CC chemokines constitute a novel class of cytokines that attract and activate monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as basophil and eosinophil leukocytes, with distinct target cell profiles, and are believed to be involved in the regulation of different types of inflammation. The action of the recently identified monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP- 3) on human basophil and eosinophil function was studied and compared with that of other CC chemokines. In basophils, MCP-3, MCP-1, RANTES, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha all induced cytosolic- free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) changes and, with different efficacies, chemotaxis (RANTES = MCP-3 >> MCP-1 > MIP-1 alpha), histamine release (MCP-1 = MCP-3 >> RANTES > MIP-1 alpha), and leukotriene C4 formation, after IL-3 pretreatment (MCP-1 = MCP-3 >> RANTES > MIP-1 alpha). Thus, MCP-3 was as effective as MCP-1 as an inducer of mediator release, and as effective as RANTES as a stimulus of basophil migration. In contrast to MCP-1, MCP-3 was also a stimulus for eosinophils, and induced [Ca2+]i changes and chemotaxis as effectively as RANTES, which is the most potent chemotactic cytokine for these cells. Desensitization of the transient changes in [Ca2+]i was used to assess receptor usage. In basophils, stimulation with MCP-3 prevented responsiveness to MCP-1 and RANTES, but not to MIP-1 alpha. No single CC chemokine (except for MCP-3 itself) affected the response to MCP-3, however, which was prevented only when the cells were prestimulated with both MCP-1 and RANTES. In eosinophils, by contrast, cross-desensitization between RANTES and MCP-3 was obtained. RANTES and to a lesser extent MCP-3 also desensitized eosinophils toward MIP-1 alpha. The desensitization data suggest the existence of three chemokine receptors: (a) a MCP-1 receptor expressed on basophils but not eosinophils that is activated by MCP-1 and MCP-3; (b) a RANTES receptor in basophils and eosinophils that is activated by RANTES and MCP-3; and (c) a MIP-1 alpha receptor that is activated by MIP-1 alpha, RANTES and, more weakly, by MCP-3. This study shows that MCP-3 combines the properties of RANTES, a powerful chemoattractant, and MCP-1, a highly effective stimulus of mediator release, and thus has a particularly broad range of activities toward both human basophil and eosinophil leukocytes.
Chemokines are low-molecular-weight chemotactic cytokines that have been shown to play a central role in the perivascular transmigration and accumulation of specific subsets of leukocytes at sites of tissue damage. Using in situ hybridization (ISH), we investigated the mRNA induction of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), MIP-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and RANTES. Challenge of infant rats’ brains with Haemophilus influenzae type b intraperitoneally resulted in the time-dependent expression of MIP-2, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and RANTES, which was maximal 24 to 48 h postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry showed significant increases in neutrophils and macrophages infiltrating the meninges, the ventricular system, and the periventricular area. The kinetics of MIP-2, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and RANTES mRNA expression paralleled those of the recruitment of inflammatory cells and disease severity. Administration of anti-MIP-2 or anti-MIP-1α antibodies (Abs) resulted in significant reduction of neutrophils. Administration of anti-MCP-1 Abs significantly decreased macrophage infiltration. Combined studies of ISH and immunohistochemistry showed that MIP-2- and MIP-1α-positive cells were neutrophils and macrophages. MCP-1-positive cells were neutrophils, macrophages, and astrocytes. Expression of RANTES was localized predominantly to resident astrocytes and microglia. The present study indicates that blocking of MIP-2 or MIP-1α bioactivity in vivo results in decreased neutrophil influx. These data are also the first demonstration that the C-C chemokine MIP-1α is involved in neutrophil recruitment in vivo.
Several lines of evidence suggest that chemokines and cytokines play an important role in the inflammatory development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of functional genetic variations of RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 for systemic lupus erythematosus.
The study was conducted on 500 SLE patients and 481 ethnically matched healthy controls. Genotyping of polymorphisms in the RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 genes were performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system with pre-developed TaqMan allelic discrimination assay.
No significant differences between SLE patients and healthy controls were observed when comparing genotype, allele or haplotype frequencies of the RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 polymorphisms. In addition, no evidence for association with clinical sub-features of SLE was found.
These results suggest that the tested functional variation of RANTES, IL-8, IL-1α, and MCP-1 genes do not confer a relevant role in the susceptibility or severity of SLE in the Spanish population.
Selective eosinophil recruitment into tissues is a characteristic feature of allergic diseases. Chemokines are effective leukocyte chemoattractants and may play an important role in mediating eosinophil recruitment in various allergic conditions in man. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of eosinophil recruitment in which we have compared the in vivo chemoattractant activity of different C-C chemokines. Furthermore, we describe the use of antibodies to chemokines and receptor blockade to address the endogenous mechanisms involved in eosinophil recruitment in a late-phase allergic reaction in mouse skin. Intradermal injection of mEotaxin and mMIP-1alpha, but not mMCP-1, mRANTES, mMCP-5, or mMIP-1beta, induced significant 111In-eosinophil recruitment in mouse skin. Significant 111In-eosinophil recruitment was also observed in an active cutaneous anaphylactic reaction. Pretreatment of skin sites with antieotaxin antiserum, but not an antiMIP-1alpha antibody, suppressed 111In-eosinophil recruitment in this delayed-onset allergic reaction. Similarly, desensitization of the eosinophil eotaxin receptor CCR3 with mEotaxin, or blockade of the receptor with metRANTES, significantly inhibited 111In-eosinophil recruitment in the allergic reaction. These results demonstrate an important role for endogenous eotaxin in mediating the 111In-eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation, and suggest that blockade of the CCR3 receptor is a valid strategy to inhibit eosinophil migration in vivo.
The complex pathophysiology of lung allergic inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness
(BHR) that characterize asthma is achieved by the regulated accumulation and activation of
different leukocyte subsets in the lung. The development and maintenance of these processes
correlate with the coordinated production of chemokines. Here, we have assessed the role that
different chemokines play in lung allergic inflammation and BHR by blocking their activities
in vivo. Our results show that blockage of each one of these chemokines reduces both lung
leukocyte infiltration and BHR in a substantially different way. Thus, eotaxin neutralization reduces specifically BHR and lung eosinophilia transiently after each antigen exposure. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-5 neutralization abolishes BHR not by affecting the accumulation of inflammatory leukocytes in the airways, but rather by altering the trafficking of the
eosinophils and other leukocytes through the lung interstitium. Neutralization of RANTES
(regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) receptor(s) with a receptor
antagonist decreases significantly lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration as well as mRNA expression of eotaxin and RANTES. In contrast, neutralization of one of the ligands for RANTES receptors, macrophage-inflammatory protein 1α, reduces only slightly lung eosinophilia and BHR.
Finally, MCP-1 neutralization diminishes drastically BHR and inflammation, and this correlates
with a pronounced decrease in monocyte- and lymphocyte-derived inflammatory mediators.
These results suggest that different chemokines activate different cellular and molecular pathways
that in a coordinated fashion contribute to the complex pathophysiology of asthma, and that their
individual blockage results in intervention at different levels of these processes.
chemokines; allergic inflammation; bronchial hyperresponsiveness; eosinophilia; leukocytes
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is upregulated in renal parenchymal cells during kidney disease. To investigate whether MCP-1 promotes tubular and/or glomerular injury, we induced nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) in MCP-1 genetically deficient mice. Mice were analyzed when tubules and glomeruli were severely damaged in the MCP-1–intact strain (day 7). MCP-1 transcripts increased fivefold in MCP-1–intact mice. MCP-1 was predominantly localized within cortical tubules (90%), and most cortical tubules were damaged, whereas few glomerular cells expressed MCP-1 (10%). By comparison, there was a marked reduction (>40%) in tubular injury in MCP-1–deficient mice (histopathology, apoptosis). MCP-1–deficient mice were not protected from glomerular injury (histopathology, proteinuria, macrophage influx). Macrophage accumulation increased adjacent to tubules in MCP-1–intact mice compared with MCP-1–deficient mice (70%, P < 0.005), indicating that macrophages recruited by MCP-1 induce tubular epithelial cell (TEC) damage. Lipopolysaccharide-activated bone marrow macrophages released molecules that induced TEC death that was not dependent on MCP-1 expression by macrophages or TEC. In conclusion, MCP-1 is predominantly expressed by TEC and not glomeruli, promotes TEC and not glomerular damage, and increases activated macrophages adjacent to TEC that damage TEC during NSN. Therefore, we suggest that blockage of TEC MCP-1 expression is a therapeutic strategy for some forms of kidney disease.
Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) play an important role in mediating inflammatory processes. Hypertension (HTN) is associated with inflammation as well as impaired cardiac microcirculatory function and structure, but the contribution of MCPs to these alterations remained unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that MCPs regulate cardiac microvascular function and structure in an experimental HTN.
Methods and Results
Pigs (n=6/group) were studied after 10 weeks of normal, renovascular HTN, or renovascular HTN+ bindarit (MCPs inhibitor, 50 mg/kg/day PO). Left ventricular (LV) function, myocardial microvascular permeability, and fractional vascular volume were assessed by fast computed tomography before and after adenosine infusion (400 μg/kg/min). Myocardial fibrosis, inflammation, and microvascular remodeling were determined ex-vivo. Hypertension was not altered by bindarit, but LV hypertrophy and diastolic function were improved. In response to adenosine, myocardial microvascular permeability increased in HTN (from 0.0083±0.0009 to 0.0103±0.0011 AU, p=0.038 vs. baseline) and fractional vascular volume decreased, while both remained unchanged in normal and HTN+bindarit pigs. HTN upregulated endothelin-1 expression, myocardial inflammation and microvascular wall thickening, which were inhibited by bindarit.
MCPs partly mediate myocardial inflammation, fibrosis, vascular remodeling, and impaired vascular integrity induced by hypertension. Inhibition of MCPs could potentially be a therapeutic target in hypertensive cardiomyopathy.
MCPs; inflammation; hypertension; microvascular permeability; remodeling
Macrophage infiltration has been observed in the renal biopsy specimens of diabetic nephropathy (DN), and hyperglycemic state stimulates the renal expression of RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). Upregulation of RANTES and MCP-1 with infiltrating macrophages may play a crucial role in the development and progression of DN. Genetic polymorphisms of RANTES and its receptors were reported to be independent risk factors for DN. We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the MCP-1 G-2518A, CCR2 G46295A, RANTES C-28G and G-403A in 177 diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and 184 patients without renal involvement (controls) in order to investigate the effects of these SNPs on DN in Korean patients with type 2 DM. There were no differences in the frequencies of SNPs and the distribution of haplotypes of RANTES promoter SNPs between two groups. In conclusion, there were no associations of MCP-1, CCR2 and RANTES promoter SNPs with diabetic ESRD in Korean population. Prospective studies with clearly-defined, homogenous cohorts are needed to confirm the effect of these genetic polymorphisms on DN.
Diabetic Nephropathies; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins; RANTES; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Cytokines play an important role in the development of diabetic chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF β1) induces renal hypertrophy and fibrosis, and cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated upon activation and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) mediate macrophage infiltration into kidney. Over expression of these chemokines leads to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. The effect of MCP-1 and RANTES on kidney is conferred by their receptors i.e., chemokine receptor (CCR)-2 and CCR-5 respectively. We tested association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 genes among individuals with type-2 diabetes with and without renal insufficiency.
Type-2 diabetes subjects with chronic renal insufficiency (serum creatinine ≥ 3.0 mg/dl) constituted the cases, and matched individuals with diabetes of duration ≥ 10 years and normoalbuminuria were evaluated as controls from four centres in India. Allelic and genotypic contributions of nine SNPs from TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 genes to diabetic CRI were tested by computing odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sub-analysis of CRI cases diabetic retinopathy status as dependent variable and SNP genotypes as independent variable in a univariate logistic regression was also performed.
SNPs Tyr81His and Thr263Ile in TGF β1 gene were monomorphic, and Arg25Pro in TGF β1 gene and Δ32 polymorphism in CCR5 gene were minor variants (minor allele frequency <0.05) and therefore were not considered for case-control analysis. A significant allelic association of 59029G>A SNP of CCR5 gene has been observed and the allele 59029A seems to confer predisposition to development of diabetic CRI (OR 1.39; CI 1.04–1.84). In CRI subjects a compound group of genotypes "GA and AA" of SNP G>A -800 was found to confer predisposition for proliferative retinopathy (OR 3.03; CI 1.08–8.50, p = 0.035).
Of the various cytokine gene polymorphisms tested, allele 59029A of CCR5 gene is significantly associated with diabetic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians. Result obtained for 59029G>A SNP of CCR5 gene is in conformity with reports from a Japanese population but due to sub-optimal power of the sample, replication in larger sample set is warranted.
The CC chemokine Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2 is involved in the formation, progression, and destabilization of atheromatous plaques and plays an essential role in post-infarction remodeling. These properties generated significant interest in the potential significance of MCP-1 as a biomarker in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Emerging evidence suggests that MCP-1 plasma levels have prognostic value in the acute and chronic phase following ACS, providing information independent of standard clinical variables. The mechanisms responsible for adverse prognosis in patients with elevated plasma MCP-1 following ACS remain unknown. High plasma MCP-1 levels may reflect a higher burden of atherosclerotic disease, may exert prothrombotic effects resulting in recurrent coronary events, or may identify patients who mount a more intense cardiac inflammatory reaction following a coronary event, resulting in enhanced adverse remodeling. Beyond its prognostic significance, the MCP-1 axis may be an attractive target for therapy in patients with ACS.
During the development of nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) in the mouse, we find that a variety of chemokines and chemokine receptors are induced: CCR1 (RANTES, MIP-1α), CCR2 (MCP-1), CCR5 (RANTES, MIP-1α, MIP-1β), CXCR2 (MIP-2), and CXCR3 (IP-10). Their timing of expression indicated that CXCR2 and CCR1 are probably important in the neutrophil-dependent heterologous phase of the disease, whereas CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR3 accompany the subsequent mononuclear cell infiltration characteristic of autologous disease. We therefore assessed the role of CCR1 in NTN using CCR1–/– mice. We found that neutrophil accumulation in CCR1–/– mice was comparable to that in wild-type animals but that renal recruitment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages increased significantly. Moreover, CCR1–/– mice developed more severe glomerulonephritis than did controls, with greater proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen, as well as a higher frequency of crescent formation. In addition, CCR1–/– mice showed enhanced Th1 immune responses, including titers of antigen-specific IgG2a antibody, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, and production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Lastly, using recombinant proteins and transfected cells that overexpressed CCR1, we demonstrated that MIP-1α, but not RANTES, bound CCR1 and induced cell chemotaxis. Thus, rather than simply promoting leukocyte recruitment during NTN, CCR1 expression profoundly alters the effector phase of glomerulonephritis. Therapeutic targeting of chemokine receptors may, on occasion, exacerbate underlying disease.
J. Clin. Invest. 104:1549–1557 (1999).
Loss of ovarian function is highly associated with an elevated risk of metabolic disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, C-C chemokine ligand 2) plays critical roles in the development of inflammation, but its role in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced metabolic disturbance has not been known.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We investigated the role of MCP-1 in OVX-induced metabolic perturbation using MCP-1-knockout mice. OVX increased fat mass, serum levels of MCP-1, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas MCP-1 deficiency attenuated these. OVX-induced increases of visceral fat resulted in elevated levels of highly inflammatory CD11c-expressing cells as well as other immune cells in adipose tissue, whereas a lack of MCP-1 significantly reduced all of these levels. MCP-1 deficiency attenuated activation of phospholipase Cγ2, transforming oncogene from Ak strain, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase as well as generation of ROS, which is required for up-regulating CD11c expression upon M-CSF stimulation in bone marrow-derived macrophages.
Our data suggested that MCP-1 plays a key role in developing metabolic perturbation caused by a loss of ovarian functions through elevating CD11c expression via ROS generation.
The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway plays a critical role in the development of antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) nephritis. We recently showed angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in rats activated MCP-1 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which in turn induced macrophage infiltration of renal tissues. This study was performed to demonstrate that combination therapy with a CCR2 antagonist (CA) and an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) ameliorated renal injury in the anti-GBM nephritis model. An anti-GBM nephritis rat model developed progressive proteinuria and glomerular crescent formation, accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration and glomerular expression of MCP-1, angiotensinogen, Ang II, and TGF-β1. Treatment with CA alone or ARB alone moderately ameliorated kidney injury; however, the combination treatment with CA and ARB dramatically prevented proteinuria and markedly reduced glomerular crescent formation. The combination treatment also suppressed the induction of macrophage infiltration, MCP-1, angiotensinogen, Ang II, and TGF-β1 and reversed the fibrotic change in the glomeruli. Next, primary cultured glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) stimulated by Ang II showed significant increases in MCP-1 and TGF-β1 expression. Furthermore, cocultured model consisting of MCs, parietal epithelial cells, and macrophages showed an increase in Ang II-induced cell proliferation and collagen secretion. ARB treatment attenuated these augmentations. These data suggest that Ang II enhances glomerular crescent formation of anti-GBM nephritis. Moreover, our results demonstrate that inhibition of the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway with a combination of ARB effectively reduces renal injury in anti-GBM nephritis.
renin-angiotensin system; crescentic glomerulonephritis; MCP-1; CCR2 antagonist; TGF-β1
BACKGROUND/AIMS—Chemokines are a family of low molecular weight cytokines that attract and activate leucocytes. The CC chemokines act on eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, suggesting that they play an important part in allergic diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of the CC chemokines, RANTES, eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and to determine the cellular source of these chemokines.
METHODS—Conjunctival biopsy specimens from nine subjects with active VKC, and six control subjects were studied by immunohistochemical techniques using a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3. The phenotype of inflammatory cells expressing chemokines was examined by sequential double immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS—In the normal conjunctiva, superficial epithelial cells showed a constitutive, weak cytoplasmic expression of eotaxin. Few inflammatory cells in the perivascular areas expressed RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3. In VKC specimens, the epithelium showed intense cytoplasmic eotaxin staining in all cells, and cytoplasmic RANTES staining mainly in the superficial layers. Furthermore, RANTES and eotaxin were expressed on the vascular endothelium mainly in the upper substantia propria. Compared with normal controls, VKC specimens showed significantly more inflammatory cells expressing RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-3 (p<0.001, 0.0028, 0.0092, and <0.001, respectively). In VKC specimens, the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing RANTES were significantly higher than the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-2 (all p values <0.001). Colocalisation studies revealed that the majority of inflammatory cells expressing chemokines were CD68 positive monocytes/macrophages.
CONCLUSIONS—These results demonstrate an increase in the expression of RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-3 in the conjunctiva of patients with VKC compared with control subjects. These data suggest a potential role for these chemokines in the pathogenesis of VKC. Antagonists of chemokine receptors may provide new therapeutic modalities in VKC.
Equilibrium binding studies with recombinant human chemoattractant cytokines Rantes and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) on monocytic THP-1 cells have allowed the functional identification of two distinct receptors for C-C chemokines. One is a novel oligospecific receptor with high affinity for Rantes (50% maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.68 nM) and low affinity (IC50, 35 nM) for MCP- 1, while the other is the previously described specific receptor for MCP-1 (IC50, 0.5 nM). Receptor affinity for Rantes is enhanced on preparation of isolated membranes with a 12-fold decrease in receptor Kd. The basis of this enhancement is not understood. The Rantes receptor appears to be G protein linked, as binding activity is abolished by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (IC50, 7.3 nM). In contrast to the consequences of MCP-1 binding, we were unable to demonstrate ligand-dependent calcium fluxes on binding of Rantes to human monocytes or THP-1 cells. The binding of Rantes and MCP-1 to mononuclear cells from dog, rabbit, and rat were tested. While high affinity binding could be demonstrated in dog and rabbit, differences in ligand-induced Ca2+ fluxes could be shown between species. This suggests that receptor-ligand interactions and receptor coupling is best examined with autologous receptors and cytokine.
The C-C chemokines RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) are potent chemoattractants in vitro for eosinophils and other cell types associated with allergic reactions. We tested the hypothesis that the allergen-induced infiltration of eosinophils, T cells, and macrophages in the skin of atopic subjects is accompanied by the appearance of mRNA+ cells for RANTES and MCP-3. Cryostat sections were obtained from skin biopsies from six subjects 6, 24, and 48 h after allergen challenge. Tissue was processed for immunocytochemistry (ICC) and for in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled riboprobes for RANTES and MCP-3. In contrast to diluent controls, allergen provoked a significant increase in mRNA+ cells for MCP-3, which peaked at 6 h and progressively declined at 24 and 48 h. This paralleled the kinetics of total (major basic protein positive [MBP]+) and activated (cleaved form of eosinophil cationic protein [EG2]+) eosinophil infiltration. The allergen-induced expression of cells mRNA+ for RANTES was also clearly demonstrable at 6 h. However, the numbers were maximal at 24 h and declined slightly at the 48-h time point. The number of mRNA+ cells for RANTES paralleled the kinetics of infiltration of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells whereas the number of CD68+ macrophages was still increasing at 48 h. These data support the view that MCP-3 is involved in the regulation of the early eosinophil response to specific allergen, whereas RANTES may have more relevance to the later accumulation of T cells and macrophages.
Background and aims
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP‐1) is increased transmurally in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although MCP‐1 is considered to play an important role in fibrotic disease in other organs, the role of MCP‐1 in gut fibrosis is unknown. We investigated the fibrotic potential of MCP‐1 in the gut by overexpressing this chemokine in the mouse colorectal wall.
Intramural gene transfer by direct injection of adenovector into the mouse rectal wall was established. C57BL/6 and Rag2−/− (B and T cell deficient) mice received 2.5×109 plaque forming units of an adenovector encoding murine MCP‐1 (AdMCP‐1) or control virus (AdDL70) via intramural injection. Mice were killed at various time points and tissues were obtained for histopathological and biochemical analysis.
AdMCP‐1 significantly increased collagen production in the colorectum and this was associated with significant elevation of transforming growth factor β (TGF‐β) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP‐1) protein. Transmural collagen deposition was observed after AdMCP‐1 administration, and was accompanied by CD3+ T cells, F4/80+ macrophages, and vimentin+ cell infiltrates. Collagen was differentially distributed, with type I deposited in the muscularis mucosa and muscularis propria and type III in the submucosa and myenteric plexus. AdMCP‐1 failed to induce collagen overproduction in immunodeficient Rag2−/− mice.
These findings suggest that MCP‐1 can induce fibrosis in the gut and that this process involves interaction between T cells and vimentin positive fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, as well as the subsequent upregulation of TGF‐β and TIMP‐1 production. This model provides a basis for considering MCP‐1 in the pathogenesis of strictures in IBD.
fibrosis; smooth muscle cell; fibroblast; myofibroblast; T lymphocyte
Granulomatous nephritis can be triggered by diverse factors and results in kidney failure. However, despite accumulating data about granulomatous inflammation, pathogenetic mechanisms in nephritis remain unclear. The DNA-binding high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) initiates and propagates inflammation when released by activated macrophages, functions as an “alarm cytokine” signaling tissue damage. In this study, we demonstrated elevated HMGB1 expression in renal granulomas in rats with crystal-induced granulomatous nephritis caused by feeding an adenine-rich diet. HMGB1 levels were also raised in urine and serum, as well as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a mediator of granulomatous inflammation. Injection of HMGB1 worsened renal function and upregulated MCP-1 in rats with crystal-induced granulomatous nephritis. HMGB1 also induced MCP-1 secretion through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways in rat renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro. Hmgb1+/− mice with crystal-induced nephritis displayed reduced MCP-1 expression in the kidneys and in urine and the number of macrophages in the kidneys was significantly decreased. We conclude that HMGB1 is a new mediator involved in crystal-induced nephritis that amplifies granulomatous inflammation in a cycle where MCP-1 attracts activated macrophages, resulting in excessive and sustained HMGB1 release. HMGB1 could be a novel target for inhibiting chronic granulomatous diseases.
chronic inflammation; granulomatous nephritis; HMGB1; macrophages; MCP-1; renal tubular epithelial cells
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of airway epithelial cells stimulates the expression and secretion of a variety of cytokines including the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted). Chemokines are important chemoattractants for the recruitment of distinct sets of leukocytes to airway sites of inflammation.
We have shown previously that chemokine expression is regulated in airway epithelial cells (A549) in a stimulus-specific manner in part through the redox-responsive transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB. In this study, we examined the NF-κB-mediated effects of RSV and the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα on the induction of IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES chemokine gene expression in A549 epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that RSV induces chemokine expression with distinct kinetics that is associated with a specific pattern of NF-κB binding activity. This distinction was further demonstrated by the differential effects of the NF-κB inhibitors dexamethasone (DEX) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). NAC preferentially inhibited RSV induced chemokine expression, whereas DEX preferentially inhibited TNFα induced chemokine expression. DNA binding studies using NF-κB subunit specific binding ELISA demonstrated that RSV and TNFα induced different NF-κB binding complexes containing Rel A (p65) and NF-κB1 (p50). Both TNFα and RSV strongly induced Rel A the activation subunit of NF-κB, whereas only TNFα was able to substantially induce the p50 subunit. Consistent with the expression studies, RSV but not TNFα induction of Rel A and p50 were markedly inhibited by NAC, providing a mechanism by which TNFα and RSV can differentially activate chemokine gene expression via NF-κB.
These data suggest that RSV induction of chemokine gene expression, in contrast to TNFα, involves redox-sensitive NF-κB complexes containing predominantly Rel A.
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an important chemokine that induces monocyte recruitment in a number of different pathologies, including infection. To investigate the role of MCP-1 in protecting a host from a chronic interstitial polymicrobial infection, dental pulps of MCP-1−/− mice and controls were inoculated with six different oral pathogens. In this model the recruitment of leukocytes and the impact of a genetic deletion on the susceptibility to infection can be accurately assessed by measuring the progression of soft tissue necrosis and osteolytic lesion formation. The absence of MCP-1 significantly impaired the recruitment of monocytes, which at later time points was threefold higher in the wild-type mice than in MCP-1−/− mice (P < 0.05). The consequence was significantly enhanced rates of soft tissue necrosis and bone resorption (P < 0.05). We also determined that the MCP-1−/− mice were able to recruit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to a similar or greater extent as controls and to produce equivalent levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis-specific total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG1. These results point to the importance of MCP-1 expression and monocyte recruitment in antibacterial defense and demonstrate that antibacterial defense is not due to an indirect effect on PMN recruitment or modulation of the adaptive immune response.
Chemokines are inflammatory molecules that act primarily as chemoattractants and as activators of leukocytes. Their role in antigen-specific immune responses is of importance, but their role in disease protection is unknown. Recently it has been suggested that chemokines modulate immunity along more classical Th1 and Th2 phenotypes. However, no data currently exist in an infectious challenge model system. We analyzed the modulatory effects of selected chemokines (interleukin-8 [IL-8], gamma interferon-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 [MCP-1], and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α [MIP-1α]) on immune phenotype and protection against lethal challenge with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). We observed that coinjection with IL-8 and RANTES plasmid DNAs dramatically enhanced antigen-specific Th1 type cellular immune responses and protection from lethal HSV-2 challenge. This enhanced protection appears to be mediated by CD4+ T cells, as determined by in vitro and in vivo T-cell subset deletion. Thus, IL-8 and RANTES cDNAs used as DNA vaccine adjuvants drive antigen-specific Th1 type CD4+ T-cell responses, which result in reduced HSV-2-derived morbidity, as well as reduced mortality. However, coinjection with DNAs expressing MCP-1, IP-10, and MIP-1α increased mortality in the challenged mice. Chemokine DNA coinjection also modulated its own production as well as the production of cytokines. These studies demonstrate that chemokines can dominate and drive immune responses with defined phenotypes, playing an important role in the generation of protective antigen-specific immunity.
The interactions of Neisseria meningitidis with cells of the leptomeninges are pivotal events in the progression of bacterial leptomeningitis. An in vitro model based on the culture of human meningioma cells was used to investigate the role of the leptomeninges in the inflammatory response. Following challenge with meningococci, meningioma cells secreted specifically the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), the CXC chemokine IL-8, the CC chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and regulated-upon-activation, normal-T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES), and the cytokine growth factor granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). A temporal pattern of cytokine production was observed, with early secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 followed by later increases in RANTES and GM-CSF levels. IL-6 was induced equally by the interactions of piliated and nonpiliated meningococci, whereas lipopolysaccharide (LPS) had a minimal effect, suggesting that other, possibly secreted, bacterial components were responsible. Induction of IL-8 and MCP-1 also did not require adherence of bacteria to meningeal cells, but LPS was implicated. In contrast, efficient stimulation of RANTES by intact meningococci required pilus-mediated adherence, which served to deliver increased local concentrations of LPS onto the surface of meningeal cells. Secretion of GM-CSF was induced by pilus-mediated interactions but did not involve LPS. In addition, capsule expression had a specific inhibitory effect on GM-CSF secretion, which was not observed with IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, or RANTES. Thus, the data demonstrate that cells of the leptomeninges are not inert but are active participants in the innate host response during leptomeningitis and that there is a complex relationship between expression of meningococcal components and cytokine induction.
Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (MC) play an important role in inflammatory processes of the peritoneal cavity by producing various cytokines and chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). The present study was designed to assess the effect of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma- (PPARγ-) activator rosiglitazone on the mesothelial MCP-1 expression and release. Primary cultures of MC were obtained from omental tissue. MCP-1 antigen concentrations were measured in the cell supernatant by ELISA and MCP-1 mRNA levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The presence of PPARγ on MC was assayed in a Western Blot analysis. MC constitutively express PPARγ. Activation of this receptor via rosiglitazone (0,1–10 μmol/L) resulted in significantly reduced amounts of mesothelial MCP-1 release as well as MCP-1 mRNA. The use of the PPARγ inhibitor GW-9662 could completely prevent the rosiglitazone effects. Rosiglitazone was also effective in reducing TNFα-induced enhanced secretion of MCP-1. Our findings indicate that glitazones are effective in reducing constitutive and TNFα-stimulated mesothelial MCP-1 mRNA expression and release.
Gingival inflammation is initiated by bacterial colonization on the tooth surface. It is characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells, a common feature of many forms of chronic inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is the predominant monocyte chemoattractant secreted by a variety of different cells in vitro. For this report, we examined MCP-1 expression in bacterially induced gingival inflammation by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The cell types expressing MCP-1 are identified as vascular endothelial cells and monocytes/macrophages. Correlation analysis shows that the number of cells expressing MCP-1 is related to the degree of inflammation. Our finding that MCP-1 is expressed in inflamed gingival tissue suggests that MCP-1 plays an important role in the recruitment of monocytes and amplification of inflammatory signals in bacterially induced inflammation.
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a CC chemokine that attracts monocytes, memory T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Because other chemokines have similar target cell specificities and because CCR2, a cloned MCP-1 receptor, binds other ligands, it has been uncertain whether MCP-1 plays a unique role in recruiting mononuclear cells in vivo. To address this question, we disrupted SCYA2 (the gene encoding MCP-1) and tested MCP-1–deficient mice in models of inflammation. Despite normal numbers of circulating leukocytes and resident macrophages, MCP-1−/− mice were specifically unable to recruit monocytes 72 h after intraperitoneal thioglycollate administration. Similarly, accumulation of F4/80+ monocytes in delayed-type hypersensitivity lesions was impaired, although the swelling response was normal. Development of secondary pulmonary granulomata in response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs was blunted in MCP-1−/− mice, as was expression of IL-4, IL-5, and interferon γ in splenocytes. In contrast, MCP-1−/− mice were indistinguishable from wild-type mice in their ability to clear Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our data indicate that MCP-1 is uniquely essential for monocyte recruitment in several inflammatory models in vivo and influences expression of cytokines related to T helper responses.