In Korea, there was no specific guidelines for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We reviewed the practice patterns of Korean urologists in the management of BPH and aimed to describe the need to develop specific guidelines.
Materials and Methods
A probability sample was taken from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians, and a structured questionnaire, that explored practice patterns in the management of BPH, was mailed to a random sample of 251 Korean urologists.
For the initial evaluation of BPH, most urologists routinely performed prostatic specific antigen (PSA) (96.4%), digital rectal exam (94.4%), international prostate symptom score (IPSS) (83.2%) and transrectal ultrasound (79.2%). Symptom assessment (36.4%) followed by transrectal ultrasound of prostate (TRUS) (20.0%) was considered as the most important diagnostic examination affecting the decision about individual treatment options. Almost all urologists (92.2%) chose medical treatment as the first-line treatment option for uncomplicated BPH with moderate symptoms. Of the respondents, 57.2% had prescribed alpha blocker and 41.6% alpha blocker plus 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as the medical treatment option for BPH. The prescription of 5-ARIs was dependent on the size of the prostate and the severity of symptoms.
The results of our current survey provide useful insight into variations in the clinical practice of Korean urologists. They also indicate the need to develop further practical guidelines based on solid clinical data and to ensure that these guidelines are widely promoted and accepted by the urological community.
Drug therapy; physician's practice patterns; prostate; prostatic hyperplasia; prostatic neoplasm
To assess the compliance of Chinese urologists with China's benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) clinical practice guideline and to explore the diagnosis and therapy modalities for geriatric patients with BPH.
A cross-sectional survey study was carried out in 33 medical centers in 11 different cities in China. A total of 190 urologists participated in a survey to record their preferences for diagnostic tests and treatment options for BPH outpatients. Diagnostic test results as well as health care demands were collected by surveying 2,027 outpatients aged 60 years and older.
The survey response rate was 97.4%. The respondents generally used the diagnostic tests recommended in China's BPH clinical practice guideline at varying rates. The used rates for medical history, ultrasonography, and urinalysis were above 90.0%; that for uroflowmetry was 31.2%. In addition, the rate of use of recommended tests was higher among doctors in the north than among those in the south. Combination therapy with α-adrenoceptor antagonists and 5α-reductase inhibitors was the preferred treatment option for BPH, and was increasingly used with worsening lower urinary tract symptoms. Finasteride was the most prescribed medication (48.0%), followed by tamsulosin (22.7%).
This study assessed the preferences of urologists in the diagnosis and treatment of BPH, which will serve as an important reference for updating and improving China's current BPH clinical practice guideline.
Prostatic hyperplasia; Diagnosis; Practice guideline; Therapy
To determine the prevalence, diagnostic patterns and management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Canadian urology outpatient practice.
Representative urologists were randomly selected from lists provided by the Canadian and Quebec Urological Associations. Each patient identified with a BPH diagnosis during a typical 2-consecutive-week period during April, May or June 2007 was asked to complete a corresponding International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Each day, the participant urologist completed an outpatient log and a detailed programmed chart review to transcribe demographics, investigations and treatments associated with each BPH patient.
Eighty-six urologists were invited to participate. Thirty-eight (44.2%) agreed, and 27 of those (71.1%) submitted evaluable data for the audit. Of the 5616 patients seen in outpatient practice (average 208 per urologist), 4324 (77%) were male. A BPH diagnosis was identified in 19.6% of the men (n = 849; mean age 69.5, standard deviation [SD] 10, yr; age range 40–100 yr; mean duration of symptoms 4.8, SD 4.2, yr; mean IPSS score 12.3, SD 7.4; mean prostate specific antigen [PSA] 3.9, SD 3.9, ng/mL). Twenty-four percent of patients had prostates that were rated as large, 50% as medium and 26% as small. PSA level correlated positively with prostate volume. Twenty-two percent were initial consultations for LUTS and 78% were repeat visits. Diagnostic evaluation tended to follow those examinations and tests recommended by the Canadian BPH guidelines. Treatment choices tended to follow an evidence-based algorithm with respect to treatment choices for men in the various prostate-volume and PSA groups.
This prospective audit indicates that BPH remains a common condition managed by urologists in outpatient practice. Investigations and treatments confirm that Canadian urologists appear to be following Canadian BPH guidelines as well as the most recent evidence from the literature.
In order to gain insight into the physicians' awareness of and attitude towards management of overactive bladder (OAB) in males, we performed a nationwide survey of the current strategies that urologists use to diagnose and manage OAB in male patients.
Materials and Methods
A probability sample was taken from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians, and a random sample of 289 Korean urologists were mailed a structured questionnaire that explored how they manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
A total of 185 completed questionnaires were returned. The consent rate in the survey was 64.5%. Eighty-one (44%) urologists believed that of all males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 20% or more had OAB and 72 (39%) believed that 10-20% had OAB. Half of the urologists surveyed believed that the most bothersome symptom in male OAB patients was nocturia. Seventy-three percent of respondents reported that they prescribed alpha blockers with anticholinergics for first line management, while 19% of urologists prescribed alpha blocker monotherapy but not anticholinergics for OAB patients. Though acute urinary retention (AUR) was considered the anticholinergic adverse event of most concern, the most frequently observed adverse event was dry mouth (95%).
The present study provides insights into urologist views of male OAB. There is a discrepancy between the awareness of urologists and actual patterns of diagnosis and treatment of male OAB. This finding indicates the need to develop further practical guidelines based on solid clinical data.
Overactive bladder; physician's practice patterns; bladder outlet obstruction; benign prostatic hyperplasia; anticholinergics
To define primary care physicians’ (PCPs) practices in managing patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and to compare these practices to portions of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research BPH guideline and urologists’ practices.
Nationwide random sample of PCPs and urologists, selected from the American Medical Association Registry.
Initial mailing, postcard reminder, second mailing, telephone reminder, final mailing.
Primary care physicians (n = 444, response = 51%) reported seeing a median of 35 patients with BPH over the preceding year, in contrast to 240 for urologists (n = 394, response = 68%). Regarding tests recommended by the guideline, two thirds of PCPs reported rarely or never using the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom index, nearly all reported routinely performing digital rectal examinations, and many (66%) reported routinely ordering tests to determine the serum creatinine level. Although considered “optional” by the guideline, more than 90% of PCPs reported routinely ordering a prostate-specific antigen test, while infrequently using other optional tests. Regarding “not recommended” studies, a substantial minority reported selectively or routinely ordering intravenous pyelography (34%) and renal ultrasound (33%), while two thirds reported rarely or never ordering these tests. Eighty-six percent of PCPs reported prescribing medications for BPH over the preceding year; α blockers to a median of 12 patients, and finasteride to a median of 2. Variation in urology referral thresholds was suggested in responses to two patient scenarios.
Primary care physicians are actively managing patients with BPH. Some of their diagnostic evaluations vary from the recommendations of a national guideline and urologists’ practices. Referral thresholds appear to vary considerably.
prostatic hyperplasia; primary care physicians; practice patterns; practice guideline
To improve BPH care, the American Urological Association created best practice guidelines for BPH management. We evaluate trends in use of BPH related evaluative tests and the extent to which urologists comply with the guidelines for evaluative tests.
From a 5% random sample of Medicare claims from 1999 to 2007, we created a cohort of 10,248 patients with new visits for BPH to 748 urologists. Trends in use of BPH related testing were determined. After classifying urologists by compliance with best practice guidelines, models were fit to determine the differences in use of BPH related testing among urologists. Further models defined the extent to which individual BPH related tests influenced guideline compliance.
Use of most BPH testing increased over time (p < 0.001) except PSA (declined; p < 0.001) and ultrasound (p=0.416). Northeastern and Midwestern urologists were more likely to be in the lowest compliance group compared to Southern and Western urologists (29%, 27%, 13% and 19% respectively; p = 0.01). Testing associated with high guideline compliance included urinalysis and PSA (p < 0.01 for both), while prostate ultrasound (p = 0.03), cystoscopy (p < 0.01), uroflow (p < 0.01), and post void residual (p = 0.02) were associated low guideline compliance. Urodynamics, PVR, cytology, serum creatinine, and upper tract imaging were not strongly associated with guideline compliance.
Despite the AUA guidelines for BPH care, wide variations in evaluation and treatment are seen. Improving guideline adherence and reducing variation could improve BPH care quality.
Prostatic Hyperplasia; Practice Guideline; Physician’s Practice Patterns
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a bothersome disease that can progress if left untreated. However, patient and urologist perspectives on BPH management are not fully understood. The aim of the Prostate Research on Behaviour and Education (PROBE) Survey was to assess healthcare-seeking behaviour and attitudes to BPH treatment in 502 BPH patients, and the beliefs and management practices of 100 urologists, from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK.
The principal concerns of patients seeking medical advice were fear of cancer, sleep disruption, discomfort or embarrassment. The majority of BPH patients recalled receiving a digital rectal examination (61%), routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests (67%) and prescription medication (72%). Eighty per cent of 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) users vs. 68% of α-blocker users were satisfied with their treatment. More than half of the patients were concerned about requiring surgery or developing acute urinary retention, and > 75% would prefer a drug that provides reduction in the risk of surgery than one that provides rapid symptom relief. Most urologists performed digital rectal examinations (96%) and PSA tests (71%) on > 90% of patients presenting with BPH symptoms. Eighty-seven per cent of urologists believe that BPH progresses, and 78% believe that 5ARIs prevent BPH progression. However, most urologists prescribe α-blockers while few prescribe 5ARIs.
This study highlights discrepancies between views and beliefs of patients and physicians regarding BPH and current practice in Europe.
There is increasing recognition of the importance of the role of the patient in clinical decision-making and the importance of consideration of patient perceptions and preferences in ensuring selection of the appropriate management strategy and treatment success.A recently reported US national survey indicated that currently there are significant differences in the beliefs and attitudes of patients and physicians towards benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (also known as enlarged prostate) and its management.
This article provides information on the views and beliefs of both patients and urologists towards BPH and its management, and on current practice, across five European countries.This study confirms and extends the findings of the US survey and further highlights the need for improved communication between physicians and patients and greater involvement of the patient during clinical decision-making.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and its clinical manifestation as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a major health concern for aging men. There have been significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in recent years. There has been a renewed interest in medical therapies and less invasive surgical techniques. As a consequence, the treatment needs of men with mild to moderate LUTS without evidence of prostate cancer can now be accomplished in a primary care setting. There are differences in the way urologists and primary care physicians approach the evaluation and management of LUTS due to BPH, which is not reflected in Canadian Urological Association (CUA) and American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines. A “shared care” approach involving urologists and primary care physicians represents a reasonable and viable model for the care of men suffering from LUTS. The essence of the model centres around educating and communicating effectively with the patient on BPH. This article provides primary care physicians with an overview of the diagnostic and management strategies outlined in recent CUA and AUA guidelines so that they may be better positioned to effectively deal with this patient population. It is now apparent that we must move away from the urologist as the first-line physician, and allow primary care physicians to accept a new role in the diagnosis and management of BPH.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) creates significant expenses for the Medicare program. We sought to determine trends in expenditures for BPH evaluative testing after urologist consultation, and place these trends in the context of overall Medicare expenditures.
Using a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2007, we developed a cohort of men with claims for new visits to urologists for diagnoses consistent with symptomatic BPH (n=40,253). We assessed trends in initial expenditures (within 12 months of diagnosis; inflation and geography adjusted) by categories of evaluative tests derived from the 2003 AUA Guideline on the Management of BPH. Using governmental reports on Medicare expenditures, trends in BPH expenditures were compared to overall and imaging-specific Medicare expenditures. Comparisons were assessed by Z-tests and regression analysis for linear trends as appropriate.
Between 2000 and 2007 inflation adjusted total Medicare expenditure per patient for the initial evaluation of BPH patients seen by urologists increased from $255.44 to $343.98 (p<0.0001). Increases in BPH related imaging (55%), were significantly less than increases in overall Medicare expenditures on imaging (104%; p<0.001). The 35% increase in per patient expenditures for BPH was significantly lower than the increase in overall Medicare expenditure per enrollee (45%; p=0.0.0015).
From 2000 to 2007, inflation adjusted expenditures on BPH related evaluations increased. This growth was slower than overall growth in Medicare expenditures, and increases in imaging expenditures related to BPH were restrained compared to the Medicare program as a whole.
Prostatic Hyperplasia; Medicare; Health Expenditures
Two large, recently published, definitive trials evaluated the benefits of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARIs). The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) tested the effect of finasteride for prostate cancer prevention and the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) tested its effect in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Both trials were strongly positive. However, the role of 5ARIs in the clinical management of patients remains controversial. The consensus conference, which forms the basis for this report, attempted to develop an expert opinion, based on these studies, as to the optimal use of 5ARIs in patient management.
The Canadian Consensus Meeting, organized by the Canadian Urology Research Consortium and the Canadian Urologic Oncology Group, held in Toronto on May 7, 2006, focused on the new data from the PCPT and the MTOPS study. Internationally recognized experts and clinicians discussed the implications of these data on clinical practice and issued a recommendation on the optimal management of patients with BPH.
The Consensus meeting agreed on the following recommendations:
The overall results from the PCPT and MTOPS studies are of importance to the urologic, as well as to the greater medical, community.
Prostate management guidelines should be updated to include the results from both the MTOPS and the PCPT studies.
In the PCPT, the incidence of high-grade cancer was higher in the finasteride-treated group (6.4%), compared with the placebo group (5.1%). Subsequent analyses strongly suggest that this increased prevalence was owing to a detection bias caused by the reduction in prostate volume in patients taking finasteride, compared with patients taking placebo. This resulted in an improved detection at biopsy of high-grade cancer in the finasteride group.
In men who have large prostates and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 5ARIs§ should be considered, both for the treatment of BPH and for prostate cancer risk reduction.
For men who are concerned about prostate cancer, it is appropriate to discuss chemoprevention with finasteride.
Urologists are encouraged to disseminate these recommendations among other healthcare professionals.
One of the most important diagnostic tools used to detect prostate cancer is prostate-specific antigen (PSA), yet increased PSA alone does not reflect the presence of prostate cancer. Other pathological prostatic conditions such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may also increase the level of PSA. However, unlike in other prostate diseases, PSA has a key role in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. The incidence of prostate cancer varies from country to country, with the highest incidence being found in the Western world and the lowest in Asian countries. Owing to the low incidence of prostate cancer, there could be different views regarding the use of PSA in Asian countries, especially for the early detection/screening of prostate cancer. The purpose of this article is to review the use and value of PSA in the diagnosis of prostate diseases (especially prostate cancer) in Asian countries/populations. A literature search was performed in ‘MEDLINE’ (PubMed) and Google Scholar using main keywords such as ‘PSA’, ‘PSA usage’, ‘PSA sensitivity and specificity’, ‘Asia’, and various countries in Asia. Articles that provide population/community-based PSA data, together with the characteristics, distribution, and indications for PSA testing in the respective countries, were selected. Eleven papers were finally selected for inclusion in this review. Five studies found that PSA, by its 95th percentile value, have an age-referenced tendency in Asian males, similarly to the West. The predictive values of PSA in detecting prostate cancer are also quite similar to those in Western countries. With the exponential growth of the aging population in the world, especially in Asia, the incidence of prostate cancer will follow this upward trend. Therefore, PSA testing for screening or diagnostic purposes would increase with time in Asia.
predictive value; prostate cancer; prostate-specific antigen; screening
Chronic inflammation is considered as one of the contributing mechanisms of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level is the widely used biomarker of inflammatory status. This study investigated the association between serum CRP level in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) before and after medical treatment.
A total of 853 men with BPH and LUTS were enrolled. All patients completed the International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) questionnaire and urological examinations. The parameters of uroflowmetry (maximum flow rate, Qmax; voided volume, VV), post-void residual (PVR), total prostate volume (TPV) and transition zone index (TZI), serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), and serum CRP levels were obtained. All patients were treated with alpha-blocker or antimuscarinic agent based on the IPSS voiding to storage subscore ratio (IPSS-V/S). Correlation analyses were performed between serum CRP levels with age, IPSS, TPV, TZI, Qmax, PVR, VV, PSA and between baseline and post treatment.
The mean age was 66.9±11.6 years old and the mean serum CRP levels were 0.31±0.43 mg/dL. Univariate analyses revealed serum CRP levels were significantly associated with age (p<0.001), PSA levels (p = 0.005) and VV (p = 0.017), but not significantly associated with TPV (p = 0.854) or PVR (p = 0.068). CRP levels were positively associated with urgency (p<0.001) and nocturia (p<0.001) subscore of IPSS, total IPSS (p = 0.008) and storage IPSS (p<0.001) and negatively associated with IPSS- V/S ratio (p = 0.014). Multivariate analyses revealed that serum CRP levels were significantly associated with age (p = 0.004) and storage IPSS subscore p<0.001). Patients with IPSS-V/S<1 and treated with tolterodine for 3 months had significant decrease of CRP levels after treatment.
Serum CRP levels are associated with storage LUTS and sensory bladder disorders, suggesting chronic inflammation might play a role in the patients with storage predominant LUTS.
Estimation of baseline bone mineral density (BMD) at the time of instituting androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic prostate cancer is recommended by several specialty groups and expert panels. The present study was carried out to analyze the practice pattern of Indian urologists with regard to bone densitometric assessment and management of fracture risk in men of prostate cancer on ADT, and their degree of adherence to currently available guidelines
Materials and Methods:
Telephonic interviews of 108 qualified urologists, randomly selected from the member database of Urological Society of India was carried out with a predefined questionnaire. The responses were analyzed and compared with the available evidences and recommendations.
Only 19.4% urologists routinely perform a baseline BMD before starting ADT. Although majority of them prescribe calcium and vitamin D supplementation, only few tell regarding fracture risk and life-style modification to their patients. While 59.6% of the respondents use Zoledronic acid (ZA) in their patients on ADT, half of them prescribe it without knowing the BMD status, which may lead to overuse of ZA.
Majority of the urologists in India do not follow the guidelines for BMD measurement in prostate cancer. A baseline BMD may help in reducing the unnecessary use of ZA.
Androgen deprivation therapy; bone mineral density; osteoporosis; prostate cancer; zoledronic acid
The first Italian national guidelines were developed by the Italian Association of Urologists and published in 2007. Since then, a number of new drugs or classes of drugs have emerged for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), new data have emerged on medical therapy (monotherapies and combination therapies), new surgical techniques have come into practice, and our understanding of disease pathogenesis has increased. Consequently, a new update of the guidelines has become necessary.
A structured literature review was conducted to identify relevant papers published between 1 August 2006 and 12 December 2010. Publications before or after this timeframe were considered only if they were recognised as important milestones in the field or if the literature search did not identify publications within this timeframe. The quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were determined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework.
Decisions on therapeutic intervention should be based on the impact of symptoms on quality of life (QoL) rather than the severity of symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) score). A threshold for intervention was therefore based on the IPSS Q8, with intervention recommended for patients with a score of at least 4. Several differences in clinical recommendations have emerged. For example, combination therapy with a 5α-reductase inhibitor plus α blocker is now the recommended option for the treatment of patients at risk of BPH progression. Other differences include the warning of potential worsening of cognitive disturbances with use of anticholinergics in older patients, the distinction between Serenoa repens preparations (according to the method of extraction), and the clearly defined threshold of prostate size for performing open surgery (>80 g). While the recommendations included in these guidelines are evidence based, clinical decisions should also be informed by patients’ clinical and physical circumstances, as well as patients’ preferences and actions.
These guidelines are intended to assist physicians and patients in the decision-making process regarding the management of LUTS/BPH, and support the process of continuous improvement of the quality of care and services to patients.
benign prostatic hyperplasia; lower urinary tract symptoms; treatment guidelines
Many urologists have performed prostate biopsy in men with a high level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) alone. However, high levels of PSA may be induced by infection. We studied the effects of antibiotics on serum total PSA and PSA density (PSAD) in men with total PSA between 4 and 10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal sonographic findings.
Materials and Methods
From January 2005 to October 2009, a total of 107 patients with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were evaluated. To be included in this study, patients had to be at least 50 years old, have a palpably normal DRE, have infection in the prostate, have a total serum PSA of 4 to 10 ng/ml, and have transrectal ultrasound findings that did not show a hypoechoic lesion in the prostate. Only patients in whom the PSA level was rechecked after short-term antibiotics administration (8 weeks) were included. Serum PSA and PSAD were measured before transrectal ultrasound or EPS and after 8 weeks of treatment with antibiotics (quinolone). Age, prostate volume, serum PSA, PSAD, and PSA rate of change were compared.
The mean age of the patients was 66.3 years. The mean prostate size was 48.8±24.9 g. Forty patients had a high level of PSAD. Total PSA and PSAD significantly decreased after treatment (p<0.05). In 45 of the 107 men, total PSA after antibiotics treatment was normalized (less than 4 ng/ml). PSAD after treatment was normalized (less than 0.15 ng/ml/cm3) in 23 of the 40 patients with a high level of PSAD.
Antibiotics treatment for at least 8 weeks in BPH patients with an increased PSA level (4-10 ng/ml), infection, and normal DRE and transrectal sonographic findings may decrease serum PSA significantly. However, because the PSA level was not decreased to the normal range (less than 4 ng/ml) in all patients, it seems that antibiotics therapy before prostatic biopsy is not necessary.
Prostate-specific antigen; Antibiotics
According to previous studies, the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) in Korea ranges from 11.3% to 33%. However, the actual practice patterns in managing patients with PE is not well known. In this study, we have endeavored to determine how contemporary urologists in Korea manage patients with PE.
Materials and Methods
The e-mailing list was obtained from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians. A specifically designed questionnaire was e-mailed to the 2,421 urologists in Korea from May 2012 to August 2012.
Urologists in Korea diagnosed PE using various criteria: the definition of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (63.4%), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (43.8%), International Statistical Classification of Disease, 10th edition (61.7%), or perceptional self-diagnosis by the patient himself (23.5%). A brief self-administered questionnaire, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, was used by only 42.5% of the urologists. Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy was the main treatment modality (91.5%) for PE patients. 40.2% of the urologists used phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, 47.6% behavior therapy, and 53.7% local anesthetics. Further, 286 (54.3%) urologists managed PE patients with a surgical modality such as selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN).
A majority of Korean urologists diagnose PE by a multidimensional approach using various diagnostic tools. Most urologists believe that medical treatment with an SSRI is effective in the management of PE. At the same time, surgical treatment such as SDN also investigated as one of major treatment modality despite the lack of scientific evidence.
Physician's practice patterns; Premature ejaculation; Urologic surgical procedures
The prostate gland has attracted a remarkable increase in interest in the past few years. The two most common diseases of this gland, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate, have been brought into greater prominence by new diagnostic methods, public interest, and a wider choice of surgical and non-surgical treatments. Uncertainty about the significance of these changes has occurred because of the rapidity of change, the profusion of statements, opinions and promotions, and the relatively little guidance available from the profession. Ten urologists and two general practitioners have reviewed the relevant evidence about these two prostate diseases and the newer diagnostic methods; their conclusions are summarised here. Management options and guidance on clinical practice are also discussed. Because of a number of unresolved diagnostic and management issues, detailed requirements for practice guidelines have not been specified.
To investigate the relationship between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and the incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related outcomes and nocturia, a lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) of BPH, in light of accumulating evidence suggesting a role for inflammation in BPH/LUTS development.
Patients and methods
At baseline, participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial completed questions on recent, regular aspirin and ibuprofen use, BPH surgery, diagnosis of an enlarged prostate/BPH, and nocturia. Participants in the intervention arm also underwent a digital rectal examination (DRE), from which prostate dimensions were estimated, as well as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Only participants in the intervention arm without BPH/LUTS at baseline were included in the analysis (n = 4771).
During follow-up, participants underwent annual DREs and PSA tests, provided annual information on finasteride use, and completed a supplemental questionnaire in 2006–2008 that included additional questions on diagnosis of an enlarged prostate/BPH and nocturia.
Information collected was used to investigate regular aspirin or ibuprofen use in relation to the incidence of six BPH/LUTS definitions: diagnosis of an enlarged prostate/BPH, nocturia (waking two or more times per night to urinate), finasteride use, any self-reported BPH/LUTS, prostate enlargement (estimated prostate volume ≥ 30 mL on any follow-up DRE) and elevation in PSA level (> 1.4 ng/mL on any follow-up PSA test).
Generally, null results were observed for any recent, regular aspirin or ibuprofen use (risk ratio = 0.92–1.21, P = 0.043–0.91) and frequency of use (risk ratio for one category increase in NSAID use = 0.98–1.11, P-trends = 0.10–0.99) with incident BPH/LUTS.
The findings obtained in the present study do not support a protective role for recent NSAID use in BPH/LUTS development.
aspirin; benign prostatic hyperplasia; ibuprofen; lower urinary tract symptoms; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) typically occurs in the sixth and seventh decades, and the most frequent obstructive urinary symptoms are hesitancy, decreased urinary stream, sensation of incomplete emptying, nocturia, frequency, and urgency. Various medications, specifically 5-α-reductase inhibitors and selective α-blockers, can decrease the severity of the symptoms secondary to BPH, but prostatectomy is still considered to be the traditional method of management. We report the preliminary results for two patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH, successfully treated by prostate artery embolization (PAE). The patients were investigated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, by digital rectal examination, urodynamic testing, prostate biopsy, transrectal ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Uroflowmetry and postvoid residual urine volume complemented the investigation at 30, 90, and 180 days after PAE. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia; embolization of the prostate arteries was performed with a microcatheter and 300- to 500-μm microspheres using complete stasis as the end point. One patient was subjected to bilateral PAE and the other to unilateral PAE; they urinated spontaneously after removal of the urethral catheter, 15 and 10 days after the procedure, respectively. At 6-month follow-up, US and MRI revealed a prostate reduction of 39.7% and 47.8%, respectively, for the bilateral PAE and 25.5 and 27.8%, respectively, for the patient submitted to unilateral PAE. The early results, at 6-month follow-up, for the two patients with BPH show a promising potential alternative for treatment with PAE.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Prostate; Embolization; Urinary retention; Prostatic artery
Virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) is a new, promising technique for detecting the stiffness of tissues. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of VTTQ and digital rectal examination (DRE) in discrimination between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Patients and methods
VTTQ was performed in 209 prostate nodular lesions of 107 patients with BPH and suspected prostate cancer before the prostate histopathologic examination. The shear wave velocity (SWV) at each nodular lesion was quantified by implementing an acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI). The performance of VTTQ and DRE in discrimination between prostate cancer and BPH was compared. The diagnostic value of VTTQ and DRE for prostate cancer was evaluated in terms of the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy.
Prostate cancer was detected in 57 prostate nodular lesions by histopathologic examination. The SWV values (m/s) were significantly greater in prostate cancer and BPH than in normal prostate (2.37 ± 0.94, 1.98 ± 0.82 vs. 1.34 ± 0.47). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for VTTQ (SWV>2.5m/s) to differentiate prostate nodules as benign hyperplasia or malignancy was 0.86, while it was 0.67 for DRE. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 71.93 %, 87.5 %, 68.33 %, 89.26 %, 83.25 %, respectively for VTTQ (SWV>2.5m/s), whereas they were 33.33 %, 81.57 %, 40.43 %, 76.54 %, 68.42 % respectively for DRE.
VTTQ can effectively detect the stiffness of prostate nodular lesions, which has a significantly higher performance than DRE in discrimination between prostate cancer and BPH.
prostate cancer; benign prostatic hyperplasia; virtual touch tissue quantification; digital rectal examination; shear wave velocity
PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is changing from a surgical approach to a medical approach, and the role of primary care physicians is expanding. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To introduce a patient-centred approach to managing BPH in primary care through a continuing medical education (CME) program. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: A practice-based, small group, peer-led CME program focused on application of the International Prostate Symptom Score and Quality of Life Assessment in four case studies on prostatism, including BPH. At 86 workshops held across Canada, 658 physicians participated in discussions with case materials that included videos and a handbook. A before-after practice behaviour questionnaire was administered at each workshop to evaluate "intent to change." CONCLUSIONS: Participating physicians showed willingness to learn new skills for patient-centred management of BPH. These results suggest that peer-led, small group CME can successfully encourage use of new practice guidelines in primary are and teach physicians practical steps for developing therapeutic alliances with their patients.
Clinically benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is classically associated by the progressive development of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The incidence of bothersome LUTS is associated with age and may vary in patients over 50 years old. In many developing countries with an aging population, BPH associated with LUTS has become a major health issue. To optimize quality of care and control of cost, there is an imperative need to examine the pattern of BPH management. The goal of this study is to capture the Canadian trend in surgical management of BPH and the use of laser therapy during the last 5 years from 2007–2008 to 2011–2012.
We collected the number of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) procedures performed in each province in Canada from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) reports for the fiscal years (April 1st–March 31st) of 2007–2008, 2008–2009, 2009–2010, 2010–2011 and 2011–2012.
Overall, the total number of TURP procedures remained stable from 20 294 procedures per year in 2007 to 20 629 in 2011. In terms of distribution according to provinces, in 2011, about 40% of procedures were performed in Ontario, 20% in BC, 18 in Quebec and 8% in Alberta. These proportions between provinces have remained similar and stable between 2007 and 2011. In contrast, the number of alternative minimally invasive procedures has slowly grown from 767 interventions in 2007 to 1559 in 2011. Overall, laser procedures represented 7.6% of the total number of BPH surgeries in Canada in 2011. The contribution of laser therapy to the amount of total BPH procedures largely varied between provinces.
The use of minimally invasive laser procedure alternatives to TURP is progressively growing. Among the novel laser therapies, HoLEP and GreenLight vaporization are the only procedures that have demonstrated equivalent outcomes compared to TURP in randomized clinical trials. Furthermore, due to shorter hospital stay, these novel laser modalities have the potential to reduce healthcare expenses for the treatment of BPH. We can infer that following the trend observed in the United States, the number of laser therapies for BPH in Canada may increase significantly during the coming years.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)is the most common urologic disease in men over age 50. Symptoms include acute urinary retention, urgency to urinate and nocturia. For patients with severe symptoms, surgical treatment is used to remove the affected tissue. Interestingly, the presence of histologic BPH does not always correlate with symptoms. The molecular basis of symptomatic BPH and how it differs from asymptomatic BPH is unknown. Investigation into the molecular players involved in symptomatic BPH will likely give insight into novel therapeutic, and potentially preventative, targets. We determined the expression of genes involved in the innate anti-viral immune response in tissues from patients undergoing surgery to alleviate the symptoms of BPH, and compared the results to prostate tissue with histologic BPH, but from patients with few urinary issues (asymptomatic BPH). We found that expression of CFI, APOBEC3G, OAS2, and IFIT1, four genes whose protein products are involved in the innate anti-viral immune response, were significantly transcriptionally upregulated in symptomatic BPH. Additionally we observe hypomethylation and concomitant expression of ancient retroviral-like sequences, the LINE-1 retrotransposons, in symptomatic BPH when compared to normal prostate tissue. These findings merit further investigation into the anti-viral immune response in symptomatic BPH.
benign prostatic hyperplasia; BPH; CFI; APOBEC3G; anti-viral immune response; LINE-1
We compare the symptomatic relief with urodynamic parameter change and operative safety of the outpatient transurethral resection in saline (TURIS-V) technique with inpatient transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
This prospective cohort comparison study enrolled patients who needed BPH surgery. Between January 2010 and June 2011, outpatient TURIS-V was performed at 1 centre and the results of the treatment were compared with inpatient TURP performed at a separate hospital. Preoperative characteristics, including prostate volume, were similar in both groups. Perioperative data and any treatment complications were recorded. The analysis compared postoperative outcomes, including a 6-month postoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), a quality of life (QoL) evaluation and a record of any changes in uroflowmetry findings, between the 2 groups.
In the TURIS-V patient group, 75 patients agreed to be in the study. Of these, 69 ultimately complete the study. In the TURP group, 76 patients agreed and 71 of these completed the study. Both study groups were well-matched for age, IPSS, QoL and uroflowmetry findings. The TURIS-V group experienced both shorter operation times (54.6 vs. 74.8 minutes) and shorter catheterization times (2.2 vs. 4.2 days) when compared to the TURP group. There were comparable improvements in the 6-month postoperative IPSS, QoL, and uroflowmetry findings between the 2 groups. There were also equally low incidence rates of procedural complications.
Both TURIS-V and TURP relieve lower urinary tract symptoms in a similar way, with great efficacy and safety. Overall, TURIS-V had shorter operative and catheterization times compared to TURP. Notwithstanding the paper’s limitations (non- randomized cohort comparison with possible selection or surgeon bias and small heterogeneous sample size), TURIS-V can be performed safely even in an outpatient setting.
One of the challenges facing primary care physicians and specialists as the population ages is the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). While as many as 18% of men in their 40s report bother from an enlarged prostate, that figure rises dramatically, whereby 50% of men in their 50s and 90% of men in their 90s will complain of bothersome symptoms related to an enlarged prostate. Studies have shown that BPH is a progressive disease, which if left untreated can result in worsening of symptoms, acute urinary retention and renal failure. Until about 20 years ago the only management option available to urologists was surgery. In the early 1990s medical therapy emerged as the predominant treatment for BPH. Therapy may be tailored to target symptoms and progression of disease.
benign prostatic hyperplasia; LUTS; anticholinergics; alpha-blockers; 5-alpha-reducinhibitors