To determine if parental literacy is related to emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and days of school missed for children with asthma.
We performed a retrospective cohort study at a university pediatric clinic. We enrolled children between 3 and 12 years old with a diagnosis of asthma and a regular source of care at the site of the study and their parent or guardian. Primary asthma care measures included self-reported rates of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and days of school missed. Secondary asthma care measures included rescue and controller medication use, classification of asthma severity and parental asthma-related knowledge.
We enrolled 150 children and their parents. Twenty-four percent of the parents had low literacy. Children of parents with low literacy had greater incidence of emergency department visits (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.5; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), hospitalizations (IRR 3.2; 1.4, 7.3), and days missed from school (IRR 2.5; 2.1, 3.0) even after adjusting for asthma-related knowledge, disease severity, medication use and other socio-demographic factors. Parents with low literacy had less asthma-related knowledge, and their children were more likely to have moderate or severe persistent asthma and had greater use of rescue medications.
Low parental literacy is associated with worse care measures for children with asthma.
asthma; literacy; children; parents; hospitalization
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 gave states the option to withdraw Medicaid coverage of nonemergency care from most legal immigrants. Our goal was to assess the effect of PRWORA on hospital uncompensated care in the United States.
We collected the following state-level data for the period from 1994 through 1999: foreign-born, noncitizen population and health uninsurance rates (US Census Current Population Survey); percentage of teaching hospitals (American Hospital Association Annual Survey of Hospitals); and each state's decision whether to implement the PRWORA Medicaid bar for legal permanent residents or to continue offering nonemergency Medicaid coverage using state-only funds (Urban Institute). We modeled uncompensated care expenditures by state (also from the Annual Survey of Hospitals) in both univariate and multivariable regression analyses.
When measured at the state level, there was no significant relationship between uncompensated care expenditures and states' percentage of noncitizen immigrants. Uninsurance rates were the only significant factor in predicting uncompensated hospital care expenditures by state.
Reducing the number of uninsured patients would most surely reduce hospital expenditures for uncompensated care. However, data limitations hampered our efforts to obtain a monetary estimate of hospitals' financial losses due specifically to the immigrant eligibility changes in PRWORA. Quantifying the impact of these provisions on hospitals will require better data sources.
To identify barriers to attendance for eye examination of schoolchildren.
Cross-sectional study. Students in grades 1-4 in elementary school in Guarulhos (Brazil) were screened and referred for ophthalmic examination in 2006. Facilities offered in this project were: examination arranged during weekends, free transportation, spectacle donation and two different opportunities for exam. A questionnaire was applied, by interview, to a sample consisted of students' parents attended in a community project who missed the first call and attended the recall, to identify the reasons for non-attendance.
The sample consisted of 767 parents or guardians, corresponding to an equal number of schoolchildren. Personal characteristics of the students: 49.2% male and 50.8% female, 60.2% of them had never received previous ophthalmologic evaluation. Reported reasons for no-show to the project: parents had not received appropriate orientation (35.6%), loss of working day (20.6%), illness (12.4%), had another appointment (10.0%). The need for eyeglasses was higher in the recall.
A significant number of parents did not take their children for ophthalmological exams, even when a second opportunity was offered in projects with transportation facilities, free exams performed during weekends and spectacle donation. The main causes of absenteeism were lack of awareness and work. For 87.1% of the absenteeism cases, the difficulties could be overcome via improved structuring of the first call. A recall increases attendance coverage of target population by only 15.2% (59.3 to 74.5%). Notably, the eye exam campaign was the first exam for most of the absent students.
Children; Vision screening; Acess to Care; Refractive error; Ophthalmic evaluation
Reasons for the low coverage of immunization vary from logistic ones to those dependent on human behaviour. The study was planned to find out: (a) the immunization status of children admitted to a paediatric ward of tertiary-care hospital in Delhi, India and (b) reasons for partial immunization and non-immunization. Parents of 325 consecutively-admitted children aged 12–60 months were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. A child who had missed any of the vaccines given under the national immunization programme till one year of age was classified as partially-immunized while those who had not received any vaccine up to 12 months of age or received only pulse polio vaccine were classified as non-immunized. Reasons for partial/non-immunization were recorded using open-ended questions. Of the 325 children (148 males, 177 females), 58 (17.84%) were completely immunized, 156 (48%) were partially immunized, and 111 (34.15%) were non-immunized. Mothers were the primary respondents in 84% of the cases. The immunization card was available with 31.3% of the patients. All 214 partially- or completely-immunized children received BCG, 207 received OPV/DPT1, 182 received OPV/DPT2, 180 received OPV/DPT3, and 115 received measles vaccines. Most (96%) received pulse polio immunization, including 98 of the 111 non-immunized children. The immunization status varied significantly (p<0.05) with sex, education of parents, urban/rural background, route and place of delivery. On logistic regression, place of delivery [odds ratio (OR): 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–4.1], maternal education (OR=6.94, 95% CI 3.1–15.1), and religion (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.2–3.1) were significant (p<0.05). The most common reasons for partial or non-immunization were: inadequate knowledge about immunization or subsequent dose (n=140, 52.4%); belief that vaccine has side-effects (n=77, 28.8%); lack of faith in immunization (n=58, 21.7%); or oral polio vaccine is the only vaccine required (n=56, 20.9%. Most (82.5%) children admitted to a tertiary-care hospital were partially immunized or non-immunized. The immunization status needs to be improved by education, increasing awareness, and counselling of parents and caregivers regarding immunizations and associated misconceptions as observed in the study.
Child; Immunization; Vaccination; India
To describe an outbreak of Bordetella pertussis and to assess which factors were associated with the development of clinical pertussis in children and adults during the outbreak.
A case series was described to define the epidemiology of the pertussis outbreak. A school-based survey of children was used to measure the incidence of clinical pertussis over the previous six months. Vaccination records from the local public health facility were used to look at the relationship between age and vaccination parameters, and susceptibility to clinically diagnosed pertussis. A cross-sectional survey of teachers, parents and some hospital workers was used to assess these associations in adults.
An outbreak of pertussis in an isolated northern community in British Columbia.
All children in the community who attend daycare, kindergarten or school, and their parents were surveyed. In addition, some health care workers and mothers of preschool children were surveyed.
A total of 31 suspected cases of pertussis were identified over a three-month period. Ninety per cent of the affected children who had available vaccination records had received four or five doses of pertussis vaccine. Sixty per cent of the town's 209 children returned completed surveys. Of these, 69% had available vaccination records. Thirty-six children (28%) reported symptoms that fit the case definition for pertussis over the previous three months. Attack rates were highest for the group of children aged 10 to 14 years. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, receiving prophylactic medication and an increased number of years from the last vaccine dose were found to be significant predictors for developing pertussis. Thirty-four per cent of the estimated 291 adults in the community returned completed surveys. The attack rate of pertussis in the adults was only 9%. Being a member of the school staff and/or having a household contact with pertussis were significant predictors of developing pertussis.
Immunity to pertussis appears to wane during childhood. Peak susceptibility appears to be during early adolescence. Adults do not seem to be at greater risk than adolescents for developing the disease, but it seems unlikely that this is due to better immunity. Rather, it is probably related to a lower risk of exposure to pertussis and a lower rate of progression to symptomatic disease when adults are infected.
Immunity; Pertussis; Vaccination
Eighty-one cases of acute appendicitis in children aged less than six years were identified in the Belfast urban area between 1985 and 1992. Appendiceal perforation, found in 43%, was related to symptom duration but not to age at presentation. Prolongation of symptoms was related to parental delay in seeking medical advice (52% > 36 hours), delayed or inappropriate general practitioner referral to hospital (19%) and diagnostic delay following surgical consultation (12% > 12 hours). Diagnostic delay in hospital was usually the result of nonspecificity of symptoms and signs and was therefore largely unavoidable. Delayed referral from general practice did not contribute unnecessarily to appendiceal perforation, and given that an individual general practitioner will see a case of preschool appendicitis once in 30 years, diagnostic accuracy was remarkably high.
We evaluated the association between parents' beliefs about vaccines, their decision to delay or refuse vaccines for their children, and vaccination coverage of children at aged 24 months.
We used data from 11,206 parents of children aged 24–35 months at the time of the 2009 National Immunization Survey interview and determined their vaccination status at aged 24 months. Data included parents' reports of delay and/or refusal of vaccine doses, psychosocial factors suggested by the Health Belief Model, and provider-reported up-to-date vaccination status.
In 2009, approximately 60.2% of parents with children aged 24–35 months neither delayed nor refused vaccines, 25.8% only delayed, 8.2% only refused, and 5.8% both delayed and refused vaccines. Compared with parents who neither delayed nor refused vaccines, parents who delayed and refused vaccines were significantly less likely to believe that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children (70.1% vs. 96.2%), that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated (71.0% vs. 90.0%), and that vaccines are safe (50.4% vs. 84.9%). Children of parents who delayed and refused also had significantly lower vaccination coverage for nine of the 10 recommended childhood vaccines including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (65.3% vs. 85.2%), polio (76.9% vs. 93.8%), and measles-mumps-rubella (68.4% vs. 92.5%). After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, we found that parents who were less likely to agree that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children, to believe that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated, or to believe that vaccines are safe had significantly lower coverage for all 10 childhood vaccines.
Parents who delayed and refused vaccine doses were more likely to have vaccine safety concerns and perceive fewer benefits associated with vaccines. Guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics may assist providers in responding to parents who may delay or refuse vaccines.
The problem that needs to be addressed is the 58 percent immunity level among 2-year-olds in southeastern Idaho, a level created by the indifference or fear of parents. Southeastern Idaho has the highest birth rate of any region in the State, and this situation has created a large group of children susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. The mobile unit, which consists of a specially equipped motor home, allows easy access to immunizations for groups of children and their parents. A search of the computerized record system installed in the mobile unit can provide data on past immunizations for each registered child. The target audience for the mobile unit's visits is church groups because of the particular cultural demographics of this region. In 1987, the District Seven Health Department, a State- and county-funded agency, expects to increase the number of doses of vaccine given by 3,000 over the 19,953 given in 1986. The "Shots for Tots" program is unique in the State of Idaho. Its expansion may be anticipated as the unit becomes better known in the region. The alternative to using aggressive, innovative techniques to motivate people to become immunized is disease.
School-located immunization programs (SLIP) will only be successful if parents consent to their children's participation. It is critical to understand parent perspectives regarding the factors that make them more or less likely to provide that consent. Organizations creating SLIPs will be able to capitalize on the aspects of SLIPs that parents appreciate, and address and correct issues that may give rise to parent concerns. This study involved five focus groups among the parents of school students in a large, urban school district. Findings highlight the broad range of concepts important to parents when considering participation in a SLIP. The safety and trust issues regarding vaccines in general that are so important to parents are also important to parents when considering participation in a SLIP. Effective communication strategies that include assurances regarding tracking of information and the competence and experience of immunizers will be helpful when addressing parents regarding SLIPs. In addition, parents were very cognizant of and positive regarding the public health benefits associated with SLIPs. Further study among larger populations of parents will further refine these ideas and aid in the development of successful influenza vaccine SLIPs that directly address and communicate with parents about the issues most important to them.
adolescent immunization; school-located immunization; influenza vaccine; parents; focus groups
Parent-healthcare provider (HCP) communication is an important component of pediatric asthma management. Given the high prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and over-the-counter (OTC) medication use among this population, it is important to examine parental nondisclosure of these asthma management strategies.
One-time interview and one-year retrospective medical record review with 228 parents of 5–12 year old children with asthma enrolled from 6 pediatric primary care practices examining parental nondisclosure of CAM and OTC medication use, reasons for nondisclosure, medical record documentation of CAM usage, and association between parent-HCP relationship and nondisclosure.
Seventy-one percent of parents reported using CAM and/or OTC medication for children’s asthma management and 54% of those parents did not disclose usage. Seventy-five percent “did not think” to discuss it. Better parent-HCP relationship led to decreased nondisclosure.
HCPs can play an important role in creating an environment where parents feel comfortable sharing information about their children’s asthma management strategies in order to arrive at a shared asthma management plan for the child leading to improved asthma health outcomes.
We identified characteristics of Oregon children who were eligible for Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) but were not enrolled in January 2005. We also assessed whether parents' confusion regarding their children's status affected nonenrollment.
We conducted cross-sectional analyses of linked statewide food stamps and Medicaid and CHIP administrative databases (n|=|10|175) and primary data from a statewide survey (n|=|2681).
More than 20% of parents with children not administratively enrolled in Medicaid or CHIP reported that their children were enrolled. Parents of 11.3% of children who were administratively enrolled reported that they were not. Eligible but unenrolled children had higher odds of being older, having higher family incomes, and having employed parents and uninsured parents.
These findings reveal an important discrepancy between administrative data and parent-reported access to public health insurance. This may stem from transient coverage or confusion among parents and may result in underutilization of health insurance for eligible children.
As demonstrated by efforts to expand Medicaid coverage for poor and needy children, removing barriers to medical care continues to be an important social policy goal. Data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, a multistage probability sample of 15,000 US households, was used to examine some of the barriers that black and Hispanic children encounter in obtaining access to medical care. Results from the 1987 study indicate that black and Hispanic children were more likely than white children to be poor, uninsured members of single-parent households, and to have to wait longer to see a medical provider. Yet differences in waiting time at the usual source of care remained after controlling for insurance. In 1987, 18.6% of uninsured white children were without a usual source of care compared with 28.4% and 25.2% of uninsured black and Hispanic children, respectively. Furthermore, 17.6% of uninsured white children made at least one routine visit to a physician during 1987, while only 11.4% and 10.6% of the uninsured black and Hispanic children, respectively, saw a physician for a regular checkup.
A study of a cohort of children in Maidstone Health Authority examined the reasons for the failure to achieve targets for the uptake of measles immunization. Parents were interviewed before they were notified about measles immunization to determine their attitudes, beliefs and intentions regarding measles immunization and a further review was held with those whose child had no record of the immunization by the age of 20 months. The initial interview showed that most parents have a favourable attitude to measles immunization. However, many lacked knowledge, especially about valid contraindications, and claimed not to have received advice from a doctor or health visitor. The most common reasons for non-uptake of measles immunization were: the child had already had measles, concern about contraindications and delay owing to illness. This points to the importance of increasing doctors' and health visitors' knowledge of Department of Health and Social Security guidelines regarding valid contraindications and to the role of health visitors in promoting uptake. However there is also evidence that the gap between actual and target levels of uptake may be less than official figures suggest.
OBJECTIVE: Washington State's Access to Baby and Child Dent stry (ABCD) Program, first implemented in Spokane County in 1995, offers extended dental benefits to participating Medicaid-enrolled children and higher fees for certified providers. This study aimed to determine the program's effect on children's dental utilization and dental fear, and on parent satisfaction and knowledge. METHODS: The study used a posttest-only comparison group design. Trained interviewers conducted telephone interviews with 465 parents of chi dren ages 13 to 36 months (49% ABCD, 51% Medicaid-enrolled children not in ABCD). One year later, 282 of 465 parents completed a follow-up survey. Utilization and expenditures were calculated from Medicaid claims. RESULTS: Forty-three percent of children in the ABCD Program visited a dentist in the follow-up year, compared with 12% of Medicaid-enrolled children not in the ABCD Program. An ABCD child was 5.3 times as likely to have had at least one dental visit as a child not in the program. ABCD children were 4 to 13 times as likely to have used specific dental services. Parents of ABCD children were more likely to report having ever tried to make a dental appointment, less likely to report that their children were fearful of the dentist, and were more satisfied, compared to parents of non-ABCD children. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that the ABCD Program was effective in increasing access for preschool children enrolled in Medicaid, reducing dental fear, and increasing parent satisfaction.
AIM—To assess the
potential for administering catch up and scheduled immunisations during
status according to the child's principal carer was checked against
official records for 1000 consecutively admitted preschool age
children. Junior doctors were instructed to offer appropriate
vaccination before discharge, and consultants were asked to reinforce
this proactive policy on ward rounds.
those children who were not fully immunised against pertussis through
parental choice, 142 children (14.2%) had missed an age appropriate
immunisation and 41 were due a scheduled immunisation. None had a valid
contraindication. Only 43 children were offered vaccination on the ward
but uptake was 65% in this group.
to hospital provides opportunities for catch up and routine
immunisations and can contribute to the health care of an often
disadvantaged group of children. These opportunities are frequently
missed. Junior doctors must be encouraged to see opportunistic
immunisation as an important part of their routine work.
The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children’s development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of switching from a fee-for-service (FFS) delivery system to managed care on access to, use of, and satisfaction with health care for children. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A 1998 survey of Medicaid recipients in rural Minnesota. STUDY DESIGN: Using a quasi-experimental framework, we compare the experiences of children on Medicaid living in counties that had switched to managed care with those of children living in counties operating under FFS Medicaid. We address the impact of Medicaid managed care (MMC) on access to, use of, and satisfaction with care. DATA COLLECTION METHODS: A stratified random sample of children on Medicaid was drawn based on Medicaid enrollment files. Telephone interviews were conducted with the child's parent or guardian between March and June 1998. An overall response rate of 70 percent was achieved, yielding a sample of 1,106 children (814 in MMC and 792 in Medicaid FFS). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find very few significant differences in access to, use of, or satisfaction with health care services for children under MMC relative to FFS. MMC did not change the patterns of health care service use or the location at which care is delivered, two major goals of MMC initiatives. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the Medicaid program's shift from FFS to managed care had little impact on the pattern of children's health care use, the location at which they obtained care, or the satisfaction with the care they received.
comparison of parent initiated preschool surveillance, using personal
child health records, with the then current system of child health
surveillance using child health records.
controlled trial with randomisation of five general practices into two groups.
practices, a well baby clinic, and an orthoptic clinic at Yeovil
born between 1 April 1992 and 1 November 1994, from within the five
MEASURES—The number of screenable abnormalities in
the two groups that were missed in the first 3 years of a baby's life.
from the parent initiated preschool surveillance group and 107 from the
conventional group completed the study. Although all the mothers from
the parent initiated preschool surveillance group understood the
concept of parent initiated surveillance, 117 stated their health
visitor had made their appointments. Only 45 mothers made their own
appointments. The abnormality rates were: 12 of 163 and eight of 107 at
1 year and nine of 163 and six of 107 at 3 years. No medically
important conditions were missed. Most mothers did not want to make
their own appointments because it was inconvenient. The system was
unpopular with health visitors.
initiated preschool surveillance is as safe as the current system.
Implementing the idea involved a small change in work practice and a
large change conceptually for some of the primary health care team. It
was not adopted in east Somerset.
Despite the importance of collecting individual data of socioeconomic status (SES) in epidemiological oral health surveys with children, this procedure relies on the parents as respondents. Therefore, type of school (public or private schools) could be used as an alternative indicator of SES, instead of collecting data individually. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the variable type of school as an indicator of socioeconomic status as a substitute of individual data in an epidemiological survey about dental caries in Brazilian preschool children.
This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a random sample of 411 preschool children aged 1 to 5 years, representative of Catalão, Brazil. A calibrated examiner evaluated the prevalence of dental caries and parents or guardians provided information about several individual socioeconomic indicators by means of a semi-structured questionnaire. A multilevel approach was used to investigate the association among individual socioeconomic variables, as well as the type of school, and the outcome.
When all significant variables in the univariate analysis were used in the multiple model, only mother's schooling and household income (individual socioeconomic variables) presented significant associations with presence of dental caries, and the type of school was not significantly associated. However, when the type of school was used alone, children of public school presented significantly higher prevalence of dental caries than those enrolled in private schools.
The type of school used as an alternative indicator for socioeconomic status is a feasible predictor for caries experience in epidemiological dental caries studies involving preschool children in Brazilian context.
OBJECTIVE: To compare pre-hospital parental administration of pain relief for children with that of the accident and emergency (A&E) department staff and to ascertain the reason why pre-hospital analgesia is not being given. DESIGN/METHODS: An anonymous prospective questionnaire was given to parents/guardians of children < 17 years. The children were all self referred with head injuries or limb problems including burns. The first part asked for details of pain relief before attendance in the A&E department. The second part of the questionnaire contained a section for the examining doctor and triage nurse to fill in. The duration of the survey was 28 days. RESULTS: Altogether 203 of 276 (74%) of children did not receive pain relief before attendance at the A&E department. Reasons for parents not giving pain relief included 57/203 (28%) who thought that giving painkillers would be harmful; 43/203 (21%) who did not give painkillers because the accident did not happen at home; and 15/203 (7%) who thought analgesia was the responsibility of the hospital. Eighty eight of the 276 (32%) did not have any painkillers, suitable for children, at home. A&E staff administered pain relief in 189/276 (68%). CONCLUSIONS: Parents often do not give their children pain relief before attending the A&E department. Parents think that giving painkillers may be harmful and often do not have simple analgesics at home. Some parents do not perceive that their child is in pain. Parents require education about appropriate pre-hospital pain relief for their children.
Following a needs assessment, the American Lung Association of the District of Columbia (ALADC) began a 3-year pilot program (1986 to 1989) to improve the health status of 5- to 10-year-old urban black asthmatic children. The authors hypothesized that participation in a 1-day asthma camp curriculum, using a collaborative multidisciplinary team approach between university and community-based staff, would provide an effective educational intervention to teach children and their families daily management strategies for asthma. The 84 participants (mean age: 9.6 years) were predominantly black (93%), male (73%), and from single-parent or single-guardian homes (52.7%). Follow-up interviews suggested that a high percentage of the children were using new techniques such as aerosol/inhalers (78%) and breathing/warm-up exercises (55%). Overall, participation in this novel program was associated with a clinically significant, 36% to 69% reduction in school absences, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations.
Parents have central and critical influence in the health, learning and development of their young children. The physician plays a key role in supporting this role of parents, and there are practical health interventions that practitioners can promote in everyday practice that are coherent with the population-based evidence related to childhood outcomes. Four child development enhancers are recognized – emotional awareness, reading books, appropriate discipline and preschool programs including appropriate play opportunities. The child’s physician can give clear messages about why each enhancer is important and what parents can do to use them to create nurturing environments for their children. The present article provides the evidence for these interventions and a series of coordinated physician activities that will enhance the early learning opportunities of the first few years of life, for improved trajectories for health and well being.
Discipline; Emotional awareness; Literacy; Parenting; Play child development; Social paediatrics
FOLLOWING THE LAUNCH OF A PUBLICLY FUNDED influenza immunization program for all residents of Ontario over the age of 6 months, we evaluated 203 parents of children who presented to our emergency department between January and March of the following year (2001). Overall, 54 (27%) of the children had been vaccinated. Parents of non-immunized children were more likely to believe that immunization resulted in a flu-like illness (42% v. 17%; p = 0.001), caused side effects that were more severe than having influenza (36% v. 17%; p = 0.010) and weakened the immune system (52% v. 24%; p < 0.001). Parents of both immunized and non-immunized children incorrectly identified gastrointestinal symptoms as symptoms of influenza. The primary reason for deciding against immunization was the belief that their child was not at risk. After adjustment, children with a chronic disease were more likely than those without a chronic disease to be immunized (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–12.6). Children of parents who discussed immunization with a physician were more likely to be immunized than those who had not discussed immunization with a physician (OR 6.8, 95% CI 2.4–19.2).
Objectives: To further evaluate the safety profile and efficacy of intramuscular ketamine for procedural sedation during paediatric minor procedures in the emergency department and to ascertain parental satisfaction with the treatment of their children.
Methods: A prospective audit of ketamine use in a UK district general hospital involving 89 children requiring minor procedures. Children received topical anaesthesia followed by an intramuscular injection of ketamine 4 mg/kg and intramuscular atropine 0.02 mg/kg. The procedure was assessed by way of a physician completed form and by evaluation of questionnaires given to parents to gauge levels of satisfaction.
Results: No child required admission to hospital and there were no serious complications. A high level of satisfaction was expressed by all the parents/guardians of the children treated.
Conclusions: High levels of satisfaction among parents and staff together with the avoidance of hospital admission and improved resource management should be a sufficient incentive for hospital trusts to consider the establishment of this type of service.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) implemented by parents and therapists versus therapists only on the language skills of preschool children with intellectual disabilities (ID), including children with Down syndrome and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Seventy-seven children were randomly assigned to two treatments (parent + therapist EMT or therapist only EMT) and received 36 intervention sessions. Children were assessed before, immediately after, 6 months after, and 12 months after intervention. Separate linear regressions were conducted for each standardized and observational measure at each time point.
Parents in the parent + therapist group demonstrated greater use of EMT strategies at home than untrained parents in the therapist only group and these effects maintained over time. Effect sizes for observational measures ranged from d = .10 to d = 1.32 favoring the parent + therapist group, with the largest effect sizes found 12 months after intervention.
Findings from this study indicate generally that there are benefits to training parents to implement naturalistic language intervention strategies with preschool children who have ID and significant language impairments.