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1.  Philadelphia's Medical Libraries 
Philadelphia medical libraries embrace the past, the present, and the future. Typifying the expansion in medical communications, area libraries cover the broad spectrum of medical and paramedical fields. Serving workers in these fields are the College of Physicians Library, the five medical school libraries, and a host of hospital and special libraries. Many of these libraries date from the early years of this country. Pharmaceutical firms and governmental institutions in the city, as well as medical libraries in neighboring states, contribute to the area's rich resources. The cooperative efforts and outlook of all these libraries are reflected in the strength of the Regional Group of the Medical Library Association and the plans being made for the future of medical libraries in the Philadelphia area.
PMCID: PMC198259  PMID: 14271118
2.  Recurrent Dislocation of the Shoulder Joint 
Dr. Anthony F. DePalma is shown. Photograph provided with kind permission of the Art Committee of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.
Dr. DePalma was the first editor of Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, established by the recently formed Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons. The idea of forming the Association of Bone and Joint surgeons had been conceived by Dr. Earl McBride of Oklahoma City in 1947, and organized by a group of twelve individuals (Drs. Earl McBride, Garrett Pipkin, Duncan McKeever, Judson Wilson, Fritz Teal, Louis Breck, Henry Louis Green, Howard Shorbe, Theodore Vinke, Paul Williams, Eugene Secord, and Frank Hand) [9]. The first organizational meeting was held in conjunction with the 1949 Annual Meeting of the AAOS [9] and the first annual meeting held April 1–2, 1949 in Oklahoma City. Drs. McBride and McKeever invited Dr. DePalma to attend that meeting and join the society. According to DePalma, “Even at this small gathering, there were whisperings of the need of another journal to provide an outlet for the many worthy papers written on clinical and basic science subjects” [7]. The decision to form a new journal was finalized in 1951, and Drs. DePalma and McBride signed a contract with J.B. Lippincott Company. Dr. DePalma was designated Editor-in-Chief, and the journal became a reality in 1953 with the publication of the first volume. From the outset he established the “symposium” as a unique feature, in which part of the articles were devoted to a particular topic. Dr. DePalma served as Editor for 13 years until 1966, when he resigned the position and recommended the appointment of Dr. Marshall R. Urist. At his retirement, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research was well established as a major journal.
Dr. Anthony F. DePalma was born in Philadelphia in 1904, the son of immigrants from Alberona in central Foggia, Italy [1]. He attended the University of Maryland for his premedical education, then Jefferson Medical College, from which he graduated in 1929. He then served a two-year internship (common at the time) at Philadelphia General Hospital. Jobs were scarce owing to the Depression, and he felt fortunate to obtain in 1931 a position as assistant surgeon at the Coaldale State Hospital, in Coaldale, Pennsylvania, a mining town. However, he became attracted to orthopaedics and looked for a preceptorship (postgraduate training in specialties was not well developed at this time before the establishments of Boards). In the fall of 1932, he was appointed as a preceptor at the New Jersey Orthopaedic Hospital, an extension of the New York Orthopaedic Hospital. In 1939 he acquired Board certification (the first board examination was offered in 1935 for a fee of $25.00 [2]) and was appointed to the NJOH staff [1].
Dr. DePalma volunteered for military service in 1942, and served first at the Parris Island Naval Hospital in South Carolina, then on the Rixey, a hospital ship. In addition to serving to evacuate casualties to New Zealand, his ship was involved in several of the Pacific island assaults (Guam, Leyte, Okinawa). In 1945, he was assigned to the Naval Hospital in Philadelphia [1].
On his return to Philadelphia, he contacted staff members at Jefferson Medical College, including the Chair, Dr. James Martin, and became good friends with Dr. Bruce Gill (a professor of Orthopaedics at the University of Pennsylvania, and one of the earliest Presidents of the AAOS). After he was discharged from the service, he joined the staff of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Jefferson, where he remained the rest of his career. He succeeded Dr. Martin as Chair in 1950, a position he held until 1970 when he reached the mandatory retirement age of 65. He closed his practice and moved briefly to Pompano Beach, Florida, but the lure of academia proved too powerful, and in January, 1971, he accepted the offer to develop a Division of Orthopaedics at the New Jersey College of Medicine and became their Chair. He committed to a five-year period, and then again moved to Pompano Beach, only to take the Florida State Boards and open a private practice in 1977. His practice grew, and he continued that practice until 1983 at the age of nearly 79. Even then he continued to travel and lecture [1].
We reproduce here four of his many contributions on the shoulder. The first comes from his classic monograph, “Surgery of the Shoulder,” published by J. B. Lippincott in 1950 [2]. In this article he describes the evolutionary development of the shoulder, focusing on the distinction between various primates, and relates the anatomic changes to upright posture and prehensile requirements. The remaining three are journal articles related to frozen shoulder [1], recurrent dislocation [3], and surgical anatomy of the rotator cuff [6], three of the most common shoulder problems then and now. He documented the histologic inflammation and degeneration in various tissues including the coracohumeral ligaments, supraspinatus tendon, bursal wall, subscapularis musculotendinous junction, and biceps tendon. Thus, the problem was rather more global than localized. He emphasized, “Manipulation of frozen shoulders is a dangerous and futile procedure.” For recurrent dislocation he advocated the Magnuson procedure (transfer of the subscapularis tendon to the greater tuberosity) to create a musculotendinous sling. All but two of 23 patients he treated with this approach were satisfied with this relatively simple procedure. (Readers will note the absence of contemporary approaches to ascertain outcomes and satisfaction. The earliest outcome musculoskeletal measures were introduced in the 60s by Larson [11] and then by Harris [10], but these instruments were physician-generated and do not reflect the rather more rigorously validated patient-generated outcome measures we use today. Nonetheless, the approach used by Dr. DePalma reflected the best existing standards of reporting results.) Dr. DePalma’s classic article, “Surgical Anatomy of the Rotator Cuff and the Natural History of Degenerative Periarthritis,” [6] reflected his literature review and dissections of 96 shoulders from 50 individuals “unaware of any (shoulder) disability” and mostly over the age of 40. By the fifth decade, most specimens began to show signs of rotator cuff tearing and he found complete tears in nine specimens from “the late decades.” He concluded,
“Based on the…observations, one can reasonably construct the natural history of periarthritis of the shoulder. It is apparent that aging is an important etiological factor, and with aging certain changes take place in the connective tissue elements of the musculotendinous cuff…it is also apparent that in slowly developing lesions of this nature compensating adjustments in the mechanics of the joint take place so that severe alterations in the mechanics of the joint do not appear. However, one must admit that such a joint is very vulnerable and, if subjected to minor trauma, the existing degenerative lesion would be extended and aggravated.”
Thus, he clearly defined the benign effects of rotator cuff tear in many aging individuals, but also the potential to create substantial pain and disability.
Dr. DePalma was a prolific researcher and writer. In addition to his “Surgery of the Shoulder,” he wrote three other books, “Diseases of the Knee: Management in Medicine and Surgery” (published by J.B. Lippincott in 1954) [4], “The Management of Fractures and Dislocations” (a large and comprehensive two volume work published by W.B. Saunders in 1959, and going through 5 reprintings) [5], and “The Intervertebral Disc” (published by W.B. Saunders in 1970, and written with his colleague, Dr. Richard Rothman) [8]. PubMed lists 62 articles he published from 1948 until 1992.
We wish to pay tribute to Dr. DePalma for his vision in establishing Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research as a unique journal and for his many contributions to orthopaedic surgery.
References
DePalma A. Loss of scapulohumeral motion (frozen shoulder). Ann Surg. 1952;135:193–204.DePalma AF. Origin and comparative anatomy of the pectoral limb. In: DePalma AF, ed. Surgery of the Shoulder. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1950:1–14.DePalma AF. Recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint. Ann Surg. 1950;132:1052–1065.DePalma AF. Diseases of the Knee: Management in Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Company; 1954.DePalma AF. The Management of Fractures and Dislocations—An Atlas. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1959.DePalma AF. Surgical anatomy of the rotator cuff and the natural history of degenerative periarthritis. Surg Clin North Am. 1963;43:1507–1520.DePalma AF. A lifetime of devotion to the Janus of orthopedics. Bridging the gap between the clinic and laboratory. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;265:146–169.DePalma AF, Rothman RH. The Intervertebral Disc. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1970.Derkash RS. History of the Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1997;337:306–309.Harris WH. Traumatic arthritis of the hip after dislocation and acetabular fractures: treatment by mold arthroplasty. An end-result study using a new method of result evaluation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51:737–755.Larson CB. Rating scale for hip disabilities. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1963;31:85–93.
doi:10.1007/s11999-007-0105-3
PMCID: PMC2505210  PMID: 18264840
3.  A Note on the Philadelphia Regional Medical Library Committee * 
No rigid library plan can fullfil the needs of every region. The Philadelphia Regional Medical Library Committee, composed of representatives of the five medical schools, the College of Physicians, and other medical organizations, was formed to determine cooperative activities that best suit its own needs. The committee has reviewed plans for new libraries at several medical schools to avoid duplication of library resources. It envisions, also, cooperative storage of little-used materials, messenger service, an acquisition program to expand regional resources, improved communication by means of mechanical devices, and the establishment of a regional center and distribution of bibliographies from regionally located MEDLARS tapes.
PMCID: PMC198333  PMID: 5833628
4.  A description of the catalog division project at the College of Physicians of Philadelphia Library. 
This paper describes the procedures used at the Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia to divide its ninety-year-old dictionary card catalog. The division was necessitated by overcrowding, obsolete subject headings, and lack of a complete authority list which resulted in like materials being scattered throughout the catalog under several headings. Two catalogs were created: the historical-biographical catalog, representing all works published before 1950 and all works of historical or biographical nature; and the current catalog, containing all works published from 1950 on, excepting historical or biographical materials. The 1950- catalog was further divided into name and subject catalogs, and the subject section was revised according to MeSH. The project was completed in about two years. As a result, searching time has been much reduced, and the library is able to take advantage of the annual revisions of MeSH to update the subject catalog.
PMCID: PMC198915  PMID: 1173786
5.  Personnel Administration: In-Service Training at the Nonprofessional Level * 
A growing shortage of professional librarians has caused library administrators in all types of libraries to take a hard look at their interpretation of what constitutes professional work. The Free Library of Philadelphia is no exception, and in recent years it has evolved formal position classifications providing for the employment of nonlibrarians in positions formerly classed as professional as well as in the usual clerical and desk assignments. Conceived primarily out of necessity, these classifications and assignments are now readily accepted by the Library's staff, and there is little likelihood that earlier interpretations of professional and nonprofessional duties will ever be revived. This article outlines the Free Library's classification and training plan for nonprofessionals.
PMCID: PMC198330  PMID: 5832702
6.  Follow-Up Study of the Use of Refrigerated Homogenous Bone Transplants in Orthopaedic Operations 
Philip Duncan Wilson was born in Columbus, Ohio. His father was a family physician who held the Chair of Obstetrics in the Sterling Medical School [1]. The young Philip graduated from Harvard College in 1909 and then served as President of his graduating class at Harvard Medical School. He spent two years as a surgical intern at MGH, after which he returned to Columbus to practice. During WWI he was invited back to Boston to join the Harvard Unit under Harvey Cushing, and served with that unit when it was housed in the Lycée Pasteur. (The members of that unit included Marius Smith-Petersen, who also spent many years at the Massachusetts General Hospital and also became AAOS President.) He rejoined MGH on the staff in 1919. In 1925 he published an influential monograph with W.A. Cochrane (formerly of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary), entitled, “Fractures and Dislocations” [5].
Toward the end of his years in Boston he helped found the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. In 1934 he was appointed as Surgeon-in-Chief at the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in New York City. Dr. Wilson was active in many organizations, and reorganized and renamed the hospital he served (Hospital for Special Surgery), oversaw the building of a new hospital at its current site on the Cornell University medical campus, and raised money for a large research building. His zest inspired generations, and he was known for his gracious hospitality.
Dr. Wilson was one of three of the first fifteen Presidents (the others being Drs. John C. Wilson, Sr. and Melvin Henderson) whose son (Dr. Philip D. Wilson, Jr.) succeeded him as a President of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Dr. Wilson had a long interest in bone grafting and wrote numerous research papers, a few of which are referenced here [2–4]. In the article reprinted in this issue [3], he described the rapid increase in use of a bone bank he developed at the Hospital for Special Surgery in 1946: 19 operations using grafts in 1946, 48 in 1947, 106 in 1948, 134 in 1949, and 259 in 1950. He describes his animal experiments with autogenous grafts in which grafts rapidly incorporated. He further describes biopsies of previously implanted autogenous and homogenous bone transplants in patients undergoing serial fusions for scoliosis. The pathologist (Dr. Milton Helpern) commented they found “...no evidence that the cells in the bone transplants survived...” Autogenous grafts, his evidence suggested, incorporated more rapidly that homogenous grafts, but “...in the end the results are the same.” His followup studies suggested successful incorporation of graft in 210 of 248 cases. Philip Duncan Wilson, MD is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983.
References
Philip Duncan Wilson, MD 1886–1969. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51:1445–1447.Wilson PD. Experiences with a bone bank. Ann Surg. 1947;126:932–945.Wilson PD. Experience with the use of refrigerated homogenous bone. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1951;33:301–315.Wilson PD. Follow-up study of the use of refrigerated homogenous bone grafts in orthopaedic operations. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1951;33:307–323.Wilson PD, Cochrane WA. Fractures and Dislocations. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott; 1925.
doi:10.1007/s11999-007-0030-5
PMCID: PMC2505281  PMID: 18196370
7.  Derivation and Validation of Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2012;64(8):2677-2686.
Objective
The Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements and incorporate new knowledge in SLE immunology.
Methods
The classification criteria were derived from a set of 702 expert-rated patient scenarios. Recursive partitioning was used to derive an initial rule that was simplified and refined based on SLICC physician consensus. SLICC validated the classification criteria in a new validation sample of 690 SLE patients and controls.
Results
Seventeen criteria were identified. The SLICC criteria for SLE classification requires: 1) Fulfillment of at least four criteria, with at least one clinical criterion AND one immunologic criterion OR 2) Lupus nephritis as the sole clinical criterion in the presence of ANA or anti-dsDNA antibodies. In the derivation set, the SLICC classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications than the current ACR classification criteria (49 versus 70, p=0.0082), had greater sensitivity (94% versus 86%, p<0.0001) and equal specificity (92% versus 93%, p=0.39). In the validation set, the SLICC Classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications (62 versus 74, p=0.24), had greater sensitivity (97% versus 83%, p<0.0001) but less specificity (84% versus 96%, p<0.0001).
Conclusions
The new SLICC classification criteria performed well on a large set of patient scenarios rated by experts. They require that at least one clinical criterion and one immunologic criterion be present for a classification of SLE. Biopsy confirmed nephritis compatible with lupus (in the presence of SLE autoantibodies) is sufficient for classification.
doi:10.1002/art.34473
PMCID: PMC3409311  PMID: 22553077
8.  Library instruction in the medical school curriculum: a survey of medical college libraries. 
Future physicians must learn to cope with continuing changes in access to medical information. New instructional techniques, such as problem-based learning, emphasize the importance of research skills to medical students. To investigate the feasibility of establishing library instruction as a required part of the East Tennessee State University College of Medicine curriculum for undergraduates, the university's medical library surveyed 123 medical school libraries to determine the level of instruction offered by other academic medical libraries. The survey asked whether formal instruction was offered or required, and which courses were taught at each level of undergraduate training. Analysis of the fifty-five responses revealed that 75% offered formal library instruction, and that 49% of these respondents (36% of the total sample) required all students to take such courses. The courses offered most often were library tours, online catalog instruction, and MEDLINE-on-CD-ROM classes. Overall, thirty-three different course titles were offered by responding libraries. The majority of classes involved second- and third-year students. The survey responses reveal the prevalence of required library instruction in medical school curricula, and a broad-scale commitment to the development of lifelong learning skills among future health professionals.
PMCID: PMC299401  PMID: 8826622
9.  New library buildings: the Augustus Long Health Sciences Library of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University. 
A brief historical sketch, tracing the development of the College of Physicians and Surgeons and its library from the Royal charter date of 1754, is presented. Little is recorded of library development prior to 1928, when the departmental libraries were united with the Reference Library to form the core of the present library. The planning processes for the new library are discussed, noting the involvement of the entire library staff. Four floors in a twenty-story tower are devoted to library services, and each floor is described. Several of the major compromises made during the planning process are documented. Photographs and floor plans of two of the floors help illustrate the text.
Images
PMCID: PMC199336  PMID: 843656
10.  After-hours coverage 
Canadian Family Physician  2005;51(4):537.
OBJECTIVE
To determine the prevalence and content of existing or developing policies and guidelines of medical associations and colleges regarding after-hours care by family physicians and general practitioners, especially legal requirements.
DESIGN
Telephone survey in fall 2002, updated in fall 2004.
SETTING
Canada.
PARTICIPANTS
All national and provincial medical associations, Colleges of Family Physicians, Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, local government offices for the north, and the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE
Response to the question: “Does your agency have a policy in place regarding after-hours health care coverage by FPs/GPs, or are there active discussions regarding such a policy?”
RESULTS
The College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia was the first to institute a policy, in 1995, requiring physicians to make “specific arrangements” for after-hours care of their patients. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta adopted a similar policy in 1996 along with a guideline to aid implementation. In 2002, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia approved a guideline on the Availability of Physicians After Hours. The Saskatchewan Medical Association and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan formulated a joint policy on medical practice coverage that was released in 2003. Many agencies actively discussed the topic. Provincial and national Colleges of Family Physicians did not have any policies in place. The CMPA does not generate guidelines but released in an information letter in May 2000 a section entitled “Reducing your risk when you’re not available.”
CONCLUSION
There is increasing interest Canada-wide in setting policy for after-hours care. While provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons have traditionally led the way, a trend toward more collaboration between associations was identified. The effect of policy implementation on physicians’ coverage of patients is unclear.
PMCID: PMC1472952  PMID: 16926930
11.  A greater voice for academic health sciences libraries: the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' vision 
The founders of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) envisioned the development of a professional organization that would provide a greater voice for academic health sciences libraries, facilitate cooperation and communication with the Association of American Medical Colleges, and create a forum for identifying problems and solutions that are common to academic health sciences libraries. This article focuses on the fulfillment of the “greater voice” vision by describing action and leadership by AAHSL and its members on issues that directly influenced the role of academic health sciences libraries. These include AAHSL's participation in the work that led to the publication of the landmark report, Academic Information in the Academic Health Sciences Center: Roles for the Library in Information Management; its contributions to the recommendations of the Physicians for the Twenty-first Century: The GPEP Report; and the joint publication with the Medical Library Association of Challenge to Action: Planning and Evaluation Guidelines for Academic Health Sciences Libraries.
PMCID: PMC153155  PMID: 12883583
12.  Restructuring support staff classification levels for academic health sciences library positions. 
Nonprofessional library support staff traditionally hold what are considered to be low-paying, nonchallenging positions. These negative factors make retaining creative and productive employees difficult. This article outlines the approach taken at the Medical College of Georgia's Robert B. Greenblatt, M.D. Library to devise a structure of library staff positions that becomes progressively more demanding. A new nine-level Library Staff Classification Plan resulted. This plan also enables and encourages employees to acquire more skills and to accept more responsibility in order to qualify for higher-level library positions or to advance their present position to receive comparable rewards. The plan expresses the level of responsibilities expected, the employee qualifications desired, and lists representative duties across the spectrum of typical library tasks.
PMCID: PMC225408  PMID: 2393758
13.  Evaluation of the quality of the college library websites in Iranian medical Universities based on the Stover model 
Introduction:
Today, the websites of college and university libraries play an important role in providing the necessary services for clients. These websites not only allow the users to access different collections of library resources, but also provide them with the necessary guidance in order to use the information. The goal of this study is the quality evaluation of the college library websites in Iranian Medical Universities based on the Stover model.
Material and Methods:
This study uses an analytical survey method and is an applied study. The data gathering tool is the standard checklist provided by Stover, which was modified by the researchers for this study. The statistical population is the college library websites of the Iranian Medical Universities (146 websites) and census method was used for investigation. The data gathering method was a direct access to each website and filling of the checklist was based on the researchers’ observations. Descriptive and analytical statistics (Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)) were used for data analysis with the help of the SPSS software.
Findings:
The findings showed that in the dimension of the quality of contents, the highest average belonged to type one universities (46.2%) and the lowest average belonged to type three universities (24.8%). In the search and research capabilities, the highest average belonged to type one universities (48.2%) and the lowest average belonged to type three universities. In the dimension of facilities provided for the users, type one universities again had the highest average (37.2%), while type three universities had the lowest average (15%). In general the library websites of type one universities had the highest quality (44.2%), while type three universities had the lowest quality (21.1%). Also the library websites of the College of Rehabilitation and the College of Paramedics, of the Shiraz University of Medical Science, had the highest quality scores.
Discussion:
The results showed that there was a meaningful difference between the quality of the college library websites and the university types, resulting in college libraries of type one universities having the highest average score and the college libraries of type three universities having the lowest score.
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.145931
PMCID: PMC4275622  PMID: 25540794
College library; evaluation; medical universities; quality; Stover model; websites
14.  Comparing Active and Passive Varicella Surveillance in Philadelphia, 2005–2010: Recommendations for the Transition to Nationwide Passive Varicella Disease Surveillance 
Public Health Reports  2014;129(1):47-54.
Objective
The Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) conducts active surveillance for varicella in West Philadelphia. For its approximately 300 active surveillance sites, PDPH mandates biweekly reports of varicella (including zero cases) and performs intensive case investigations. Elsewhere in Philadelphia, surveillance sites passively report varicella cases, and abbreviated investigations are conducted. We used active varicella surveillance program data to inform the transition to nationwide passive varicella surveillance.
Methods
We compared classification of reported cases, varicella disease incidence, and reporting completeness for active and passive surveillance areas for 2005–2010. We assessed reporting completeness using capture-recapture analysis of 2- to 18-year-old cases reported by schools/daycare centers and health-care providers.
Results
From 2005 to 2010, PDPH received 3,280 passive and 969 active surveillance varicella case reports. Most passive surveillance reports were classified as probable cases (18% confirmed, 56% probable, and 26% excluded), whereas nearly all of the active surveillance reports were either confirmed or excluded (36% confirmed, 11% probable, and 53% excluded). Overall incidence rates calculated using confirmed/probable cases were similar in the active and passive surveillance areas. Detection of laboratory-confirmed, breakthrough, and moderate-to-severe cases was equivalent for both surveillance areas.
Conclusions
Although active surveillance for varicella results in better classified cases, passive surveillance provides comparable data for monitoring disease trends in breakthrough and moderate-to-severe varicella. To further improve passive surveillance in the two-dose-varicella vaccine era, jurisdictions should consider conducting periodic enhanced surveillance, encouraging laboratory testing, and collecting additional varicella-specific variables for passive surveillance.
PMCID: PMC3863003  PMID: 24381359
15.  Use of the Internet for health information by physicians for patient care in a teaching hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria 
Background
The Internet is the world's largest network of information, communication and services. Although the Internet is widely used in medicine and has made significant impact in research, training and patient care, few studies had explored the extent to which Nigerian physicians use Internet resources for patient care. The objective of this study was to assess physicians' use of the Internet for health information for patient care.
Method
172 physicians at the University College hospital (UCH) Ibadan, Nigeria; completed a 31-item, anonymous, standardized questionnaire. The Epi-Info software was used for data analysis.
Results
The mean age of the respondents was 31.95 years (SD 4.94). Virtually all (98%) the respondents had used the Internet; 76% accessed it from cyber cafes. E-mail was the most commonly used Internet service (64%). Ninety percent of the respondents reported they had obtained information from the Internet for patient care; of this number, 76.2% had searched a database. The database most recently searched was MEDLINE/PubMed in 99% of cases. Only 7% of the respondents had ever searched the Cochrane Library. More than half (58.1%) perceived they had no confidence to download full-text articles from online sources such as the Health Internetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI). Multiple barriers to increased use of the Internet were identified including poor availability of broadband (fast connection speed) Internet access, lack of information searching skills, cost of access and information overload.
Conclusion
Physicians' use of the Internet for health information for patient care was widespread but use of evidenced-based medicine resources such as Cochrane Library, Up-to-date and Clinical Evidence was minimal. Awareness and training in the use of EBM resources for patient care is needed. Introduction of EBM in the teaching curriculum will enhance the use of EBM resources by physicians for patient care.
doi:10.1186/1742-5581-3-12
PMCID: PMC1764751  PMID: 17163991
16.  Bibliographic control of audiovisuals: analysis of a cataloging project using OCLC. 
The staff of the Quillen-Dishner College of Medicine Library cataloged 702 audiovisual titles between July 1, 1982, and June 30, 1983, using the OCLC database. This paper discusses the library's audiovisual collection and describes the method and scope of a study conducted during this project, the cataloging standards and conventions adopted, the assignment and use of NLM classification, the provision of summaries for programs, and the amount of staff time expended in cataloging typical items. An analysis of the use of OCLC for this project resulted in the following findings: the rate of successful searches for audiovisual copy was 82.4%; the error rate for records used was 41.9%; modifications were required in every record used; the Library of Congress and seven member institutions provided 62.8% of the records used. It was concluded that the effort to establish bibliographic control of audiovisuals is not widespread and that expanded and improved audiovisual cataloging by the Library of Congress and the National Library of Medicine would substantially contribute to that goal.
PMCID: PMC227569  PMID: 2581645
17.  Fractures of the occipital condyle clinical spectrum and course in eight patients 
Introduction:
Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) are considered to be rare injuries. OCFs are now diagnosed more often because of the widespread use of computed tomography. Our aim is to report the incidence, treatment and long term outcome of 8 patients with OCFs.
Materials and Methods:
All patients presenting with multiple trauma from 1993 to 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Characteristics and course of the treatment were evaluated. Follow-up was performed after 11,7 years (range 5,9 to 19,3 years).
Results:
Nine cases of OCF in 8 patients were identified. All injuries resulted from high velocity trauma. The average scores on the ISS Scale were 39,6 (24-75) and 7,3 (3-15) on the GCS. According to Anderson's classification, 5 cases of Type III and 4 cases of Type I fractures were identified. According to Tuli's classification, 5 cases of Type IIA and 4 cases of Type I were found. Indications for immobilization with the halo-vest were type III injuries according to Anderson's classification or Tuli's type IIA injuries, respectively. Patients with Tuli's type I injuries were treated with a Philadelphia collar for 6 weeks. In one patient with initial complete tetraplegia and one with incomplete neurological deficits the final follow-up neurologic examination showed no neurological impairment at all (Frankel-grade A to E, respectively B to E). At follow-up, 3 patients were asymptomatic. Four patients suffered from mild pain when turning their head, pain medication was necessary in one case only.
Discussion:
OCF's are virtually undetectable using conventional radiography. In cases of high velocity, cranio-cervical trauma or impaired consciousness, high resolution CT-scans of the craniocervical junction must be performed. We suggest immobilization using a halo device for type III injuries according to Anderson's classification or Tuli's type IIa injuries, respectively. Patients with Tuli's type I injuries should be treated with a Philadelphia collar.
doi:10.4103/0974-8237.128525
PMCID: PMC3980555  PMID: 24744561
Long-term outcome; multiple trauma; occipital condyle fracture
18.  Information Rx: Evaluation of a new informatics tool for physicians, patients, and libraries 
Information Services & Use  2006;26(1):1-10.
Abstract
This paper reports selected results from two comprehensive evaluation studies of the Information Prescription (or “Information Rx”) Program implementation conducted from 2002-05 by the American College of Physicians Foundation (ACPF) and the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). In this Program physicians are provided with Information Prescription pads, analogous to pads used to prescribe medications, that are used to direct patients to the MedlinePlus web site and its contents that are applicable to a patient's health condition. The results describe the Program's potential to enhance patient education and interpersonal communication from physician and patient perspectives. The findings suggest once physicians adopt the use of an information prescription, they perceive they are providing an additional clinical service that enhances patient education and interpersonal communication. For physicians, participation in information prescription may improve patient communication, encourage information seeking, and lessen the number of poor quality Internet searches that patients frequently self-perform and bring to a doctor's office. Similarly, once patients receive a recommendation from a physician to seek health information on the web, patients may be more comfortable with health seeking on the Internet and discussing their findings with their doctor. The conclusions of the two evaluation studies imply an Information Prescription fosters a dialogue between providers and patients, helps patients use the Internet more effectively and seems to favorably impact patient education. As the medical community and patient advocacy groups continue to emphasize the importance of evidence-based information as the gold standard for accepted care, it can be expected that informatics tools such as Information Rx will come to play an increasingly important role as a vehicle to help identify and access high quality health information on the Internet.
PMCID: PMC1610110  PMID: 17060946
19.  Survey of physician experiences and perceptions about the diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia 
Background
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a condition characterized by widespread pain and is estimated to affect 0.5-5% of the general population. Historically, it has been classified as a rheumatologic disorder, but patients consult physicians from a variety of specialties in seeking diagnosis and ultimately treatment. Patients report considerable delay in receiving a diagnosis after initial presentation, suggesting diagnosis and management of FM might be a challenge to physicians.
Methods
A questionnaire survey of 1622 physicians in six European countries, Mexico and South Korea was conducted. Specialties surveyed included primary care physicians (PCPs; n=809) and equal numbers of rheumatologists, neurologists, psychiatrists and pain specialists.
Results
The sample included experienced doctors, with an expected clinical caseload for their specialty. Most (>80%) had seen a patient with FM in the last 2 years. Overall, 53% of physicians reported difficulty with diagnosing FM, 54% reported their training in FM was inadequate, and 32% considered themselves not knowledgeable about FM. Awareness of American College of Rheumatology classification criteria ranged from 32% for psychiatrists to 83% for rheumatologists. Sixty-four percent agreed patients found it difficult to communicate FM symptoms, and 79% said they needed to spend more time to identify FM. Thirty-eight percent were not confident in recognizing the symptoms of FM, and 48% were not confident in differentiating FM from conditions with similar symptoms. Thirty-seven percent were not confident developing an FM treatment plan, and 37% were not confident managing FM patients long-term. In general, rheumatologists reported least difficulties/greatest confidence, and PCPs and psychiatrists reported greatest difficulties/least confidence.
Conclusions
Diagnosis and managing FM is challenging for physicians, especially PCPs and psychiatrists, but other specialties, including rheumatologists, also express difficulties. Improved training in FM and initiatives to improve patient-doctor communication are needed and may help the management of this condition.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-356
PMCID: PMC3502453  PMID: 23051101
20.  Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased 
Background
Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation.
Findings
Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation) and June 2010 (post-implementation). A difference-in-difference design was used to examine the difference between estimated and actual calories purchased, and the odds of underestimating calories.
Participants in both cities, both pre- and post-calorie labeling, tended to underestimate calories purchased, by an average 216–409 calories. Adjusted difference-in-differences in estimated-actual calories were significant for individuals who ordered small meals and those with some college education (accuracy in Philadelphia improved by 78 and 231 calories, respectively, relative to Baltimore, p = 0.03-0.04). However, categorical accuracy was similar; the adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for underestimation by >100 calories was 0.90 (p = 0.48) in difference-in-difference models. Accuracy was most improved for subjects with a BA or higher education (AOR = 0.25, p < 0.001) and for individuals ordering small meals (AOR = 0.54, p = 0.001). Accuracy worsened for females (AOR = 1.38, p < 0.001) and for individuals ordering large meals (AOR = 1.27, p = 0.028).
Conclusions
We concluded that the odds of underestimating calories varied by subgroup, suggesting that at some level, consumers may incorporate labeling information.
doi:10.1186/s12966-014-0091-2
PMCID: PMC4104464  PMID: 25015547
Diet; Health policy; Energy intake; Caloric restriction; Obesity
21.  Level of agreement between 2002 American–European Consensus Group and 2012 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome and reasons for discrepancies 
Introduction
The aims of this study were to assess agreement between the currently used 2002 American–European Consensus Group (AECG) classification criteria and the new 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) and to identify potential sources of disagreement.
Methods
We studied 105 patients between 2006 and 2013 from the Brittany cohort of patients with suspected SS. AECG criteria were applied using only Schimer’s test and unstimulated whole salivary flow (UWSF) to assess objective ocular and oral involvement, since these are the tests most physicians use in clinical practice. Agreement between the two sets of criteria was assessed using Cohen’s κ coefficient.
Results
Of those studied, 42 patients fulfilled AECG and 35 ACR criteria. Agreement between the two sets was moderate (κ = 0.53). Patients fulfilling ACR but not AECG criteria (n = 8) were significantly younger and had shorter symptom durations, but only three of them had SS in the opinion of the evaluating physician. Xerostomia and xerophthalmia (AECG set only) did not discriminate between patients with and without SS. The use of UWSF in the AECG but not the ACR criteria explained part of the disagreement. The serological item in the ACR set (positive rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody ≥1:320 or anti-SSA/SSB positivity) did not result in classification differences compared to anti-SSA/SSB antibody alone (AECG set). Agreement between ocular staining score ≥3 (ACR set) and Schirmer’s test ≤5 mm/5 min (AECG set) was very low (κ = 0.14).
Conclusions
Agreement was only moderate between ACR and AECG criteria, suggesting these two sets would not select comparable patient populations. An international consensus about which classification criteria should be used in clinical studies is needed.
doi:10.1186/ar4514
PMCID: PMC4060239  PMID: 24642022
22.  Laws, leaders, and legends of the modern National Library of Medicine 
Purpose: The paper is an expanded version of the 2007 Joseph Leiter National Library of Medicine (NLM)/Medical Library Association Lecture presented at MLA ‘07, the Medical Library Association annual meeting in Philadelphia in May 2007. It presents an historical accounting of four major pieces of legislation, beginning with the NLM Act of 1956 up through the creation of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.
Brief Description: The transition from the United States Armed Forces Medical Library to the United States National Library of Medicine in 1956 was a major turning point in NLM's history, scope, and direction. The succeeding landmark legislative achievements—namely, the 1965 Medical Library Assistance Act, the 1968 Joint Resolution forming the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, and the 1988 authorization for the National Center for Biotechnology Information— transformed the library into a major biomedical communications institution and a leader and supporter of an effective national network of libraries of medicine. The leaders of the library and its major advocates—including Dr. Michael DeBakey, Senator Lister Hill, and Senator Claude Pepper—together contributed to the creation of the modern NLM.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.96.2.121
PMCID: PMC2268223  PMID: 18379667
23.  Library Collaboration with Medical Humanities in an American Medical College in Qatar 
Oman Medical Journal  2013;28(6):382-387.
The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of ‘doctors’ stories’ related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a ‘best practices’ approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders.
doi:10.5001/omj.2013.113
PMCID: PMC3815856  PMID: 24223240
Medical Humanities; Medical Libraries–Qatar; Medical Education-Humanities
24.  The Medical Library Service of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia 
A unique provincial medical library service has been established in British Columbia. Under the direction of professional librarians, the central library in Vancouver is building an extensive, largely clinical collection while 30 smaller branch libraries in hospitals throughout the province are establishing basic, up-to-date collections. Financial support comes from an annual fee of $25.00 per doctor paid to the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia. Photoduplication, mail and telephone services meet many reference needs. Reading is vital to continuing medical education. The library works closely with the University of British Columbia's Department of Continuing Medical Education to bring current medical knowledge to every doctor in British Columbia.
PMCID: PMC1921491  PMID: 14027692
25.  Predicting Malignancy from Mammography Findings and Surgical Biopsies 
Breast screening is the regular examination of a woman’s breasts to find breast cancer earlier. The sole exam approved for this purpose is mammography. Usually, findings are annotated through the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) created by the American College of Radiology. The BIRADS system determines a standard lexicon to be used by radiologists when studying each finding. Although the lexicon is standard, the annotation accuracy of the findings depends on the experience of the radiologist. Moreover, the accuracy of the classification of a mammography is also highly dependent on the expertise of the radiologist. A correct classification is paramount due to economical and humanitarian reasons.
The main goal of this work is to produce machine learning models that predict the outcome of a mammography from a reduced set of annotated mammography findings. In the study we used a data set consisting of 348 consecutive breast masses that underwent image guided or surgical biopsy performed between October 2005 and December 2007 on 328 female subjects. The main conclusions are threefold: (1) automatic classification of a mammography, independent on information about mass density, can reach equal or better results than the classification performed by a physician; (2) mass density seems to be a good indicator of malignancy, as previous studies suggested; (3) a machine learning model can predict mass density with a quality as good as the specialist blind to biopsy, which is one of our main contributions. Our model can predict malignancy in the absence of the mass density attribute, since we can fill up this attribute using our mass density predictor.
doi:10.1109/BIBM.2011.71
PMCID: PMC3866819  PMID: 24363962
machine learning; mammography; BIRADS

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