To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who were dissatisfied with previous tolterodine treatment.
This was a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose study of adults with OAB (≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 3 urgency episodes per 24 h) who had been treated with tolterodine (immediate- or extended-release) for OAB within 2 years of screening and reported dissatisfaction with tolterodine treatment. Subjects received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks; thereafter, daily dosage was maintained at 4 mg or increased to 8 mg based on the subject’s and physician’s subjective assessment of efficacy and tolerability. Subjects completed 5-day diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline and week 12 and rated treatment satisfaction at week 12 using the Treatment Satisfaction Question (TSQ). Safety and tolerability were assessed.
Among 516 subjects treated, approximately 50% opted for dose escalation to 8 mg at week 4. Significant improvements from baseline to week 12 were observed in micturitions, urgency urinary incontinence episodes, micturition-related urgency episodes and severe micturition-related urgency episodes per 24 h (all p< 0.0001). Approximately 80% of subjects who responded to the TSQ at week 12 reported satisfaction with treatment; 38% reported being very satisfied. Using the PPBC, 83% of subjects reported improvement at week 12 with 59% reporting improvement ≥ 2 points. Significant improvements from baseline (p< 0.0001) exceeding the minimally important difference (10 points) were observed in OAB-q Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) scales and all four HRQL domains. Dry mouth (23%) and constipation (5%) were the most common adverse events; no safety issues were identified.
Flexible-dose fesoterodine significantly improved OAB symptoms, HRQL, and rates of treatment satisfaction and was well tolerated in subjects with OAB who were dissatisfied with prior tolterodine therapy.
To assess fesoterodine 8 mg efficacy over time and vs. placebo in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who responded suboptimally to tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg.
In a 12-week, double-blind trial, subjects with self-reported OAB symptoms for ≥ 6 months, mean of ≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 2 to < 15 urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes/24 h, and suboptimal response to tolterodine ER 4 mg (defined as ≤ 50% reduction in UUI episodes during 2-week run-in) were randomised to fesoterodine (4 mg for 1 week, 8 mg for 11 weeks) or placebo once daily. Change from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes (primary end-point) was analysed in step-wise fashion: first, baseline vs. week 12 for fesoterodine; if significant, then change from baseline to week 12 for fesoterodine vs. placebo.
By week 12, subjects receiving fesoterodine 8 mg had significantly greater improvement from baseline vs. placebo in UUI episodes, urgency episodes and scores on the Patient Perception of Bladder Control, Urgency Perception Scale and OAB Questionnaire Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life scales and domains (all p < 0.05). 50% and 70% UUI responder rates were also significantly higher with fesoterodine 8 mg vs. placebo at week 12 (p < 0.05). Dry mouth (placebo, 4%, 12/301; fesoterodine, 16.6%, 51/308) and constipation (placebo, 1.3%, 4/301; fesoterodine, 3.9%, 12/308) were the most frequent adverse events.
Subjects who responded suboptimally to tolterodine ER 4 mg showed significant improvements in UUI and other OAB symptoms and patient-reported outcomes, with good tolerability, during treatment with fesoterodine 8 mg vs. placebo.
Introduction and objective:
Patient perception of overactive bladder (OAB) treatment outcomes can be a useful indicator of benefit and may help drive persistence on treatment, which is known to be poor in OAB. It remains unclear whether OAB patients dissatisfied with one antimuscarinic can achieve satisfaction with another and supporting data are limited. This study investigated patient-reported outcomes and clinical parameters during darifenacin treatment in OAB patients who expressed dissatisfaction with prior extended-release (ER) oxybutynin or tolterodine therapy (administered for ≥ 1 week within the past year).
This open-label study was conducted in darifenacin-naïve OAB patients. Patients received 7.5 mg darifenacin once daily with the possibility of up-titrating to 15 mg after 2 weeks, for up to 12 weeks. Efficacy parameters included the Patient’s Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), patient satisfaction with treatment, micturition frequency and number of urgency and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded.
In total, 497 patients were treated (84.1% women). Darifenacin treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements in PPBC scores, micturition frequency, urgency and UUI episodes from baseline at 12 weeks. The improvements were similar for patients previously treated with oxybutynin ER or tolterodine ER. More than 85% of patients expressed satisfaction with darifenacin. As noted in other studies, the most common AEs were dry mouth and constipation, but these infrequently resulted in treatment discontinuation, which was low overall.
In this study, PPBC score and OAB symptoms were significantly improved, and satisfaction was high during treatment with darifenacin (7.5/15 mg) in patients who were dissatisfied with the previous antimuscarinic treatment.
Overactive bladder (OAB)/ storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have a high prevalence affecting up to 90% of men over 80 years. The role of sufficient therapies appears crucial. In the present review, we analyzed the mechanism of action of tolterodine extended-release (ER) with the aim to clarify its efficacy and safety profile, as compared to other active treatments of OAB/storage LUTS.
A wide Medline search was performed including the combination of following words: “LUTS”, “BPH”, “OAB”, “antimuscarinic”, “tolterodine”, “tolterodine ER”. IPSS, IPSS storage sub-score and IPSS QoL (International Prostate Symptom Score) were the validated efficacy outcomes. In addition, the numbers of urgency episodes/24 h, urgency incontinence episodes/24 h, incontinence episodes/24 h and pad use were considered. We also evaluated the most common adverse events (AEs) reported for tolterodine ER.
Of 128 retrieved articles, 109 were excluded. The efficacy and tolerability of tolterodine ER Vs. tolterodine IR have been evaluated in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled study in 1529 patients with OAB. A 71% mean reduction in urgency incontinence episodes was found in the tolterodine ER group compared to a 60% reduction in the tolterodine IR (p < 0.05). Few studies evaluated the clinical efficacy of α-blocker/tolterodine combination therapy. In patients with large prostates (prostate volume >29 cc) only the combination therapy significantly reduced 24-h voiding frequency (2.8 vs. 1.7 with tamsulosin, 1.4 with tolterodine, or 1.6 with placebo). A recent meta-analysis evaluating tolterodine in comparison with other antimuscarinic drugs demonstrated that tolterodine ER was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing micturition/24 h, urinary leakage episodes/24 h, urgency episodes/24 h, and urgency incontinence episodes/24 h. With regard to adverse events, tolterodine ER was associated with a good adverse event profile resulting in the third most favorable antimuscarinic. Antimuscarinic drugs are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for OAB / storage LUTS; several studies have demonstrated that tolterodine ER is an effective and well tolerated formulation of this class of treatment.
Tolterodine ER resulted effective in reducing frequency urgency and nocturia and urinary leakage in male patients with OAB/storage LUTS. Dry mouth and constipation are the most frequently reported adverse events.
Lower urinary tract symptoms; Overactive bladder; Storage LUTS; Tolterodine; Urge incontinence; Frequency; Nocturia
To explore whether instruction in fluid management resulted in changes in fluid intake and incontinence over a 10-week study period in women with urinary urge incontinence (UUI), as fluid management might be critical strategy in treating this condition.
Patients and Methods
In the Behavior Enhances Drug Reduction of Incontinence trial, women with predominant UUI were randomized to daily treatment with tolterodine or tolterodine combined with behavioral therapies among which were individualized instructions on fluid management. Patients in both groups received general fluid management instructions, while in the drug + behavior arm, those with excessive urine output (>2100ml/day) had additional individualized instruction during each of 4 study visits to learn behavioral strategies. Variables measured at baseline and at 10 weeks were: type of incontinence using the Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging questionnaire, severity of incontinence by number of incontinence episodes based on a 7 day-diary, number of voids per 24h (F24), urgency rating, 24h fluid intake (I24) and 24 hr volume voided (V24), volume average (Vavg), pad use, bothersomeness of UUI (Urogential Distress Inventory and Overactive Bladder questionnaire), and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7, Short Form-12).
Leak episodes per 24 hours, V24, I24 and average urgency ratings all significantly decreased from baseline to 10 weeks (p < 0.001 for each). Vavg increased (p < 0.001), as did voids/L intake (p = 0.01). None of the changes in diary variable outcomes differed by treatment group after accounting for these changes between baseline and 10 weeks. In a multivariable model, treatment group was not associated with change in V24 from baseline to 10 weeks (p=0.81), but the difference in the number of accidents/diary day, F24, I24 and average voids/day each were positively related with the change in V24 (p<0.001 for each). Patients had a response to fluid management instructions: the decrease in the percentage of women with a V24 >2100 ml between baseline and follow-up was statistically significant (p= 0.01 McNemar’s test).
General fluid instructions can contribute to the reduction in UUI symptoms for women taking anticholinergic medications, but additional individualized instructions along with other behavioral therapies did little to further improve the outcome.
Overactive bladder; fluid management; women; urge; incontinence
To investigate the tolerability of tolterodine extended release (ER) in older subjects with overactive bladder (OAB).
This was a retrospective analysis of pooled data from five large, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Subjects with OAB symptoms, including urinary frequency and urgency (and nocturia in two studies) with or without urgency urinary incontinence, received qd treatment with tolterodine ER (4 mg) or placebo for 8–12 weeks. Data were stratified post hoc by age group: < 65 (n = 2531), 65–74 (n = 1059) and ≥ 75 years (n = 573). Tolerability was assessed by evaluating the occurrence of adverse events (AEs). AE occurrences from each study were mapped to the MedDRA coding dictionary of preferred terms.
Discontinuation rates were slightly higher among subjects ≥ 75 years of age vs. those < 65 years of age; however, this was observed in subjects treated with placebo as well as tolterodine ER. Overall, there were no significant differences in the occurrence of dry mouth, headache, constipation, nausea, urinary tract infection, blurred vision, dry eye, dizziness and micturition disorder in older (65–74 or ≥ 75 years) vs. younger (< 65 years) subjects treated with tolterodine ER relative to placebo (treatment × age; all p > 0.1). Dry mouth was the only AE consistently associated with tolterodine ER treatment (< 65 years, 17%; 65–74 years, 16%; ≥ 75 years, 15%). The occurrence of all other AEs was ≤ 5% in most age and treatment cohorts. Most AEs were mild or moderate in all age and treatment cohorts.
The nature and frequency of AEs associated with tolterodine ER treatment were similar across age groups in subjects with OAB, suggesting that tolterodine ER was not associated with an increased risk of AEs in older vs. younger subjects and, thus, is a suitable first-line pharmacotherapy treatment for OAB in this population.
Overactive bladder (OAB) is common in men and may exist concomitantly with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and obstruction. We present a subanalysis of results from men with OAB in a 6-month, open-label study of treatment with the oxybutynin transdermal system (OXY-TDS). Broad entry criteria were incorporated to yield a clinically representative population.
All participants received OXY-TDS 3.9 mg/day. Effectiveness was assessed by changes in scores on validated questionnaires, which included the single-item Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II).
The proportion of men (n = 369; mean age = 69.6 years) who reported that their bladder condition caused moderate, severe or many severe problems (PPBC ≥ 4) improved from 77.3% at baseline to 38.1–53.6% in subsequent months. Mean KHQ scores decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.0196) from baseline to study end in eight of 10 domains, indicating improved health-related quality of life. The proportion of men with BDI-II score > 12 (associated with a diagnosis of depression) decreased from 23.9% to 17.9% (p = 0.0055). Men with a history of ‘prostate problems’ or use of ‘BPH medication’ (32.2%) had KHQ domain changes that were similar (p ≥ 0.1016) to those of other men. Most men (76.2%) reported no treatment-related adverse events; two men (0.5%) experienced symptoms of mild urinary retention, but neither required catheterisation.
Oxybutynin transdermal system treatment of men with OAB was effective and well tolerated, regardless of history of prostate condition.
What's knownCombined treatment of men with and without BPH is an evolving paradigm.What's newThis article contributes significant safety data, from the largest study to date, in a community use situation, where anticholinergics are commonly used.The study provides significant quality of life benefit data in a large population.The community usage design did not employ inclusion or exclusion criteria that would restrict the primary care physician from administrating the medication in a ‘real life’ setting.
To understand how improvements in the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) seen with the β3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron 50 mg, correlate with patient experience as measured by validated and standard patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and to identify whether there is overall directional consistency in the responsiveness of PROs to treatment effect.
In a post hoc analysis of pooled data from three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week Phase III trials of mirabegron 50 mg once daily, responder rates for incontinence frequency (≥50 % reduction in incontinence episodes/24 h from baseline to final visit), micturition frequency (≤8 micturitions/24 h at final visit), and PROs [minimally important differences in patient perception of bladder condition (PPBC) and subsets of the overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) measuring total health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and symptom bother] were evaluated individually and in combination.
Mirabegron 50 mg demonstrated greater improvement from baseline to final visit than placebo for each of the responder analyses, whether for individual objective and subjective outcomes or combinations thereof. These improvements versus placebo were statistically significant for all double and triple responder analyses and for all single responder analyses except PPBC. PRO measurements showed directional consistency and significant correlations, and there were also significant correlations between objective and subjective measures of efficacy.
The improvements in objective measures seen with mirabegron 50 mg translate into a meaningful clinical benefit as evident by the directional consistency seen in HRQoL measures of benefit.
Mirabegron; Overactive bladder; Patient-reported outcomes; Quality of life; Correlation
We assessed the efficacy and safety of solifenacin compared with tolterodine for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in Korean patients.
Materials and methods:
The study was randomised, double-blind, tolterodine-controlled trial in Korea. Patients had average frequency of ≥ 8 voids per 24 h and episodes of urgency or urgency incontinence ≥ 3 during 3-day voiding diary period. Patients were randomised to 12-week double-blind treatment with either tolterodine immediate release (IR) 2 mg twice daily (TOL4) or solifenacin 5 mg (SOL5) or 10 mg (SOL10) once daily. The outcome measure was mean change in daily micturition frequency, volume, daily frequency of urgency incontinence, urgency and nocturia from baseline to week 12. Quality of life was assessed using the King’s Health Questionnaire.
A total of 357 were randomised and 329 were evaluated for efficacy. All voiding parameters recorded in micturition diary improved after treatment in all three groups. Mean changes in volume voided were 19.30 ml (26.69%) in TOL4, 30.37 ml (25.89%) in SOL5 and 37.12 ml (33.36%) in SOL10 group (p = 0.03). Speed of onset of SOL10 efficacy on urgency incontinence was faster than that of SOL5 and TOL4. Quality of life improved in all three groups. Dry mouth was the most common adverse event; its incidence was the lowest in SOL5 group (7.63%, compared with 19.49% and 18.64% in SOL10 and TOL4 groups respectively).
Solifenacin succinate 5 and 10 mg once daily improve OAB symptoms with acceptable tolerability levels compared with tolterodine IR 4 mg. Solifenacin 5 mg is a recommended starting dose in Korean patients with OAB.
This study assessed the benefit of adding behavioural modification to darifenacin treatment for overactive bladder (OAB).
Materials and methods
The ABLE trial was a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre study of 12 weeks of darifenacin treatment [with voluntary up-titration from 7.5 mg once daily (qd) to 15 mg qd at week 2] alone or in combination with a Behavioural Modification Programme (BMP) for men and women with dry or wet OAB. Efficacy was assessed as the change in the number (per day) of micturitions (primary variable), urge urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes, urgency episodes, pads used and nocturnal voids. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also evaluated. Tolerability and safety assessments included adverse events and the number of discontinuations.
Of 592 patients screened, 395 were randomised, 190 to darifenacin alone and 205 to darifenacin + BMP. At baseline, the majority of subjects were dry (mean 2.8 and three UUI episodes per day in the darifenacin and darifenacin + BMP groups respectively). At study end, darifenacin alone and darifenacin + BMP both produced significant reductions from baseline in median numbers of micturitions, UUI episodes, urgency episodes and nocturnal voids (all p < 0.05), but not in the number of pads used. HRQoL also improved. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in efficacy or HRQoL variables.
Darifenacin treatment provides a degree of normalisation of micturition variables and improvement in HRQoL that cannot be further enhanced by behavioural therapy of the type used in this study. Whether behavioural modification would add benefit over darifenacin treatment in patients with more pronounced incontinence problems remains to be determined.
We evaluate the efficacy and safety of solifenacin to treat incontinence in children with non-neurogenic (DO) or neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) refractory to oxybutinin or tolterodine.
We updated and extended our previously published non-randomized uncontrolled study on open-label use of adjusted-dose regimens of solifenacin (1.25–10 mg) in children with refractory incontinence. The follow-up included voiding diaries, post-void residuals, urine cultures, ultrasounds and urodynamic studies. Clinical data were updated as of September 2012. Subjective improvement was assessed with the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) scale. The primary end point was efficacy toward continence and secondary end points were tolerability and safety.
Overall, 244 patients (112 girls, 132 boys) were enrolled; 53 with NDO and 191 with DO. Minimal follow-up was 5 months, the mean duration of treatment was 21.0 months and the mean age at initiation was 9.2 years. Urodynamic capacity improved from 145 ± 76 mL to 339 ± 152 mL and the amplitude of uninhibited contractions decreased from 66 ± 26 to 20 ± 20 cmH2O (p < 0.0001). The overall success rate is 91%, and more specifically 94% for non-neurogenic and 79% for neurogenic, which is significantly different (p = 0.013). Twenty-three patients discontinued treatment for unsatisfactory clinical response or bothersome side effects. No side effects were reported by 175 patients, mild by 46, moderate by 9, and 14 withdrew due to their side effects. Ten patients developed post-void residuals of ≥20 mL.
Although higher in the non-neurogenic group, high subjective and objective success rates were maintained over a longer follow-up with an adjusted-dose regimen of solifenacin to treat pediatric NDO or DO refractory to oxybutynin or tolterodine. Moreover, we found acceptable tolerability and safety profiles.
To evaluate the incidence of genitourinary mycoplasmas and the efficacy of antibiotics in women with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms.
Materials and Methods
Women with OAB symptoms (micturition ≥8/24 hours and urgency ≥1/24 hours) for ≥3 months were screened for Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis), Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). Specimens from urethral and cervical vaginal swabs were examined for M. hominis and U. urealyticum by using the Mycoplasma IST2 kit and for C. trachomatis by using PCR. Women with positive results were treated with a 1 g dose of azithromycin. Persistent infection was treated with doxycycline. Changes in a 3-day bladder diary, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) were evaluated 4 weeks after negative conversion. Patient satisfaction was assessed.
Of 84 women screened, 42.8% were positive (U. urealyticum, 40.5%; M. hominis, 7.1%; C. trachomatis, 3.6%; two organisms, 8.3%). After treatment, 82.7% obtained negative conversion, and their median number of micturition episodes decreased from 10.6/24 hours to 8.1/24 hours (p=0.002). PPBC and domain scores of the ICIQ-FLUTS (filling and quality of life) significantly improved. About 87.5% women with negative conversion were satisfied with the treatment.
Considering diagnostic tests and treatment for genitourinary mycoplasmas might be beneficial before invasive workup or treatment in women with OAB symptoms.
Chlamydia trachomatis; Mycoplasma hominis; Overactive urinary bladder; Ureaplasma urealyticum
Treatment options for overactive bladder (OAB) with urinary urge incontinence (UUI) refractory to oral antimuscarinics include: botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA), sacral neuromodulation (SNM), and augmentation cystoplasty (AC). A standard treatment success metric that can be used in both clinical and economic evaluations of the above interventions has not emerged. Our objective was to conduct a literature review and synthesis of published measures of treatment success for OAB with UUI interventions and to identify a treatment success outcome.
We performed a literature review of primary studies that used a definition of treatment success in the OAB with UUI population receiving BoNTA, SNM, or AC. The recommended success outcome was compared to generic and disease-specific health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) measures using data from a BoNTA treatment study of neurogenic incontinent patients.
Across all interventions, success outcomes included: complete continence (n = 23, 44%), ≥ 50% improvement in incontinence episodes (n = 16, 31%), and subjective improvement (n = 13, 25%). We recommend the OAB with UUI treatment success outcome of ≥ 50% improvement in incontinence episodes from baseline. Using data from a neurogenic BoNTA treatment study, the average change in the Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire was 8.8 (95% CI: -4.7, 22.3) higher for those that succeeded (N = 25) versus those that failed (N = 26). The average change in the SF-6D preference score was 0.07 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.12) higher for those that succeeded versus those that failed.
A treatment success definition that encompasses the many components of underlying OAB with UUI symptoms is currently not practical as a consequence of difficulties in measuring urgency. The treatment success outcome of ≥ 50% improvement in incontinence episodes was associated with a clinically meaningful improvement in disease-specific HRQoL for those with neurogenic OAB with UUI. The recommended success definition is less restrictive than a measure such as complete continence but includes patients who are satisfied with treatment and experience meaningful improvement in symptoms. A standardized measure of treatment success will be useful in clinical and health economic applications.
To examine pooled efficacy data from three, large phase III studies comparing mirabegron (50 and 100 mg) with placebo, and pooled safety data including additional mirabegron 25 mg and tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg results.
This prespecified pooled analysis of three randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week studies, evaluated efficacy and safety of once-daily mirabegron 25 mg (safety analysis), 50 or 100 mg (efficacy and safety analyses) and tolterodine ER 4 mg (safety analysis) for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Co-primary efficacy measures were change from baseline to Final Visit in the mean number of incontinence episodes/24 h and mean number of micturitions/24 h. Key secondary efficacy end-points included mean number of urgency episodes/24 h and mean volume voided/micturitions, while other end-points included patient-reported outcomes according to the Treatment Satisfaction-Visual Analogue Scale (TS-VAS) and responder analyses [dry rate (posttreatment), ≥ 50% reduction in incontinence episodes/24 h, ≤ 8 micturitions/24 h (post hoc analysis)]. The safety analysis included adverse event (AE) reporting, laboratory assessments, ECG, postvoid residual volume and vital signs (blood pressure, pulse rate).
Mirabegron (50 and 100 mg once daily) demonstrated statistically significant improvements compared with placebo for the co-primary end-points, key secondary efficacy variables, TS-VAS and responder analyses (all comparisons p < 0.05). Mirabegron is well tolerated and demonstrates a good safety profile. The most common AEs (≥ 3%) included hypertension, nasopharyngitis and urinary tract infection (UTI); the incidence of hypertensive events and UTIs decreased with increasing dose. For mirabegron, the incidence of the bothersome antimuscarinic AE, dry mouth, was at placebo level and of a lesser magnitude than tolterodine.
The efficacy and safety of mirabegron are demonstrated in this large pooled clinical trial dataset in patients with OAB.
We compared the effects of bladder training and/or tolterodine as first line treatment in female patients with overactive bladder (OAB). One hundred and thirty-nine female patients with OAB were randomized to treatment with bladder training (BT), tolterodine (To, 2 mg twice daily) or both (Co) for 12 weeks. Treatment efficacy was measured by micturition diary, urgency scores and patients' subjective assessment of their bladder condition. Mean frequency and nocturia significantly decreased in all treatment groups, declining 25.9% and 56.1%, respectively, in the BT group; 30.2% and 65.4%, respectively, in the To group; and 33.5% and 66.3%, respectively in the Co group (p<0.05 for each). The decrease in frequency was significantly greater in the Co group than in the BT group (p<0.05). Mean urgency score decreased by 44.8%, 62.2% and 60.2% in the BT, To, and Co groups, respectively, and the improvement was significantly greater in the To and Co groups than in the BT group (p<0.05 for each). Although BT, To and their combination were all effective in controlling OAB symptoms, combination therapy was more effective than either method alone. Tolterodine alone may be instituted as a first-line therapy, but may be more effective when combined with bladder training.
Urinary Incontinence; Overactive Bladder; Bladder Training; tolterodine
Fesoterodine, a new once daily antimuscarinic, has proven to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). To date, no analysis has evaluated the economic costs and benefits associated with fesoterodine, compared to antimuscarinics in Spain. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the economic value of OAB treatment with fesoterodine relative to extended release tolterodine and solifenacin, from the societal perspective.
The economic model was based on data from two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, and multicenter trials comparing fesoterodine and tolterodine extended released (ER). Treatment response rates for solifenacin were extracted from the published literature. Discontinuation and efficacy were based on the results of a 12-week multinational randomized clinical trial extrapolated to 52 weeks. Changes in health related quality of life were assessed with the King's Health Questionnaire, which was transformed into preference-based utility values. Medical costs included (expressed in € 2010) were antimuscarinics, physician visits, laboratory tests, incontinence pads and the costs of OAB-related comorbidities, fractures, skin infections, urinary tract infections, depression, and nursing home admissions associated with incontinence. Time lost from work was also considered. Univariate sensitivity analyses were also performed.
At week 12, continents accounted for 50.6%, 40.6% and 47.2% of patients in the fesoterodine, tolterodine, and solifenacin groups, respectively. By week 52, the projected proportions of patients remaining on therapy were 33.1%, 26.5% and 30.8%, respectively. The projected quality- adjusted life years (QALY) gain (compared to baseline) over the 52-week simulation period were 0.01014, 0.00846 and 0.00957, respectively. The overall treatment cost was estimated at €1,937, €2,089 and €1,960 for fesoterodine, tolterodine and solifenacin, respectively. Therefore, treatment with fesoterodine resulted in similar overall costs and greater QALY gain than treatment with either tolterodine or solifenacin. Sensitivity analysis showed that these results were robust to all changes performed.
The results of this economic analysis suggest that fesoterodine is a cost-effective alternative to tolterodine and solifenacin for the treatment of patients with OAB in Spain. Fesoterodine provides additional health benefits while maintain a similar level of costs being a cost-effective treatment strategy from a societal perspective.
To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of Oxybutinin in comparison to tolterodine in treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) with detrussor overactivity (DOA) in Iranian women.
Materials and methods
One hundred Iranian old women with clinical symptoms of OAB who show IDO in the filling cystometry participated in this randomized double-blinded parallel-group by using two kinds of the drugs for 4- week course (2 mg tolterodine twice-daily, or oxybutinin 5 mg, three times a day) in alike packages. We collected data from 3-day FVC before and after the treatment course. The effectiveness of each drug was studied using the paired t-test and improvement after treatment between two groups was compared by independent T-test.
Positive changes in urinary urgency, Frequency and Urge incontinence after treatment in both groups were seen but mean improvements in the all were larger in the patients who treated by oxybutinin especially in terms of urgency and Urge incontinence. Dry mouth was the most common side-effect in two groups. Unlike other studies it was higher in the tolterodine group but the difference was not significant.
Four week treatment with oxybutinin was better than tolterodine in improving urgency and urge incontinence but there were not statistically significance between them.
Over Active Bladder; Oxybutynin; Tolterodine; Frequency Volume Chart; Urodynamic Study
In this study, we optimize pharmacotherapy in children who failed anticholinergic monotherapy by simultaneous administration of 2 anticholinergics (oxybutynin and/or tolterodine and/or solifenacin).
This report is an update of our previously published study on double anticholinergic regimen in children with refractory incontinence due to neurogenic (NDO) and non-neurogenic (DO) detrusor overactivity. Patients with an insufficient response (clinically/urodynamically) to an optimized dose of a single anticholinergic (oxybutynin or tolterodine) received a second anticholinergic (tolterodine or solifenacin), in addition to the pre-existing medication. The primary end-point was efficacy (continence) and the secondary end-points were tolerability and safety. The Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) scale was used to rate subjective improvement of patients.
In total, 56 patients with DO (n = 31) or NDO (n = 25) were enrolled at a mean age of 11.4 ± 3.5 years and were followed for a minimum of 3 months. The duration of double treatment was 36 ± 23 months. Our results found that 23 patients became dry, 18 improved significantly and 15 improved moderately. Urodynamic capacity improved from 158 ± 87 mL to 359 ± 148 mL and maximal pressure of contractions decreased from 76 ± 24 to 22 ± 22 cmH2O (p < 0.0001). The overall success rate was 82%, since 10 patients discontinued treatment for unsatisfactory clinical response or bothersome side effects. No side effects were reported by 28 patients, mild side effects by 20, moderate side effects by 8; 2 patients withdrew from the study due to their side effects. Of the 35 patients who voided spontaneously, 8 developed post-void residuals (>20%).
With a larger cohort and prospective follow-up, we reiterated that double anticholinergic regimen in children with DO or NDO refractory to anticholinergic monotherapy is a feasible and efficient approach.
To investigate whether combination treatment using an α-blocker and 2 mg of tolterodine could improve the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) as much as α-blocker and 4 mg of tolterodine without voiding difficulties in real life practice.
We restrospectively recruited patients who were treated at four urology clinics between January 2006 and May 2008. A total of 1,094 men with lower urinary tract symptoms/overactive bladder (LUTS/OAB) were assigned to one of three groups: an α-blocker only group (group I, n=152), an α-blocker plus tolterodine 2 mg group (group II, n=520), and an α-blocker plus tolterodine 4 mg group (group III, n=574). Eligible patients were 50 years or older men who had a total IPSS of 8 or higher and a IPSS storage subscore of 5 or higher and were followed up for 12 weeks.
The total IPSS score and quality of life scores were significantly improved at week 12 in groups II and III. The incidence of acute urinary retention was similar between both combination treatment groups, but the incidence of voiding difficulty was much lower in group II (2.1%) than group III (10.8%) tolterodine.
Our results suggest that treatment of LUTS/OAB patients with an α-blocker plus tolterodine 2 mg is as effective as α-blocker plus tolterodine 4 mg, and the incidence of voiding difficulty was in the low-dose anticholinergic is lower. These results indicate that dose strength should be decided on a case-by-case basis to balance the efficacy and safety.
Lower urinary tract symptoms; Adrenergic alpha-antagonist; Overactive urinary bladder; Cholinergic antagonists
Muscarinic receptors have long been the target receptors for treatment of patients with overactive bladder (OAB). These patients experience symptoms of urgency, urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urge incontinence (the involuntary leakage of urine associated with urge). Fesoterodine, a pro-drug, structurally and functionally related to tolterodine, is the newest agent developed for the treatment of OAB. Fesoterodine is broken down to the active metabolite, 5-hydroxy-methyl-tolterodine (5-HMT) by non-specific esterases. This metabolism results in the complete breakdown of the parent compound and is responsible for dose related improvements in clinical efficacy and health related quality of life. Like other antimuscarinic agents including tolterodine, fesoterodine is associated with improvements in clinical variables related both to bladder filling (decreasing micturition frequency and increasing mean voided volume) and urgency (urgency and urge incontinence episodes). Improvements in health related quality of life following treatment with fesoterodine is indicated by improvements in 7 of the 9 variables measured by the King’s Health Questionnaire. Also like other antimuscarinic agents, fesoterodine use is associated with adverse events including dry mouth. However the incidence of dry mouth is reduced with fesoterodine, compared to oxybutynin, due to the improved bladder selectivity of 5-HMT.
fesoterodine; 5-hydroxymethy1-tolterodine; muscarinic; overactive bladder; urgency; incontinence
Introduction and hypothesis
The Actionable Bladder Symptom Screening Tool (ABSST) was initially developed to identify patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who could benefit from lower urinary tract assessment and treatment. Assessment of the measurement properties of the ABSST, including its ability to identify patients experiencing bladder symptoms related to overactive bladder (OAB), was undertaken in a general female population.
One hundred women completed the ABSST, OAB Questionnaire Short Form (OAB-q SF), and a patient global impression of severity (PGI-S) scale. Half of the sample had urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), while the other half did not. Descriptive statistics, reliability, and validity were examined, as was sensitivity and specificity of the previous cut-off score established in MS.
Fifty-three women with UUI/OAB and 47 controls took part (71.0 % Caucasian). Patients with UUI/OAB were older (54.6 vs 40.4 years), had a higher body mass index (31.1 vs 26.4 kg/m2), and more comorbid conditions. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability of ABSST was 0.90. High correlations with OAB-q SF Symptom Bother and Health Related Quality of Life (r = 0.83 and −0.81 respectively) supported concurrent validity. Using the PGI-S severity scores as a reference, the ABSST was able to distinguish patients with differing severity levels (known-group validity). Physician assessment of the need for further evaluation/treatment showed sensitivity (79 %) and specificity (98 %), supporting a cut-off score of ≥3.
The previous MS ABSST scoring algorithm was validated in a non-neurogenic female population. ABSST is a reliable, valid, and sensitive tool for screening women with UUI/OAB.
Overactive bladder; Reliability; Sensitivity; Specificity; Urgency urinary incontinence; Validity
Antimuscarinic agents are currently the predominant treatment option for the clinical management of the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). However, low rates of persistence with these agents highlight the need for novel, effective and better-tolerated oral pharmacological agents. Mirabegron is a β3-adrenoceptor agonist developed for the treatment of OAB, with a mechanism of action distinct from that of antimuscarinics. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled Phase 3 trial conducted in Europe and Australia (NCT00689104), mirabegron 50 mg and 100 mg resulted in statistically significant reductions from baseline to final visit, compared with placebo, in the co-primary end points – mean number of incontinence episodes/24 h and mean number of micturitions/24 h. We conducted a post hoc, subgroup analysis of this study in order to evaluate the efficacy of mirabegron in treatment-naïve patients and patients who had discontinued prior antimuscarinic therapy because of insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability.
Patients were randomized to placebo, mirabegron 50 or 100 mg, or tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg orally, once-daily, for 12 weeks. For the post hoc analysis, the primary patient population was divided into the following subgroups: (1) patients who had not received any prior antimuscarinic OAB medication (treatment-naïve) and (2) patients who had received prior antimuscarinic OAB medication. The latter subgroup was further subdivided into patients who discontinued due to: (3) insufficient efficacy or (4) poor tolerability. Analysis of the co-primary efficacy endpoints by subgroup was performed using analysis of covariance with treatment group, subgroup, sex, geographical region, and subgroup-by-treatment interaction as fixed factors; and baseline value as a covariate.
Mirabegron, 50 mg and 100 mg once-daily, demonstrated similar improvements in the frequency of incontinence episodes and micturitions in OAB patients who were antimuscarinic-naïve and who had discontinued prior antimuscarinic therapy. While mirabegron demonstrated improvements in incontinence and micturition frequency in patients who had discontinued prior antimuscarinic therapy due to insufficient efficacy, the response to tolterodine was similar to that of placebo.
In this post hoc subgroup analysis, mirabegron provided treatment benefits in OAB patients who were antimuscarinic treatment-naïve and in patients who had received prior antimuscarinic treatment.
β3-adrenoceptor agonist; Mirabegron; OAB; Overactive bladder; Post hoc analysis
To evaluate the effects of tolterodine and oxybutynin on visual accommodation, pupillary diameter, intraocular pressure and tear secretion in women with overactive bladder.
One hundred and four eyes from 52 consecutive female patients (age range: 22–60 years) with a urodynamic diagnosis of overactive bladder were prospectively investigated. Patients with a history of ocular disease or surgery were excluded. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Group I received 2 mg tolterodine bid and Group II received 5 mg oxybutynin tid. All patients were evaluated at baseline (day 0) and after 1 month of treatment (day 28) by an ophthalmologist who was blinded to the medication. At each time point, a complete ophthalmic examination was performed and accommodation amplitude (AA), and pupillary diameter (PD) in dim and bright light were recorded. As well, tear secretion was assessed based on tear film break-up time and Schirmer I-test results. Statistical comparisons were made using the chi-square test, Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test, as appropriate.
Twenty-eight patients (56 eyes) received tolterodine and 24 patients (48 eyes) received oxybutynin. The mean ages of the two groups were similar (P = 0.523). After 4 weeks of treatment, AA was significantly lower in the oxybutynin treated group (P = 0.003, 95% CI 0.15, 0.62) whereas there was no significant change in AA in the tolterodine treated group (P = 0.155, 95% CI −0.042, 0.86). At day 28, PD in dim light was significantly larger in the tolterodine treated group (P = 0.031, 95% CI −0.82, −0.06), whereas no significant change in PD in dim light was noted in the oxybutynin treated group (P = 0.330, 95% CI −0.38, 0.18)). Neither group showed a significant change in PD in bright light values on day 28 (P > 0.05 for both). In each group, the differences from day 0 to day 28 for intraocular pressure, and Schirmer-I results were insignificant (P > 0.05 for all). Both groups had significantly shorter tear film break-up time after 1 month of therapy (P = 0.014 (95% CI 0.47, 3.81) and P = 0.02 (95% CI 1.14, 4.61) for the tolterodine and oxybutynin treated groups, respectively).
Four weeks of standard-dose oxybutynin treatment in women with overactive bladder decreases AA significantly, whereas the same duration of standard-dose tolterodine does not have this effect. However, tolterodine seemed to affect PD in dim light. One month of treatment with either of these anticholinergic drugs shortens tear film break-up time significantly. Concerning ocular side-effects, tolterodine seems to offer an advantage over oxybutynin because it does not affect AA, however, the shorter tear film break-up time with both agents suggests potential problems for patients who already have dry eye.
Overactive bladder; tolterodine; oxybutynin; dry eye; accommodation; intraocular pressure
Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic for the treatment of overactive bladder, a syndrome of urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia. Our objective was to develop predictive models to describe the dose response of fesoterodine.
Data from subjects enrolled in double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II and III trials were used for developing longitudinal dose-response models.
The models predicted that clinically significant and near-maximum treatment effects would be seen within 3 to 4 weeks after treatment initiation. For a typical patient with 11 micturitions per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.2, -1.7, and -2.2 micturitions for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. For a typical patient with 2 UUI episodes per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.05, -1.26, and -1.43 UUI episodes for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. Increase in mean voided volume was estimated at 9.7 mL for placebo, with an additional 14.2 mL and 28.4 mL for fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively.
A consistent dose response for fesoterodine was demonstrated for bladder diary endpoints in subjects with overactive bladder, a result that supports the greater efficacy seen with fesoterodine 8 mg in post hoc analyses of clinical trial data. The dose-response models can be used to predict outcomes for doses not studied or for patient subgroups underrepresented in clinical trials.
The phase III trials used in this analysis have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00220363 and NCT00138723).
To evaluate the relationship between urodynamic detrusor overactivity (DO) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in men and women.
We reviewed the records of adult males and females who attended a tertiary referral center for urodynamic evaluation of OAB syndrome symptoms with the presence or absence of DO. DO was calculated for symptoms alone or in combination.
The overall incidence of DO was 76.1% and 58.7% in male and female OAB patients, respectively. Of men 63% and 61% of women with urgency (OAB dry) had DO, while 93% of men and 69.8% of women with urgency and urgency urinary incontinence (OAB wet) had DO. Of women, 58% who were OAB wet had stress urinary incontinence symptoms with 26.4% having urodynamic stress incontinence. 6% of men and 6.5% of women with OAB symptoms had urodynamic diagnosis of voiding difficulties with postvoid residual greater than 100 mL. Combination of symptoms is more accurate in predicting DO in OAB patients. The multivariate disease model for males included urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and urgency while for females it included UUI and nocturia.
There was a better correlation in results between OAB symptoms and the urodynamic diagnosis of DO in men than in women, more so in OAB wet than in OAB dry. Combination of symptoms of the OAB syndrome seems to have a better correlation with objective parameters from the bladder diary, filling cystometry, and with the occurrence of DO.
Overactive bladder; Urodynamic investigation; Urinary incontinence; Detrusor overactivity