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1.  Resection arthrodesis for the management of aggressive giant cell tumor of the distal femur 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2009;43(1):67-71.
Background:
Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone are aggressive benign tumors. Wide resection is reserved for a small subset of patients with biologically more aggressive, recurrent, and extensive tumors. Wide resection and mobile joint reconstruction are preferable for treating tumors around the knee. In certain situations, resection arthrodesis or an amputation is suggested. In this prospective study we report the outcome of 8 patients of aggressive GCT of lower end of femur treated with resection arthrodesis.
Materials and Methods:
Eight patients with mean age of 37.25 years (range 30–45 years) with Campanacci Grade III (Enneking stage III) giant cell tumors at the distal femur were treated with wide resection and arthrodesis using dual free fibular graft and locked intramedullary nail from January 2003 to January 2008. There were four males and four females patients. The mean follow-up was 48.75 months (range 30–60 months). The functional evaluation was done using the standard system of musculoskeletal tumor society with its modification developed by Enneking et al.
Results:
At the final follow up the functional score ranged from 20 to 27 out of total score of 30. Graft union was achieved in all cases in a duration mean of 14.5 months (range 12-20 months).One case required secondary bone graft due to delayed union, and one case had superficial wound infection which healed on systemic antibiotics. At final followup, all the patients were disease free.
Conclusion:
Wide resection and arthrodesis in aggressive GCTs of the distal femur with involvement of all muscle compartments is a good treatment option. Resection arthrodesis offers a biological reconstruction alternative to amputation in a special group of patients when extensive resection precludes mobile joint reconstruction.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.44432
PMCID: PMC2739496  PMID: 19753183
Giant cell tumor; intra medullary nail; resection arthrodesis
2.  Multifocal Metachronous Giant Cell Tumor: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Medicine  2014;2014:678035.
Introduction. Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone are known for their local aggressiveness and high recurrence rate. There are rare cases of multicentric GCT and most are synchronous. We herein review metachronous multicentric GCT reported in the literature. Material and Methods. A MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar search was done to collect all cases of multicentric metachronous GCT specifying the clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics of each location and its treatment. Results. A total of 37 multifocal giant cell tumors were found in the literature. 68% of cases of multicentric giant cell tumors occur in less than 4 years following treatment of the first lesion. Thirty-seven cases of multifocal metachronous GCT were identified in the literature until 2012. Patients with multicentric GCT tend to be younger averaging 23. There is a slight female predominance in metachronous GCT. The most common site of the primary GCT is around the knee followed by wrist and hand and feet. Recurrence rate of multicentric GCT is 28.5%. Conclusion. Multicentric giant cell tumor is rare. The correct diagnosis relies on correlation of clinical and radiographic findings with confirmation of the diagnosis by histopathologic examination.
doi:10.1155/2014/678035
PMCID: PMC3912820  PMID: 24511316
3.  Completely extruded talus without soft tissue attachments 
Clinics and Practice  2011;1(1):e12.
A completely extruded talus without any remaining soft tissue attachments is extremely rare. The present report describes treatment of a 45-year-old man who sustained a completely extruded talus injury following a rock-climbing fall. Upon admission, the extruded talus was deep-frozen in our bone bank. The open ankle joint underwent massive wound debridement and irrigation for 3 days. Four days later we performed a primary subtalar fusion between the extruded talus and the calcaneus, anticipating revascularization from the calcaneus. However, aseptic loosening and osteolysis developed around the screw and talus. At 12 months post-trauma we performed a tibiocalcaneal ankle fusion with a femoral head allograft to fill the talar defect. Follow-up at 24 months post-trauma showed the patient had midfoot motion, tibio-talar-calcaneal fusion, and was able partake in 4-hour physical activity twice per week.
doi:10.4081/cp.2011.e12
PMCID: PMC3981216  PMID: 24765266
completely extruded talus; primary subtalar fusion; osteolysis.
4.  Aggressive Giant Cell Tumour of Talus with Pulmonary Metastasis-A Rare Presentation 
Giant cell tumour (GCT) is a primary benign neoplasm of bone. It is classically described as a locally invasive tumour that occurs close to the joint of a mature bone. It accounts for 5% of all skeletal tumours. It usually originates from long bones. Giant Cell Tumour of the small bones of the hand and foot are relatively uncommon. Giant Cell Tumour of talus is a rare occurrence. We report a rare presentation of giant cell tumour of the talus in a 62-year-old farmer treated by talectomy and tibiocalcaneal fusion, who later presented with features suggestive of recurrence and secondaries in chest within six months following surgical resection of the primary. Below knee amputation was performed to manage the recurrence. At two years follow-up the patient showed no further progression of pulmonary metastasis or local recurrence.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8117.4616
PMCID: PMC4149091  PMID: 25177585
Giant cell tumour of talus; Pulmonary metastasis; Talectomy; Tibiocalcaneal fusion
5.  A clinicopathological study of giant cell tumor of small bones 
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences  2011;116(4):265-268.
Background and purpose
Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the small bones (small-bone GCT) is usually rare and considered somewhat different from conventional GCT. The purpose of this study was to investigate and report the clinicopathological features of 11 cases with small-bone GCT.
Materials and methods
Patient information was obtained with the help of questionnaires. X-rays and paraffin blocks obtained from several institutions were clinically, radiographically, and histologically evaluated.
Results
Small-bone GCT was observed in younger patients compared to conventional GCT; 5 of the 11 (45%) patients were below 20 years of age, whereas the corresponding figure for all GCT patients is 16% in Japan. Excessive cortical bone expansion is a special feature. There were two cases of recurrence and one case of lung metastasis; the primary lesion was in the hand for all three cases. In contrast, no primary lesion of the foot recurred or metastasized. Varying degrees of positive p63 immunostaining were observed in all examined cases (n = 9) of small-bone GCT but were negative in case of giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) and solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). One case that demonstrated high-intensity positive staining had two episodes of recurrence.
Conclusion
Small-bone GCT tends to develop in younger patients than does conventional GCT. Primary GCTs of the hand may be biologically more aggressive than those of the feet. The p63 immunostaining may be useful not only for differential diagnosis but also for prognostication of small-bone GCT.
doi:10.3109/03009734.2011.596290
PMCID: PMC3207302  PMID: 21919814
clinicopathological study; giant cell tumor; p63 immunostaining; small bone
6.  The use of a retrograde fixed-angle intramedullary nail for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis after severe loss of the talus 
Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis may be the only means of obtaining a painless and stable limb when there is loss of the talus. We present the early results of a prospective study on tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis using a latest-generation retrograde intramedullary nail. In the period 2006–2007, nine patients underwent tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with retrograde intramedullary nailing. Five of these patients had infection-related loss of the talus. SF-36, AOFAS ankle-hindfoot, and Mazur Ankle Arthrodesis scores were obtained pre-fusion, and at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year post-fusion. The patients were also followed up clinically and radiologically. Previous surgical procedures, chronic musculoskeletal problems and other comorbidities, and complications were recorded and analyzed. All patients were available for initial follow-up and were subjectively satisfied with their outcomes. Solid fusion was achieved and fully confirmed in nine cases. One subject died 8 weeks postoperatively of a pulmonary embolism. One patient had recurrent infection. At 1 year, only one patient still needed NSAIDs regularly for pain relief. The AOFAS score improved significantly (P = 0.012) from 32.1 pre-fusion to 71.5 points at 1 year as did the Mazur score, which rose by 31.2 to 72.5 points at 1 year (P = 0.012). The SF-36 score improved significantly in the domains physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health, as did the Physical Component Summary Score. Retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis can produce a good outcome. However, in the presence of infection, patient selection for intramedullary procedures must be carefully considered on a case-by-case basis.
doi:10.1007/s11751-009-0067-y
PMCID: PMC2746277  PMID: 19756949
Talectomy; Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis; Retrograde; Intramedullary nail; Ankle arthrodisis; Hindfoot
7.  The use of a retrograde fixed-angle intramedullary nail for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis after severe loss of the talus 
Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis may be the only means of obtaining a painless and stable limb when there is loss of the talus. We present the early results of a prospective study on tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis using a latest-generation retrograde intramedullary nail. In the period 2006–2007, nine patients underwent tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with retrograde intramedullary nailing. Five of these patients had infection-related loss of the talus. SF-36, AOFAS ankle-hindfoot, and Mazur Ankle Arthrodesis scores were obtained pre-fusion, and at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year post-fusion. The patients were also followed up clinically and radiologically. Previous surgical procedures, chronic musculoskeletal problems and other comorbidities, and complications were recorded and analyzed. All patients were available for initial follow-up and were subjectively satisfied with their outcomes. Solid fusion was achieved and fully confirmed in nine cases. One subject died 8 weeks postoperatively of a pulmonary embolism. One patient had recurrent infection. At 1 year, only one patient still needed NSAIDs regularly for pain relief. The AOFAS score improved significantly (P = 0.012) from 32.1 pre-fusion to 71.5 points at 1 year as did the Mazur score, which rose by 31.2 to 72.5 points at 1 year (P = 0.012). The SF-36 score improved significantly in the domains physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health, as did the Physical Component Summary Score. Retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis can produce a good outcome. However, in the presence of infection, patient selection for intramedullary procedures must be carefully considered on a case-by-case basis.
doi:10.1007/s11751-009-0067-y
PMCID: PMC2746277  PMID: 19756949
Talectomy; Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis; Retrograde; Intramedullary nail; Ankle arthrodisis; Hindfoot
8.  Giant Cell Tumors of the Axial Skeleton 
Sarcoma  2012;2012:410973.
Background. We report on 19 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) affecting the spine or sacrum and evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities. Methods. Nineteen patients with GCT of the spine (n = 6) or sacrum (n = 13) have been included in this study. The mean followup was 51.6 months. Ten sacral GCT were treated by intralesional procedures of which 4 also received embolization, and 3 with irradiation only. All spinal GCT were surgically treated. Results. Two (15.4%) patients with sacral and 4 (66.7%) with spinal tumors had a local recurrence, two of the letter developed pulmonary metastases. One local recurrence of the spine was successfully treated by serial arterial embolization, a procedure previously described only for sacral tumors. At last followup, 9 patients had no evidence of disease, 8 had stable disease, 1 had progressive disease, 1 died due to disease. Six patients had neurological deficits. Conclusions. GCT of the axial skeleton have a high local recurrence rate. Neurological deficits are common. En-bloc spondylectomy combined with embolization is the treatment of choice. In case of inoperability, serial arterial embolization seems to be an alternative not only for sacral but also for spinal tumors.
doi:10.1155/2012/410973
PMCID: PMC3289906  PMID: 22448122
9.  Wrist Joint Reconstruction With a Vascularized Fibula Free Flap Following Giant Cell Tumor Excision in the Distal Radius 
Eplasty  2010;10:e38.
Objective: Multiple therapeutic modalities exist for giant cell tumors (GCT) in the distal radius. The majority of GCTs are amenable to curettage, with the expanded lesions requiring a more radical approach. This case report examines the technique of managing a GCT that has extended beyond the boundaries of the cortex and into local tissues. The decision to use arthroplasty versus arthrodesis and the proximal fibular head as a vascularized free flap is discussed in reference to a patient requiring a proximal row carpectomy (PRC) secondary to tumor invasion. Methods: A 47-year-old woman with GCT in the right distal radius presented with decreased range of motion secondary to pain. Confirmation of the GCT was made with radiographic imaging and biopsy. The extensive invasion of the lesion required en bloc tumor resection with PRC and subsequent arthroplasty. Results: Treatment involved resection of tumor and PRC with arthroplasty using the proximal head of the fibula and reattachment of the radioscaphocapitate and ulnar carpal ligaments. Success was measured on functionality of the joint, viability of the flap, and the absence of tumor recurrence and pain. Conclusion: This case presents an example of successful excision of a GCT in the distal radius with a PRC and arthroplasty using a vascularized fibula free flap autograft. The patient remained pain-free, had no evidence of tumor recurrence, demonstrated 50% range of motion in the wrist, and 80% preoperative strength as expected following PRC.
PMCID: PMC2875920  PMID: 20505792
10.  Iterative Curettage is Associated with Local Control in Giant Cell Tumors Involving the Distal Tibia 
Background
The distal tibia is an unusual location for a giant cell tumor (GCT). Treatment choices are unclear because of their rarity, the anatomy of the ankle, and difficulties associated with reconstruction.
Questions/purposes
We assessed: (1) the treatment modalities used by participating Canadian bone tumor centers for distal tibia GCTs; (2) the incidence of local recurrence and their management; and (3) patients’ function after treatment.
Methods
A prospective tumor database served to identify all 31 patients with primarily treated distal tibia GCTs between 1991 and 2010. We extracted patients and tumor characteristics, treatment modalities for initial and recurrent tumors, and the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) and Toronto Extremity Salvage (TESS) scores. The median followup was 58 months (range, 24–192 months).
Results
Extended curettage was the only modality of treatment for all patients including all subsequent local recurrences. Nine had local recurrence, three of which had a second local recurrence; one had a third recurrence. Ultimately all patients were in remission at last followup. The local recurrence rate was 29% and appeared higher compared with recent series of all anatomic sites. The mean final MSTS and TESS scores were 91% (range, 71%–100%) and 88% (range, 35%–100%), respectively.
Conclusions
Extended curettage was the unique modality of surgical treatment for all tumors. We found the incidence of local recurrence higher than that reported for other locations but recurrences were manageable with repeated curettage. Complications and function appeared better than those reported for series of ankle fusion or reconstruction for bone tumors.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, retrospective study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-2965-z
PMCID: PMC3705059  PMID: 23568675
11.  Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: Risk Factors for Recurrence 
Background
Many surgeons treat giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) with intralesional curettage. Wide resection is reserved for extensive bone destruction where joint preservation is impossible or when expendable sites (eg, fibular head) are affected. Adjuvants such as polymethylmethacrylate and phenol have been recommended to reduce the risk of local recurrence after intralesional surgery. However, the best treatment of these tumors and risk factors for recurrence remain controversial.
Questions/purposes
We evaluated the recurrence-free survival after surgical treatment of GCT to determine the influence of the surgical approach, adjuvant treatment, local tumor presentation, and demographic factors on the risk of recurrence.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 118 patients treated for benign GCT of bone between 1985 and 2005. Recurrence rates, risk factors for recurrence and the development of pulmonary metastases were determined. The minimum followup was 36 months (mean, 108.4 ± 43.7; range, 36–233 months).
Results
Wide resection had a lower recurrence rate than intralesional surgery (5% versus 25%). Application of polymethylmethacrylate decreased the risk of local recurrence after intralesional surgery compared with bone grafting; phenol application alone had no effect on the risk of recurrence. Pulmonary metastases occurred in 4%; multidisciplinary treatment including wedge resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy achieved disease-free survival or stable disease in all of these patients.
Conclusion
We recommend intralesional surgery with polymethylmethacrylate for the majority of primary GCTs. Because pulmonary metastases are rare and aggressive treatment of pulmonary metastases is usually successful, we believe the potential for metastases should not by itself create an indication for wide resection of primary tumors.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1501-7
PMCID: PMC3018195  PMID: 20706812
12.  Tibiotalar arthrodesis for injuries of the talus 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(1):87-90.
Background:
Fracture-dislocation of the talus is one of the most severe injuries of the ankle. Opinion varies widely as to the proper treatment of this injury. Since Blair's original description of the tibiotalar fusion in 1943, there is little mention in the literature of his method. The present study reports the results of tibiotalar arthrodesis with modification in Blair's technique.
Materials and Methods:
Eleven cases of modified Blair's tibiotalar arthrodesis were retrospectively studied. The average age was 32.4 years (range, 26-51 years). Six patients had posttraumatic avascular necrosis; five had neglected fracture-dislocation of the talus.
Results:
The mean followup is 8 years (range 3-12 years). Tibiotalar fusion was achieved in all the ankles at an average of 20.5 weeks (range 16-28 weeks). Nine cases having 15°-20° tibiopedal motion had excellent results and two ankles having 10°-15° of tibiopedal motion had good result.
Conclusion:
We achieved good long term results with tibiotalar arthrodesis with modification in Blair technique. The principal modification in the present study is retention of the talar body while performing arthrodesis with anterior sliding graft. The retention of the talar body provides intraoperative stability and in the long term, the retained talar body shares the load transmitted to the anterior and middle subtalar joints thus resulting in improved hind foot function and gait.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.38588
PMCID: PMC2759590  PMID: 19823662
Anterior tibial sliding graft; arthrodesis; avascular necrosis of talus
13.  Therapeutic management of complicated talar extrusion: literature review and case report 
Total extrusion of the talus with interruption of all ligaments (missing talus) is a rare injury. We describe the case of a 27-year-old man who reported total extrusion of the talus after a motorbike accident with interruption of all talar ligaments. In the first repair effort, the articular void left by the talus was filled with antibiotic cement and the wound was closed primarily. Nevertheless, the skin overlying the talar joint displayed necrosis. In order to cover the cutaneous defect, improve local vascularization, and allow reimplantation of the talus, a sural fasciocutaneous island flap was harvested. Subsequently, the original talus was placed and arthrodesis of the subtalar joint was performed. The patient was able to walk bearing full weight without support equipment after 6 months. Several therapeutic options have been suggested in such cases, including replacing the talus, tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis, and pseudoarthrodesis. The rarity and peculiarity of such cases make the establishment of generalized guidelines an arduous task, leaving the choice of treatment to the surgeon, in conformity with each case’s peculiarity. In this case use of the flap may have promoted the vascularization of the reimplanted talus, thus avoiding avascular necrosis and allowing successful reimplantation of the original talus.
doi:10.1007/s10195-011-0129-z
PMCID: PMC3052426  PMID: 21350893
Total talar dislocation; Talar extrusion; Missing talus; Distally-based sural fasciocutaneous flap
14.  Therapeutic management of complicated talar extrusion: literature review and case report 
Total extrusion of the talus with interruption of all ligaments (missing talus) is a rare injury. We describe the case of a 27-year-old man who reported total extrusion of the talus after a motorbike accident with interruption of all talar ligaments. In the first repair effort, the articular void left by the talus was filled with antibiotic cement and the wound was closed primarily. Nevertheless, the skin overlying the talar joint displayed necrosis. In order to cover the cutaneous defect, improve local vascularization, and allow reimplantation of the talus, a sural fasciocutaneous island flap was harvested. Subsequently, the original talus was placed and arthrodesis of the subtalar joint was performed. The patient was able to walk bearing full weight without support equipment after 6 months. Several therapeutic options have been suggested in such cases, including replacing the talus, tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis, and pseudoarthrodesis. The rarity and peculiarity of such cases make the establishment of generalized guidelines an arduous task, leaving the choice of treatment to the surgeon, in conformity with each case’s peculiarity. In this case use of the flap may have promoted the vascularization of the reimplanted talus, thus avoiding avascular necrosis and allowing successful reimplantation of the original talus.
doi:10.1007/s10195-011-0129-z
PMCID: PMC3052426  PMID: 21350893
Total talar dislocation; Talar extrusion; Missing talus; Distally-based sural fasciocutaneous flap
15.  Weaver syndrome associated with bilateral congenital hip and unilateral subtalar dislocation 
Hippokratia  2010;14(3):212-214.
Background: Weaver syndrome is a congenital paediatric syndrome characterized by mental, respiratory and musculoskeletal manifestations. The coexisting deformities of the skull, the face, fingers and toes are typical. We report a case of a girl with Weaver syndrome associated with rare bilateral congenital dislocation of the hips associated with congenital hypoplastic talus and subtalar dislocation of her ankle joint.
Case Report: A 3-year old girl was admitted in our department with typical manifestations of Weaver syndrome, associated with congenital dislocation of bilateral hips, hypoplastic talus and subtalar dislocation of her right ankle. She was in pain while standing upright and incapable of independent walking. Both hips were treated operatively with open reduction and bilateral iliac osteotomy. Two years afterwards she had an open reduction of her talus and extraarticular arthrodesis of her subtalar joint in her right ankle. Six years postoperatively after the hip operations and four years after the ankle operation the girl is ambulant with a painless independent and unaided walking with a mild limp and full range of movements in all the operated joints.
Conclusions: We suggest that children with Weaver syndrome and disabling musculosceletal deformities, particularly affecting their ability to stand up and walk should be treated early, before bone maturity, in order to achieve the best potential musculoskeletal as well as developmental outcome.
PMCID: PMC2943362  PMID: 20981173
Weaver Syndrome; congenital dislocation; hip; ankle
16.  Osteochondral lesion of the talus in a recreational athlete: a case report 
A 23-year-old recreational male athlete presented with intermittent pain of three weeks duration, localized to the left ankle. Pain was aggravated by walking, although his symptoms had not affected the patient’s jogging activity which was performed three times per week. Past history revealed an inversion sprain of the left ankle, sustained fifteen months previously. Examination showed mild swelling anterior to the ankle mortise joint while other tests including range of motion, strength and motion palpation of specific joints of the ankle were noted to be unremarkable. Radiographic findings revealed a defect in the medial aspect of the talus. An orthopaedic referral was made for further evaluation. Tomography revealed a Grade III osteochondral lesion of the talus.
It was determined that follow-up views be taken in three months to demonstrate if the lesion was progressing or healing. Within the three month period, activity modifications and modalities for pain control were indicated. Surgery was considered a reasonable option should conservative measures fail.
The present case illustrates an osteochondral lesion of the talus, a condition which has not previously been reported in the chiropractic literature. A review of the pertinent orthopaedic literature has indicated an average delay of three years in diagnosing the existence of this lesion.
Although considered rare, the diagnostic frequency of the condition appears to be on the rise due to increased awareness and the use of bone and CT scans. The osteochondral lesion of the talus deserves particular consideration by practitioners working with athletes due to its higher incidence within this group. This diagnosis should be considered in patients presenting with chronic ankle pain particularly when a history of an inversion sprain exists.
The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of this condition, and review diagnosis and management strategies.
Images
PMCID: PMC2485432
osteochondral lesion; talus; osteochondritis dissecans; diagnosis; chiropractic; athletic injuries; ankle
17.  The effect of osseous ankle configuration on chronic ankle instability 
Background
Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common orthopaedic entity in sport. Although other risk factors have been studied extensively, little is known about how it is influenced by the osseous joint configuration.
Aim
To study the effect of osseous ankle configuration on CAI.
Design
Case–control study, level III.
Setting
Radiological examination with measurement of lateral x rays by an independent radiologist using a digital DICOM/PACS system.
Patients
A group of 52 patients who had had at least three recurrent sprains was compared with an age‐matched and sex‐matched control group of 52 healthy subjects.
Main outcome measures
The radius of the talar surface, the tibial coverage of the talus (tibiotalar sector) and the height of the talar body were measured.
Results
The talar radius was found to be larger in patients with CAI (21.2 (2.4) mm) than in controls (17.7 (1.9) mm; p<0.001, power >95%). The tibiotalar sector, representing the tibial coverage of the talus, was smaller in patients with CAI (80° (5.1°)) than in controls (88.4° (7.2°); p<0.001, power >95%). No significant difference was observed in the height of the talar body between patients with CAI (28.8 (2.6) mm) and controls (27.5 (4.0) mm; p = 0.055).
Conclusion
CAI is associated with an unstable osseous joint configuration characterised by a larger radius of the talus and a smaller tibiotalar sector. There is evidence that a higher talus might also play some part, particularly in women.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.032672
PMCID: PMC2465368  PMID: 17261556
18.  P32 - A Case of Multicentric Giant Cell Tumours with 25-Year Follow Up 
Giant cell tumour of bone (GCT) is a relatively rare benign bone tumour more frequent in young people (20–40 years). Histologically, two cell types are represented, stromal cells of osteoblastic origin and a distinctive osteoclast-like population probably of monocytic origin. GCTs can be aggressive and they recur locally in up to 50% of cases; up to 5% of GCTs metastasise to the lungs and spontaneous transformation to a high-grade malignancy occurs in 1–3% of patients. The aetiology of GCT is not known, and no risk factors have been recognised, although familial clustering of both Paget’s disease and GCT has been reported.
GCTs account for approximately 3–5% of primary bone tumours. GCT is rarely multicentric and usually occurs at the epiphyses of long bones, but may also affect other bones.
There are few randomised, prospective clinical trials available to guide clinical management of GCT. Recent developments have led to evaluation of newer therapeutic agents, including biphosphonates and denosumab, with encouraging results. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman affected by GCT. In 1985 the patient, then 41 years old, presented a cystic lesion on her left tibia, which was removed surgically. This lesion relapsed two years later. Therefore the patient was hospitalised and received a diagnosis of “multicentric giant cell bone lesions” (limb-girdle, sternum, mandible, ribs), confirmed by histological examination. These lesions showed hyperactivity on bone scintigraphy. Plain radiographs demonstrated destructive lytic lesions. Blood and urinary examinations showed markedly elevated levels of bone alkaline phosphatase and urine pyridinoline and there was persistent bone pain. In 1993 normocalcaemic primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed and an adenoma was removed, with no relapse of the disease. Subsequently the patient started clodronate therapy, i.v., followed by alendronate-neridronate per os and clodronate i.m. for about nine years. Biphosphonate therapy caused a modest and transient decrease in bone indexes. Initial bone lesions were unchanged on computed tomography 25 years after diagnosis, but new bone lesions had appeared. MEN1 gene and CasR analyses were negative.
This is a rare case of a patient affected by multicentric giant cell tumours with a 25-year follow up. A slow progression of the lesion is documented, as well as the absence of significant effect of biphosphonate therapy.
PMCID: PMC3213768
19.  GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE SACRUM AND SPINE: SERIES OF 23 CASES AND A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 
Although there have been a few large case series of giant cell tumor (GCT) in the spine and sacrum, the treatment of these lesions remains controversial. We are reporting 23 additional cases of giant cell tumor in the spine and sacrum gathered from our institution and the personal consultation files of the senior author. Ten lesions occurred in the sacrum with an average age of 31 years (range of 13-49) and 13 occurred in the mobile spine with an average age of 39.1 years (range of 13-64). Most patients presented with pain or neurologic deficit at the site of tumor involvement, and symptoms were usually present for many months prior to diagnosis. Six of the sacral GCT patients were treated with pre-operative arterial embolization and intralesional surgical resection, and two developed a recurrence. Two of the sacral GCT patients had an en bloc resection and neither developed a recurrence. One sacral GCT patient was treated only with serial arterial embolization with good disease control. One sacral GCT patient did not receive any treatment. Eleven spinal GCT patients were treated with en bloc surgical resection and two developed a recurrence, the other two spinal GCT patients were treated with intralesional surgical resection and both developed a recurrence. Giant cell tumors of the spine and sacrum should be managed with en bloc resections whenever possible as this provides the greatest chance for cure. When the risk of post-operative neurologic deficit after en bloc excision is high, as in most of our sacral lesions, conservative therapy involving arterial embolization and intralesional resection offers the best results.
PMCID: PMC2958273  PMID: 21045974
20.  Calcaneal Lengthening for Planovalgus Foot Deformity in Patients With Cerebral Palsy 
Background
Calcaneal lengthening has been used to correct planovalgus foot deformities in patients with cerebral palsy (CP).
Questions/purposes
This study was performed to investigate the amount of correction that can be achieved after calcaneal lengthening for the treatment of a planovalgus deformity in patients with CP and to provide cutoff values based on the preoperative radiographic measurements that suggest additional procedures to achieve satisfactory correction.
Methods
Seventy-five consecutive patients with CP who underwent calcaneal lengthening for planovalgus deformity were included. Radiographic indices were measured on preoperative and latest followup weightbearing foot radiographs. The cutoff values of the preoperative radiographic measurements between the corrected and undercorrected groups were analyzed. The cutoff values are the reference values that can judge the possibilities of sufficient correction of a planovalgus deformity by calcaneal lengthening.
Results
The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 11.0 ± 5.2 years and the minimum followup was 1.0 years (mean, 3.1 ± 2.2 years; range, 1.0–8.4 years). AP talus-first metatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch angle, talocalcaneal angle, lateral talus-first metatarsal angle, and naviculocuboid overlap showed major improvements after calcaneal lengthening. The cutoff values of preoperative measurements between the corrected and undercorrected groups were 23° AP talus-first metatarsal angle, 36° lateral talus-first metatarsal angle, and 72% naviculocuboid overlap.
Conclusions
Calcaneal lengthening with concomitant peroneus brevis lengthening is an effective procedure for correcting a planovalgus foot deformity in patients with CP. However, for patients with greater than 23° AP talus-first metatarsal angle, 36° lateral talus-first metatarsal angle, and 72% naviculocuboid overlap, additional procedures for medial stabilization, such as tibialis posterior tendon reefing and talonavicular arthrodesis, should be considered as a result of the possibility of undercorrection with calcaneal lengthening alone.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2709-5
PMCID: PMC3613565  PMID: 23179128
21.  Giant Cell Tumor of Lower End of Tibia 
Case Reports in Orthopedics  2013;2013:429615.
Introduction. Giant cell tumor of bones is an unusual neoplasm that accounts for 4% of all primary tumors of bone, and it represents about 10% of malignant primary bone tumors with its different grades from borderline to high grade malignancy. Case Report. A 35-year-old patient presented with complains of pain and swelling in left ankle since 1 year following a twisting injury to his left ankle. On examination, swelling was present over the distal and anterior part of leg and movements of ankle joint were normal. All routine blood investigations were normal. X-ray and CT ankle showed morphology of subarticular well-defined expansile lytic lesion in lower end of left tibia suggestive of giant cell tumor. Histopathology of the tissue shows multinucleated giant cells with uniform vesicular nucleus and mononuclear cells which are spindle shaped with uniform vesicular nucleus suggestive of GCT. The patient was treated by excision, curettage, and bone cement to fill the defect. Conclusion. The patient at 12-month followup is doing well and walking without any pain comfortably and with full range of motion at ankle joint with articular congruity maintained and no signs of recurrences.
doi:10.1155/2013/429615
PMCID: PMC3703419  PMID: 23844298
22.  Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for giant cell tumor of distal radius 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(3):327-332.
Background:
Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the distal radius poses problems for reconstruction after resection. Several reconstructive procedures like vascularized and non-vascularized fibular graft, osteo-articular allograft, ceramic prosthesis and megaprosthesis are in use for substitution of the defect in the distal radius following resection. Most authors advocate wrist arthrodesis following resection of distal radius and non vascularized fibular graft. Here we have analyzed the results of aggressive benign GCTs of the distal radius treated by resection and reconstruction arthroplasty using autogenous non-vascularized fibular graft.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty-four cases of giant cell tumor of the distal radius (mean age 32 years, mean follow-up 6.6 years) treated by en-bloc resection and reconstruction arthroplasty using autogenous non-vascularized ipsilateral fibular graft with a minimum followup of two years have been included in this retrospective study. Nineteen cases were of Campanacci grade III and five were of Grade II recurrence. The mean resected length of the radius was 9.5 (8-12) cm. Routine radiographs and clinical assessments regarding pain, instability, recurrence, hand grip strength and functional status were done at regular intervals and functional results were assessed using (musculoskeletal tumor society) MSTS-87 scoring.
Results:
Early radiological union at host-graft junction was achieved at mean 12.5 weeks, (range 12-14 weeks) and solid incorporation with callus formation was observed in mean 29 weeks (range 28-32 weeks) in all the cases. Satisfactory range of motion (mean 63%, range 52-78%) of the wrist was achieved in 18 cases. Grip strength compared to the contralateral hand was found to be 67% (range 58-74%). Functional results were excellent in six cases (25%), good in 14 cases (58.3%) and four (16.7%) cases had fair results. Soft tissue recurrence was seen in one patient. The most commonly encountered complication was fibulo-carpal subluxation (10 cases, 41.7%).
Conclusion:
Resection of the distal radius and reconstruction arthroplasty with non-vascularized proximal fibular graft is useful in preserving the functional movement and stability of the wrist as well as achieving satisfactory range of movement and grip strength.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.65134
PMCID: PMC2911935  PMID: 20697488
Distal radius; giant cell tumor; resection reconstruction
23.  Intralesional Excision versus Wide Resection for Giant Cell Tumor Involving the Acetabulum: Which is Better? 
Background
Because of the anatomic complexity of the pelvis, there is no standard surgical treatment for giant cell tumors (GCTs) of the pelvic bones, especially in the periacetabular region. Treatment options include intralesional curettage with or without adjunctive techniques and wide resection. The best surgical treatment of a pelvic GCT remains controversial.
Questions/purposes
We compared wide resection and intralesional excision in terms of (1) local control, (2) function, and (3) complications.
Methods
We retrospectively identified 27 patients with periacetabular benign GCTs who underwent surgery from July 1999 to July 2009. Intralesional surgery was performed in 13 patients and wide resection in 14 patients. We determined surgical complications, local disease control, and Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) 93 functional score. The minimum followup was 18 months (mean, 50 months; range, 18–121 months).
Results
Four of 13 patients who had intralesional surgery and none of 14 who had wide resection had local recurrence. The mean functional score was 24 for the 13 patients who underwent intralesional surgery and 22 for the 14 patients who had wide resection. One minor and one major complication occurred among patients who underwent intralesional surgery and one minor and six major complications occurred among patients who underwent wide resection.
Conclusions
Even with a higher complication rate with wide resection and prosthetic reconstruction, we believe the lower local recurrence rate makes wide resection a reasonable option for patients with extensive and/or aggressive GCTs involving the acetabulum.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2190-6
PMCID: PMC3293956  PMID: 22125245
24.  Effect of anterior translation of the talus on outcomes of three-component total ankle arthroplasty 
Background
Ankle osteoarthritis commonly involves sagittal malalignment with anterior translation of the talus relative to the tibia. Total ankle arthroplasty has become an increasingly popular treatment for patients with symptomatic ankle osteoarthritis. However, no comprehensive study has been conducted on the outcomes of total ankle arthroplasty for osteoarthritis with preoperative sagittal malalignment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of anterior translation of the talus on outcomes of three-component total ankle arthroplasty.
Methods
One hundred and four osteoarthritic ankles in 104 patients who underwent three-component total ankle arthroplasty were included in this study. The 104 ankles were divided into 2 groups: ankles with anteriorly translated talus (50 ankles), and ankles with non-translated talus (54 ankles). Clinical and radiographic outcomes were assessed in both groups. The mean follow-up duration was 42.8 ± 17.9 months (range, 24 to 95 months).
Results
Forty-six (92%) of 50 ankles with anterior translation of the talus showed relocation of the talus within the mortise at 6 months, and 48 (96%) ankles were relocated at 12 months after total ankle arthroplasty. But, 2 (4%) ankles were not relocated until the final follow-up. The AOFAS scores, ankle range of motion, and radiographic outcomes showed no significant difference between the two groups at the final follow-up (p > 0.05 for each).
Conclusions
In majority of cases, the anteriorly translated talus in osteoarthritic ankles was restored to an anatomical position within 6 months after successful three-component total ankle arthroplasty. The clinical and radiographic outcomes in the osteoarthritic ankles with anteriorly translated talus group were comparable with those in non-translated talus group.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-260
PMCID: PMC3766657  PMID: 24007555
Osteoarthritis; Total ankle arthroplasty; Three-component prosthesis; Anterior translation of the talus
25.  Outcome of ankle arthrodesis in posttraumatic arthritis 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(3):317-320.
Background:
Ankle arthrodesis is still a gold standard salvage procedure for the management of ankle arthritis. There are several functional and mechanical benefits of ankle arthrodesis, which make it a viable surgical procedure in the management of ankle arthritis. The functional outcomes following ankle arthrodesis are not very well known. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical and radiographic evaluation of ankle arthrodesis in posttraumatic arthritis performed using Charnley's compression device.
Materials and Methods:
Between January 2006 and December 2009 a functional assessment of 15 patients (10 males and 5 females) who had undergone ankle arthrodesis for posttraumatic arthritis and/or avascular necrosis (AVN) talus (n=6), malunited bimalleolar fracture (n=4), distal tibial plafond fractures (n=3), medial malleoli nonunion (n=2). All the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically after an average followup of 2 years 8 months (range 1–5.7 years).
Results:
All patients had sound ankylosis and no complications related to the surgery. Scoring the patients with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot scale, we found that 11 of the 15 had excellent results, two had good, and two showed fair results. They were all returned to their preinjury activities.
Conclusion:
We conclude that, the ankle arthrodesis can still be considered as a standard procedure in ankle arthritis. On the basis of these results, patients should be counseled that an ankle fusion will help to relieve pain and to improve overall function. Still, one should keep in mind that it is a salvage procedure that will cause persistent alterations in gait with a potential for deterioration due to the development of subtalar arthritis.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.96392
PMCID: PMC3377143  PMID: 22719119
Ankle arthritis; ankle arthrodesis; outcome of ankle arthrodesis

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