Isoprenoid precursor synthesis via the mevalonate route in humans and pathogenic trypanosomatids is an important metabolic pathway. There is however, only limited information available on the structure and reactivity of the component enzymes in trypanosomatids. Since isoprenoid biosynthesis is essential for trypanosomatid viability and may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention it is important to characterize the pathway components.
Putative mevalonate kinase encoding genes from Leishmania major (LmMK) and Trypanosoma brucei (TbMK) have been cloned, over-expressed in and proteins isolated from procyclic-form T. brucei. A highly sensitive radioactive assay was developed and shows ATP-dependent phosphorylation of mevalonate. Apo and (R)-mevalonate bound crystal structures of LmMK, from a bacterial expression system, have been determined to high resolution providing, for the first time, information concerning binding of mevalonate to an MK. The mevalonate binds in a deep cavity lined by highly conserved residues. His25 is key for binding and for discrimination of (R)- over (S)-mevalonate, with the main chain amide interacting with the C3 hydroxyl group of (R)-mevalonate, and the side chain contributing, together with Val202 and Thr283, to the construction of a hydrophobic binding site for the C3 methyl substituent. The C5 hydroxyl, where phosphorylation occurs, points towards catalytic residues, Lys18 and Asp155. The activity of LmMK was significantly reduced compared to MK from other species and we were unable to obtain ATP-binding data. Comparisons with the rat MK:ATP complex were used to investigate how this substrate might bind. In LmMK, helix α2 and the preceding polypeptide adopt a conformation, not seen in related kinase structures, impeding access to the nucleotide triphosphate binding site suggesting that a conformational rearrangement is required to allow ATP binding.
Our new structural information, consistent with data on homologous enzymes allows a detailed description of how mevalonate is recognized and positioned for catalysis in MK. The mevalonate-binding site is highly conserved yet the ATP-binding site is structurally distinct in LmMK. We are unable to provide a definitive explanation for the low activity of recombinant protein isolated from a bacterial expression system compared to material isolated from procyclic-form Trypanosoma brucei.
The mevalonate pathway and the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP)–pyruvate pathway are alternative routes for the biosynthesis of the central isoprenoid precursor, isopentenyl diphosphate. Genomic analysis revealed that the staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci possess genes predicted to encode all of the enzymes of the mevalonate pathway and not the GAP-pyruvate pathway, unlike Bacillus subtilis and most gram-negative bacteria studied, which possess only components of the latter pathway. Phylogenetic and comparative genome analyses suggest that the genes for mevalonate biosynthesis in gram-positive cocci, which are highly divergent from those of mammals, were horizontally transferred from a primitive eukaryotic cell. Enterococci uniquely encode a bifunctional protein predicted to possess both 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase activities. Genetic disruption experiments have shown that five genes encoding proteins involved in this pathway (HMG-CoA synthase, HMG-CoA reductase, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, and mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase) are essential for the in vitro growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae under standard conditions. Allelic replacement of the HMG-CoA synthase gene rendered the organism auxotrophic for mevalonate and severely attenuated in a murine respiratory tract infection model. The mevalonate pathway thus represents a potential antibacterial target in the low-G+C gram-positive cocci.
The role of peroxisomes in isoprenoid metabolism, especially in plants, has been questioned in several reports. A recent study of Sapir-Mir et al.1 revealed that the two isoforms of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase, catalyzing the isomerisation of IPP to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) are found in the peroxisome. In this addendum, we provide additional data describing the peroxisomal localization of 5-phosphomevalonate kinase and mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, the last two enzymes of the mevalonic acid pathway leading to IPP.2 This finding was reinforced in our latest report showing that a short isoform of farnesyl diphosphate, using IPP and DMAPP as substrates, is also targeted to the organelle.3 Therefore, the classical sequestration of isoprenoid biosynthesis between plastids and cytosol/ER can be revisited by including the peroxisome as an additional isoprenoid biosynthetic compartment within plant cells.
5-phosphomevalonate kinase; Arabidopsis thaliana; Catharanthus roseus; farnesyl diphosphate synthase; isoprenoid; mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase; mevalonic acid pathway; peroxisome
Biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) proceeds via two distinct pathways. Sequence comparisons and microbiological data suggest that multidrug-resistant strains of gram-positive cocci employ exclusively the mevalonate pathway for IPP biosynthesis. Bacterial mevalonate pathway enzymes therefore offer potential targets for development of active site-directed inhibitors for use as antibiotics. We used the PCR and Enterococcus faecalis genomic DNA to isolate the mvaS gene that encodes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase, the second enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. mvaS was expressed in Escherichia coli from a pET28 vector with an attached N-terminal histidine tag. The expressed enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography on Ni2+-agarose to apparent homogeneity and a specific activity of 10 μmol/min/mg. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that the enzyme is a dimer (mass, 83.9 kDa; s20,w, 5.3). Optimal activity occurred in 2.0 mM MgCl2 at 37oC. The ΔHa was 6,000 cal. The pH activity profile, optimum activity at pH 9.8, yielded a pKa of 8.8 for a dissociating group, presumably Glu78. The stoichiometry per monomer of acetyl-CoA binding was 1.2 ± 0.2 and that of covalent acetylation was 0.60 ± 0.02. The Km for the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA was 10 μM. Coupled conversion of acetyl-CoA to mevalonate was demonstrated by using HMG-CoA synthase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase/HMG-CoA reductase from E. faecalis.
The structure of a triclinic crystal form of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-d-erythritol kinase has been determined. Comparisons with a previously reported monoclinic crystal form raise questions about our knowledge of the quaternary structure of this enzyme.
4-Diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-d-erythritol kinase (IspE; EC 220.127.116.11) contributes to the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate or mevalonate-independent biosynthetic pathway that produces the isomers isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. These five-carbon compounds are the fundamental building blocks for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. The mevalonate-independent pathway does not occur in humans, but is present and has been shown to be essential in many dangerous pathogens, i.e. Plasmodium species, which cause malaria, and Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, the enzymes involved in this pathway have attracted attention as potential drug targets. IspE produces 4-diphosphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-d-erythritol 2-phosphate by ATP-dependent phosphorylation of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-d-erythritol. A triclinic crystal structure of the Escherichia coli IspE–ADP complex with two molecules in the asymmetric unit was determined at 2 Å resolution and compared with a monoclinic crystal form of a ternary complex of E. coli IspE also with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The molecular packing is different in the two forms. In the asymmetric unit of the triclinic crystal form the substrate-binding sites of IspE are occluded by structural elements of the partner, suggesting that the ‘triclinic dimer’ is an artefact of the crystal lattice. The surface area of interaction in the triclinic form is almost double that observed in the monoclinic form, implying that the dimeric assembly in the monoclinic form may also be an artifact of crystallization.
mevalonate-independent pathway; isoprenoid biosynthesis; kinases
Many bacteria employ the nonmevalonate pathway for synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the monomer unit for isoprenoid biosynthesis. However, gram-positive cocci exclusively use the mevalonate pathway, which is essential for their growth (E. I. Wilding et al., J. Bacteriol. 182:4319-4327, 2000). Enzymes of the mevalonate pathway are thus potential targets for drug intervention. Uniquely, the enterococci possess a single open reading frame, mvaE, that appears to encode two enzymes of the mevalonate pathway, acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Western blotting revealed that the mvaE gene product is a single polypeptide in Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus hirae. The mvaE gene was cloned from E. faecalis and was expressed with an N-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli. The gene product was then purified by nickel affinity chromatography. As predicted, the 86.5-kDa mvaE gene product catalyzed both the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and HMG-CoA reductase reactions. Temperature optima, ΔHa and Km values, and pH optima were determined for both activities. Kinetic studies of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase implicated a ping-pong mechanism. CoA acted as an inhibitor competitive with acetyl-CoA. A millimolar Ki for a statin drug confirmed that E. faecalis HMG-CoA reductase is a class II enzyme. The oxidoreductant was NADP(H). A role for an active-site histidine during the first redox step of the HMG-CoA, reductase reaction was suggested by the ability of diethylpyrocarbonate to block formation of mevalonate from HMG-CoA, but not from mevaldehyde. Sequence comparisons with other HMG-CoA reductases suggest that the essential active-site histidine is His756. The mvaE gene product represents the first example of an HMG-CoA reductase fused to another enzyme.
The mevalonate pathway is utilized for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids in many bacterial, eukaryotic, and archaeal organisms. Based on previous reports of its feedback inhibition, mevalonate kinase (MVK) may play an important regulatory role in the biosynthesis of mevalonate pathway-derived compounds. Here we report the purification, kinetic characterization, and inhibition analysis of the MVK from the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei. The inhibition of the M. mazei MVK by the following metabolites derived from the mevalonate pathway was explored: dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), isopentenyl monophosphate (IP), and diphosphomevalonate. M. mazei MVK was not inhibited by DMAPP, GPP, FPP, diphosphomevalonate, or IP, a proposed intermediate in an alternative isoprenoid pathway present in archaea. Our findings suggest that the M. mazei MVK represents a distinct class of mevalonate kinases that can be differentiated from previously characterized MVKs based on its inhibition profile.
It has been proposed that isoprenoid biosynthesis in several gram-positive cocci depends on the mevalonate pathway for conversion of acetyl coenzyme A to isopentenyl diphosphate. Mevalonate kinase catalyzes a key reaction in this pathway. In this study the enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus was expressed in Escherichia coli, isolated in a highly purified form, and characterized. The overall amino acid sequence of this enzyme was very heterologous compared with the sequences of eukaryotic mevalonate kinases. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analytical gel filtration chromatography suggested that the native enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of approximately 33 kDa. The specific activity was 12 U/mg, and the pH optimum was 7.0 to 8.5. The apparent Km values for R,S-mevalonate and ATP were 41 and 339 μM, respectively. There was substantial substrate inhibition at millimolar levels of mevalonate. The sensitivity to feedback inhibition by farnesyl diphosphate and its sulfur-containing analog, farnesyl thiodiphosphate, was characterized. These compounds were competitive inhibitors with respect to ATP; the Ki values were 46 and 45 μM for farnesyl diphosphate and its thio analog, respectively. Parallel measurements with heterologous eukaryotic mevalonate kinases indicated that S. aureus mevalonate kinase is much less sensitive to feedback inhibition (Ki difference, 3 orders of magnitude) than the human enzyme. In contrast, both enzymes tightly bound trinitrophenyl-ATP, a fluorescent substrate analog, suggesting that there are similarities in structural features that are important for catalytic function.
In mycobacteria, the biosynthesis of the precursors to the essential isoprenoids, isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate is carried out by the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. This route of synthesis is absent in humans, who utilize the alternative mevalonate acid (MVA) route, thus making the enzymes of the MEP pathway of chemotherapeutic interest. One such identified target is the second enzyme of the pathway, 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR). Only limited information is currently available concerning the catalytic mechanism and structural dynamics of this enzyme, and only recently has a crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis species of this enzyme been resolved including all factors required for binding. Here, the dynamics of the enzyme is studied in complex with NADPH, Mn2+, in the presence and absence of the fosmidomycin inhibitor using conventional molecular dynamics and an enhanced sampling technique, Reversible Digitally Filtered Molecular Dynamics. The simulations reveal significant differences in the conformational dynamics of the vital catalytic loop between the inhibitor-free and inhibitor-bound enzyme complexes and highlight the contributions of conserved residues in this region. The substantial fluctuations observed suggest that DXR may be a promising target for computer-aided drug discovery through the relaxed complex method.
The mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase is an enzyme which converts mevalonate diphosphate to isopentenyl diphosphate, the building block of isoprenoids. We used the Saccharomyces cerevisiae temperature-sensitive mutant defective for mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase previously described (C. Chambon, V. Ladeveve, M. Servouse, L. Blanchard, C. Javelot, B. Vladescu, and F. Karst, Lipids 26:633-636, 1991) to characterize the mutated allele. We showed that a single change in a conserved amino acid accounts for the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the mutant. Complementation experiments were done both in the erg19-mutated background and in a strain in which the ERG19 gene, which was shown to be an essential gene for yeast, was disrupted. Epitope tagging of the wild-type mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase allowed us to isolate the enzyme in an active form by a versatile one-step immunoprecipitation procedure. Furthermore, during the course of this study, we observed that a high level of expression of the wild-type ERG19 gene led to a lower sterol steady-state accumulation compared to that of a wild-type strain, suggesting that this enzyme may be a key enzyme in mevalonate pathway regulation.
Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In eukaryotes, archaebacteria, and some bacteria, IPP is synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A by the mevalonate pathway. The subsequent isomerization of IPP to DMAPP activates the five-carbon isoprene unit for subsequent prenyl transfer reactions. In Escherichia coli, the isoprene unit is synthesized from pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by the recently discovered nonmevalonate pathway. An open reading frame (ORF696) encoding a putative IPP isomerase was identified in the E. coli chromosome at 65.3 min. ORF696 was cloned into an expression vector; the 20.5 kDa recombinant protein was purified in three steps, and its identity as an IPP isomerase was established biochemically. The gene for IPP isomerase, idi, is not clustered with other known genes for enzymes in the isoprenoid pathway. E. coli FH12 was constructed by disruption of the chromosomal idi gene with the aminoglycoside 3′-phosphotransferase gene and complemented by the wild-type idi gene on plasmid pFMH33 with a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. FH12/pFMH33 was able to grow at the restrictive temperature of 44°C and FH12 lacking the plasmid grew on minimal medium, thereby establishing that idi is a nonessential gene. Although the Vmax of the bacterial protein was 20-fold lower than that of its yeast counterpart, the catalytic efficiencies of the two enzymes were similar through a counterbalance in Kms. The E. coli protein requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. The enzyme contains conserved cysteine and glutamate active-site residues found in other IPP isomerases.
Two, simple, C5 compounds, dimethylally diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate, are the universal precursors of isoprenoids, a large family of natural products involved in numerous important biological processes. Two distinct biosynthetic pathways have evolved to supply these precursors. Humans use the mevalonate route whilst many species of bacteria including important pathogens, plant chloroplasts and apicomplexan parasites exploit the non-mevalonate pathway. The absence from humans, combined with genetic and chemical validation suggests that the non-mevalonate pathway holds the potential to support new drug discovery programmes targeting Gram-negative bacteria and the apicomplexan parasites responsible for causing serious human diseases, and also infections of veterinary importance. The non-mevalonate pathway relies on eight enzyme-catalyzed stages exploiting a range of cofactors and metal ions. A wealth of structural and mechanistic data, mainly derived from studies of bacterial enzymes, now exists for most components of the pathway and these will be described. Particular attention will be paid to how these data inform on the apicomplexan orthologues concentrating on the enzymes from Plasmodium spp.; these cause malaria, one the most important parasitic diseases in the world today.
Antimicrobial drug discovery; isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis; malaria; structure-based inhibitor discovery; toxoplasmosis
Sequence comparisons have implied the presence of genes encoding enzymes of the mevalonate pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis in the gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. In this study we showed through genetic disruption experiments that mvaA, which encodes a putative class II 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, is essential for in vitro growth of S. aureus. Supplementation of media with mevalonate permitted isolation of an auxotrophic mvaA null mutant that was attenuated for virulence in a murine hematogenous pyelonephritis infection model. The mvaA gene was cloned from S. aureus DNA and expressed with an N-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli. The encoded protein was affinity purified to apparent homogeneity and was shown to be a class II HMG-CoA reductase, the first class II eubacterial biosynthetic enzyme isolated. Unlike most other HMG-CoA reductases, the S. aureus enzyme exhibits dual coenzyme specificity for NADP(H) and NAD(H), but NADP(H) was the preferred coenzyme. Kinetic parameters were determined for all substrates for all four catalyzed reactions using either NADP(H) or NAD(H). In all instances optimal activity using NAD(H) occurred at a pH one to two units more acidic than that using NADP(H). pH profiles suggested that His378 and Lys263, the apparent cognates of the active-site histidine and lysine of Pseudomonas mevalonii HMG-CoA reductase, function in catalysis and that the general catalytic mechanism is valid for the S. aureus enzyme. Fluvastatin inhibited competitively with HMG-CoA, with a Ki of 320 μM, over 104 higher than that for a class I HMG-CoA reductase. Bacterial class II HMG-CoA reductases thus are potential targets for antibacterial agents directed against multidrug-resistant gram-positive cocci.
A biosynthetic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (EC 18.104.22.168), the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis, had previously been purified from Streptomyces sp. strain CL190 and its corresponding gene (hmgr) had been cloned (S. Takahashi, T. Kuzuyama, and H. Seto, J. Bacteriol. 181:1256–1263, 1999). Sequence analysis of the flanking regions of the hmgr gene revealed five new open reading frames, orfA to -E, which showed similarity to those encoding eucaryotic and archaebacterial enzymes for the mevalonate pathway. Feeding experiments with [1-13C]acetate demonstrated that Escherichia coli JM109 harboring the hmgr gene and these open reading frames used the mevalonate pathway under induction with isopropyl β-d-thiogalactopyranoside. This transformant could grow in the presence of fosmidomycin, a potent and specific inhibitor of the nonmevalonate pathway, indicating that the mevalonate pathway, intrinsically absent in E. coli, is operating in the E. coli transformant. The hmgr gene and orfABCDE are thus unambiguously shown to be responsible for the mevalonate pathway and to form a gene cluster in the genome of Streptomyces sp. strain CL190.
2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate is the first committed intermediate in the biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Supplementation of the growth medium with 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol has been shown to complement disruptions in the Escherichia coli gene for 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, the enzyme that synthesizes the immediate precursor of 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate. In order to be utilized in isoprenoid biosynthesis, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol must be phosphorylated. We describe the construction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain RMC26, in which the essential gene encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase has been disrupted by insertion of a synthetic mevalonate operon consisting of the yeast ERG8, ERG12, and ERG19 genes, responsible for converting mevalonate to isopentenyl diphosphate under the control of an arabinose-inducible promoter. Random mutagenesis of RMC26 produced defects in the sorbitol phosphotransferase system that prevented the transport of 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol into the cell. RMC26 and mutant strains of RMC26 unable to grow on 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol were incubated in buffer containing mevalonate and deuterium-labeled 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol. Ubiquinone-8 was isolated from these cells and analyzed for deuterium content. Efficient incorporation of deuterium was observed for RMC26. However, there was no evidence of deuterium incorporation into the isoprenoid side chain of ubiquinone Q8 in the RMC26 mutants.
Isoprenoid compounds are ubiquitous in nature, participating in important biological phenomena such as signal transduction, aerobic cellular respiration, photosynthesis, insect communication, and many others. They are derived from the 5-carbon isoprenoid substrates isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In Archaea and Eukarya, these building blocks are synthesized via the mevalonate pathway. However, the genes required to convert mevalonate phosphate (MP) to IPP are missing in several species of Archaea. An enzyme with isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK) activity was recently discovered in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MJ), suggesting a departure from the classical sequence of converting MP to IPP. We have determined the high-resolution crystal structures of isopentenyl phosphate kinases in complex with both substrates and products from Thermoplasma acidophilum (THA), as well as the IPK from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MTH), by means of single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) and molecular replacement. A histidine residue (His50) in THA IPK makes a hydrogen bond with the terminal phosphates of IP and IPP, poising these molecules for phosphoryl transfer through an in-line geometry. Moreover, a lysine residue (Lys14) makes hydrogen bonds with non-bridging oxygen atoms at Pα and Pγ and with the Pβ- Pγ bridging oxygen atom in ATP. These interactions suggest a transition state-stabilizing role for this residue. Lys14 is a part of a newly discovered “lysine triangle” catalytic motif in IPK’s that also includes Lys5 and Lys205. Moreover, His50, Lys5, Lys14, and Lys205 are conserved in all IPK’s and can therefore serve as fingerprints for identifying new homologues.
Ras protein requires an intermediate of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway for posttranslational modification and membrane anchorage. This step is necessary for biological activity. Maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes induced by an oncogenic human Ras protein can be inhibited by lovastatin or compactin, inhibitors of the synthesis of mevalonate, an intermediate of cholesterol biosynthesis. This inhibition can be overcome by mevalonic acid or farnesyl diphosphate, a cholesterol biosynthetic intermediate downstream of mevalonate, but not by squalene, an intermediate after farnesyl pyrophosphate in the pathway. This study supports the idea that in Xenopus oocytes, the Ras protein is modified by a farnesyl moiety or its derivative. Furthermore, an octapeptide with the sequence similar to the C-terminus of the c-H-ras protein inhibits the biological activity of Ras proteins in vivo, suggesting that it competes for the enzyme or enzymes responsible for transferring the isoprenoid moiety (prenylation) in the oocytes. This inhibition of Ras prenylation by the peptide was also observed in vitro, using both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus oocyte extracts. These observations show that Xenopus oocytes provide a convenient in vivo system for studies of inhibitors of the posttranslational modification of the Ras protein, especially for inhibitors such as peptides that do not penetrate cell membranes.
Survival of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae requires a functional mevalonate pathway, which produces isopentenyl diphosphate, the essential building block of isoprenoids. Flux through this pathway appears to be regulated at the mevalonate kinase (MK) step, which is strongly feedback-inhibited by diphosphomevalonate (DPM), the penultimate compound in the pathway. The human mevalonate pathway is not regulated by DPM, making the bacterial pathway an attractive antibiotic target. Since DPM has poor drug characteristics, being highly charged, we propose to use unphosphorylated, cell-permeable prodrugs based on mevalonate that will be phosphorylated in turn by MK and phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK) to generate the active compound in situ. To test the limits of this approach, we synthesized a series of C3-substituted mevalonate analogues to probe the steric and electronic requirements of the MK and PMK active sites. MK and PMK accepted substrates with up to two additional carbons, showing a preference for small substitutents. This result establishes the feasibility of using a prodrug strategy for DPM-based antibiotics in S. pneumoniae and identified several analogues to be tested as inhibitors of MK. Among the substrates accepted by both enzymes were cyclopropyl, vinyl, and ethynyl mevalonate analogues that, when diphosphorylated, might be mechanism-based inactivators of the next enzyme in the pathway, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase.
Isoprenoid pathway; mevalonic acid; phosphomevalonic acid; diphosphomevalonic acid; mevalonate kinase; phosphomevalonate kinase; diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase; prodrug
Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), a common biosynthetic precursor to the labdane diterpene forskolin, has been biosynthesised via a non-mevalonate pathway. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase is an important branch point enzyme in terpenoid biosynthesis. Therefore, GGPP synthase is thought to be a key enzyme in biosynthesis of forskolin. Herein we report the first confirmation of the GGPP synthase gene in Coleus forskohlii Briq.
The open reading frame for full-length GGPP synthase encodes a protein of 359 amino acids, in which 1,077 nucleotides long with calculated molecular mass of 39.3 kDa. Alignments of C. forskohlii GGPP synthase amino acid sequences revealed high homologies with other plant GGPP synthases. Several highly conserved regions, including two aspartate-rich motifs were identified. Transient expression of the N-terminal region of C. forskohlii GGPP synthase-GFP fusion protein in tobacco cells demonstrated subcellular localization in the chloroplast. Carotenoid production was observed in Escherichia coli harboring pACCAR25ΔcrtE from Erwinia uredovora and plasmid carrying C. forskohlii GGPP synthase. These results suggested that cDNA encoded functional GGPP synthase. Furthermore, C. forskohlii GGPP synthase expression was strong in leaves, decreased in stems and very little expression was observed in roots.
This investigation proposed that forskolin was synthesised via a non-mevalonate pathway. GGPP synthase is thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of forskolin, which is primarily synthesised in the leaves and subsequently accumulates in the stems and roots.
Type 2 isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase catalyzes the interconversion between two active units for isoprenoid biosynthesis, i.e., isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, in almost all archaea and in some bacteria, including human pathogens. The enzyme is a good target for discovery of antibiotics because it is essential for the organisms that use only the mevalonate pathway to produce the active isoprene units and because humans possess a nonhomologous isozyme, type 1 isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. However, type 2 enzymes were reportedly inhibited by mechanism-based drugs for the type 1 enzyme due to their surprisingly similar reaction mechanisms. Thus, a different approach is now required to develop new inhibitors specific to the type 2 enzyme. X-ray crystallography and gel filtration chromatography revealed that the enzyme from a thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus shibatae, is in the octameric state at a high concentration. Interestingly, a part of the regions that are involved in the substrate binding in the previously reported tetrameric structures is integral to the formation of the tetramer-tetramer interface in the substrate-free octameric structure. Site-directed mutagenesis at such regions resulted in stabilization of the tetramer. Small-angle X-ray scattering, tryptophan fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering analyses showed that substrate binding causes the dissociation of an octamer into tetramers. This property, i.e., incompatibility between octamer formation and substrate binding, might provide clues to develop new specific inhibitors of the archaeal enzyme.
Engineering biosynthetic pathways in heterologous microbial host organisms offers an elegant approach to pathway elucidation via the incorporation of putative biosynthetic enzymes and characterization of resulting novel metabolites. Our previous work in Escherichia coli demonstrated the feasibility of a facile modular approach to engineering the production of labdane-related diterpene (20 carbon) natural products. However, yield was limited (<0.1 mg/L), presumably due to reliance on endogenous production of the isoprenoid precursors dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. Here, we report incorporation of either a heterologous mevalonate pathway (MEV) or enhancement of the endogenous methyl erythritol phosphate pathway (MEP) with our modular metabolic engineering system. With MEP pathway enhancement, it was found that pyruvate supplementation of rich media and simultaneous overexpression of three genes (idi, dxs, and dxr) resulted in the greatest increase in diterpene yield, indicating distributed metabolic control within this pathway. Incorporation of a heterologous MEV pathway in bioreactor grown cultures resulted in significantly higher yields than MEP pathway enhancement. We have established suitable growth conditions for diterpene production levels ranging from 10 to >100 mg/L of E. coli culture. These amounts are sufficient for nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, enabling characterization of enzymatic products and hence, pathway elucidation. Furthermore, these results represent an up to >1,000-fold improvement in diterpene production from our facile, modular platform, with MEP pathway enhancement offering a cost effective alternative with reasonable yield. Finally, we reiterate here that this modular approach is expandable and should be easily adaptable to the production of any terpenoid natural product.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00253-009-2219-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Terpenoid; Natural products biosynthesis; Metabolic engineering; Isoprenoid
Isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of isopentenyl phosphate to form the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in the archaeal mevalonate pathway. This enzyme is highly homologous to fosfomycin kinase (FomA), an antibiotic resistance enzyme found in a few strains of Streptomyces and Pseudomonas whose mode of action is inactivation by phosphorylation. Superposition of Thermoplasma acidophilum (THA) IPK and FomA structures aligns their respective substrates and catalytic residues, including H50 and K14 in THA IPK, and H58 and K18 in S. wedmorensis FomA. These residues are conserved only in the IPK and FomA members of the phosphate subdivision of the amino acid kinase superfamily. We measured the fosfomycin kinase activity of THA IPK, Km = 15.1 ± 1.0 mM and kcat = (4.0 ± 0.1) × 10−2 s−1, resulting in a catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km = 2.6 M−1s−1, that is five orders of magnitude less than the native reaction. Fosfomycin is a competitive inhibitor of IPK, Ki = 3.6 ± 0.2 mM. Molecular dynamics simulation of the IPK•fosfomycin•MgATP complex identified two binding poses for fosfomycin in the IP binding site, one of which results in a complex analogous to the native IPK•IP•ATP complex that it engages H50 and the lysine triangle formed by K5, K14, and K205. The other binding pose leads to a dead-end complex that engages K204 near the IP binding site to bind fosfomycin. Our findings suggest a mechanism for acquisition of FomA-based antibiotic resistance in fosfomycin producing organisms.
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl–coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is a critical enzyme in the mevalonate pathway that regulates the biosynthesis of cholesterol as well as isoprenoids that mediate the membrane association of certain GTPases. Blockade of this enzyme by atorvastatin (AT) inhibits the destructive proinflammatory T helper cell (Th)1 response during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and may be beneficial in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases. Here we present evidence linking specific isoprenoid intermediates of the mevalonate pathway to signaling pathways that regulate T cell autoimmunity. We demonstrate that the isoprenoid geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate (GGPP) mediates proliferation, whereas both GGPP and its precursor, farnesyl-PP, regulate the Th1 differentiation of myelin-reactive T cells. Depletion of these isoprenoid intermediates in vivo via oral AT administration hindered these T cell responses by decreasing geranylgeranylated RhoA and farnesylated Ras at the plasma membrane. This was associated with reduced extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 phosphorylation and DNA binding of their cotarget c-fos in response to T cell receptor activation. Inhibition of ERK and p38 mimicked the effects of AT and induced a Th2 cytokine shift. Thus, by connecting isoprenoid availability to regulation of Th1/Th2 fate, we have elucidated a mechanism by which AT may suppress Th1-mediated central nervous system autoimmune disease.
The biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) from either the mevalonate (MVA) or the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) pathway provides the key metabolite for primary and secondary isoprenoid biosynthesis. Isoprenoid metabolism plays crucial roles in membrane stability, steroid biosynthesis, vitamin production, protein localization, defense and communication, photoprotection, sugar transport, and glycoprotein biosynthesis. Recently, an alternative branch of the MVA pathway was discovered in the archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii involving a small molecule kinase, isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK). IPK belongs to the amino acid kinase (AAK) superfamily. In vitro, IPK phosphorylates isopentenyl monophosphate (IP) in an ATP and Mg2+-dependent reaction producing IPP. Here, we describe crystal structures of IPK from M. jannaschii refined to nominal resolutions of 2.0−2.8 Å. Notably, an active site histidine residue (His60) forms a hydrogen bond with the terminal phosphate of both substrate and product. This His residue serves as a marker for a subset of the AAK family that catalyzes phosphorylation of phosphate or phosphonate functional groups; the larger family includes carboxyl-directed kinases, which lack this active site residue. Using steady-state kinetic analysis of H60A, H60N, and H60Q mutants, the protonated form of the Nε2 nitrogen of His60 was shown to be essential for catalysis, most likely through hydrogen bond stabilization of the transition state accompanying transphosphorylation. Moreover, the structures served as the starting point for the engineering of IPK mutants capable of the chemoenzymatic synthesis of longer chain isoprenoid diphosphates from monophosphate precursors.
Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes the ATP-dependent decarboxylation of diphosphomevalonate (DPM) to produce isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), the molecular “building block” for more than 25,000 distinct isoprenoids, including cholesterol, steroid hormones and terpenoids. Here, we present the first backbone assignment of Streptococcus pneumoniae MDD in the unliganded state and in a ternary complex with DPM and AMPPCP—a nucleotide analogue unable to transfer the γ-phosphoryl group. The secondary chemical shifts for the unliganded form are in good agreement with the crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes (~70% sequence identity). The addition of substrate and nucleotide to the enzyme results in chemical shift changes of cross peaks that correspond to residues in the binding pocket.
Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD); NMR resonance assignments