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1.  Seroprevalence and association with abortion of leptospirosis in cattle in Ontario. 
Sera were collected using a systematic random sampling from 348 cattle herds in Ontario, in proportion to the cattle population in different areas. One cow in five from 296 dairy herds and one in three from 52 beef herds were sampled. The sera were analyzed for prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorhagiae and pomona using the microscopic agglutination test. Herd seroprevalence (one or more animals with titer greater than or equal to 80) in beef and dairy herds combined was grippotyphosa 2%, hardjo 13.8%, icterohaemorrhagiae 10.1% and pomona 25.8%; 39% of all herds showed evidence of leptospiral infection with one or more serovars; 44.2% of 52 beef herds had serological evidence of infection with serovar hardjo compared to 8.4% of 296 dairy herds (P less than 0.0001). Seroprevalence of other serovars was not significantly different between beef and dairy herds. The proportion of beef animals seropositive for hardjo and for pomona increased with age, particularly for hardjo; 26.5% of beef animals aged nine years or over were seropositive for hardjo. Dairy animals showed a significant rise of hardjo but not pomona titers with age. The seroprevalence of pomona infection was significantly higher in dairy cattle in eastern Ontario than in other regions. Thirty-four (6.1%) of 553 aborted bovine fetuses had leptospires detected by immunofluorescence techniques. Sixty-five percent of these fetuses were from submissions made between November and January. Leptospires were identified as serovar hardjo by specific immunofluorescence. There appeared, however, to be a paradoxical serological response in that eight aborting cows had antibody titers to pomona rather than hardjo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1255429  PMID: 3370556
2.  The Successful Management of Leptospirosa hardjo Infection in a Beef Herd in Northern Ontario 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1986;27(11):435-439.
Abortion, premature calving, hemolytic anemia and fatal hematuria were associated with high levels (titer > 10−4) of antibody to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo and with isolation of hardjo in a herd of 265 beef cattle in the Great Clay Belt of northern Ontario. This herd was bred by artificial insemination, after heat detection by vasectomized bulls. The antibody prevalence rate in the herd was 54 to 60% over a five year period. The rate tended to reach 100% by age three years and to be below 5% in yearlings, which were raised in isolation from older cattle. Hardjo was isolated from the urine of a cow that aborted in the eighth month of pregnancy, and from kidneys of yearling steers which had been exposed to an older cow. Maternal antibody levels in calves paralleled those in their dams, protecting calves while they were being naturally exposed to infection, thus contributing to the achievement of balance between host and parasite. A controlled vaccination trial was conducted in 50 initially seronegative yearling steers and heifers. Serological response to vaccine was limited to a maximum agglutinin titer of 10−2 in 8% of vaccinated cattle. Vaccination reduced the infection rate from 86% in the controls to 46% in the treated group, indirectly reducing the number of calves for which colostral antibody against hardjo would be available. A vaccination program was not implemented in the herd. Hardjo infection appeared to die out over a period of six years following the initial five year study period, with antibody prevalence falling from 60% to 0.7% and reactors persisting only in two eight year old cows. Decline in infection was coincident with changes in management which protected heifers from exposure to infection until their third pregnancy, and which probably lowered the reservoir of infection by increased culling from older age classes.
PMCID: PMC1680323  PMID: 17422716
Hardjo; clay; maternal antibody; vaccination; bovine leptospirosis
3.  Transmission and Control of Leptospiral Infection in a Beef Cattle Herd in Southern Alberta 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1986;27(12):512-516.
Leptospiral antibodies were detected in unvaccinated cattle on a 17 000 hectare ranch in the arid southeast region of Alberta. Antibody to serovar hardjo was present before the breeding season in 7% of 42 yearling bulls, 86% of 29 two year old bulls and 5% of 519 cows. Pomona antibody was confined to 3.7% of the cows. Bulls were treated once with dihydrostreptomycin, 25 mg/kg. Bulls and cows were vaccinated twice at a six week interval, with pomona-hardjo-gripptotyphosa bacterin before breeding and cows were revaccinated the next year. Leptospires were demonstrated in urine, kidney and spinal fluid of vaccinated and treated cattle. New infections occurred on range in vaccinates. Eighteen months after the last vaccination, hardjo and pomona antibody prevalences in cows were 3.6 and 3.2% respectively. A group of 250 seronegative cows on the same ranch were not vaccinated. They remained seronegative throughout the 2.5 years of the study. These cows, in contrast to infected groups, were excluded from pastures adjacent to perimeter herds and grazing leases, and they were bred by artificial inseminstion. Rotation through pastures in common with infected groups, and exposure to seropositive heat detector bulls, did not result in seroconversion in these cows. The study showed the potential of range bulls to amplify and transmit hardjo infection, limitations to the value of treatment and vaccination with available agents, and the potential of management practices to maintain an uninfected herd in close proximity to cattle carrying hardjo infection.
PMCID: PMC1680417  PMID: 17422729
Alberta; Canada; beef cattle; hardjo; pomona; leptospirosis
4.  Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle 
The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated.
Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors.
A low to moderate prevalence (1-49%) of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010) in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3%) and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy) (> 1.9) occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49%) in cows.
BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.
PMCID: PMC3298528  PMID: 22289165
Bovine respiratory disease; reproduction; dairy cattle; bovine herpesvirus 1; bovine respiratory syncytial virus
5.  Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1994;35(7):425-432.
This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six-month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992, in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the first observed evidence of fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus in this herd. Animals that died from mucosal disease exhibited signs of ill thrift prior to death. Deaths from mucosal disease were confined to the progeny of one herd of beef cows. Following an outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus during 1989-1990, at least 28 (22%) of the 128 calves born from this herd of cows in the spring of 1990 were persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. However, only one calf born from this herd in 1991, and five calves born from all herds in 1992 were persistently infected. Of the five persistently infected calves born in 1992, three were born to persistently infected replacement heifers born in 1990. These heifers calved without assistance in 1992, but only one of their calves survived past three days of age, and it was persistently infected. In January 1992, 82% of the total herd had reciprocal antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus of > or = 1024 which suggested a high level of herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1686246  PMID: 8076288
6.  Isolation of Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas from genital tracts of beef and dairy cattle in Saskatchewan 
We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses.
Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X2) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis.
PMCID: PMC1481172  PMID: 17423929
7.  Losses over a 2-year period associated with fetal infection with the bovine viral diarrhea virus in a beef cow-calf herd in Saskatchewan. 
In 1992, significant calf losses occurred between birth and weaning in a 650-cow Saskatchewan beef herd. These losses occurred subsequent to ill-thrift and disease, and every calf necropsied was found to be persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The objectives of this study were to describe the losses associated with fetal infection with BVDV in this herd and to determine why they occurred. For investigative purposes, blood samples were collected from the entire cow herd and the surviving calves at pregnancy testing in 1992, and tested by virus isolation for BVDV. Between 51 and 71 persistently infected calves were born in 1992. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was only isolated from calves. The only confirmed fetal infections with BVDV were recorded as the birth of persistently infected calves. However, abortions, reduced pregnancy rates, and delayed calvings were also recorded in the cow herd and may have been the result of fetal infections. The herd was monitored again in 1993. Fetal infections with BVDV were recorded as the birth of stunted, deformed, and persistently infected calves. The greatest losses due to fetal infection with BVDV in the 2 years of this study occurred in cows that were 3-years-old at calving (second calves). Bovine viral diarrhea virus appears to have remained endemic in this herd by transmission from persistently infected calves on young 3- and 4-year-old cows to naive calved 2-year-old cows that were mingled with them annually for rebreeding. Significant numbers of the 2-year-old cows remained naive to BVDV, because they were segregated from persistently infected calves at weaning, preventing cross-infection with BVDV.
PMCID: PMC1576675  PMID: 8993781
8.  Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from free-ranging deer and rabbits surrounding Minnesota dairy herds 
The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) among deer and rabbits surrounding infected and noninfected Minnesota dairy farms using fecal culture, and to describe the frequency that farm management practices were used that could potentially lead to transmission of infection between these species. Fecal samples from cows and the cow environment were collected from 108 Minnesota dairy herds, and fecal pellets from free-ranging white-tailed deer and eastern cottontail rabbits were collected from locations surrounding 114 farms; all samples were tested using bacterial culture. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to 114 herd owners. Sixty-two percent of the dairy herds had at least 1 positive fecal pool or environmental sample. A total of 218 rabbit samples were collected from 90% of the herds, and 309 deer samples were collected from 47% of the herds. On 2 (4%) of the farms sampled, 1 deer fecal sample was MAP positive. Both farms had samples from the cow fecal pool and cow environment that were positive by culture. On 2 (2%) other farms, 1 rabbit fecal sample was positive by culture to MAP, with one of these farms having positive cow fecal pools and cow environmental samples. Pasture was used on 79% of the study farms as a grazing area for cattle, mainly for dry cows (75%) and bred or prebred heifers (87%). Of the 114 farms, 88 (77%) provided access to drylot for their cattle, mainly for milking cows (77/88; 88%) and bred heifers (87%). Of all study farms, 90 (79%) used some solid manure broadcasting on their crop fields. Of all 114 farms, the estimated probability of daily physical contact between cattle manure and deer or rabbits was 20% and 25%, respectively. Possible contact between cattle manure and deer or rabbits was estimated to occur primarily from March through December. The frequency of pasture or drylot use and manure spreading on crop fields may be important risk factors for transmission of MAP among dairy cattle, deer, and rabbits. Although the MAP prevalence among rabbits and deer is low, their role as MAP reservoirs should be considered.
PMCID: PMC1142167  PMID: 15745220
9.  A four year longitudinal sero-epidemiology study of Neospora caninum in adult cattle from 114 cattle herds in south west England: Associations with age, herd and dam-offspring pairs 
Neosporosis caused by the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum, is an economically important cause of abortion, stillbirth, low milk yield, reduced weight gain and premature culling in cattle. Consequently, a seroepidemiological study of N. caninum antibodies was conducted in England with 29,782 samples of blood taken from 15,736 cattle from 114 herds visited on three occasions at yearly intervals. Herds were categorised into lower (< 10%) and higher (≥ 10%) median herd seroprevalence. Hierarchical models were run to investigate associations between the sample to positive (S/P) ratio and herd and cattle factors.
Ninety-four percent of herds had at least one seropositive cow; 12.9% of adult cattle had at least one seropositive test. Approximately 90% of herds were seropositive at all visits; 9 herds (8%) changed serological status between visits. The median N. caninum seroprevalence in positive herds was 10% (range 0.4% to 58.8%). There was a positive association between the serostatus of offspring and dams that were ever seropositive. In the hierarchical model of low seroprevalence herds there was no significant association between S/P ratio and cattle age. There was a significantly lower S/P ratio in cattle in herds that were totally restocked after the foot-and-mouth epidemic of 2001 compared with those from continuously stocked herds and cattle purchased into these herds had a higher S/P ratio than homebred cattle. In the model of high seroprevalence herds the S/P ratio increased with cattle age, but was not associated with restocking or cattle origin.
There were no strong temporal changes in herd seroprevalence of N. caninum but 90% of herds had some seropositive cattle over this time period. Vertical transmission from seropositive dams appeared to occur in all herds. In herds with a high seroprevalence the increasing S/P ratio in 2–4 year old cattle is suggestive of exposure to N. caninum: horizontal transmission between adult cattle, infection from a local source or recrudescence and abortions. Between-herd movements of infected cattle enhance the spread of N. caninum, particularly into low seroprevalence herds. Some restocked herds had little exposure to N. caninum, while in others infection had spread in the time since restocking.
PMCID: PMC2556655  PMID: 18793402
10.  Seropositivity and risk factors for Brucella in dairy cows in urban and peri-urban small-scale farming in Tajikistan 
In this cross-sectional study, we assessed and mapped the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small-scale dairy farming in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan and investigated factors associated with seropositivity. As urban and peri-urban farming is both an opportunity to improve the livelihood for small-scale farmers and a potential public health hazard, studies are warranted to reveal possible peculiarities in the epidemiology of brucellosis in this type of dairy farming. In total, 904 cows of breeding age belonging to 443 herds in 32 villages were serologically tested with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples confirmed with competitive ELISA. Two logistic regression models were used to investigate an association between seropositivity and risk factors at herd and individual level. The herd and individual seroprevalences were 4.1 and 2.0 %, respectively. Herds with a history of abortions were found to be associated with seropositivity [odds ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.3–21.3]. Large herds with more than eight cattle were more likely to be seropositive compared to smaller herds with one to two cattle (OR = 13.9; 95 % CI, 1.6–119). The number of calves produced per cow (indicating age) was found to be associated with seropositivity. Younger cows with one to two produced calves were less likely to be seropositive compared to older cows with more than six produced calves (OR = 0.24; 95 % CI, 0.06–1.0). Neither introduction of new cattle to the herd nor communal grazing was associated with seropositivity. This study shows that infection with Brucella (1) is present in small-scale urban and peri-urban dairy farming in Tajikistan and (2) has significant negative effects on reproductive performance in this farming system and (3) that some previously known risk factors for seropositivity in rural farming system were absent here.
PMCID: PMC3936117  PMID: 24414248
Zoonotic disease; Central Asia; Brucella; Bovine; Cattle; Risk factor
In a large herd of dairy cattle and young stock the bacteriological examination of 109 cases of abortion which included a relatively thorough study of the fetus and a study of the membranes, or swabs from the uterus whenever obtainable, gave the following results. 62, or 57 per cent, were associated with Bacillus abortus. 26, or 23.8 per cent, were associated with spirilla. 2, or 1.8 per cent, were associated with Bacillus pyogenes. 19, or 17.4 per cent, were either sterile or else the digestive and respiratory tracts had been invaded during or after birth with miscellaneous bacteria. Bacillus abortus was absent according to cultures and animal tests. Such a relatively large proportion of cases of abortion without Bacillus abortus as the inciting agent is noteworthy. In general Bacillus abortus was associated with first pregnancies. Its presence diminished rapidly in frequency in later pregnancies. Assuming in a general way that purchased cows coming from small herds were free from any immunity and that their first pregnancy in the new herd is equivalent to that of a native heifer and may be counted as the first, we have Bacillus abortus associated with the first pregnancy in 42, with the second in 14, with the third in 5, and with the fourth in 1. Spirilla were distributed as follows: (a) in purchased cows, first pregnancy, 6; second pregnancy, 9; third pregnancy, 5; and fourth pregnancy, 3; (b) in native cows, first pregnancy, 0; third pregnancy, 1; sixth pregnancy, 1; and eighth pregnancy) 1. The relation of infection with spirilla to acquired immunity is not clear and more data from large herds are needed to define both etiological and immunological bearings of the spirilla. Thus far spirilla have not been encountered in native heifers of the herd giving birth the first time. A tentative explanation to be offered is that the young stock is kept segregated from the older and purchased cows until shortly before calving. The occasional discharge of a fetus among the young stock in pasture tends to keep up the disease due to Bacillus abortus. Later on association with older cows brings about infection with spirilla (Vibrio fetus) and more rarely with other possible agencies of fetal disease. On the other hand, abortions may occur among the pastured stock from time to time and remain unrecognized. Not until both groups of animals are subjected to the same daily scrutiny will it be possible to affirm that abortion associated with spirilla does or does not occur among young stock.
PMCID: PMC2126688  PMID: 19868362
12.  Leptospira interrogans serovars hardjo and pomona: causes of infections in dairy cows and humans in Florida 
Public Health Reports  1981;96(3):250-254.
Leptospirosis was diagnosed in 11 milkers on 3 dairy farms in a Florida county. Serologic test results identified Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo as the infecting organism in milkers and cows on one farm, and hardjo was isolated from two cows. On the second farm, serovars hardjo and pomona were implicated serologically in the cows and milkers, and pomona was isolated from two milkers. On the third farm, hardjo infection was identified by serologic tests in one milker, and hardjo was isolated from another.
This was the first isolation of hardjo from a human being reported in the United States. Leptospiral infection is an occupational hazard for dairy milkers in some areas of the United States. Thus, the authors recommend that preventive measures should be taken. These measures should include boots and other protective clothing and protection from urine spray for the eyes and nose.
PMCID: PMC1424194  PMID: 7232685
13.  Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle in farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2011;52(9):967-972.
Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle on farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (Canada) was determined by analyzing feces using direct immunofluorescence antibody microscopy. Genotypes were determined by 16S-rRNA sequencing. Fecal samples (n = 892) were collected from adult cattle in dairy tie-stall, dairy free-stall, and beef herds (10 herds each), and from calves (n = 183) from 11 dairy farms. Prevalence rates were 38% and 51% in cows and calves, respectively. Giardia duodenalis was present in all dairy herds, in 9/10 beef herds and in calves from 10/11 herds examined. Prevalence rates were 40% and 41% for cows in tie- and free-stall herds, respectively, and 27% for beef cows. Zoonotic Assemblage A was found in 12.2% of calves concomitantly infected with Assemblage E. All successfully sequenced samples (114/128) from cows corresponded to Assemblage E. Giardia duodenalis is highly prevalent in cattle herds in Prince Edward Island and Assemblage A in calves is a potential public health concern.
PMCID: PMC3157069  PMID: 22379195
14.  Bovine viral diarrhoea virus seroprevalence and vaccination usage in dairy and beef herds in the Republic of Ireland 
Irish Veterinary Journal  2012;65(1):16.
Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is an infectious disease of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Herd-level prevalence varies among European Union (EU) member states, and prevalence information facilitates decision-making and monitoring of progress in control and eradication programmes. The primary objective of the present study was to address significant knowledge gaps regarding herd BVD seroprevalence (based on pooled sera) and control on Irish farms, including vaccine usage.
Preliminary validation of an indirect BVD antibody ELISA test (Svanova, Biotech AB, Uppsala, Sweden) using pooled sera was a novel and important aspect of the present study. Serum pools were constructed from serum samples of known seropositivity and pools were analysed using the same test in laboratory replicates. The output from this indirect ELISA was expressed as a percentage positivity (PP) value. Results were used to guide selection of a proposed cut-off (PCO) PP. This indirect ELISA was applied to randomly constructed within-herd serum pools, in a cross-sectional study of a stratified random sample of 1,171 Irish dairy and beef cow herds in 2009, for which vaccination status was determined by telephone survey. The herd-level prevalence of BVD in Ireland (percentage positive herds) was estimated in non-vaccinating herds, where herds were classified positive when herd pool result exceeded PCO PP. Vaccinated herds were excluded because of the potential impact of vaccination on herd classification status. Comparison of herd-level classification was conducted in a subset of 111 non-vaccinating dairy herds using the same ELISA on bulk milk tank (BMT) samples. Associations between possible risk factors (herd size (quartiles)) and herd-level prevalence were determined using chi-squared analysis.
Receiver Operating Characteristics Analysis of replicate results in the preliminary validation study yielded an optimal cut-off PP (Proposed Cut-off percentage positivity - PCO PP) of 7.58%. This PCO PP gave a relative sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of 98.57% and 100% respectively, relative to the use of the ELISA on individual sera, and was chosen as the optimal cut-off since it resulted in maximization of the prevalence independent Youden’s Index.
The herd-level BVD prevalence in non-vaccinating herds was 98.7% (95% CI - 98.3-99.5%) in the cross-sectional study with no significant difference between dairy and beef herds (98.3% vs 98.8%, respectively, p = 0.595).
An agreement of 95.4% was found on Kappa analysis of herd serological classification when bulk milk and serum pool results were compared in non-vaccinating herds. 19.2 percent of farmers used BVDV vaccine; 81% of vaccinated herds were dairy. A significant association was found between seroprevalence (quartiles) and herd size (quartiles) (p < 0.01), though no association was found between herd size (quartiles) and herd-level classification based on PCO (p = 0.548).
The results from this study indicate that the true herd-level seroprevalence to Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD) virus in Ireland is approaching 100%. The results of the present study will assist with national policy development, particularly with respect to the national BVD eradication programme which commenced recently.
PMCID: PMC3443026  PMID: 22849554
15.  Aspects of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus herd-level seroprevalence and vaccination in dairy and beef herds in Northern Ireland 
Irish Veterinary Journal  2014;67(1):18.
Infections with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus cause diseases of cattle with a worldwide distribution. The primary objective of the present study was to describe aspects of herd-level BoHV-1 and BVDV seroprevalence (based on testing of pooled sera) and control on farms in Northern Ireland, including vaccine usage.
An indirect antibody ELISA test (SVANOVA, Biotech AB, Uppsala, Sweden) was applied to serum pools which were constructed from serum samples taken for a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 500 Northern Irish dairy and beef cow herds in 2010, for which vaccination status was determined by telephone survey. The herd-level seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in Northern Ireland was estimated in non-vaccinating herds and associations between possible risk factors (herd type and herd size (quartiles)) and herd-level prevalence were determined using chi-squared analysis.
The herd-level seroprevalence (of BoHV-1 and BVDV) in non-vaccinating herds was 77.3% (95% CI: 73.6–80.9%) and 98.4% (95% CI: 97.3–99.5%) respectively in the cross-sectional study. A significant difference existed in BoHV-1 herd-level seroprevalence between dairy and beef herds (74.7% vs 86.5% respectively; p < 0.02) though not for BVDV seroprevalence (98.5% vs 98.3% respectively; p > 0.91). A significant association was found between herd size (quartiles) and herd-level classification for BoHV-1 herd-level seroprevalence based on cut-off percentage positivity (COPP) (p < 0.01) while no such association was found for BVDV (p = 0.22).
15.5% and 23.8% of farmers used BoHV-1 and BVDV vaccines, respectively. BoHV-1 vaccine was used in 30% of dairy herds and in 11% of beef herds, while BVDV vaccine was used in 46% and 16% of dairy and beef herds, respectively.
The results from this study indicate that the true herd-level seroprevalences to bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine virus diarrhoea virus in non-vaccinating herds in Northern Northern Ireland are 77.3% (95% CI: 73.6–80.9%) and 98.4% (95% CI: 97.3–99.5%), respectively. The present study will assist in guiding regional policy development and establish a baseline against which the progress of current and future control and eradication programmes can be measured.
PMCID: PMC4141657  PMID: 25152811
16.  Observed management practices in relation to the risk of infection with paratuberculosis and to the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss dairy and beef herds 
BMC Veterinary Research  2014;10:132.
Many studies have been conducted to define risk factors for the transmission of bovine paratuberculosis, mostly in countries with large herds. Little is known about the epidemiology in infected Swiss herds and risk factors important for transmission in smaller herds. Therefore, the presence of known factors which might favor the spread of paratuberculosis and could be related to the prevalence at animal level of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were assessed in 17 infected herds (10 dairy, 7 beef). Additionally, the level of knowledge of herd managers about the disease was assessed. In a case–control study with 4 matched negative control herds per infected herd, the association of potential risk factors with the infection status of the herd was investigated.
Exposure of the young stock to feces of older animals was frequently observed in infected and in control herds. The farmers’ knowledge about paratuberculosis was very limited, even in infected herds. An overall prevalence at animal level of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis of 6.1% was found in infected herds, whereby shedders younger than 2 years of age were found in 46.2% of the herds where the young stock was available for testing. Several factors related to contamination of the heifer area with cows’ feces and the management of the calving area were found to be significantly associated with the within-herd prevalence. Animal purchase was associated with a positive herd infection status (OR = 7.25, p = 0.004).
Numerous risk factors favoring the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from adult animals to the young stock were observed in infected Swiss dairy and beef herds, which may be amenable to improvement in order to control the disease. Important factors were contamination of the heifer and the calving area, which were associated with higher within-herd prevalence of fecal shedding. The awareness of farmers of paratuberculosis was very low, even in infected herds. Animal purchase in a herd was significantly associated with the probability of a herd to be infected and is thus the most important factor for the control of the spread of disease between farms.
PMCID: PMC4065578  PMID: 24930008
Paratuberculosis; Johne’s disease; Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis; Infection; Awareness; Risk factor; Control; Dairy; Beef
The data bearing on these three cases are quite sufficient to rule out Bacillus abortus as the agent. Not only the cultures and guinea pig tests of fetal tissues and contents of the digestive tract, but also the agglutination and guinea pig tests of the milk, were negative. The same is true of the agglutination tests of the blood serum. Only in one case was the placenta obtained in part. The stained films and the sections from various regions showed no abortion bacilli. Guinea pig tests of placental tissue were negative for Bacillus abortus. On the other hand) minute organisms resembling vibrios were detected in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells within capillaries in the edematous subchorionic tissue. Subsequently the agglutination titer of the blood serum of one of these cases rose to a level indicating infection with Bacillus abortus during the second pregnancy. The peculiar distribution of abortions due to Vibrio fetus among older cows and heifers in this herd, resulting at first in cases among older cows and latterly passing to young stock, may be explained by certain occurrences in the herd itself. It may be assumed that the infection was originally brought in by purchased cows. The young stock is kept segregated from these in a special barn, and when 6 months old it is pastured on outlying farms until returned in an advanced stage of pregnancy. The heifers during the first pregnancy were thus kept away from vibrio carriers until after the first calf was born. In June and July, 1919, 55 older cows, purchased and native, were placed on the young stock pasture. The three cases of abortion in heifers due to Vibrio fetus occurred October 24, November 9, and December 2, 1919. The age and condition of the fetuses accord very well with the assumption that Vibrio fetus was introduced among the young stock in June or July of the same year. The information gathered thus far concerning vibrionic abortion in this herd enables us to formulate a tentative hypothesis subject to modification with increasing knowledge of this type of infectious abortion. The infectious agent was probably introduced by purchased cows in 1917 or earlier. It gained a certain headway up to 1919, then the number of cases declined so that between May, 1919, and May, 1920, only the above three cases in heifers, and one case of mixed infection with Bacillus abortus in an older cow, were detected. During the same period cases due to Bacillus abortus continued undiminished. The greater resistance of Bacillus abortus manifested in cultures as compared with Vibrio fetus is thus reflected in its behavior in nature. The temporary dying out of the infection indicates that natural immunization of a herd to Vibrio fetus proceeds quite rapidly. Another outbreak may be expected when the immunity of the herd has declined in the absence of the infecting agent and the latter is reintroduced from without, or it may reappear at any time when a vibrio of higher virulence is brought in.
PMCID: PMC2128154  PMID: 19868469
18.  Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico 
The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent.
PMCID: PMC1940280  PMID: 17955907
19.  Evaluation of pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR  
Iranian Journal of Microbiology  2011;3(3):135-139.
Background and objectives
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.
Materials and Methods
Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN). PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.
The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50%) and Pomona (37.5%). The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.
Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.
PMCID: PMC3279815  PMID: 22347596
Leptospira; Shahrekord; Cattle; PCR
20.  Leptospiral Antibodies in Cattle in Alberta and Evidence of an Emerging Serovar 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1988;29(8):647-653.
Antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovars hardjo and pomona were present in 8.3% and 0.5% of sera respectively, from adult female cattle in Alberta surveyed in 1984-85. Criterion for a positive serum sample was 50% agglutination at 1/100 dilution in the microscopic agglutination test. A positive herd contained one or more cows with positive serum. Prevalences were calculated on sample sizes that would give 80-95% reliability. Hardjo antibody prevalences and hardjo-positive herd prevalences were 0-53.9% and 0-83.3%, respectively, among 65 municipalities surveyed. Pomona prevalences by comparison were 0-3.4% and 0-11.7% respectively. Hardjo had increased significantly since 1980-82, and antibodies were found throughout the province. Pomona occurred mainly in southeastern Alberta, where it was isolated from cattle, swine and skunks. Hardjo was isolated only from cattle and it was found in many areas. Antibodies to icterohaemorrhagiae were present in 0.4% of sera from parts of Alberta surveyed in 1980; evidence of the presence of leptospires related to this serovar in bovine and porcine urinary tracts was obtained by immunofluorescence.
PMCID: PMC1680765  PMID: 17423101
21.  Host adapted intramammary infections in pregnant heifers which were co-housed and reared on fresh milk as calves 
Heifers can calve down with intramammary infections (IMI) and udder damage. This will have a negative impact on their longevity, future milk yield and financial return. Co-housed pre-weaned calves that are fed fresh milk have the opportunity to suckle each other’s teats and may infect udders of fellow heifer calves with pathogens present in milk. The prevalence of IMI in pregnant heifers in South Africa (SA) which were co-housed and reared on fresh milk as calves, is not known. Quarter secretion samples from both pregnant heifers (n = 2065) and dry cows (n = 5365) were collected for microbiological analysis from eight SA dairy herds. All heifers tested in this study were co-housed pre-weaning and were fed fresh milk as calves.
The prevalence of coagulase negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, environmental streptococci, coliforms and samples with no bacterial growth in heifers was 26%, 0.9%, 0.08%, 1.4%, 0.4% and 66%, respectively. The overall prevalence ratio between heifers and cows for Staphylococcus aureus IMI was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.98). Four of the individual herds had prevalence ratios of less than one (p < 0.05), one herd had a prevalence ratio of 3.15 (95% CI: 1.52, 6.32), and the remaining 3 herds had a prevalence ratio not significantly different from 1.0. Marginally significant differences were found between Staphylococcus aureus IMI in pregnant heifers compared to cows in their second and later lactations (p = 0.06, p = 0.05, respectively) but no significant differences between heifers and cows in their first lactation.
The presence of Streptococcus agalactiae IMI in heifers came as a surprise, especially as herd infection rates were low. The high prevalence ratio of Staphylococcus aureus between heifers and cows in one herd warrants further investigation due to the potential danger of udder damage in a young cow at the start of her productive life. The IMI in heifers with host adapted pathogens can also act as a source of new IMI for lactating dairy cows.
PMCID: PMC3605302  PMID: 23497629
Heifer intramammary infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae; Co-housed calves; Fresh milk rearing systems
22.  Campylobacter jejuni abortions in two beef cattle herds in Saskatchewan 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1990;31(5):373-377.
Abortions, accompanied by placental retention and weight loss, occurred during February and March in 19% of 120 and 10% of 108 beef cows and heifers on two neighboring ranches in southern Saskatchewan. A diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni abortion was made based on lesions of necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and fetal bronchopneumonia in association with the culture of large numbers of C. jejuni from placentas and fetal tissues.
Campylobacter jejuni was isolated with variable frequency from fecal samples of aborting and healthy cows, and scouring and healthy calves. Campylobacter jejuni serotype 2 (Lior) was isolated from fetal tissues and feces of a scouring calf, whereas C. jejuni serotypes 1, 4, 5 and 99 were isolated from feces of in-contact cattle. We hypothesized that the source and mode of transmission of C. jejuni was fecal contamination of water supplies and feeding grounds by carrier cows or wildlife.
PMCID: PMC1480707  PMID: 17423586
23.  Not all cows are epidemiologically equal: quantifying the risks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) transmission through cattle movements 
Veterinary Research  2014;45(1):110.
Many economically important cattle diseases spread between herds through livestock movements. Traditionally, most transmission models have assumed that all purchased cattle carry the same risk of generating outbreaks in the destination herd. Using data on bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Scotland as a case example, this study provides empirical and theoretical evidence that the risk of disease transmission varies substantially based on the animal and herd demographic characteristics at the time of purchase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that purchasing pregnant heifers and open cows sold with a calf at foot were associated with an increased risk of beef herds being seropositive for BVDV. Based on the results from a dynamic within-herd simulation model, these findings may be partly explained by the age-related probability of animals being persistently infected with BVDV as well as the herd demographic structure at the time of animal introductions. There was also evidence that an epidemiologically important network statistic, “betweenness centrality” (a measure frequently associated with the potential for herds to acquire and transmit disease), was significantly higher for herds that supplied these particular types of replacement beef cattle. The trends for dairy herds were not as clear, although there was some evidence that open heifers and open lactating cows were associated with an increased risk of BVDV. Overall, these findings have important implications for developing simulation models that more accurately reflect the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases.
PMCID: PMC4206702  PMID: 25323831
24.  Variance components for susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy and beef cattle 
Infection of livestock with bovine tuberculosis (bTB; Mycobacterium bovis) is of major economical concern in many countries; approximately 15 000 to 20 000 cattle are infected per year in Ireland. The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic variation for bTB susceptibility in Irish dairy and beef cattle.
A total of 105 914 cow, 56 904 heifer and 21 872 steer single intra-dermal comparative tuberculin test records (i.e., binary trait) collected from the years 2001 to 2010 from dairy and beef herds were included in the analysis. Only animal level data pertaining to periods of herd bTB infection were retained. Variance components for bTB were estimated using animal linear and threshold mixed models and co-variances were estimated using sire linear mixed models.
Using a linear model, the heritability for susceptibility to bTB in the entire dataset was 0.11 and ranged from 0.08 (heifers in dairy herds) to 0.19 (heifers in beef herds) among the sub-populations investigated. Differences in susceptibility to bTB between breeds were clearly evident. Estimates of genetic correlations for bTB susceptibility between animal types (i.e., cows, heifers, steers) were all positive (0.10 to 0.64), yet different from one. Furthermore, genetic correlations for bTB susceptibility between environments that differed in herd prevalence of bTB ranged from 0.06 to 0.86 and were all different from one.
Genetic trends for bTB susceptibility observed in this study suggest a slight increase in genetic susceptibility to bTB in recent years. Since bTB is of economic importance and because all animals are routinely tested at least once annually in Ireland and some other countries, the presence of genetic variation for bTB susceptibility suggests that bTB susceptibility should be included in a national breeding program to halt possible deterioration in genetic susceptibility to bTB infection.
PMCID: PMC4234858  PMID: 25407624
25.  Epidemiology of BHV 1 virus infections in dairy herds. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1983;91(2):309-318.
The epidemiology of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1) infections was studied in 20 dairy herds. Periodic serological surveillance of these herds during three consecutive years (1980-82) was combined with clinical studies. In 19 herds seropositive cows were found indicating previous exposure to BHV 1. One herd had its first experience with BHV 1 during the study. No indication of virus circulation for at least three years was found in eight herds. In five herds an interval of 2 years without an indication of virus circulation was followed by infections in yearlings, first- and second-calf cows during the third year. One or two cycles of virus circulation in calves and/or yearlings during the 3 year survey were detected in six herds. Most BHV 1 infections passed unnoticed. Signs of respiratory disease in association with BHV 1 infection were observed in three herds: young animals were most seriously affected. Clinical manifestations of BHV 1 infections were less pronounced than a few years ago when infections in cows caused frank signs and diagnosis was frequently possible on the basis of a typical clinical picture. BHV 1 was the cause of abortions in the herd that experienced its first infections during this survey. A survey of the age-specific BHV 1 neutralizing antibody pattern may be helpful for tracing animals and herds at risk of an outbreak of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis.
PMCID: PMC2129383  PMID: 6315812

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