that need to be taken should not be seen as indicators of severity but, rather, measures taken to prevent the diabetes becoming severe in the future.
cognition; illness course; patient non-adherence; qualitative research; severity of illness; type 2 diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem. Little is known about how people with type 2 diabetes experience self-management in a nurse-led, shared-care programme. The purpose of this article is to report an empirically grounded conceptualization of self-management in the context of autonomy of people with type 2 diabetes.
This study has a qualitative descriptive, and exploratory design with an inductive approach. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews. The sample consisted of older adults with type 2 diabetes in a nurse-led, shared-care setting. The data analysis was completed by applying the constant comparative analysis as recommended in grounded theory.
People with type 2 diabetes use three kinds of self-management processes: daily, off-course, and preventive. The steps for daily self-management are adhering, adapting, and acting routinely. The steps for off-course self-management are becoming aware, reasoning, deciding, acting, and evaluating. The steps for preventive self-management are experiencing, learning, being cautious, and putting into practice. These processes are interwoven and recurring.
Self-management consists of a complex and dynamic set of processes and it is deeply embedded in one's unique life situation. Support from diabetes specialist nurses and family caregivers is a necessity of self-managing diabetes.
We conducted a qualitative study to elicit attitudes, attributions, and self-efficacy related to diabetes self-care in both English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic men. Transcripts from six focus groups (three in English and three in Spanish) were reviewed by the authors to extract principal and secondary themes. Participants could describe their medication and lifestyle regimens and were aware of whether they were adherent or nonadherent to physician recommendations. Lack of skills on how to incorporate diet and regular physical activity into daily living, lack of will power, and reluctance to change culturally rooted behaviors emerged as significant barriers to diabetes self-management. Medication adherence is for some men the principal diabetes self-care behavior. Nonadherence appeared to fit two profiles: 1) intentional, and 2) nonintentional. In both instances low self-efficacy emerged as a significant influence on attainment and maintenance of diabetes self-care goals. Participants also expressed a strong sense of fatalism regarding the course of their disease, and seemed to have little motivation to attempt long-term dietary control. Educational and counseling messages should stress that a diagnosis of diabetes is not a death sentence, and full functional capacity can be maintained with good control.
type 2 diabetes; self-care; glycemic control; adherence
It is well known that diabetes self-care behaviors are critical to disease progression. Unfortunately, many patients do not adhere to diabetes self-care recommendations despite their importance. Alcohol use has been identified as a barrier to diabetes self-care adherence. Excessive alcohol consumption not only negatively impacts diabetes self-care adherence but also affects the course of diabetes. Diabetes patients who are at-risk drinkers are likely to have poor diabetes treatment adherence, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Alcohol consumption by diabetes patients is often inadequately assessed and addressed in their medical care. Brief interventions to reduce at-risk drinking have been well validated in a variety of patient populations and offer the potential to improve diabetes treatment adherence and outcome. Assessment and treatment of at-risk drinking could be readily incorporated into routine diabetes care. Strategies for brief assessment of and intervention for at-risk drinking are offered.
Alcohol use; diabetes; alcohol assessment; brief intervention; at-risk drinking; self-care adherence
Adequate self-care in diabetes improves quality of life and decreases the number of inpatient cases. The health locus of control theory is used to assess adherence to diabetes regimen in some studies in developed countries. The primary purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine the status of diabetes locus of control in a sample of diabetic patients in Iran as a developing country. We investigated selected factors contributing to locus of control and adherence to diabetes regimen.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was carried out on 120 patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center. The Iranian versions of Diabetes Locus of Control scale and Diabetes Self-care Activities scale were used for data collection.
Men revealed more internal locus of control and women revealed more chance locus of control. The attributions of external locus of control increased by age, while the internal locus of control increased by education level and chance locus of control decreased by education level. A positive association between internal locus of control and adherence to diabetes regimen was found and there was a negative association between chance locus of control and adherence to diabetes regimen.
Findings suggest that interventions aimed at improving internal locus of control may improve adherence to diabetes regimen but different diabetic patients have different attribution styles and interventional programs to enhance diabetes self-care will be more successful if patient's locus of control is addressed.
Adherence to diabetes regimen; locus of control; Iran
Few studies have explored the association between neighborhood characteristics and adherence to diabetes self-management behaviors, and none have examined the influence of neighborhood safety on adherence to treatment regimens among patients with diabetes.
To assess whether neighborhood safety is associated with self-reports of technical quality of care and with nonadherence to diabetes treatment regimens.
A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample of California adults responding to the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of self-reported neighborhood safety with technical quality of care and treatment nonadherence, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, barriers to access to care, and health status.
Adults with type 2 diabetes currently receiving medical treatment.
Patient-reported neighborhood safety, performance of recommended processes of care by provider, treatment nonadherence (patient delays in filling prescriptions and obtaining needed medical care).
Self-reported neighborhood safety was not associated with process measures of technical quality of care, but was associated with treatment nonadherence. Specifically, compared to those who report living in a safe neighborhood, a higher proportion of patients living in unsafe neighborhoods reported delays in filling a prescription for any reason (21.9% vs. 12.8%, aOR = 1.69, 95%CI 1.19, 2.40) and delays in filling a prescription due to cost (12.2% vs. 6.8%, aOR = 1.63, 95%CI 1.02, 2.62).
Contextual factors, such as neighborhood safety, may contribute to treatment nonadherence in daily life, even when the technical quality of care delivered in the clinic is not diminished.
diabetes; adherence to treatment regimens; neighborhood safety
To explore the needs and expectations of diabetic patients and healthcare professionals in the canton of Vaud.
Development and implementation of a diabetes cantonal program.
We conducted one focus group (FG) with diabetic patients and one with healthcare professionals (general practitioners, diabetologists, pharmacists, home healthcare managers, podologists) in each of the four health regions of the canton (n=8 FG). FGs were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis performed.
Results and conclusion
Perceived quality of diabetes care varies, depending on participants and regions considered. Participants describe a lack of collaboration and communication between professionals, problems linked to self-management education, and a lack of information on diabetes for the general population.
They propose to improve the quality of care by strengthening existing structures, by developing centralization of care and information, and by reinforcing teamwork and self-management education. They also suggest implementing information and prevention campaigns for the general population.
Diabetics and healthcare professionals express the need to develop a cantonal program at a local level and adapted to patients’ needs. For patients, such a program would represent an opportunity to have access to comprehensive care. For healthcare professionals, it would favor the development of teamwork and of local networks.
Participants point out similar problems and solutions, even if not similarly expressed. These results should help the development and implementation of a program adapted to the patients’ and professionals’ needs.
diabetes; chronic disease management; qualitative methods; Switzerland
Diabetes is an important contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa and prevalence rates as high as 33% have been recorded in Cape Town. Previous studies show that quality of care and health outcomes are poor. The development of an effective education programme should impact on self-care, lifestyle change and adherence to medication; and lead to better control of diabetes, fewer complications and better quality of life.
Trial design: Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial
Participants: Type 2 diabetic patients attending 45 public sector community health centres in Cape Town
Interventions: The intervention group will receive 4 sessions of group diabetes education delivered by a health promotion officer in a guiding style. The control group will receive usual care which consists of ad hoc advice during consultations and occasional educational talks in the waiting room.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the group diabetes education programme
Outcomes: Primary outcomes: diabetes self-care activities, 5% weight loss, 1% reduction in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes: self-efficacy, locus of control, mean blood pressure, mean weight loss, mean waist circumference, mean HbA1c, mean total cholesterol, quality of life
Randomisation: Computer generated random numbers
Blinding: Patients, health promoters and research assistants could not be blinded to the health centre’s allocation
Numbers randomized: Seventeen health centres (34 in total) will be randomly assigned to either control or intervention groups. A sample size of 1360 patients in 34 clusters of 40 patients will give a power of 80% to detect the primary outcomes with 5% precision. Altogether 720 patients were recruited in the intervention arm and 850 in the control arm giving a total of 1570.
The study will inform policy makers and managers of the district health system, particularly in low to middle income countries, if this programme can be implemented more widely.
Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201205000380384
Diabetes; Group education; Health education; Motivational interviewing; Mid-level health workers; South Africa; Primary care
The burden of diabetes and obesity is increasing worldwide, indicating a need to find the best standard for diabetes care. The aim of this study was to generate a theory grounded in empirical data derived from a deeper understanding of health care professionals’ main concerns when they consult with individuals with diabetes and obesity and how they handle these concerns. Tape-recorded interviews were conducted with seven groups and three individual members of a diabetes team in an area of western Sweden. The grounded theory (GT) method was used to analyse the transcribed interviews. A core category, labelled Balancing coaching and caution and three categories (Coaching and supporting, Ambivalence and uncertainty, and Adjusting intentions) emerged. The core category and the three categories formed a substantive theory that explained and illuminated how health care professionals manage their main concern; their ambition to give professional individualised care; and find the right strategy for each individual with diabetes and obesity. The theory generated by this study can improve our understanding of how a lack of workable strategies limits caregivers’ abilities to reach their goals. It also helps identify the factors that contribute to the complexity of meetings between caregivers and individuals with diabetes.
Care meeting; coaching; diabetes Type 2; grounded theory; health care professional; obesity
Coping with type II diabetic patients is increasingly posing large financial burdens, sorely felt especially by growing economies. Self-management has been found to be an effective approach towards maintaining good control in diabetics. However, although efforts at implementing self-management have had initial success, there has been a lack of sustainability. This review examines the different components impinging on self-care among type II diabetic patients. These include the critical role of social support, the need for support from health care providers, the value of support from family and friends, the influence of sex and cultural factors in self-care behavior, the benefits of peer support, and the role of literacy in diabetes self-care. Despite the mounting evidence for the effectiveness of social support in diabetes care, and the various stakeholders including this in their clinical guidelines, there has only been a lukewarm response from policy-makers towards ensuring its implementation. Hence, more effort is required from health care providers in moving away from just understanding the effects of new drugs and subsequently putting their patients on these drugs, and going back to the basics of communicating with the patients, understanding their woes, and helping to motivate/empower their patients. This paper analyzes the various components of social support, their influence on diabetes self-care, and how health care providers can help in this process.
type II diabetes mellitus; social support; self-management/self-care
The diagnosis of a chronic disease such as diabetes generally evokes strong emotions and often brings with it the need to make changes in lifestyle behaviours, such as diet, exercise, medication management and monitoring clinical and metabolic parameters. The diagnosis thus affects not only the person diagnosed but also the family members. Chronic illnesses are largely self-managed with ∼99% of the care becoming the responsibility of patients and their families or others involved in the daily management of their illnesses. While the responsibility for outcomes, such as metabolic control and chronic complications, are shared with the health care team, the daily decisions and behaviours adopted by patients clearly have a strong influence on their future health and well-being. While diabetes self-management education is essential, it is generally not sufficient for patients to sustain behaviours and cope with a lifetime of diabetes. Peers have been proposed as one method for assisting patients to deal with the behavioural and affective components of diabetes and to provide ongoing self-management support.
This paper first describes effective behavioural strategies in diabetes, based on multiple studies and/or meta-analyses, and then provides examples of their use by peers or in peer-based programmes in diabetes. A comprehensive search using the MEDLINE® and Cinahl databases was conducted. Key search terms included peer mentors, peer leaders, peer educators, lay health workers and community health workers. Studies that clearly identified behavioural strategies used by peers were included.
behaviour change; diabetes; lay health workers; social support
Although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Oman is high and rising, information on how people were self-managing their disease has been lacking. The objective of this study was therefore to assess diabetes self-management and education (DSME) among people living with type 2 diabetes in Oman.
A questionnaire survey was conducted in public primary health care centres in Muscat. Diabetes self-management and education was assessed by asking how patients recognized and responded to hypo- and hyperglycaemia, and if they had developed strategies to maintain stable blood glucose levels. Patients' demographic information, self-treatment behaviours, awareness of potential long-term complications, and attitudes concerning diabetes management were also recorded. Associations between these factors and diabetes self-management and education were analysed.
In total, 309 patients were surveyed. A quarter (26%, n = 83) were unaware how to recognize hypoglycaemia or respond to it (26%, n = 81). Around half (49%, n = 151), could not recognize hyperglycaemia and more than half could not respond to it (60%, n = 184). Twelve percent (n = 37) of the patients did not have any strategies to stabilize their blood glucose levels. Patients with formal education generally had more diabetes self-management and education than those without (p<0.001), as had patients with longer durations of diabetes (p<0.01). Self-monitoring of blood glucose was practiced by 38% (n = 117) of the patients, and insulin was used by 22% (n = 67), of which about one third independently adjusted dosages. Patients were most often aware of complications concerning loss of vision, renal failure and cardiac problems. Many patients desired further health education.
Many patients displayed dangerous diabetes self-management and education knowledge gaps. The findings suggest a need for improving knowledge transfer to people living with diabetes in the Omani clinical setting.
Patient outcomes are poorly affected by lifestyle advice in general practice. Promoting lifestyle behavior change require that nurses shift from simple advice giving to a more counseling-based approach. The current study examines which barriers nurses encounter in lifestyle counseling to patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on this information we will develop an implementation strategy to improve lifestyle behavior change in general practice.
In a qualitative semi-structured study, twelve in-depth interviews took place with nurses in Dutch general practices involved in diabetes care. Specific barriers in counseling patients with type 2 diabetes about diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation were addressed. The nurses were invited to reflect on barriers at the patient and practice levels, but mainly on their own roles as counselors. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed with the aid of a predetermined framework.
Nurses felt most barriers on the level of the patient; patients had limited knowledge of a healthy lifestyle and limited insight into their own behavior, and they lacked the motivation to modify their lifestyles or the discipline to maintain an improved lifestyle. Furthermore, nurses reported lack of counseling skills and insufficient time as barriers in effective lifestyle counseling.
The traditional health education approach is still predominant in primary care of patients with type 2 diabetes. An implementation strategy based on motivational interviewing can help to overcome 'jumping ahead of the patient' and promotes skills in lifestyle behavioral change. We will train our nurses in agenda setting to structure the consultation based on prioritizing the behavior change and will help them to develop social maps that contain information on local exercise programs.
Community Based Interactive Approach-diabetes mellitus (CBIA-DM) is an active self-learning method. This study is aimed at improving type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care by implementing the CBIA-DM strategy. Time series, pre and post quasi-experimental design, Intervention group underwent CBIA-DM, DM-club and Normal-care group acted as control. Data were collected in pre-intervention, immediately, one, three and six months post intervention. Ranging scores for pre and post test questionnaires were: knowledge (0–18) and attitude (9–45); categorizing as rational scales of the scores in good, fair and poor. Practicing in diabetes self-care was assessed using 12 questionnaires, and categorized as adhere and not adhere to DM self-care. Effectiveness of CBIA-DM was evaluated based on the increasing number of participants in good knowledge and attitude levels, and adherence in practicing diabetes self-care.
CBIA-DM group shows increasing number of participants in good level of knowledge from 40 % (n = 30) up to 80 % at M + 3 with scores significantly improved from 13.1 ± 2.4 up to 15.4 ± 2.0 (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05), attitude from 20 % up to 50 % at M + 3, with scores significantly improved from 33.5 ± 4.1 up to 34.9 ± 6.2 (p = 0.031) and increasing number of participants’ adherence to all variables of DM self-care at M + 6 post intervention.
CBIA-DM strategy is effective to improve diabetic patients’ knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care. Repeating and improving the strategy program is needed to sustain the impact.
CBIA-DM; Diabetes mellitus; KAP; Public education; Small group discussion
The Greater Green Triangle diabetes prevention program was conducted in primary health care setting of Victoria and South Australia in 2004–2006. This program demonstrated significant reductions in diabetes risk factors which were largely sustained at 18 month follow-up. The theoretical model utilised in this program achieved its outcomes through improvements in coping self-efficacy and planning. Previous evaluations have concentrated on the behavioural components of the intervention. Other variables external to the main research design may have contributed to the success factors but have yet to be identified. The objective of this evaluation was to identify the extent to which participants in a diabetes prevention program sustained lifestyle changes several years after completing the program and to identify contextual factors that contributed to sustaining changes.
A qualitative evaluation was conducted. Five focus groups were held with people who had completed a diabetes prevention program, several years later to assess the degree to which they had sustained program strategies and to identify contributing factors.
Participants value the recruitment strategy. Involvement in their own risk assessment was a strong motivator. Learning new skills gave participants a sense of empowerment. Receiving regular pathology reports was a means of self-assessment and a motivator to continue. Strong family and community support contributed to personal motivation and sustained practice.
Family and local community supports constitute the contextual variables reported to contribute to sustained motivation after the program was completed. Behaviour modification programs can incorporate strategies to ensure these factors are recognised and if necessary, strengthened at the local level.
Diabetes prevention; Evaluation; Social context; Self-efficacy; Volition; Qualitative method
Our aim was to determine whether patient participation in decision-making about diabetes care is associated with understanding of diabetes self-management and subsequent self-care practices. We also identified issues that would impact messaging for use in mobile diabetes communication.
Research Design and Methods:
A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with type 2 diabetes patients (n = 81) receiving their care at the University of Maryland Joslin Diabetes Center. A convenience sample of patients were eligible to participate if they were aged 25–85 years, had type 2 diabetes, spoke English, and visited their physician diabetes manager within the past 6 months. In-person patient interviews were conducted at the time of clinic visits to assess patient understanding of diabetes management, self-care practices, and perceptions of participation in decision-making about diabetes care.
African Americans reported fewer opportunities to participate in decision-making than Caucasians, after controlling for education [mean difference (MD) = -2.4, p = .02]. This association became insignificant after controlling for patient–physician race concordance (MD = -1.5, p = .21). Patient understanding of self-care was predicted by having greater than high school education (MD = 3.6, p = .001) and having physicians who involved them in decision-making about their care. For each unit increase in understanding of diabetes self-care, the mean patient self-care practice score increased by 0.16 (p = .003), after adjustment for patient race and education.
Patient participation in decision-making is associated with better understanding of care. Participation in decision-making plays a key role in patient understanding of diabetes self-management and subsequent self-care practices. Patients with limited education need specific instruction in foot care, food choices, and monitoring hemoglobin A1c.
literacy; mobile; participatory; self-care
Objective Accurate assessment of diabetes regimen adherence behaviors in youth is a challenging endeavor and is limited by a paucity of empirically supported measures. The purpose of this research is to further demonstrate the validity and reliability of the Self-Care Inventory (SCI), a youth and parent report measure of adherence with diabetes self-care behaviors. The SCI was chosen given its ease of implementation, applicability to multiple diabetes regimens, and dual parent/youth formats. Methods Participants were 164 youth with type 1 diabetes and a parent. Measures were administered at regular office visits to a tertiary care diabetes clinic. Results The SCI has strong psychometric properties, including adequate internal consistency, parent–youth agreement, and test-retest agreement. Relations between the SCI and a structured interview of diabetes adherence (the Diabetes Self-Management Profile; DSMP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were strong. Conclusions In addition to demonstrating strong psychometrics, this research provides independent support for the SCI. Thus, the SCI is consistent with recent criteria proposed by Quittner et al. (Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33, 916–936) for an empirically supported measure of regimen adherence. Although other methods of accessing adherence may provide more comprehensive assessments, the brevity, ease-of-implementation, and robustness for multiple regimens makes the SCI an ideal tool for clinicians and researchers.
adherence; children; self-care inventory; type 1 diabetes.
It has been established that careful diabetes self-management is essential in avoiding chronic complications that compromise health. Disciplined diet control and regular exercise are the keys for the type 2 diabetes self-management. An ability to maintain one's blood glucose at a relatively flat level, not fluctuating wildly with meals and hypoglycemic medical intervention, would be the goal for self-management. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or simply A1c) is a measure of a long-term blood plasma glucose average, a reliable index to reflect one's diabetic condition. A simple regimen that could reduce the elevated A1c levels without altering much of type 2 diabetic patients' daily routine denotes a successful self-management strategy.
A relatively simple model that relates the food impact on blood glucose excursions for type 2 diabetes was studied. Meal is treated as a bolus injection of glucose. Medical intervention of hypoglycaemic drug or injection, if any, is lumped with secreted insulin as a damping factor. Lunch was used for test meals. The recovery period of a blood glucose excursion returning to the pre-prandial level, the maximal reach, and the area under the excursion curve were used to characterize one's ability to regulate glucose metabolism. A case study is presented here to illustrate the possibility of devising an individual-based self-management regimen.
Results of the lunch study for a type 2 diabetic subject indicate that the recovery time of the post-prandial blood glucose level can be adjusted to 4 hours, which is comparable to the typical time interval for non-diabetics: 3 to 4 hours. A moderate lifestyle adjustment of light supper coupled with morning swimming of 20 laps in a 25 m pool for 40 minutes enabled the subject to reduce his A1c level from 6.7 to 6.0 in six months and to maintain this level for the subsequent six months.
The preliminary result of this case study is encouraging. An individual life-style adjustment can be structured from the extracted characteristics of the post-prandial blood glucose excursions. Additional studies are certainly required to draw general applicable guidelines for lifestyle adjustments of type 2 diabetic patients.
Diabetes requires significant alterations to lifestyle and completion of self management tasks to obtain good control of disease. The objective of this study was to determine if patient trust is associated with reduced difficulty and hassles in altering lifestyle and completing self care tasks.
A cross-sectional telephone survey and medical record review was performed to measure patient trust and difficulty in completing diabetes tasks among 320 medically underserved patients attending diabetes programs in rural North Carolina, USA. Diabetes tasks were measured three ways: perceived hassles of diabetic care activities, difficulty in completing diabetes-related care activities, and a global assessment of overall ability to complete diabetes care activities. The association of patient trust with self-management was examined after controlling for patient demographics, physical functioning, mental health and co-morbidities.
Level of patient trust was high (median 22, possible max 25). Higher trust levels were associated with lower levels of hassles (p = 0.006) and lower difficulty in completing care activities (p = 0.001). Patients with higher trust had better global assessments of overall ability to complete diabetes care activities (p < 0.0001).
Higher patient trust in physicians is associated with reduced difficulty in completing disease specific tasks by patients. Further studies are needed to determine the causal relationship of this association, the effect of trust on other outcomes, and the potential modifiability of trust
The purpose of this study was to describe how coping styles among African Americans with type 2 diabetes relate to diabetes appraisals, self-care behaviors, and health-related quality of life or well-being.
This cross-sectional analysis of baseline measures from 185 African Americans with type 2 diabetes enrolled in a church-based randomized controlled trial uses the theoretical framework of the transactional model of stress and coping to describe bivariate and multivariate associations among coping styles, psychosocial factors, self-care behaviors, and well-being, as measured by validated questionnaires.
Among participants who were on average 59 years of age with 9 years of diagnosed diabetes, passive and emotive styles of coping were used most frequently, with older and less educated participants using more often passive forms of coping. Emotive styles of coping were significantly associated with greater perceived stress, problem areas in diabetes, and negative appraisals of diabetes control. Both passive and active styles of coping were associated with better diabetes self-efficacy and competence in bivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, significant proportions of the variance in dietary behaviors and mental well-being outcomes (general and diabetes specific) were explained, with coping styles among the independent predictors. A positive role for church involvement in the psychological adaptation to living with diabetes was also observed.
In this sample of older African Americans with diabetes, coping styles were important factors in diabetes appraisals, self-care behaviors, and psychological outcomes. These findings suggest potential benefits in emphasizing cognitive and behavioral strategies to promote healthy coping outcomes in persons living with diabetes.
Objective Adherence to medication in patients with type 2 diabetes varies widely, yet the factors that influence adherence according to patients are not fully known. The aim of this study is to explore both factors related to high and lower levels of adherence that patients with type 2 diabetes experienced in their medication use. Setting Primary care in the Netherlands. Method Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analysed using content analysis and constant comparison. Main outcome measure experiences and opinions of patients concerning factors related to high and lower levels of adherence. Results Comparable aspects influenced drug adherence in more and less adherent patients. Four aspects that influenced adherence to medication emerged from the interviews: (1) information about the prescribed medication, (2) experience with medication and complications with use, (3) social support for medication behaviour and (4) routines in medication behaviour. Experience with medication and social support for medication behaviour were related to high levels of adherence in some patients, and to lower levels of adherence in others. Complicated medication regimens were mainly related to lower adherence, while social support and routines in medication behaviour were related to higher adherence. Conclusions Routines in medication behaviour were related to higher drug adherence. Patient education should not only address information about the disease and medication, but also more practical issues concerning drug intake. Hence, to improve drug adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes, pharmaceutical care might be aimed at the counselling of patients to organise drug use in their daily schedule.
Adherence; Drug use; Netherlands; Patient education; Primary care; Qualitative research; Type 2 diabetes
Foot ulceration is a major health problem for people with diabetes. To minimise the risk of ulceration, patients are advised to perform preventive foot self-care.
To explore beliefs about diabetic foot complications and everyday foot self-care practices among people with type 2 diabetes.
Design of study
Qualitative study using one-to-one interviews.
A suburban primary care health centre.
Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of adults with type 2 diabetes but with no experience of foot ulceration.
Most participants were unsure of what a foot ulcer is and unaware of the difficulties associated with ulcer healing. Prevention of accidental damage to the skin was not considered a priority, as few participants knew that this is a common cause of foot ulceration. Although it was recognised that lower-limb amputation is more common in people with diabetes, this was perceived to be predominantly caused by poor blood supply to the feet and unrelated to foot ulceration. Therefore, preventive foot care focused on stimulating blood circulation, for example by walking barefoot. Consequently, some of the behaviours participants considered beneficial for foot health could potentially increase the risk of ulceration. In some cases the uptake of advice regarding preventive foot care was hampered because participants found it difficult to communicate with health professionals.
Patients with type 2 diabetes may have beliefs about foot complications that differ from medical evidence. Such illness beliefs may play a role in foot-related behaviours that have previously been unrecognised. Health professionals need to explore and address the beliefs underlying patients' foot self-care practices.
diabetes mellitus; foot complications; foot self-care; illness beliefs; ulcer prevention
Since 2000, the diabetes community has witnessed tremendous technological advances that have revolutionized diabetes management. Currently, closed-loop glucose control (CLC) systems, which link continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and continuous glucose monitoring, are the newest, cutting edge technology aimed at reducing glycemic variability and improving daily management of diabetes. Although advances in knowledge and technology in the treatment of diabetes have improved exponentially, adherence to diabetes regimens remains complex and often difficult to predict. Human factors, such as patient perceptions and behavioral self-regulation, are central to adherence to prescribed regimens, as well as to adoption and utilization of diabetes technology, and they will continue to be crucial as diabetes management evolves. Thus, the aims of this article are three-fold: (1) to review psychological and behavioral factors that have influenced adoption and utilization of past technologies, (2) to examine three theoretical frameworks that may help in conceptualizing relevant patient factors in diabetes management, and (3) to propose patient-selection factors that will likely affect future CLC systems.
adoption and utilization; artificial pancreas; behavioral factors; closed loop glucose control; diabetes technology
A central plank of health care reform is an expanded role for educated consumers interacting with responsive health care teams. However, for individuals to realize the benefits of health education also requires a high level of engagement. Population studies have documented a gap between expectations and the actual performance of behaviours related to participation in health care and prevention. Interventions to improve self-care have shown improvements in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Significant clinical benefits have been seen from trials of self-management or lifestyle interventions across conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the focus of many studies has been on short-term outcomes rather that long term effects. There is also some evidence that participation in patient education programs is not spread evenly across socio economic groups. This review considers three other issues that may be important in increasing the public health impact of patient education. The first is health literacy, which is the capacity to seek, understand and act on health information. Although health literacy involves an individual’s competencies, the health system has a primary responsibility in setting the parameters of the health interaction and the style, content and mode of information. Secondly, much patient education work has focused on factors such as attitudes and beliefs. That small changes in physical environments can have large effects on behavior and can be utilized in self-management and chronic disease research. Choice architecture involves reconfiguring the context or physical environment in a way that makes it more likely that people will choose certain behaviours. Thirdly, better means of evaluating the impact of programs on public health is needed. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework has been promoted as one such potential approach.
self-management; health literacy; patient education; behavioral economics; program evaluation
New diabetes mellitus guidelines from the American Geriatrics Society promote the individualization of treatment goals and plans for patients aged 65 and older. Communicating with older patients about such complex medical decisions presents new challenges for providers. The self-reported healthcare goals, factors influencing these goals, and self-care practices of older patients with diabetes mellitus were explored.
Exploratory study involving semistructured interviews.
Four clinics of a midwestern, urban academic medical center.
Patients aged 65 and older with type II diabetes mellitus (N = 28).
Semistructured, one-on-one interviews were conducted. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and evaluated for recurring themes using a grounded theory approach.
The majority of patients expressed their health-care goals in a social and functional language, in contrast to the biomedical language of risk factor control and complication prevention, even when specifically asked about goals for diabetes mellitus care. Patient’s predominant healthcare goals centered on maintaining their independence and their activities of daily living (71%). Medical experiences of friends and family (50%), social comparison with peers (7%), and medical professionals (43%) shaped patients’ goals. Self-reported medication adherence and glucose monitoring was high, but more than one-quarter of patients failed to adhere to any dietary recommendations, and one-third failed to adhere to their exercise regimens.
As diabetes mellitus care recommendations for older patients grow more complex, providers could enhance their communication about such medical decisions by exploring patients’ specific circumstances and reframing diabetes mellitus treatment goals in patients’ own language. These may be crucial steps to developing successful individualized care plans
diabetes mellitus; treatment goals; patient; provider communication