Determine the extent to which Latino smokers are using effective interventions for smoking cessation, with particular focus on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Related aims were to explore cultural, attitudinal, knowledge, and socioeconomic variables associated with treatment use.
Cross-sectional telephone survey of two groups of Colorado adult smokers: Latinos (n = 1010) and non-Latino whites (n = 519).
Computer-assisted telephone survey in either Spanish or English. Survey addressed sociodemographic variables; smoking and cessation history; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about smoking and quitting; and experiences in and attitudes toward the health care setting.
Latino and non-Latino white adult Colorado residents who reported being regular smokers.
Colorado Latinos report using NRT substantially less often than do non-Latino whites residing in the state. This and other differences in the study were more pronounced in Latinos characterized as low acculturation on the basis of a language preference variable. Latinos smoke somewhat less than non-Latino whites and report lower levels of dependence. They appear to be motivated to quit but endorse attitudes and beliefs antithetical to NRT use. Health care access was lower among Latinos, and this was related to lower reports of lifetime NRT use. Receipt of recommended practitioner intervention (the “five As”) did not differ by ethnicity.
Results suggested that use of effective cessation interventions among Latinos may be enhanced by education about nicotine addiction and NRT. Policy change to increase health care access also showed promise.
Cigarette Smoking; Hispanic Americans; Culture; Acculturation; Smoking Cessation; Prevention Research
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of, attitudes towards, and knowledge about cigarette smoking in Ecuador in 1991. DESIGN: Survey using in-person interviews; stratified and multiple regression analyses. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Eight hundred people (> or = 18 years old) representative of the adult populations in the cities of Quito and Guayaquil, Ecuador. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, reasons for smoking, desire to quit smoking, knowledge about the health effects of smoking. RESULTS: About a third of the population in the two major cities of Ecuador are cigarette smokers. Men are not only more likely to be smokers than women (45% vs 17%, respectively), but when they do smoke, they also smoke significantly more cigarettes per day (60% more) than women. Cigarette smoking appears to be more common among younger populations, and among more educated people. Housekeepers are significantly less likely to be smokers compared with people in other occupations. About 80% of smokers consume fewer than 10 cigarettes per day. In Quito, a 40% increase in the number of cigarettes smoked per day on weekdays compared with weekends suggests an effect of the environment on smoking patterns. About 60% of smokers stated their desire to quit smoking, and there was almost universal knowledge about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on the health of active and passive smokers. CONCLUSIONS: About a third of the population in the two major cities of Ecuador reported smoking cigarettes. Smoking is more common among men, those of younger age, and the more educated. The findings in this study should help the development of antismoking policies in Ecuador and other countries in the region.
In tabulating the smoking habits of 95,744 residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, as reported between July 1979 and June 1984 at multiphasic health checkups, the prevalence of current smoking was found to be higher in men than in women aged 30 years and above, but in those younger than 30 the reverse was true. In every age group, compared with male smokers, female smokers tended to smoke fewer cigarettes per day, to inhale less and to smoke cigarettes with lower tar and nicotine yield. Blacks showed the highest percentage of smokers, whites were second highest and Asians were lowest, with Asian women being substantially lower than other race-sex groups. On average, white smokers smoked more cigarettes per day and inhaled more than did black smokers, but whites were more apt to smoke low-yield cigarettes. Compared with a 1964 to 1968 study in the same setting, there has been a decrease in the prevalence of cigarette smokers but, among smokers, a higher proportion in 1979 to 1984 smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day. During the 1979 to 1984 period, there were small downward trends in the prevalence of cigarette smoking in men and white women and in the prevalence of heavy smoking among male smokers, but there was no apparent increase in the use of lower-yield cigarettes by smokers. Although this study group contained relatively fewer smokers, most of the age, sex and racial differences and long-term trends parallel what has been observed nationally.
The prevalence of cigarette smoking among incarcerated adult men and women is three-four times higher than in the general population, ranging from 70-80%. However, little is known about factors associated with smoking among incarcerated adolescents, especially upon their re-entry into communities after release from jail. The current study explores factors associated with smoking among adolescent males prior to incarceration and one year after their release from jail.
We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Returning Educated African-American and Latino Men to Enriched Neighborhoods (REAL MEN) study, which was designed to reduce HIV risk, substance use, and recidivism among 16–18 year old males leaving jail. We examined differences between smokers and non-smokers at the time of their incarceration (N = 552) and one year after their release from jail (N = 397) using t-tests and chi-square tests. Using logistic and linear regression we examined factors associated with current smoking status, frequency of smoking, and quantity of cigarettes smoked per day both prior to the young men’s incarceration and one year after their release from jail.
Prior to incarceration, 62% of the young men reported smoking, and one-year after jail release, 69% reported smoking. Prior to incarceration, foster care history, not living with parents, not attending school, drug sales, number of sex partners, gang involvement, current drug charges, and number of prior arrests were positively associated with smoking indicators prior to incarceration. Having violent charges was inversely associated with smoking indicators prior to incarceration. One-year after release from jail, foster care history and number of prior arrests before the index incarceration were associated with smoking indicators.
Several problem behaviors may be associated with adolescent males’ smoking behaviors prior to incarceration. However, the young men’s histories of difficult life circumstances and engagement in illegal activity may have long-term consequences on smoking for these young men during their transition between jail and community. Findings suggest a need for comprehensive risk reduction interventions in settings in which disadvantaged young men are institutionalized, starting in childhood.
Adolescents; Smoking; Incarcerated smokers; Re-entry
The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008) and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52). We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.
Cotinine; smoking; metabolism; lung cancer; race; African Americans
The purpose of this study was to estimate black/while differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p = 0.008) and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p = 0.52). We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.
Cotinine; smoking; metabolism; lung cancer; race; African Americans
There is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke. Thirdhand smoke is residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Children are uniquely susceptible to thirdhand smoke exposure. The objective of this study was to assess health beliefs of adults regarding thirdhand smoke exposure of children and whether smokers and nonsmokers differ in those beliefs. We hypothesized that beliefs about thirdhand smoke would be associated with household smoking bans.
Data were collected by a national random-digit-dial telephone survey from September to November 2005. The sample was weighted by race and gender within Census region on the basis of US Census data. The study questions assessed the level of agreement with statements that breathing air in a room today where people smoked yesterday can harm the health of children.
Of 2000 eligible respondents contacted, 1510 (87%) completed surveys, 1478 (97.9%) answered all questions pertinent to this analysis, and 273 (18.9%) were smokers. Overall, 95.4% of nonsmokers versus 84.1% of smokers agreed that secondhand smoke harms the health of children, and 65.2% of nonsmokers versus 43.3% of smokers agreed that thirdhand smoke harms children. Strict rules prohibiting smoking in the home were more prevalent among nonsmokers: 88.4% vs 26.7%. In multivariate logistic regression, after controlling for certain variables, belief that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children remained independently associated with rules prohibiting smoking in the home. Belief that secondhand smoke harms the health of children was not independently associated with rules prohibiting smoking in the home and car.
This study demonstrates that beliefs about the health effects of thirdhand smoke are independently associated with home smoking bans. Emphasizing that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children may be an important element in encouraging home smoking bans.
smoking; tobacco; pediatrics; family practice; parent; smoking cessation; secondhand smoke; environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco control
Using fMRI, we examined whether or not adolescents with low levels of nicotine exposure (light smokers) display neural activation in areas shown to be involved with addiction in response to smoking-related stimuli.
Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13 to17, smoked 1 to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 non-smokers (ages 13 to 17, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent fMRI scanning. During scanning they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues. Smoking cues consisted of pictures of people smoking cigarettes and smoking-related objects such as lighters and ashtrays. Neutral cues consisted of everyday objects and people engaged in everyday activities.
For smokers, smoking cues elicited greater activation than neutral cues in the mesolimbic reward circuit (left anterior cingulate (T=7.88, p<.001), right hippocampus (T=6.62, p<.001) and right parahippocampal gyrus (T=4.70, p<.001)). We found activation from smoking cues versus neutral cues within both the left and right frontal medial orbital regions (T=5.09, p<.001 and T=3.94, p=.001 respectively), which may be unique to adolescents. Non-smokers showed no significant difference in activation between smoking-related cues and neutral cues.
Our finding that smoking cues produced activation in adolescent light smokers in brain regions seen in adult and heavy teen smokers suggests that even at low levels of smoking, adolescents exhibit heightened reactivity to smoking cues. This paper adds to the existing literature suggesting that nicotine dependence may begin with exposure to low levels of nicotine, underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers.
fMRI; adolescent nicotine addiction; adolescent smoking; brain imaging
Study objective: Research shows that neighbourhood socioeconomic factors are associated with preterm delivery. This study examined whether cigarette smoking and individual socioeconomic factors modify the effects of neighbourhood factors on preterm delivery.
Design: Case-control study.
Setting: Moffit Hospital in San Francisco, California.
Participants: 417 African American and 1244 white women, including all preterm and a random selection of term deliveries 1980–1990, excluding non-singleton pregnancies, congenital anomolies, induced deliveries, and women transported for special care. US census data from 1980 and 1990 were used to characterise the women's neighbourhoods, defined as census tracts.
Results: Cigarette smoking increased the risk of preterm delivery among both African American (OR=1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) (1.12 to 2.79)) and white women (OR=1.25, 95% CI (1.01 to 1.55)). However, cigarette smoking did not attenuate or modify the association of neighbourhood factors with preterm delivery. Among African American women, having public insurance modified the relation between neighbourhood unemployment and preterm delivery; among women without public insurance, the risk of preterm delivery was low in areas with low unemployment and high in areas with high unemployment, while among women with public insurance the risk of preterm delivery was highest at low levels of neighbourhood unemployment.
Conclusions: Cigarette smoking was associated with preterm delivery, especially among African Americans. Adverse neighbourhood conditions had an influence on preterm delivery beyond that of cigarette smoking. The effects of some neighbourhood characteristics were different depending on individual socioeconomic status. Examining socioeconomic and behavioural/biological risk factors together may increase understanding of the complex causes of preterm delivery.
Waterpipe use is a highly prevalent form of tobacco use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region that is rooted in long-held cultural traditions that predate the use of cigarettes and present a particular challenge for tobacco control efforts. We did a stratified sampling of 4,994 Egyptian men from rural households of Egypt in order to conduct an interviewer-administered prevalence survey to identify differences in attitudes and beliefs toward smoking and smoking cessation between waterpipe users, cigarette smokers, mixed users (cigarette + waterpipe), and non-smokers. We found that cigarette smokers, mixed users, and/or non-smokers were (1) two- to ninefold more likely to believe that smoking decreased adult life expectancy and harmed a fetus than waterpipe users, (2) significantly more likely to believe that smoking is a sin (“haram”) than were waterpipe users. Among tobacco users, we found that cigarette smokers and/or mixed users were significantly more likely to indicate pre-contemplation, contemplation, or intention to quit tobacco than waterpipe users. Our findings from rural Egyptian men indicate that waterpipe users are distinct from cigarette smokers in their perception that their form of tobacco use is less harmful and/or less subject to religious proscription. These beliefs may explain why waterpipe users seem less inclined to quit their tobacco habit and need to be considered in the design of tobacco cessation and prevention methods in Egypt and the region.
Tobacco; Epidemiology; Substance abuse; Cessation
Smoking menthol cigarettes is more prevalent among African Americans (AA) compared to Whites. Menthol has been found to be inversely related to smoking cessation among AA, yet little is known about the factors associated with menthol smoking among AA light smokers. This study examines baseline demographic, psychological, and smoking factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among AA light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day).
Participants (n=540) were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of bupropion in combination with health education counseling for smoking cessation. Bivariate differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers were explored and baseline factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes were identified.
Participants averaged 46.5 years in age, predominantly female (66.1%), and smoked an average of 8.0 cpd (SD=2.5). The majority (83.7%) smoked menthol cigarettes. In bivariate analysis, menthol cigarette smokers were younger (mean age: 45 vs. 52 years p<0.0001), were more likely to be female (68% vs. 52% p=0.003) and had smoked for shorter duration (28 vs. 34 years p<0.0001) compared to non-menthol smokers. While depression and withdrawal scores were slightly higher and exhaled carbon monoxide values were lower among menthol smokers, the differences were not statistically significant.
Among AA light smokers, younger individuals and females were more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes and may be more susceptible to the health effects of smoking. Appropriately targeted health education campaigns are needed to prevent smoking uptake in this high-risk population.
African Americans; light smokers; menthol; nicotine dependence; smoking cessation
Background: Many believe that smoking cessation programmes for Latinos should be tailored to the values and beliefs of the culture. However, randomised studies of culturally appropriate smoking cessation interventions with Latinos are rare.
Methods: Latino smokers (n = 313) were randomised to an intervention condition or a comparison group. The intervention was a three month programme based on social cognitive constructs and delivered in the smoker's home by trained lay health advisors, or promotores. Comparison group participants were referred to the California Smoker's Helpline in Spanish. Predictors of abstinence among all participants also were examined.
Results: About one week post-intervention, validated (carbon monoxide) past week abstinence rates were more than twice as high in the intervention group (20.5%) than in the comparison (8.7%) (p ≤ 0.005). The pattern of results held for self reported abstinence, and after recoding dropouts to non-abstinence. The primary predictor of abstinence was number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline, a common measure of addiction.
Conclusions: The culturally appropriate intervention facilitated abstinence in Latino smokers, at least in the short term. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed.
Although recent research indicates that many Latino smokers are nondaily smokers or daily smokers who smoke at a low level (≤5 cigarettes/day), almost no research has investigated the characteristics of low-level smokers because such individuals are typically excluded from clinical trial research.
The present study examined the associations of daily smoking level and demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and abstinence during a specific quit attempt among 280 Spanish-speaking Latino smokers (54% male) who participated in a clinical trial of a telephone counseling intervention. Daily smokers were classified as low-level (1–5 cigarettes/day; n = 81), light (6–10 cigarettes/day; n = 99), or moderate/heavy smokers (≥11 cigarettes/day; n = 100). Data were collected prior to the quit attempt and at 5 and 12 weeks postquit.
Results yielded three key findings. First, smoking level was positively associated with the total score and 12 of 13 subscale scores on a comprehensive, multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence. Low-level smokers consistently reported the least dependence, and moderate/heavy smokers reported the most dependence on tobacco. Second, low-level smokers reported the least craving in pre- to postcessation longitudinal analyses. Third, despite significant differences on dependence and craving, low-level smoking was not associated with abstinence. Smoking level was not associated with demographic variables.
This is a preliminary step in understanding factors influencing tobacco dependence and smoking cessation among low-level Spanish-speaking Latino smokers, a subgroup with high prevalence in the Latino population.
We examined beliefs about the origin of HIV as a genocidal conspiracy in men and women of four racial/ethnic groups in a street intercept sample in Houston, Texas. Groups sampled were African American, Latino, non-Hispanic white, and Asian. Highest levels of conspiracy theories were found in women, and in African American and Latino populations (over a quarter of African Americans and over a fifth of Latinos) with slightly lower rates in whites (a fifth) and Asians less than one in ten). Reductions in condom use associated with such beliefs were however only apparent in African American men. Conspiracy beliefs were an independent predictor of reported condom use along with race/ethnicity, gender, education, and age group. Data suggest that genocidal conspiracy beliefs are relatively widespread in several racial/ethnic groups and that an understanding of the sources of these beliefs is important to determine their possible impact on HIV prevention and treatment behaviors.
Latino children of Caribbean descent remain at high risk for poorly controlled asthma. Controller medications improve asthma control; however, medication adherence remains suboptimal, particularly among minorities. This study assessed socioeconomic, family-based, and parent factors in medication adherence among children with asthma from Rhode Island (RI; Latino and non-Latino white [NLW]) and Puerto Rico.
Data collection occurred as part of a multicenter study of asthma disparities. Our sample included children (ages 7–16) prescribed objectively monitored controller medications (n = 277; 80 island Puerto Rico, 114 RI Latino, 83 RI NLW). Parents completed questionnaires regarding family background and beliefs about medications. Families participated in an interview regarding asthma management. Multilevel analyses (maximum likelihood estimates) accounting for children being nested within site and ethnic group assessed the contribution of social context, family, and parent variables to medication adherence.
Medication adherence differed by ethnic group (F2, 271 = 7.46, P < .01), with NLW families demonstrating the highest levels of adherence. Multilevel models indicated that parental beliefs about medication necessity and family organization regarding medication use were significant predictors of adherence, even for families below the poverty threshold. With family factors in the model, a substantial improvement in model fit occurred (Akaike Information Criterion change of 103.45).
Adherence to controller medications was lower among Latino children in our sample. Targeted interventions that capitalize on existing family resources, emphasize structure, and address parental beliefs about the importance of medications may be of benefit to families from different cultural backgrounds.
asthma; patient nonadherence; disparities
Striking decreases in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence have been seen recently in non-Latino Whites but not in Latinos. The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of limited English proficiency (LEP) on differences in CRC test use rates between Mexican American and non-Latino White adults in California and reported reasons for not getting a CRC exam.
Cross-sectional analysis of the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS).
Representative sample of non-institutionalized adults living in California.
Mexican American (n=1,529) and non-Latino White men and women aged 50 and older (n=16,775) who had not been diagnosed with CRC.
Logistic regression analyzed the effect of ethnicity and limited English proficiency (LEP) on CRC test use after adjusting for sociodemographics, healthcare access, health status, and other health behaviors.
Main Outcome Measures
Respondents' likelihood of not receiving the CRC exam was examined as a function of ethnicity and LEP status; differences in reasons for not receiving CRC testing between ethnic groups were also examined.
More than 40% of Californian Mexican American adults aged 50 and older have never had either fecal occult blood test or lower endoscopy CRC tests. Mexican Americans were more likely to have difficulty understanding their doctor due to language barriers (P<.01). Mexican Americans more often reported provider barriers in getting an endoscopy (ie, test was not recommended by their medical provider) than non-Latino Whites (P=.01). After adjustment for covariates, Mexican Americans were 1.32 times and those with LEP were 1.68 times more likely to have never had either CRC test.
Limited English proficiency significantly decreased the likelihood of getting tested for CRC (P<.01). Eliminating language barriers should result in improvements in CRC test use among limited English proficiency Mexican Americans.
Mexican Americans; Colonoscopy; Colorectal Cancer; Screening
Objective To quantify the prevalence and characteristics of hardcore
smokers in England.
Design Cross sectional survey.
Setting Interview in respondents' household.
Participants 7766 adult cigarette smokers.
Main outcome measures Hardcore smoking defined by four criteria
(less than a day without cigarettes in the past five years; no attempt to quit
in the past year; no desire to quit; no intention to quit), all of which had
to be satisfied.
Results Some 16% of all smokers were categorised as hardcore.
Hardcore smoking was associated with nicotine dependence, socioeconomic
deprivation, and age, rising from 5% in young adults aged 16-24 to 30% in
those aged ≥ 65 years. Hardcore smokers displayed distinctive attitudes
towards and beliefs about smoking. In particular they were likely to deny that
smoking affected their health or would do so in the future. Prevalence of
hardcore smoking was almost four times higher than in California.
Conclusion Hardcore smoking presents a serious challenge to public
health efforts to reduce the prevalence of smoking, but the proportion of
hardcore smokers does not necessarily increase as overall prevalence in a
population declines. More hardcore smokers could be persuaded to quit, but
this will require interventions that are targeted to the particular needs and
perceptions of both socially disadvantaged and older smokers.
Little is known about polytobacco use among African-American adults. This study is the first to explore this among a random, statewide, community sample of African-American adults.
Community-based sampling obtained a random, household-probability sample of African-American adults from California, surveyed door to door in randomly selected census tracts statewide.
Participants were a statewide, random-household sample of N=2118 African-American adults from California who completed a survey on past 30-day smoking of cigarettes, blunts, bidis, kreteks, cigarillos, marijuana and cigars.
Almost half (49.3%) of the African-American cigarette-smokers and 14.9% of the cigarette non-smokers had smoked at least one non-cigarette product in the past 30 days. Smokers had a substantial prevalence of smoking cigarillos (28.7%) and blunts (27.7%). Logistic regressions revealed that the odds of smoking most of the non-cigarette products were higher for cigarette smokers and men, inversely related to age, and unrelated to socioeconomic status. However, smoking of blunts, bidis and kreteks was not predicted by cigarette smoking.
Smoking of cigarillos (eg, Phillies, Black & Mild) and blunts may be prevalent among African-American cigarette-smokers and non-smokers alike, but such products are not examined in most population-level smoking research. Smoking of these products should be included in surveillance studies, in cancer prevention programmes and in healthcare provider-assessment of smoking, and addressed in smoking cessation programmes as well.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE; PUBLIC HEALTH; EPIDEMIOLOGY
Risk factors for the uptake of cigarette smoking were examined prospectively in 2159 non-smoking secondary schoolchildren aged 11-13 who participated in a survey in 1983 and were followed up 30 months later, by which time 35 per cent had taken up smoking. In a multivariate logistic model, the strongest predictors to emerge were prior experimentation with cigarettes and sex, with more girls (41%) than boys (30%) starting to smoke. Other predictors of taking up smoking were being uncertain about smoking in the future, reporting having been drunk, having a boy or girl friend, believing teachers and friends would not mind if they took up smoking, and giving lower estimates of prevalence of smoking among teachers. Parental smoking behaviour and attitudes, beliefs about the effects of smoking on health, opinions about smoking and perceived strictness of parents did not predict take up of smoking when other variables were controlled for. The odds of taking up smoking varied from 0.24 (risk = 0.19) for a child with the most favourable combination of risk factors to 3.49 (risk = 0.78) for a child with the worst prognosis. These results differ from those of many cross sectional studies and hence indicate the importance of a prospective approach to this type of research.
Latinos in the United States have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes than non-Latino whites, even after controlling for adiposity. Decreased adiponectin is associated with insulin resistance and predicts T2DM, and therefore may mediate this ethnic difference. We compared total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in Latino versus white individuals, identified factors associated with adiponectin in each ethnic group, and measured the contribution of adiponectin to ethnic differences in insulin resistance.
We utilized cross-sectional data from subjects in the Latinos Using Cardio Health Actions to reduce Risk study. Participants were Latino (n = 119) and non-Latino white (n = 60) men and women with hypertension and at least one other risk factor for CVD (age 61 ± 10 yrs, 49% with T2DM), seen at an integrated community health and hospital system in Denver, Colorado. Total and HMW adiponectin was measured by RIA and ELISA respectively. Fasting glucose and insulin were used to calculate the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Variables independently associated with adiponectin levels were identified by linear regression analyses. Adiponectin's contribution to ethnic differences in insulin resistance was assessed in multivariate linear regression models of Latino ethnicity, with logHOMA-IR as a dependent variable, adjusting for possible confounders including age, gender, adiposity, and renal function.
Mean adiponectin levels were lower in Latino than white patients (beta estimates: -4.5 (-6.4, -2.5), p < 0.001 and -1.6 (-2.7, -0.5), p < 0.005 for total and HMW adiponectin), independent of age, gender, BMI/waist circumference, thiazolidinedione use, diabetes status, and renal function. An expected negative association between adiponectin and waist circumference was seen among women and non-Latino white men, but no relationship between these two variables was observed among Latino men. Ethnic differences in logHOMA-IR were no longer observed after controlling for adiponectin levels.
Among patients with CVD risk, total and HMW adiponectin is lower in Latinos, independent of adiposity and other known regulators of adiponectin. Ethnic differences in adiponectin regulation may exist and future research in this area is warranted. Adiponectin levels accounted for the observed variability in insulin resistance, suggesting a contribution of decreased adiponectin to insulin resistance in Latino populations.
Tobacco cigarette smoking a well-known cause of cancer and other diseases. Hookah smoking is another form of tobacco use that has rapidly spread in the United State and Europe. This study assessed beliefs about the harmfulness of smoking hookah.
We surveyed hookah users in all cafes that provided hookah to its customers in downtown San Diego, California and nearby areas. A total of 235 hookah users participated in this study.
Average age of study participants was 22 years, 57% were males, and 72% were not cigarette smokers. Whites were more likely to use hookah than the other ethnic groups (33%), older hookah users (26-35 years) were mostly males, and mint flavor of hookah tobacco was the most popular among a wide variety of flavors (23%). There was no significant difference in gender in relation to the wrong perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes, but those of Asian ethnicity were much less likely than other ethnic groups to believe that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. More frequent users of hookah were more likely to believe that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The majority of hookah users (58.3%) believe hookah is less harmful than cigarette smoking.
Compared to cigarettes, there appears to be a lack of knowledge about the harmfulness of smoking hookah among users regardless of their demographic background. Education about the harmfulness of smoking hookah and policies to limit its use should be implemented to prevent the spread of this new form of tobacco use.
Objective To compare the hazards of cigarette smoking in men who formed their habits at different periods, and the extent of the reduction in risk when cigarette smoking is stopped at different ages.
Design Prospective study that has continued from 1951 to 2001.
Setting United Kingdom.
Participants 34 439 male British doctors. Information about their smoking habits was obtained in 1951, and periodically thereafter; cause specific mortality was monitored for 50 years.
Main outcome measures Overall mortality by smoking habit, considering separately men born in different periods.
Results The excess mortality associated with smoking chiefly involved vascular, neoplastic, and respiratory diseases that can be caused by smoking. Men born in 1900-1930 who smoked only cigarettes and continued smoking died on average about 10 years younger than lifelong non-smokers. Cessation at age 60, 50, 40, or 30 years gained, respectively, about 3, 6, 9, or 10 years of life expectancy. The excess mortality associated with cigarette smoking was less for men born in the 19th century and was greatest for men born in the 1920s. The cigarette smoker versus non-smoker probabilities of dying in middle age (35-69) were 42% ν 24% (a twofold death rate ratio) for those born in 1900-1909, but were 43% ν 15% (a threefold death rate ratio) for those born in the 1920s. At older ages, the cigarette smoker versus non-smoker probabilities of surviving from age 70 to 90 were 10% ν 12% at the death rates of the 1950s (that is, among men born around the 1870s) but were 7% ν 33% (again a threefold death rate ratio) at the death rates of the 1990s (that is, among men born around the 1910s).
Conclusion A substantial progressive decrease in the mortality rates among non-smokers over the past half century (due to prevention and improved treatment of disease) has been wholly outweighed, among cigarette smokers, by a progressive increase in the smoker ν non-smoker death rate ratio due to earlier and more intensive use of cigarettes. Among the men born around 1920, prolonged cigarette smoking from early adult life tripled age specific mortality rates, but cessation at age 50 halved the hazard, and cessation at age 30 avoided almost all of it.
Survey data suggest that in Texas Latino youth exhibit higher rates of susceptibility to smoking than youth from other ethnic groups. In this analysis we examined the relationship between susceptibility to smoking and well-known risk factors associated with smoking initiation among a cohort of 11 to 13 year old Mexican origin youth residing in Houston, Texas.
We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from 1,187 participants who reported they had never smoked, even a puff of a cigarette. The survey assessed peer and family social influence, school and neighborhood characteristics, level of family acculturation and socioeconomic status, and attitudes toward smoking. Bivariate associations, Student's t-tests, and logistic regression analysis were used to examine predictors of susceptibility.
Overall, 22.1% of the never-smokers were susceptible to smoking. Boys were more likely to be susceptible than girls (25.6% vs. 18.9%), and susceptible children were slightly older than non-susceptible children (12.1 vs. 11.8 years). In addition, multivariate analyses revealed that positive expectations about smoking exerted the strongest influence on susceptibility status (odds ratio = 4.85). Multivariate analyses further revealed that compared to non-susceptible participants, susceptibles were more likely to report peer influences supportive of smoking, lower subjective social status and more detentions at school, more temptations to try smoking and to have a mother and a brother who smokes.
Our findings suggest that interventions that target positive expectations about smoking may be useful in this population. Furthermore, because youth encounter smoking-initiation risk factors in different social environments, our results underscore the continued need for both family- and school-based primary prevention programs to adequately combat their influence. The results also can be used to inform the development of culturally sensitive programs for Mexican origin youth.
To explore Indonesian physician's smoking behaviours, their attitudes and clinical practices towards smoking cessation.
Physicians working in Jogjakarta Province, Indonesia, between October and December 2003.
447 of 690 (65%) physicians with clinical responsibilities responded to the survey (236 men, 211 women), of which 15% were medical faculty, 35% residents and 50% community physicians.
22% of male (n = 50) and 1% of female (n = 2) physicians were current smokers. Approximately 72% of physicians did not routinely ask about their patient's smoking status. A majority of physicians (80%) believed that smoking up to 10 cigarettes a day was not harmful for health. The predictors for asking patients about smoking were being male, a non‐smoker and a medical resident. The odds of advising patients to quit were significantly greater among physicians who perceived themselves as sufficiently trained in smoking cessation.
Lack of training in smoking cessation seems to be a major obstacle to physicians actively engaging in smoking cessation activities. Indonesian physicians need to be educated on the importance of routinely asking their patients about their tobacco use and offering practical advice on how to quit smoking.
To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions.
A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers.
Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for safety (46.1%), exhibited greater comprehension of the health risks of smoking and were more likely (48.5%) than other participants (33.6%) to report quit intentions. Risk perceptions partially mediated the relationship between FDA evaluation belief and quit intentions.
These findings highlight the need for proactive, effective communication to the public about the aims of new tobacco product regulations.
Food and Drug Administration; evaluation; regulation; smoking; risk