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1.  Distinct Beliefs, Attitudes, and Experiences of Latino Smokers: Relevance for Cessation Interventions 
Determine the extent to which Latino smokers are using effective interventions for smoking cessation, with particular focus on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Related aims were to explore cultural, attitudinal, knowledge, and socioeconomic variables associated with treatment use.
Cross-sectional telephone survey of two groups of Colorado adult smokers: Latinos (n = 1010) and non-Latino whites (n = 519).
Computer-assisted telephone survey in either Spanish or English. Survey addressed sociodemographic variables; smoking and cessation history; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about smoking and quitting; and experiences in and attitudes toward the health care setting.
Latino and non-Latino white adult Colorado residents who reported being regular smokers.
Colorado Latinos report using NRT substantially less often than do non-Latino whites residing in the state. This and other differences in the study were more pronounced in Latinos characterized as low acculturation on the basis of a language preference variable. Latinos smoke somewhat less than non-Latino whites and report lower levels of dependence. They appear to be motivated to quit but endorse attitudes and beliefs antithetical to NRT use. Health care access was lower among Latinos, and this was related to lower reports of lifetime NRT use. Receipt of recommended practitioner intervention (the “five As”) did not differ by ethnicity.
Results suggested that use of effective cessation interventions among Latinos may be enhanced by education about nicotine addiction and NRT. Policy change to increase health care access also showed promise.
PMCID: PMC3166215  PMID: 21510796
Cigarette Smoking; Hispanic Americans; Culture; Acculturation; Smoking Cessation; Prevention Research
2.  Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity 
Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years) smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities.
We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity.
Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely to have made a quit attempt than white non-menthol users.
Most correlates of quit attempts were similar across all racial/ethnic groups. Therefore population-based comprehensive tobacco control programs that increase quit attempts and successful cessation among all racial/ethnic groups should be continued and expanded. Additional strategies may be needed to encourage quit attempts among less educated, older, and more addicted smokers.
PMCID: PMC3210587  PMID: 22073018
smoking; tobacco use; smoking cessation; smoking quit attempts
3.  Smoking in Ecuador: prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes 
Tobacco Control  1996;5(2):121-126.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of, attitudes towards, and knowledge about cigarette smoking in Ecuador in 1991. DESIGN: Survey using in-person interviews; stratified and multiple regression analyses. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Eight hundred people (> or = 18 years old) representative of the adult populations in the cities of Quito and Guayaquil, Ecuador. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, reasons for smoking, desire to quit smoking, knowledge about the health effects of smoking. RESULTS: About a third of the population in the two major cities of Ecuador are cigarette smokers. Men are not only more likely to be smokers than women (45% vs 17%, respectively), but when they do smoke, they also smoke significantly more cigarettes per day (60% more) than women. Cigarette smoking appears to be more common among younger populations, and among more educated people. Housekeepers are significantly less likely to be smokers compared with people in other occupations. About 80% of smokers consume fewer than 10 cigarettes per day. In Quito, a 40% increase in the number of cigarettes smoked per day on weekdays compared with weekends suggests an effect of the environment on smoking patterns. About 60% of smokers stated their desire to quit smoking, and there was almost universal knowledge about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on the health of active and passive smokers. CONCLUSIONS: About a third of the population in the two major cities of Ecuador reported smoking cigarettes. Smoking is more common among men, those of younger age, and the more educated. The findings in this study should help the development of antismoking policies in Ecuador and other countries in the region. 

PMCID: PMC1759503  PMID: 8910993
4.  Intermittent and light daily smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2009;11(2):203-210.
Limited research exists examining the prevalence of intermittent (nondaily) and light daily (1–5 cigarettes/day) smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States using nationally representative data. These analyses would be informative in guiding targeted cessation strategies.
Using logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, and education, we examined the prevalence of intermittent and light daily consumption among current smokers across racial/ethnic groups from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. We also examined the association of these demographic factors with consumption within each racial/ethnic group separately.
Black (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.59–2.07), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.29–2.04), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.75–3.74) smokers were more likely to smoke intermittently compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Black (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27–3.18), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 2.13–4.19), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 3.85–5.58) smokers also were more likely to have light daily consumption compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic/Latino intermittent smokers smoked fewer days per month and fewer cigarettes per day compared with non-Hispanic White smokers. We found no significant gender differences across racial/ethnic groups in intermittent smoking, but male smokers were significantly less likely to have light daily consumption for all racial/ethnic groups.
These results have implications for the understanding of the tobacco dependence, the development of prevention and cessation strategies, and the applicability of harm-reduction techniques for racial/ethnic minorities.
PMCID: PMC2658897  PMID: 19246433
5.  Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation among racial/ethnic groups in the United States 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2010;105(0 1):84-94.
To examine the association between smoking mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation, separately for different racial/ethnic groups.
Secondary data analysis of the 2003 and 2006–07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey.
United States.
African American, Asian American/Pacific Islander, Hispanic/Latino, Native American, non-Hispanic white adults.
Examined relations between the use of mentholated cigarettes and measures of smoking cessation.
Among African Americans (ORadj = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.35–1.95) and Hispanics/Latinos (ORadj = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.00–1.47), those who currently smoked mentholated cigarettes were more likely be seriously considering quitting in the next six months than were non-menthol smokers, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. African Americans (ORadj = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.60– 2.19) and Hispanics/Latinos (ORadj = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.11–1.62) who smoked mentholated cigarettes were also significantly more likely to have a positive estimation of successfully quitting in the next six months compared to non-menthol smokers. These associations were not found among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, Native Americans/Alaska Natives and Non-Hispanic Whites. Among former smokers, across racial/ethnic groups, those who smoked mentholated cigarettes (vs. non-menthols) were significantly less likely to have successfully quit for at least six months: African Americans (ORadj = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.17–0.31), Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (ORadj = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.11–0.45), Hispanics/Latinos (ORadj = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.34–0.69) and Non-Hispanic Whites (ORadj = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.25–0.33).
Across race/ethnic groups, those who used to regularly smoke mentholated cigarettes were less likely to have experienced long-term quitting success. Cessation programs should consider the type of cigarette typically smoked by participants, particularly menthols.
PMCID: PMC4214376  PMID: 21059139
Cessation; race/ethnicity
6.  Current and Former Smoking and Risk for Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(9):e1001515.
In a meta-analysis of 32 observational studies involving 3,966,184 participants and 35,151 events, Suhua Wu and colleagues found that current, ever, and former smoking was associated with risk of venous thromboembolism.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Smoking is a well-established risk factor for atherosclerotic disease, but its role as an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize all published prospective studies and case-control studies to update the risk for VTE in smokers and determine whether a dose–response relationship exists.
Methods and Findings
We performed a literature search using MEDLINE (source PubMed, January 1, 1966 to June 15, 2013) and EMBASE (January 1, 1980 to June 15, 2013) with no restrictions. Pooled effect estimates were obtained by using random-effects meta-analysis. Thirty-two observational studies involving 3,966,184 participants and 35,151 VTE events were identified. Compared with never smokers, the overall combined relative risks (RRs) for developing VTE were 1.17 (95% CI 1.09–1.25) for ever smokers, 1.23 (95% CI 1.14–1.33) for current smokers, and 1.10 (95% CI 1.03–1.17) for former smokers, respectively. The risk increased by 10.2% (95% CI 8.6%–11.8%) for every additional ten cigarettes per day smoked or by 6.1% (95% CI 3.8%–8.5%) for every additional ten pack-years. Analysis of 13 studies adjusted for body mass index (BMI) yielded a relatively higher RR (1.30; 95% CI 1.24–1.37) for current smokers. The population attributable fractions of VTE were 8.7% (95% CI 4.8%–12.3%) for ever smoking, 5.8% (95% CI 3.6%–8.2%) for current smoking, and 2.7% (95% CI 0.8%–4.5%) for former smoking. Smoking was associated with an absolute risk increase of 24.3 (95% CI 15.4–26.7) cases per 100,000 person-years.
Cigarette smoking is associated with a slightly increased risk for VTE. BMI appears to be a confounding factor in the risk estimates. The relationship between VTE and smoking has clinical relevance with respect to individual screening, risk factor modification, and the primary and secondary prevention of VTE.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Blood normally flows throughout the human body, supplying its organs and tissues with oxygen and nutrients. But, when an injury occurs, proteins called clotting factors make the blood gel (coagulate) at the injury site. The resultant clot (thrombus) plugs the wound and prevents blood loss. Occasionally, a thrombus forms inside an uninjured blood vessel and partly or completely blocks the blood flow. Clot formation inside one of the veins deep within the body, usually in a leg, is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and can cause pain, swelling, and redness in the affected limb. DVT can be treated with drugs that stop the blood clot from getting larger (anticoagulants) but, if left untreated, part of the clot can break off and travel to the lungs, where it can cause a life-threatening pulmonary embolism. DVT and pulmonary embolism are collectively known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE include having an inherited blood clotting disorder, oral contraceptive use, prolonged inactivity (for example, during a long-haul plane flight), and having surgery. VTEs are present in about a third of all people who die in hospital and, in non-bedridden populations, about 10% of people die within 28 days of a first VTE event.
Why Was This Study Done?
Some but not all studies have reported that smoking is also a risk factor for VTE. A clear demonstration of a significant association (a relationship unlikely to have occurred by chance) between smoking and VTE might help to reduce the burden of VTE because smoking can potentially be reduced by encouraging individuals to quit smoking and through taxation policies and other measures designed to reduce tobacco consumption. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the researchers examine the link between smoking and the risk of VTE in the general population and investigate whether heavy smokers have a higher risk of VTE than light smokers. A systematic review uses predefined criteria to identify all the research on a given topic; meta-analysis is a statistical method for combining the results of several studies.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 32 observational studies (investigations that record a population's baseline characteristics and subsequent disease development) that provided data on smoking and VTE. Together, the studies involved nearly 4 million participants and recorded 35,151 VTE events. Compared with never smokers, ever smokers (current and former smokers combined) had a relative risk (RR) of developing VTE of 1.17. That is, ever smokers were 17% more likely to develop VTE than never smokers. For current smokers and former smokers, RRs were 1.23 and 1.10, respectively. Analysis of only studies that adjusted for body mass index (a measure of body fat and a known risk factor for conditions that affect the heart and circulation) yielded a slightly higher RR (1.30) for current smokers compared with never smokers. For ever smokers, the population attributable fraction (the proportional reduction in VTE that would accrue in the population if no one smoked) was 8.7%. Notably, the risk of VTE increased by 10.2% for every additional ten cigarettes smoked per day and by 6.1% for every additional ten pack-years. Thus, an individual who smoked one pack of cigarettes per day for 40 years had a 26.7% higher risk of developing VTE than someone who had never smoked. Finally, smoking was associated with an absolute risk increase of 24.3 cases of VTE per 100,000 person-years.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that cigarette smoking is associated with a statistically significant, slightly increased risk for VTE among the general population and reveal a dose-relationship between smoking and VTE risk. They cannot prove that smoking causes VTE—people who smoke may share other unknown characteristics (confounding factors) that are actually responsible for their increased risk of VTE. Indeed, these findings identify body mass index as a potential confounding factor that might affect the accuracy of estimates of the association between smoking and VTE risk. Although the risk of VTE associated with smoking is smaller than the risk associated with some well-established VTE risk factors, smoking is more common (globally, there are 1.1 billion smokers) and may act synergistically with some of these risk factors. Thus, smoking behavior should be considered when screening individuals for VTE and in the prevention of first and subsequent VTE events.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The US National Heart Lung and Blood Institute provides information on deep vein thrombosis (including an animation about how DVT causes pulmonary embolism), and information on pulmonary embolism
The UK National Health Service Choices website has information on deep vein thrombosis, including personal stories, and on pulmonary embolism; SmokeFree is a website provided by the UK National Health Service that offers advice on quitting smoking
The non-profit organization US National Blood Clot Alliance provides detailed information about deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism for patients and professionals and includes a selection of personal stories about these conditions
The World Health Organization provides information about the dangers of tobacco (in several languages), from the US National Cancer Institute, offers online tools and resources to help people quit smoking
MedlinePlus has links to further information about deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and the dangers of smoking (in English and Spanish)
PMCID: PMC3775725  PMID: 24068896
7.  Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey 
Journal of Epidemiology  2012;22(1):21-27.
Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers.
We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit.
A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit.
Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults.
PMCID: PMC3798576  PMID: 22186157
intention to quit; sociodemographic factors; smoking-related beliefs; smoking restrictions; smokers
8.  Consumer awareness and attitudes related to new potential reduced-exposure tobacco product brands 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2009;11(7):886-895.
In recent years, there has been a proliferation of potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs) marketed that claim to be less harmful or less addictive, compared with conventional cigarettes. Tobacco control scientists have raised concerns about the potential adverse impact of marketing of these products for smoking prevention and cessation efforts. Although these products have not been widely used among smokers, there are few data available on consumers’ awareness and attitudes toward these products.
Data were obtained from the 2003 and 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of adults 18 years and older regarding health communication and associated beliefs and behaviors. Our study population consisted of 6,369 respondents in 2003 and 5,586 respondents in 2005, of whom 19% were current smokers and 28% were former smokers.
In 2005, 45% of respondents had heard of at least one PREP product, while only 4.8% had actually tried one. Awareness and use were substantially higher among current smokers (55.6% and 12.7%). Awareness was highest for Marlboro Ultra Smooth (MUS) (30.2%), Eclipse (18.2%), Quest (7.8%), and Ariva (5.4%), while less than 2% for any other product. Of respondents who had tried a PREP, 50% cited harm reduction or assistance in quitting as a reason for trying the product and 30% believed that the product was less harmful than their usual brand. In the combined 2003 and 2005 dataset, 54.4% of current smokers stated that they would be “very” or “somewhat” interested in trying a cigarette advertised as less harmful, while only 3.2% of former smokers and 1.1% of never-smokers were interested. Among current smokers, interest was higher in females and non-Hispanic Whites, and among daily smokers, those who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day and those who were not considering quitting. Smokers interested in PREPs were substantially more likely to rate their perceived lung cancer risk as high (40.3% vs. 8.3%) and to worry frequently about developing lung cancer (19.7% vs. 4%).
These results suggest that there is a substantial level of interest among current smokers in cigarettes marketed with claims of reduced exposure or harm. Of particular concern is that “health conscious” smokers and heavy smokers not planning to quit may be especially vulnerable to PREP marketing messages and view such products as an alternative to smoking cessation.
PMCID: PMC2722238  PMID: 19541949
9.  Mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation: findings from COMMIT 
Tobacco Control  2002;11(2):135-139.
Objective: To examine the association between the use of menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation, amount smoked, and time to first cigarette in the morning.
Background: The majority of African American smokers smoke mentholated cigarettes. Some evidence suggests that African Americans may be more nicotine dependent than whites. One theory is that menthol in cigarettes is responsible for enhancing the dependence producing capacity of cigarettes; however, few studies have prospectively examined the association between menthol use and indicators of nicotine dependence.
Methods: Baseline smokers from the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) completed a telephone tobacco use survey in 1988 and were re-interviewed in 1993. Use of mentholated cigarettes was assessed by self report at baseline. Indicators of dependence examined were six month cessation in 1993, amount smoked among continuing smokers in 1993, and time to first cigarette in the morning in 1988. Multivariate regression techniques were used to assess the association of baseline menthol use with these outcomes while controlling for other factors related to dependence.
Results: Overall, 24% of the sample smoked a mentholated brand in 1988. No consistent associations were observed for menthol use and indicators of dependence in both overall and race specific analyses. Factors significantly associated with increased menthol use were female sex, age 25–34 years, African American and Asian race/ethnicity, greater education, greater than 60 minutes to the first cigarette in the morning, two or more past quit attempts, and use of premium brand cigarettes. Canadian respondents and those who smoked 15–24 cigarettes per day had lower rates of menthol use. Use of mentholated cigarettes was not associated with quitting, amount smoked, or time to first cigarette in the morning.
Conclusion: Future work is needed to clarify the physiological and sociocultural mechanisms involved in mentholated cigarette smoking.
PMCID: PMC1763856  PMID: 12035007
10.  The natural history of light smokers: A population-based cohort study 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2009;11(2):156-163.
Among cigarette smokers, lower levels of consumption, defined as smoking fewer cigarettes per day (CPD) or not smoking daily, are becoming more common. The relationship between cigarette consumption and smoking frequency (daily or nondaily) is not well characterized, and the natural history of light smoking (defined here as smoking ≤10 CPD) is poorly understood.
We assessed changes in CPD and smoking frequency over time among light smokers (≤10 CPD) and very light smokers (≤5 CPD), using a population-based longitudinal survey of 3,083 adult smokers in Massachusetts who were interviewed three times over a 4-year follow-up period (in 2000–2001, 2002–2003, and 2005–2006). We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with light smokers’ progression to heavier smoking or smoking reduction/quitting.
Seventy percent of very light smokers were nondaily smokers. Very light nondaily smokers differed from very light daily smokers by younger age, higher socioeconomic status, a social smoking pattern, later smoking initiation, less evidence of nicotine addiction, and more recent and planned cessation efforts. Very light nondaily smokers and smokers consuming 6–10 CPD were more likely to remain in the same smoking category and were less likely to increase consumption than were very light daily smokers. Factors independently associated with increasing consumption among very light smokers were smoking daily, nicotine dependence, White ethnicity, social smoking, and having more friends who smoked; among smokers consuming 6–10 CPD, male gender and lack of quitting self-efficacy were associated with increasing consumption.
Our findings indicate that most light smoking is not a gateway to heavier smoking.
PMCID: PMC2658908  PMID: 19264862
11.  Classifying a Smoker Scale in Adult Daily and Nondaily Smokers 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2013;16(5):591-599.
Smoker identity, or the strength of beliefs about oneself as a smoker, is a robust marker of smoking behavior. However, many nondaily smokers do not identify as smokers, underestimating their risk for tobacco-related disease and resulting in missed intervention opportunities. Assessing underlying beliefs about characteristics used to classify smokers may help explain the discrepancy between smoking behavior and smoker identity. This study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Classifying a Smoker scale among a racially diverse sample of adult smokers.
A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American, Latino, and White) across smoking level (nondaily and daily smoking).
The Classifying a Smoker scale displayed a single factor structure and excellent internal consistency (α = .91). Classifying a Smoker scores significantly increased at each level of smoking, F(3,2375) = 23.68, p < .0001. Those with higher scores had a stronger smoker identity, stronger dependence on cigarettes, greater health risk perceptions, more smoking friends, and were more likely to carry cigarettes. Classifying a Smoker scores explained unique variance in smoking variables above and beyond that explained by smoker identity.
The present study supports the use of the Classifying a Smoker scale among diverse, experienced smokers. Stronger endorsement of characteristics used to classify a smoker (i.e., stricter criteria) was positively associated with heavier smoking and related characteristics. Prospective studies are needed to inform prevention and treatment efforts.
PMCID: PMC3977485  PMID: 24297807
12.  Predictors of cessation in African American light smokers enrolled in a bupropion clinical trial 
Addictive behaviors  2012;38(3):1796-1803.
This is the first study to examine predictors of successful cessation in African American (AA) light smokers treated within a placebo-controlled trial of bupropion.
We analyzed data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion and health education for 540 African American light smokers. African American light smokers (≤ 10 cigarettes per day, cpd) were randomly assigned to receive 150mg bid bupropion SR (n=270) or placebo (n=270) for 7 weeks. All participants received health education counseling at Weeks 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7. Using chi-square tests, two sample t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses, we examined baseline psychosocial and smoking characteristics as predictors of cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence among study participants at the end treatment (week 7) and at the end of follow up (week 26).
Participants who received bupropion were significantly more likely to quit smoking compared to those who received placebo (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.60–4.62, P = 0.0002). Greater study session attendance (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.76–3.46, P = 0.0001), and smoking non-menthol cigarettes increased the likelihood of quitting (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.01–3.36, P = 0.05); while longer years of smoking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96–1.00, P = 0.05) and higher baseline cotinine (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95–0.99, P = 0.002) significantly reduced the odds of quitting at Week 7. Conversely, at the end of follow-up (week 26), treatment with bupropion vs. placebo (OR =1.14, 95% CI = 0.65–2.02, P = 0.64) was not significantly associated with quitting and type of cigarette smoked (menthol vs. non-menthol) did not appear in the final logistic regression model. Greater study session attendance (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.44–2.66, P = 0.0001); BMI (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00–1.07, P = 0.04); and weight efficacy (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01–1.05, P = 0.01) increased the likelihood of quitting at Week 26. Similar to our findings at Week 7, longer years of smoking (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.94–0.99, P = 0.01) and higher baseline cotinine (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95–0.99, P = 0.02) significantly reduced the odds of quitting at Week 26.
Baseline cotinine levels, number of years smoked and study session attendance are associated with both short- and long-term smoking cessation, while bupropion and the type of cigarette smoked were associated with quitting on short term only.
PMCID: PMC3558614  PMID: 23254230
African American; light smokers; bupropion; cotinine; menthol; smoking cessation
13.  Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan 
BMC Public Health  2003;3:42.
Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT) $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opinions about the allocation of this tax revenue.
Data were drawn from a national face-to-face interview on cigarette consumption in 2000. A total of 3,279 adults were aged 18 to 64 years; 49.9% of whom were male and 50.1% female, and with a smoking prevalence of 49.1% and 4.1%, respectively. The attitudes toward cigarette tax were analysed using multi-logit regressions. We analysed by logistic regression the potential changes in smoking behaviour that smokers might make in response to the five NT (New Taiwan) dollar earmarked tax on cigarettes per pack. We summarized public opinions about the allocation of earmarked tax revenue using descriptive statistics.
Current smokers (OR = 0.34) and former smokers (OR = 0.68) were less likely to support the cigarette tax than non-smokers. A favourable attitude toward the tax was positively associated with personal monthly income, especially among females. Among male smokers, the possibility of reducing/quitting smoking in response to the five-NT-dollar tax was negatively associated with the monthly expense for smoking. The two most frequently-suggested areas to receive money from the revenue collected from the earmarked tax were health education and cancer subsidy.
Smoking status and economic factors determine the attitude and potential responses of people toward the cigarette tax. Taiwan's five NT-dollar earmarked tax for cigarettes may have only a limited effect upon the reduction in cigarette use.
PMCID: PMC324407  PMID: 14693036
14.  Preventing postpartum smoking relapse among diverse low-income women: A randomized clinical trial 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2010;12(4):326-335.
Postpartum relapse rates are high among women who spontaneously quit smoking during pregnancy. This randomized clinical trial tested a Motivation and Problem-Solving (MAPS) treatment for reducing postpartum relapse among diverse low-income women who quit smoking during pregnancy (N = 251; 32% Black, 30% Latino, and 36% White; 55% <$30,000/year household income).
Pregnant women were randomly assigned to MAPS/MAPS+ or Usual Care (UC). Continuation ratio logit models were used to examine differences in biochemically confirmed continuous abstinence at Weeks 8 and 26 postpartum by treatment group and moderators of the treatment effect. Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, partner status, education, smoking rate, and the number of smokers in the participant’s environment.
MAPS/MAPS+ was more efficacious than UC in the prevention of postpartum relapse (p = .05). An interaction between treatment and the number of cigarettes smoked per day before quitting approached significance (p = .09), suggesting that the MAPS/MAPS+ treatment effect was stronger among women who smoked more cigarettes per day.
MAPS, a holistic and dynamic approach to changing behavior using a combined motivational enhancement and social cognitive approach, is a promising intervention for postpartum smoking relapse prevention among low-income women, which may have particular relevance for women with higher prequit smoking rates.
PMCID: PMC2847071  PMID: 20154055
15.  Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette users in Great Britain: Findings from a general population survey of smokers 
Addictive Behaviors  2014;39(6):1120-1125.
E-cigarettes may be effective smoking cessation aids and their use by smokers has been growing rapidly. It is important to observe and assess natural patterns in the use of e-cigarettes whilst experimental data accumulates. This paper reports the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage, including brand choice, and characterises the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use, among the general population of smokers and recent ex-smokers.
Data were obtained from 3538 current and 579 recent ex-smokers in a cross-sectional online survey of a national sample of smokers in Great Britain in November and December 2012. Differences between current and recent ex-smokers in the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage were examined and the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use of e-cigarettes was assessed in a series of simple and multiple logistic regressions.
Ninety-three percent of current and recent ex-smokers (n = 3841) were aware of e-cigarettes. Approximately a fifth (n = 884) were currently using e-cigarettes, whilst just over a third (n = 1507) had ever used them. Sixty-seven percent of the sample (n = 2758) believed e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes; however, almost a quarter (n = 994) remained unsure. Among both current and recent ex-smokers, the most popular reasons for using were health, cutting down and quitting (each > 80%) and 38% used the brand ‘E-lites’. Among current smokers who were aware of but had never used e-cigarettes, approximately half (n = 1040) were interested in using them in the future. Among current smokers, their use was associated with higher socio-economic status (OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.25–1.75), smoking more cigarettes (OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 1.01–1.03) and having a past-year quit attempt (OR = 2.82, 95%CI = 2.38–3.34).
There is a near universal awareness of e-cigarettes and their use appears to be common among smokers in Great Britain although a quarter of all smokers are unsure as to whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. E-lites – a brand that delivers a low dose of nicotine – is the most popular. E-cigarette users appear to have higher socio-economic status, to smoke more cigarettes per day and to have attempted to quit in the past year.
•There is now near universal awareness of e-cigarettes.•Use is common among smokers.•Quarter of all smokers unsure as to whether they are less harmful than cigarettes.•E-lites – a brand that delivers a low dose of nicotine – is the most popular.•Users have higher SES, smoke more heavily and have attempted to quit recently.
PMCID: PMC4003532  PMID: 24679611
Smoking; Cessation; Quitting; E-cigarettes; Electronic cigarettes
16.  The Influence of Response Mode on Study Results: Offering Cigarette Smokers a Choice of Postal or Online Completion of a Survey 
It is unclear whether offering online data collection to study participants affects compliance or produces bias.
To compare response rates, baseline characteristics, test-retest reliability, and outcomes between cigarette smokers who chose to complete a survey by mail versus those who chose to complete it online.
We surveyed cigarette smokers who intended to stop smoking within the next 30 days to determine barriers to calling a smoking quit line. Participants were offered the choice of completing a paper version of the survey sent through the mail or an online version at a password-protected website. Participants were called 2 months later to determine if they had made a quit attempt and/or called a smoking quit line since the baseline survey. We compared characteristics and outcomes among those who chose postal versus online completion. We measured test-retest reliability of the baseline survey by resurveying a semirandom sample of participants within 10 days of the original survey.
Of 697 eligible respondents to newspaper ads in 12 US cities, 438 (63%) chose to receive a mailed paper survey and 259 (37%) chose an Internet survey. Survey return rates were the same for the 2 modes (92% versus 92%, P = .82). Online respondents were younger (mean of 46 versus 51 years old for postal, P < .001), more likely to be white (76% versus 62%, P < .001), less likely to be African American (18% versus 30%, P < .001), more highly educated (34% college graduate versus 23%, P < .001), more likely to intend to stop smoking in the next 30 days (47% definitely versus 30%, P < .001), and more likely to have heard of a smoking quit line (51% versus 40%, P = .008). Participants did not differ on gender (54% female for online versus 55% for postal, P = .72) or cigarettes smoked per day (mean of 19 versus 21, P = .30). Online respondents had slightly fewer missing items on the 79-item survey (mean of 1.7% missing versus 2.3%, P = .02). Loss to follow-up at 2 months was similar (16% for online and 15% for postal, P = .74). There was no significant difference between online and postal respondents in having called a smoking quit line during the 2-month follow-up period (20% versus 24%, P = .22) or in having made a quit attempt (76% versus 79%, P = .41).
Cigarette smokers who chose to complete a survey using the Internet differed in several ways from those who chose mailed surveys. However, more importantly, online and postal responses produced similar outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3056529  PMID: 20965873
Internet; mail; questionnaires; smoking
17.  Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos 
Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP) and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46) after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR = 1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43) and second generation immigrants (AOR = 1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64) were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.
PMCID: PMC3362916  PMID: 22675373
18.  Online Advertising to Reach and Recruit Latino Smokers to an Internet Cessation Program: Impact and Costs 
Tobacco cessation among Latinos is a public health priority in the United States, particularly given the relatively high growth of this population segment. Although a substantial percentage of American Latinos use the Internet, they have not engaged in Web-based cessation programs as readily as other racial/ethnic subgroups. A lack of culturally specific advertising efforts may partly explain this disparity.
Phase I of this study focused on the development of four Spanish-language online banner advertisements to promote a free Spanish-language smoking cessation website ( Phase II examined the relative effectiveness of the four banner ads in reaching and recruiting Latino smokers to the cessation website.
In Phase I, 200 Spanish-speaking Latino smokers completed an online survey to indicate their preference for Spanish-language banner ads that incorporated either the cultural value of family (familismo) or fatalism (fatalismo). Ads included variations on message framing (gain vs loss) and depth of cultural targeting (surface vs deep). In Phase II, a Latin square design evaluated the effectiveness of the four preferred ads from Phase I. Ads were systematically rotated across four popular Latino websites (MySpace Latino, MSN Latino, MiGente, and Yahoo! en Español) over four months from August to November 2009. Tracking software recorded ad clicks and registrants on the cessation website. Negative binomial regression and general linear modeling examined the main and interacting effects of message framing and depth of cultural targeting for four outcomes: number of clicks, click-through rate, number of registrants, and cost per registrant.
In Phase I, smokers preferred the four ads featuring familismo. In Phase II, 24,829,007 impressions were placed, yielding 24,822 clicks, an overall click-through rate of 0.10%, and 500 registrants (2.77% conversion rate). Advertising costs totaled US $104,669.49, resulting in an overall cost per click of US $4.22 and cost per registrant of US $209.34. Website placement predicted all four outcomes (all P values < .01). Yahoo! en Español yielded the highest click-through rate (0.167%) and number of registrants (n = 267). The message framing and cultural targeting interaction was not significant. Contrary to hypotheses, loss-framed ads yielded a higher click-through rate than gain-framed ads (point estimate = 1.08, 95% CI 1.03 1.14, P = 0.004), and surface-targeted ads outperformed deep-targeted ads for clicks (point estimate = 1.20, 95% CI 1.13 1.28, P < .001), click-through rate (point estimate = 1.22, 95% CI 1.16 1.29, P < .001), and number of registrants (point estimate = 2.73, 95% CI 2.14 3.48, P < .001).
Online advertising can be an effective and cost-efficient strategy to reach and engage Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in an evidence-based Internet cessation program. Cultural targeting and smoking-relevant images may be important factors for banner ad design. Online advertising holds potential for Web-based cessation program implementation and research.
PMCID: PMC3510691  PMID: 22954502
Internet; smoking cessation; recruitment; Hispanic/Latino; advertising
19.  Unplanned Quitting in a Triethnic Sample of U.S. Smokers 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2014;16(6):759-765.
Smokers who report quitting without prior planning have been shown to report longer abstinence compared with those who planned. Little is known about unplanned quitting (UQ) among U.S. smokers, minorities, or nondaily and light smokers.
Using an online panel, we recruited equal numbers of Black, White, and Latino nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers. Of the 1,127 who reported a past-year quit attempt, we queried whether it was planned and the maximum number of days abstinent.
Overall, 38% reported that their last quit attempt was unplanned. The impact of planned versus unplanned quitting interacted with smoking level and race. Among White moderate/heavy smokers, mean days abstinent was 99 for those who reported an unplanned quit attempt compared with 60 days for those who reported a planned attempt (p = .02). Among Black moderate/heavy smokers, the mean days abstinent was higher among those whose last attempt was planned, 92 days, compared with 56 days among those whose last attempt was unplanned (p = .09). The pattern among Latinos resembled Whites but was not significant. Results remained after adjusting for confounds such as age, gender, education, income, time to first cigarette, and menthol use. There were no significant differences in abstinence by quit type for light or nondaily smokers.
Future studies are needed to elucidate why UQ appears to have differential effectiveness across racial/ethnic groups and different levels of cigarette use. Research examining the impact of UQ on long-term quitting, which is not addressed here, is needed.
PMCID: PMC4064007  PMID: 24420329
20.  Cigarette smoking and cessation behaviors among urban blacks and whites. 
Public Health Reports  1990;105(3):290-295.
Smoking behaviors among blacks and whites were studied in a population-based sample of 2,626 residents of Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN. More blacks than whites were found to be smokers, before and after adjusting for age and education differences. More whites than blacks were former smokers, but the prevalence of those who had never smoked was comparable for whites and blacks. Among smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was lower among blacks than whites, but more blacks were found to smoke cigarettes with high "tar" (dry particulate matter) and nicotine content. Men smokers were found to smoke more than women smokers, young people smoked more than older people, and those with a high school education or less smoked more than those with more than a high school education. Smoking cessation behavior consisted mostly of a variety of strategies that began with reducing cigarette consumption, followed by changing to lower tar brands, attempting to quit, and actually quitting. In general, a higher percentage of whites than blacks reported smoking cessation behaviors. A greater percentage of white than black women had tried cigarette brands lower in tar and nicotine within the previous year. Among men, a lower percentage of black than white smokers had tried quitting, and fewer black men planned to quit in the future. Blacks appeared to lag behind whites in their efforts to quit smoking. Smoking behavior continues to be problematic for both blacks and whites. Studies are needed to explain better the racial differences in smoking and smoking cessation behaviors, and to facilitate programs to encourage cessation.
PMCID: PMC1580012  PMID: 2113689
21.  Cigarette purchase patterns in four countries and the relationship with cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey 
Tobacco Control  2006;15(Suppl 3):iii59-iii64.
Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but some smokers may seek lower‐taxed cigarette sources. This price avoidance behaviour likely dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices although it has not been thoroughly studied.
To describe the characteristics of smokers who purchase low/untaxed cigarettes and to examine how this behaviour is associated with subsequent changes in smoking behaviours.
Telephone survey data from 8930 smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey (ITC‐4) were used to assess cigarette purchase patterns and smoking behaviours in Wave 1 conducted from October to December 2002 and subsequently followed seven months later in Wave 2. Respondents' smoking status, attempts to quit, amount smoked, and cigarette purchase patterns were assessed in both waves.
Rates of purchase from a low/untaxed source at the respondents' last cigarette purchase differed notably between countries at Wave 1, from less than 1% in Australia to 15% in the United Kingdom. In the UK, but not the other countries, this increased significantly to 20% at Wave 2. Smokers who were older, white/English speakers, had higher incomes, and had higher levels of education were more likely to report purchasing cigarettes from a low/untaxed source on their last purchase. Those who reported purchasing from a low/untaxed source on their last purchase at Wave 1 were less likely to have tried to quit smoking quit smoking by Wave 2 (relative risk 0.70, p < 0.01), while no overall significant association with smoking cessation was observed.
Data from this study indicate that there are lower levels of making a quit attempt among purchasers of low/untaxed cigarettes compared to purchasers of full‐priced cigarettes. The availability of low/untaxed cigarettes may mitigate the influence of increases in cigarette prices.
PMCID: PMC2593061  PMID: 16754948
cessation; policy; price
22.  ‘Roll-your-own’ cigarette smoking in South Africa between 2007 and 2010 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:597.
The prevalence of smoking and consumption of cigarettes have decreased in South Africa over the last 20 years. This decrease is a result of comprehensive tobacco control legislation, particularly large cigarette tax increases. However, little attention has been given to the potential use of ‘roll-your-own’ cigarettes as cheaper alternatives, especially among the socio-economically disadvantaged population. This study therefore sought to determine socio-demographic correlates of ‘roll-your-own’ cigarette use among South African adults (2007–2010).
This secondary data analysis used a merged dataset from two nationally representative samples of 2 907 and 3 112 South African adults (aged ≥16 years) who participated in the 2007 and 2010 annual South African Social Attitude Surveys respectively. The surveys used a face-to-face interviewer-administered questionnaire. The overall response rates were 83.1% for 2007 and 88.9% for 2010. Data elicited included socio-demographic data, current smoking status, type of tobacco products used, past quit attempts and self-efficacy in quitting. Data analysis included chi-square statistics and multi-variable adjusted logistic regression analysis.
Of the 1 296 current smokers in this study, 24.1% (n = 306) reported using roll-your-own cigarettes. Some of whom also smoked factory-made cigarettes. Roll-your-own cigarette smoking was most common among black Africans and was more common among male smokers than among female smokers (27% vs 15.8%; p < 0.01). Compared to smokers who exclusively used factory-made cigarettes, roll-your-own cigarette smokers were less confident that they could quit, more likely to be less educated, and more likely to reside in rural areas. The odds of use of roll-your-own cigarette were significantly higher in 2010 than in 2007 (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07-1.44).
Despite an aggregate decline in smoking prevalence, roll-your-own cigarette smoking has increased and is particularly common among smokers in the lower socio-economic group. The findings also suggest the need for a more intensive treatment intervention to increase self-efficacy to quit among roll-your-own cigarette smokers.
PMCID: PMC3694453  PMID: 23800007
Smoking; Roll-your-own cigarettes; Factory-made cigarettes; South Africa; Self-efficacy; Quitting
23.  Comparison of Cigarette and Water-Pipe Smoking By Arab and Non–Arab-American Youth 
Water-pipe smoking is a rapidly growing form of tobacco use worldwide. Building on an earlier report of experimentation with cigarette and water-pipe smoking in a U.S. community sample of Arab-American youth aged 14–18 years, this article examines water-pipe smoking in more detail (e.g., smoking history, belief in harmfulness compared to cigarettes, family members in home who smoke water pipes) and compares the water-pipe–smoking behaviors of Arab-American youth with non–Arab-American youth in the same community.
A convenience sample of 1872 Arab-American and non–Arab-American high school students from the Midwest completed a 24-item tobacco survey. Data were collected in 2004–2005 and analyzed in 2007–2008.
Arab-American youth reported lower percentages of ever cigarette smoking (20% vs 39%); current cigarette smoking (7% vs 22%); and regular cigarette smoking (3% vs 15%) than non–Arab-American youth. In contrast, Arab-American youth reported significantly higher percentages of ever water-pipe smoking (38% vs 21%) and current water-pipe smoking (17% vs 11%) than non–Arab-American youth. Seventy-seven percent perceived water-pipe smoking to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarette smoking. Logistic regression showed that youth were 11.0 times more likely to be currently smoking cigarettes if they currently smoked water pipes. Youth were also 11.0 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers if they currently smoked cigarettes. If one or more family members smoked water pipes in the home, youth were 6.3 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers. The effects of ethnicity were reduced as a result of the explanatory value of family smoking.
Further research is needed to determine the percentages, patterns, and health risks of water-pipe smoking and its relationship to cigarette smoking among all youth. Additionally, youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs need to focus attention on water-pipe smoking in order to further dispel the myth that water-pipe smoking is a safe alternative to cigarette smoking.
PMCID: PMC2575814  PMID: 18675529
24.  No effect of cigarette smoking dose on oxidized plasma proteins 
Environmental research  2007;106(2):219-225.
Cigarette smoking is a major source of oxidative stress. Protein carbonyls have been used as a biomarker of oxidative stress because of the relative stability of carbonylated proteins and the high protein concentration in blood. Increased levels of carbonyl groups have been found in serum proteins of smokers compared to nonsmokers. However, neither the dose effect of current cigarette smoke nor other predictors of oxidative stress have been studied. Hence, we used an ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) to evaluate plasma protein carbonyls in smokers recruited in the Early Lung Cancer Action Project (ELCAP) program. The lung cancer screening program enrolled current and former smokers age 60 years and over without a prior cancer diagnosis. A total of 542 participants (282 men and 260 women) completed a baseline questionnaire and provided blood samples for the biomarker study. Protein oxidation was measured by derivatization of the carbonyl groups with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and ELISA quantitation of the DNPH group. Current smoking status was confirmed with urinary cotinine. The mean (± SD) protein carbonyl level was 17.9 ± 2.9 nmol carbonyls/ml plasma. Protein carbonyls did not differ significantly by gender. Carbonyl levels were higher among current than former smokers, but these differences did not attain statistical significance, nor did differences by urine cotinine levels, pack-years, pack/day among current smokers, and smoking duration. In a multiple regression analysis, higher protein carbonyl levels were independently associated with increasing age (0.59 nmol/ml increase per 10 years, 95% CI 0.14, 1.05, p = 0.01), African-American vs. white race/ethnicity, (1.30 nmol/ml, 95% CI 0.4, 2.19, p =0.008), and lower educational attainment (0.75 nmol/ml, 95% CI 0.12, 1.38, p = 0.02). Although we found no significant difference between current versus past cigarette smoking and protein carbonyls in this older group of smokers, associations were found for age, ethnicity and educational attainment. Our results indicate that the measurement of plasma carbonyls by this ELISA technique is still an easy and suitable method for studies of diseases related to oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC2268894  PMID: 17996865
Oxidative stress; Cigarette smoking; Protein carbonyls; Biomarker; ELCAP
25.  A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter? 
Tobacco Induced Diseases  2012;10(1):19.
The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD); time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts) and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson’s chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables.
A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p < 0.01) and were less likely to have a previous quit attempt longer than 90 days (p < 0.01). ANOVAs revealed no main effects for menthol preferences. However, African American smokers smoked fewer CPD (p<.001), started smoking later in life (p= .04), and had been smoking the same brand for longer (p= .04).
Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.
PMCID: PMC3519603  PMID: 23181980
Cigarette smoking; Menthol cigarettes; Tobacco use; Tobacco dependence; Race/Ethnicity; Female Sex/Gender

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