Depression has been shown to adversely affect glycemic control. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between depression and treatment satisfaction in patients with diabetes.
Materials and methods
Baseline data was collected on 545 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes enrolled in a study that examined the effectiveness of diabetes nurse case managers. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) questionnaire, and treatment satisfaction, using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ).
The majority of participants (59%) were female, with a high percentage (41%) of Hispanic/Latino participants with a mean HbA1C of 8.4%. The prevalence of depression in this population was 35.6%. High CES-D scores were associated with elevated levels of HbA1C and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001). The relationship between depression and treatment satisfaction was significant (p<0.001), indicating that as depression increases, treatment satisfaction decreases.
We identified a significant relationship between depression and treatment satisfaction in this group of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients. Although causation cannot be determined, it is possible that patients who are depressed are less likely to be satisfied with their treatment. This could lead to decreased patient adherence, ultimately resulting in poor glycemic control.
Depression; Treatment satisfaction; Type 2 diabetes
The Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes 6 trial was an open-label trial comparing liraglutide with exenatide as an ‘add-on’ to metformin and/or sulphonylurea.
Patients with Type 2 diabetes were randomized to liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily or exenatide 10 μg twice daily for 26 weeks. This was followed by a 14-week extension phase, in which all patients received liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily.
Patient-reported outcomes were measured in 379 patients using Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status (DTSQs) and DTSQ change (DTSQc). The change in overall treatment satisfaction (DTSQs score) from baseline at week 26 with liraglutide was 4.71 and with exentaide was 1.66 [difference between groups 3.04 (95% CI 1.73–4.35), P < 0.0001]. Five of the six items on the DTSQs improved significantly more with liraglutide than with exenatide (differences: current treatment 0.37, P = 0.0093; convenience 0.68, P < 0.0001; flexibility 0.57, P = 0.0002; recommend 0.49, P = 0.0003; continue 0.66, P = 0.0001). Patients perceived a greater reduction in hypoglycaemia at week 26 with liraglutide than with exenatide [difference in DTSQc score 0.48 (0.08–0.89), P = 0.0193] and a greater reduction in perceived hyperglycaemia [difference 0.74 (0.31–1.17), P = 0.0007]. During the extension phase, when all patients received liraglutide, DTSQs scores remained stable in patients who continued on liraglutide and increased significantly (P = 0.0026) in those switching from exenatide.
These results demonstrate significant improvements in patients’ treatment satisfaction with liraglutide compared with exenatide.
exenatide; liraglutide; patient-reported outcomes; Type 2 diabetes
Measurement of treatment satisfaction in diabetes is important as it has been shown to be associated with positive outcomes, reduced disease cost and better health. The aim of this study was to assess the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Greek version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ).
A sample of type II diabetes patients (N = 172) completed the DTSQ status version, the SF-36 health survey and also provided data regarding treatment method, clinical and socio-demographic status. Instrument structure, reliability (Cronbach's a) and construct validity (convergent, discriminative, concurrent and known-groups) were assessed.
The DTSQ measurement properties were confirmed in the Greek version with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Scale reliability was high (Cronbach's a = 0.92). Item-scale internal consistency and discriminant validity were also good, exceeding the designated success criteria. Significant correlations were observed between DTSQ items/overall score and SF-36 scales/component scores, which were hypothesized to measure similar dimensions. Known groups' comparisons yielded consistent support of the construct validity of the instrument.
The instrument was well-accepted by the patients and its psychometric properties were similar to those reported in validation studies of other language versions. Further research, incorporating a longitudinal study design, is required for examining test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instrument, which were not addressed in this study. Overall, the present results confirm that the DTSQ status version is a reasonable choice for measuring diabetes treatment satisfaction in Greece.
diabetes; DTSQ; treatment satisfaction; validity; reliability; Greece
To determine physical and psychosocial well-being of adolescents with type 1 diabetes by self-report and parent report and to explore associations with glycemic control and other clinical and socio-demographic characteristics.
Demographic, medical and psychosocial data were gathered from 4 participating outpatient pediatric diabetes clinics in the Netherlands. Ninety-one patients completed the Child Health Questionnaire-CF87 (CHQ-CF87), Centre for Epidemiological Studies scale for Depression (CES-D), and the DFCS (Diabetes-specific Family Conflict Scale). Parents completed the CHQ-PF50, CES-D and the DFCS.
Mean age was 14.9 years (± 1.1), mean HbA1c 8.8% (± 1.7; 6.2–15.0%). Compared to healthy controls, patients scored lower on CHQ subscales role functioning-physical and general health. Parents reported less favorable scores on the behavior subscale than adolescents. Fewer diabetes-specific family conflicts were associated with better psychosocial well-being and less depressive symptoms. Living in a one-parent family, being member of an ethnic minority and reporting lower well-being were all associated with higher HbA1c values.
Overall, adolescents with type 1 diabetes report optimal well-being and parent report is in accordance with these findings. Poor glycemic control is common, with single-parent families and ethnic minorities particularly at risk. High HbA1c values are related to lower social and family functioning.
Little is known of patient acceptance of an artificial pancreas (AP). The purpose of this study was to investigate future acceptance of an AP and its determinants.
Patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pump therapy were interviewed using questions based on the technology acceptance model and completed the diabetes treatment and satisfaction questionnaire (DTSQ).
Twenty-two adults with type 1 diabetes participated. Half of the patients were followed in a university hospital, and the others were under treatment in an affiliated teaching hospital. Half of the patients were male. The mean DTSQ score was 29 (range 23–33). The AP was perceived as likely to be useful. Perceived advantages were a stable glucose regulation, less need for self-monitoring of blood glucose, relief of daily concerns, and time saving. Participants were confident in their capability to use the system. Although many participants (58%) had been reluctant to start continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, the majority (79%) felt they would have no barriers to start using the AP. Trust in the AP was related to the quality of glucose control it would provide. Almost everyone expressed the intention to use the new system when available, even if it would initially not cover 24/24 hours.
The overall attitude on the AP was positive. Intention to use was dependent on trust in the AP, which was related to the quality of glucose control provided by the AP.
acceptance; artificial pancreas; perception; type 1 diabetes mellitus
Achieving optimal outcomes in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) involves several demanding self-care behaviours, e.g. managing diet, activity, medications, monitoring glucose levels, footcare. The Self-Care Inventory-Revised (SCI-R) is valid for use in people with T2DM in the US. Our aim was to determine its suitability for use in the UK.
353 people with T2DM participated in the AT.LANTUS Follow-on study, completing measures of diabetes self-care (SCI-R), generic and diabetes-specific well-being (W-BQ28), and diabetes treatment satisfaction (DTSQ). Statistical analyses were conducted to explore structure, reliability, and validity of the SCI-R.
Principal components analysis indicated a 13-item scale (items loading >0.39) with satisfactory internal consistency reliability (α = 0.77), although neither this model nor any alternatives were confirmed in the confirmatory factor analysis. Acceptability was high (>95% completion for all but one item); ceiling effects were demonstrated for six items. As expected, convergent validity (correlations between self-care behaviours) was found for few items. Divergent validity was supported by expected low correlations between SCI-R total and well-being (rs = 0.02-0.21) and treatment satisfaction (rs = 0.29). Known-groups validity was partially supported with significant differences in SCI-R total by HbA1c (≤7.5% (58 mmol/mol): 72 ± 11, >7.5% (58 mmol/mol): 68 ± 14, p < 0.05) and diabetes duration (≤16 years: 67 ± 13, >16 years: 71 ± 12, p < 0.001) but not by presence/absence of complications or by insulin treatment algorithm.
The SCI-R is a brief, valid and reliable measure of self-care in people with T2DM in the UK. However, ceiling effects raise concerns about its potential for responsiveness in clinical trials. Individual items may be more useful clinically than the total score.
Type 2 diabetes; Psychometric validation; Questionnaire; Self-care; Self-management; SCI-R; AT.LANTUS trial
The purpose of this study was to investigate the scale recalibration construct of response shift and its relationship to glycemic control in children with diabetes.
At year 1, thirty-eight children with type 1 diabetes attending a diabetes summer camp participated. At baseline and post-camp they completed the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire. Post-camp, the PAID was also completed using the 'thentest' method, which requires a retrospective judgment about their baseline functioning. At year 2, fifteen of the original participants reported their HbA1c.
PAID scores significantly decreased from baseline to post-camp. An even larger difference was found between thentest and post-camp scores, suggesting scale recalibration. There was a significant positive correlation between year 1 HbA1c and thentest scores. Partial correlation analysis between PAID thentest scores and year 2 HbA1c, controlling for year 1 HbA1c, showed that higher PAID thentest scores were associated with higher year 2 HbA1c.
Results from this small sample suggest that children with diabetes do show scale recalibration, and that it may be related to glycemic control.
To determine the concurrent, prospective, and time-concordant relationships among major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms, and diabetes distress with glycemic control.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In a noninterventional study, we assessed 506 type 2 diabetic patients for MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview), for depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression), and for diabetes distress (Diabetes Distress Scale), along with self-management, stress, demographics, and diabetes status, at baseline and 9 and 18 months later. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), we explored the cross-sectional relationships of the three affective variables with A1C, the prospective relationships of baseline variables with change in A1C over time, and the time-concordant relationships with A1C.
All three affective variables were moderately intercorrelated, although the relationship between depressive symptoms and diabetes distress was greater than the relationship of either with MDD. In the cross-sectional MLM, only diabetes distress but not MDD or depressive symptoms was significantly associated with A1C. None of the three affective variables were linked with A1C in prospective analyses. Only diabetes distress displayed significant time-concordant relationships with A1C.
We found no concurrent or longitudinal association between MDD or depressive symptoms with A1C, whereas both concurrent and time-concordant relationships were found between diabetes distress and A1C. What has been called “depression” among type 2 diabetic patients may really be two conditions, MDD and diabetes distress, with only the latter displaying significant associations with A1C. Ongoing evaluation of both diabetes distress and MDD may be helpful in clinical settings.
To examine whether cognitive impairment among adults with diabetes is associated with worse glycemic control and to assess if level of social support for diabetes care modifies this relationship.
The 2003 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Mail Survey on Diabetes and the 2004 wave of the HRS
Adults age > 50 with diabetes in the United States (N=1097, mean age=69.2)
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, cognitive function measured with the 35-point HRS cognitive scale (HRS-cog), sociodemographic variables, duration of diabetes, depressed mood, social support for diabetes care, self-reported understanding score of diabetes knowledge, diabetes treatments, diabetes-related components of the Total Illness Burden Index, and functional limitations.
In an ordered logistic regression model for the three ordinal levels of HbA1c (<7.0, 7.0–7.9, ≥8.0 mg/dl), respondents with HRS-cog scores in the lowest quartile had significantly higher HbA1c levels compared to those in the highest cognitive quartile (adjusted odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.92). This association was modified by a high level of social support for diabetes care: among respondents in the lowest cognitive quartile, those with high levels of support had significantly lower odds of having higher HbA1c compared to those with low levels of support (1.11 vs. 2.87, p=0.016).
Although cognitive impairment was associated with worse glycemic control, higher levels of social support for diabetes care ameliorated this negative relationship. Identifying the level of social support available to cognitively-impaired adults with diabetes may help to target interventions for better glycemic control.
cognitive impairment; glycemic control; diabetes mellitus; social support
We examined whether diabetes-related psychosocial factors differ between African American and white patients with type 2 diabetes. We also tested whether racial differences in glycemic control are independent of such factors.
Baseline glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and survey measures from 79 African American and 203 white adult participants in a diabetes self-management clinical trial were analyzed.
Several psychosocial characteristics varied by race. Perceived interference of diabetes with daily life, perceived diabetes severity, and diabetes-related emotional distress were higher for African Americans than for whites, as were access to illness-management resources and social support. Mean HbA1c levels were higher among African Americans than whites (8.14 vs 7.40, beta = 0.17). This difference persisted after adjusting for demographic, clinical, and diabetes-related psychosocial characteristics that differed by race (beta = 0.18). Less access to illness-management resources (beta = −0.25) and greater perceived severity of diabetes (beta = 0.21) also predicted higher HbA1c.
Although racial differences in diabetes-related psychosocial factors were observed, African Americans continued to have poorer glycemic control than whites even after such differences were taken into account. Interventions that target psychosocial factors related to diabetes management, particularly illness-management resources, may be a promising way to improve glycemic control for all patients.
diabetes mellitus; type 2; minority health; health status disparities; psychosocial factors; disease management
Cross sectional study, performed in an outpatient university based pain rehabilitation setting. To analyze the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial distress, depression, self efficacy, self-esteem, fear of movement, pain cognitions and coping reactions) and performance-based and self-reported disability, as measured with a Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). It has been suggested that a strong relationship exists between psychological factors and disability in patients with CLBP. In former research disability was often measured by self-report and seldom performance-based. Study sample consisted of 92 patients with CLBP admitted for multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Prior to treatment, all patients completed questionnaires to measure psychological factors and self-reported disability, and performed an FCE to measure performance-based disability. Correlation coefficients between psychological variables and FCE and self-reported disability were calculated. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed with self-reported or performance based disability measures as outcome variables, and psychological measures as predictor variables. Out of 42 relations analyzed, 5 were statistically significant. This concerned one significant correlation between kinesiophobia and a subtest of FCE, and four correlations between psychological factors and RMDQ. No correlation was significant after the Bonferroni correction was applied (P < 0.001). The strength of significant correlations ranged from r = −0.33 to r = 0.25. The multivariate analysis revealed that psychological variables measured in this study could explain 19% of the variance of self-reported disability, with kinesiophobia being the only psychological variable that contributed significantly. The suggested strong relationship between psychological factors and performance-based and self-reported disability could not be confirmed in this study. This may implicate that the relationship between psychological factors and disability in patients with CLBP is not as unambiguous as suggested.
Disability; Psychological questionnaires; Functional capacity evaluation; Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire; Performance test; Chronic low back pain
To compare the effect of intensive versus standard glycemic control strategies on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in a substudy of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A randomly selected subsample of 2,053 ACCORD participants enrolled in the HRQL substudy was assessed at baseline and 12-, 36-, and 48-month visits. HRQL assessment included general health status (the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]), diabetes symptoms (the Diabetes Symptom Distress Checklist), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]-9), and treatment satisfaction (Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire [DTSQ]). Repeated-measures ANOVA models were used to estimate change in HRQL outcomes by treatment group over 48 months adjusting for model covariates. The effects of early discontinuation of the ACCORD intensive glycemic control arm on study results were explored.
A total of 1,956 (95%) completed the self-report HRQL instrument(s) at baseline. The intensive arm had a larger decrease in SF-36 physical health component score than the standard arm (−1.6 vs. −1.1, P = 0.0345). Treatment satisfaction (DTSQ) showed larger improvement with intensive than standard (P = 0.0004). There were no differences in mean scores of the Diabetes Symptom Checklist and PHQ-9. Effects of participant transition following discontinuation of the intensive arm on HRQL were not significant.
The ACCORD trial strategy of intensive glycemic control did not lead to benefits in HRQL and was associated with modest improvement in diabetes treatment satisfaction. Thus patient acceptability was apparently not compromised with intensive and complex interventions such as those used in ACCORD.
To describe the predictive relationships of selected sociodemographic, biomedical, and psychosocial variables to reluctance to use insulin among patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 178 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this cross-sectional, observational study. Data were obtained by patient interview using validated measures of diabetes attitude, knowledge, self-efficacy, care communication, and perceived barriers to treatment, as well as sociodemographic and biomedical data.
Women and ethnic minorities with type 2 diabetes have more psychological barriers to insulin treatment (P < 0.05). The final regression model showed that individuals who believed in the value of tight glucose control, had strong self-efficacy, and had better interpersonal processes with their healthcare providers were less reluctant to use insulin treatment (R2 = 0.403; P < 0.0001).
Diabetes self-efficacy and better interaction with clinicians were important in decreasing patients' reluctance to use insulin, known as psychological insulin resistance.
To evaluate the relationship between media consumption habits, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and glycemic control in youths with type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In the cross-sectional study, self-report questionnaires were used to assess media consumption habits, physical activity, and socioeconomic status in 296 children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Clinical data and HbA1c levels were collected. Risk factors were analyzed by multiple regression.
Youths with type 1 diabetes (aged 13.7 ± 4.1 years, HbA1c 8.7 ± 1.6%, diabetes duration 6.1 ± 3.3 years) spent 2.9 ± 1.8 h per day watching television and using computers. Weekly physical activity was 5.1 ± 4.5 h. Multiple regression analysis identified diabetes duration, socioeconomic status, and daily media consumption time as significant risk factors for glycemic control.
Diabetes duration, socioeconomic status, and daily media consumption time, but not physical activity, were significant risk factors for glycemic control in youths with type 1 diabetes.
This article investigated how changes in diabetes distress relate to receiving care management through an Internet-based care management (IBCM) program for diabetes and level of participation in this program. Further, it examined the relationship between diabetes distress and changes in glycemic control.
We enrolled patients of the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System with diabetes who had hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of ≥9.0%. Subjects were randomized to usual care (n = 52) or IBCM (n = 52) for 1 year. We measured diabetes distress at baseline and quarterly thereafter using the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire. Glycemic control was determined by baseline and quarterly HbA1c. For subjects randomized to IBCM, we measured participation by observing frequency and consistency of their usage of the IBCM patient portal over 12 months. Linear mixed models were used to analyze THE data.
PAID scores declined over time for both treatment groups. Among subjects randomized to IBCM, the decline in PAID scores over time was significant for sustained users of the IBCM patient portal but not for nonusers. Moreover, subjects whose usage of the patient portal was sustained throughout the study had lower PAID scores at baseline. With respect to changes in glycemic control, HbA1c reduced individual differences in PAID scores by 44%; a lower baseline HbA1c was associated with lower baseline PAID scores, and over time, the decrease in HbA1c was associated with further decreases in the PAID score.
Participation in IBCM varies by initial diabetes distress, with people with less distress participating more. For people who participate, IBCM further mitigates diabetes distress. There is also a relationship between achievements in glycemic control and subsequent lowering of diabetes distress. Future research should identify how to maximize fit between patient needs and the provisions of IBCM, with the aim of increasing patient engagement in the active management of their health using this care modality. A key to maximizing fit might be first addressing metabolic control aggressively and then using IBCM for sustainment of health.
diabetes distress; disease management; Internet; PAID scale; patient care management; psychosocial
The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) has been introduced as a visual measure of suffering. We explored the validity of a revised version, the PRISM-RII, in diabetes patients as part of the annual review.
Participants were 308 adult outpatients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Measures: (1) the PRISM-RII, yielding Self-Illness Separation (SIS) and Illness Perception Measure (IPM); (2) the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale, a measure of diabetes-related distress; (3) the WHO-5 Well-Being Index; (4) and a validation question on suffering (SQ). In addition, patients' complication status, comorbidity and glycemic control values(HbA1c) were recorded.
Patients with complications did have marginally significant higher scores on IPM, compared to patients without complications. Type 2 patients had higher IPM scores than Type 1 patients. SIS and IPM showed low intercorrelation (r = -.25; p < .01). Convergent validity of PRISM-RII was demonstrated by significant correlations between IPM and PAID (r = 0.50; p < 0.01), WHO-5 (r = -.26; p < 0.01) and SQ (r = 0.36; p < 0.01). SIS showed only significant correlations with PAID (r = -0.28; p < 0.01) and SQ (r = -0.22; p < 0.01). Neither IPM nor SIS was significantly associated with HbA1c. The PRISM-RII appeared easy to use and facilitated discussion with care providers on coping with the burden of diabetes.
PRISM-RII appears a promising additional tool to assess the psychological burden of diabetes.
The results of using status measures to identify any changes in treatment satisfaction strongly suggest a need for specific change instruments designed to overcome the ceiling effects frequently observed at baseline. Status measures may leave little room to show improvement in situations where baseline ceiling effects are observed. A change version of the DTSQ (DTSQc) is compared here with the original status (now called DTSQs) version to test the instruments' comparative ability to demonstrate change.
Two multinational, openlabel, randomised-controlled trials (one for patients with type 1 diabetes, the other for type 2) compared new, longer-acting insulin glargine with standard NPH basal insulin. The DTSQs was completed at baseline and the DTSQs and DTSQc at final visit by 351 English- and German-speaking patients. DTSQc scores were compared with change from baseline for the DTSQs, using 3-way analysis of variance, to examine Questionnaire, Treatment and Ceiling effects (i.e. baseline scores at/near ceiling).
Results and discussion
Significant Questionnaire effects and a Questionnaire × Ceiling interaction (p < 0.001) in both trial datasets showed that the DTSQc detected more improvement in Treatment Satisfaction than the DTSQs, especially when patients had DTSQs scores at/near ceiling at baseline. Additionally, significant Treatment effects favouring insulin glargine (p < 0.001) and a Treatment × Questionnaire interaction (p < 0.019), with the DTSQc showing more benefits, were found in the type 1 trial. Results for Perceived Hyper- and Hypoglycaemia also demonstrated important differences between the questionnaires in the detection of treatment effects. Tests of effect sizes showed these differences in response to change to be significantly in favour of the DTSQc.
The DTSQc, used in conjunction with the DTSQs, overcomes the problem of ceiling effects encountered when only the status measure is used and provides a means for new treatments to show greater value than is possible with the DTSQs alone.
Low back pain (LBP) is a chronic disorder which exerts a profound impact on various spheres of psychosocial functioning, including emotional distress, functional limitations and decrements in social contacts. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the indices of psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic LBP and a range of psychological factors. Specifically, the study aimed at exploring the relative participation of personality, social support, disease-related cognitive appraisals and coping styles in accounting for the differences in psychosocial functioning of patients with LBP. One-hundred-twenty patients with LBP took part in the study and completed a battery of psychological questionnaires: NEO–Five Factors Inventory, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Disease-Related Social Support Scale, Disease-Related Appraisals Scale and Psychosocial Functioning Questionnaire (PFQ). The PFQ dimensions were used as dependent variables in a series of stepwise regression analysis models with the scores from other questionnaires entered as independent variables. A cognitive appraisal of the disease in terms of an obstacle was strongly related to all domains of functioning; however, other appraisals (threat, challenge, harm, profit and overall disease importance) were uniquely associated with particular domains of functioning. Deprivation of social support was a significant predictor of distress experienced in interpersonal context and of sense of being disabled. Among basic personality traits, agreeableness was negatively associated with distress in interpersonal context, and conscientiousness was positively related to acceptance of life with the disease. Problem-focus coping was linked to higher acceptance of life with the disease. Among sociodemographic variables, older age and lower educational level were related to greater subjective feelings of being disabled. Pain severity was found unrelated to any of psychosocial functioning domains. Different aspects of psychosocial functioning are best accounted for by diverse patterns of psychological factors, which suggests involvement of different psychological mechanisms in development of LBP-related disability.
Personality; Coping; Cognitive appraisal; Social support; Psychosocial functioning; Low back pain
To examine the influence of diabetes psychosocial attributes and self-management on glycemic control and diabetes status change.
Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally-representative longitudinal study of U.S. adults > 51 years, we examined cross-sectional relationships among diabetes psychosocial attributes (self-efficacy, risk awareness, care understanding, prioritization of diabetes, and emotional distress), self-management ratings, and glycemic control. We then explored whether self-management ratings and psychosocial attributes in 2003 predicted change in diabetes status in 2004.
In multivariate analyses (N = 1834), all diabetes psychosocial attributes were associated with self-management ratings, with self-efficacy and diabetes distress having the strongest relationships (adj coeff = 8.1, p < 0.01 and −4.1, p < 0.01, respectively). Lower self-management ratings in 2003 were associated cross-sectionally with higher hemoglobin A1C (adj coeff = 0.16, p < 0.01), and with perceived worsening diabetes status in 2004 (adj OR = 1.36, p < 0.05), with much of this latter relationship explained by diabetes distress.
Psychosocial attributes, most notably diabetes-related emotional distress, contribute to difficulty with diabetes self-management, poor glycemic control, and worsening diabetes status over time.
Self-management and adherence interventions should target psychosocial attributes such as disease-related emotional distress.
diabetes; self-management; self-efficacy; diabetes distress
The long-term psychological impact of pediatric sarcoma is largely unknown. As part of a cross-sectional study examining the late effects of pediatric sarcoma therapy, we examined whether psychological distress or posttraumatic stress symptoms are present in an adult cohort of pediatric sarcoma survivors.
Thirty-four patients participated in the study, an average of 17 years after their treatment ended, each completing the SCID module for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Impact of Events Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic variables and psychosocial issues.
Significant persistent psychological distress characterized this cohort of patients. Seventy-seven percent scored in the clinical range on the BSI. Twelve percent met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Current psychological distress was associated with intrusive thoughts and avoidant behaviors, male gender, employment, difficulty readjusting to work/school after treatment, and enduring worries about health. No differences were found based on age, presence of metastatic disease or time since diagnosis.
This is the first report of a clinical evaluation of psychological distress in a cohort of pediatric sarcoma survivors treated with intensive multimodal cancer therapy. The results suggest that survivors of pediatric sarcoma might be at high risk for adverse psychological outcomes. Appropriate interventions are proposed.
psychological distress; posttraumatic stress; pediatric sarcoma; long-term survivors; intensive treatment; cancer; oncology
Background and aim This study constitutes an initial attempt at elucidating the relationship between quality of life (QoL), health status and psychological distress in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Greece, by comparing patients with DM registered at a rural primary healthcare centre (PHCC) and those attending a diabetes outpatient clinic (DOC) at an urban hospital.
Methods Cross-sectional study. Participants were consecutive, consenting patients with a known history of type 2DM(T2 DM), currently registered at either of the two centres. All patients were administered the Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36 v2) and the Problem Areas In Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire, and information in relation to socio-demographic data and clinical characteristics were also obtained.
Results Patients with DM had a lower QoL over all domains when compared with general population normative data. In addition, mean scores for the SF-36 v2 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) and six subscales of the SF-36 v2 demonstrated significant differences between the two participating centres (P < 0.0001). The mean PAID score was 19.18 (±15.58) for patients from the PHCC, versus 40.19 (±17.36) for the DOC (P < 0.0001). Lower scores on the MCS of the SF-36 v2, and higher scores on PAID in patients with T2 DM were related to major co-morbidities, insulin use and duration of DM.
Conclusions Patients with T2 DM from the urban DOC had significantly higher levels of distress and consequently lower levels of QoL compared with patients from the rural PHCC. The findings from this study may have important implications with regard to the individualisation of patient care in Greece, and encouragement of patient participation in the treatment process.
diabetes mellitus; Greece; mental health; quality of life
To examine whether the relationships between psychological factors and rehabilitation adherence after knee surgery differ as a function of age.
Design and Setting:
Participants completed inventories of self-motivation, social support, athletic identity, and psychological distress before anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. After surgery, participants recorded their completion of home rehabilitation exercises and cryotherapy, and the sport rehabilitation professionals providing their treatment reported on the patients' attendance at, and adherence during, rehabilitation sessions.
Sixty-one individuals with acute ACL tears.
The Self-Motivation Inventory, Social Support Inventory, Athletic Identity Measurement Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale were used to measure self-motivation, social support, athletic identity, psychological distress, and adherence, respectively, during rehabilitation sessions.
Hierarchic regression analyses indicated that age moderated the relationships between (1) self-motivation and home exercise completion, (2) social support and home exercise completion, (3) athletic identity and home exercise completion, and (4) athletic identity and home cryotherapy completion.
The prospective moderating relationships for between psychological factors and indices of adherence to home-based rehabilitation activities indicate the need to consider developmental issues when examining psychological aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation.
compliance; knee surgery; psychology
Diabetes self-care and self-monitoring adherence has a positive effect on the metabolic control of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the adherence to self-care recommendations and to identify its correlates in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Patients and methods
One hundred and eleven patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled in an observational cross-sectional study conducted at the Diabetes Center of the University Hospital in Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Diabetes self-care adherence was measured by the Self Care Inventory-Revised, and treatment satisfaction by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire-status version. Additional data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and medical records. The Mann–Whitney test, Spearman correlations, and multiple linear regressions were used in the statistical analysis.
The mean age of patients was 42.4 years; 59.5% of them were females and 53.2% of all patients used an insulin pump. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was 66.2 ± 15.3 mmol/mol and the mean insulin dosage was 0.6 ± 0.3 IU insulin/kg/day. The number of hypoglycemic episodes (including severe) that patients had in the last month before taking the survey was 3.6 ± 3.2. Self-care adherence was associated with treatment satisfaction (0.495; P = 0.004) along with frequency of self-monitoring of before meal blood glucose (0.267; P = 0.003). It was not associated with the incidence of hypoglycemic events or any other insulin therapy-related problems or with socio-demographic or clinical characteristics.
Treatment satisfaction is one of the key factors that need to be targeted to maximize benefits to patients. Self-care adherence in adults with type 1 diabetes did not correlate with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, nor with adverse events.
treatment adherence; self-care inventory revised; diabetes treatment satisfaction questionnaire; self-monitoring
To investigate the effects of continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) compared with subcutaneous insulin on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and treatment satisfaction, and to perform a cost analysis in type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We used an open-label, prospective, crossover, randomized, 16-month study (N = 24). HRQOL and patient satisfaction were assessed with questionnaires (the 36-item short-form health survey [SF-36], the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index [WHO-5], and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire [DTSQ]). Direct costs of CIPII and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) were compared.
Questionnaire scores were higher with CIPII than with subcutaneous therapy. Yearly direct pump- and procedure-associated costs for CIPII were estimated at €10,910 compared with €4,810 for CSII.
Apart from improving glycemic control, CIPII improved HRQOL and treatment satisfaction compared with subcutaneous insulin. Direct pump- and procedure-associated costs are considerably higher for CIPII, however.
To evaluate the association between chronic illness with complexity (CIC) and optimal glycemic control.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of Diabetes Epidemiologic Cohort database of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) users with diabetes, less than 75 years old, with HbA1c tests in fiscal year (FY) 1999 and 2000, alive at FY2000 end (N = 95,423).
Outcomes were HbA1c < 7% in each FY. CIC included three domains: nondiabetes physical illness, diabetes-related, and mental illness/substance abuse conditions. Other independent variables included age, gender, race, marital status, VHA priority status, and diabetes severity. Longitudinal analyses were restricted to patients with HbA1c ≥ 7% in FY1999 and included hospitalizations between final HbA1c’s in FY1999 and FY2000. Multiple logistic regressions examined associations between CIC categories and HbA1c.
In FY1999, 33% had HbA1c <7%. In multivariate analyses, patients with nondiabetes physical illness and mental illness/substance abuse were more likely to have HbA1c <7% in FY1999 [adjusted odds ratios for cancer (AOR), 1.31; 95% CI (1.25–1.37); mental illness only, 1.18; 95% CI (1.14–1.22)]. Those with diabetes-related complications were less likely to have HbA1c <7% in FY1999. Associations generally held in FY2000. However, conditions in the mental illness/substance abuse complexity domain were less strongly associated with HbA1c <7%. Macrovascular-related hospitalizations were positively associated with HbA1c <7% [AOR, 1.41; 95% CI (1.34–1.49)].
The association between CIC and HbA1c <7% is heterogeneous and depends on the domain of complexity. The varying associations of CIC categories with optimal glycemic control suggest the need for appropriate risk adjustment when using HbA1c <7% as a valid performance measure for diabetes quality of care.
diabetes; veterans; performance measurement; glycemic control; chronic illness with complexity