A postal questionnaire was sent to all Fellows of the British Orthopaedic Association to obtain a census of total knee replacement (TKR) preferences in the United Kingdom; 1162 questionnaires were sent and 721 replies received. There were 92 Fellows who had retired or filled in the forms incorrectly, and 32 no longer perform TKR. Thus, 597 responded correctly, giving a 62% response rate. This gives an extrapolated total of 34,677 TKRs being implanted per year in the UK, with an average of 34.3 being performed by each surgeon per year. Only 9% perform more than 90 per year. There were 41 different prostheses in current use among the respondents to our questionnaire, of which five prostheses constituted 61% of the total. Cemented prostheses were used by 95.2%. Resurfacing of the patella was always carried out by 32%, while 19% never resurface it; the most common reason for doing so being patellofemoral arthropathy at operation. Intramedullary alignment was used for the femoral component in 86%, 76% preferred extramedullary alignment for the tibial component. Regarding cementing technique, 43% use pulsatile lavage, 9% used a cement gun, 88% dry the bone and 56% seal the hole made by the femoral alignment device in the femur before cementing. All components were cemented simultaneously by 65% and one at a time by 31%. Metal-backed tibial prostheses are now used by 98% of surgeons, modular tibial components being preferred by 80%. Metal-backed patellar components were used by 13%. An onlay type of patella was preferred by 51%. This survey highlights the great diversity of surgical practice in the UK, which may reflect uncertainty regarding best practice in total knee replacement.
A postal questionnaire was sent to all practicing consultant orthopaedic surgeons in the UK seeking information regarding their usual total hip replacement practice, the age at which they would define a patient as falling into the 'young hip group' and whether this might modify their practice. In particular, in the 'younger' age group, we were interested in the frequency of usage of uncemented implants, the choice of implant and the bearing surfaces. Of 1242 surgeons surveyed, we had a response from 935 who currently undertake total hip arthroplasty. Their responses confirm that approximately 60,645 total hip replacements are performed annually in the UK of which 9,376 are performed in the younger age group (mean age 57.5 years). As with our previous survey, the most popular prosthesis in the 'older' age group overall was the Charnley (51%) followed by the Exeter (15%). These implants also proved to be the most popular in the 'younger' age group (40% Charnley, 18% Exeter), with 75% of surgeons choosing a cemented stem, and 65% also opting to cement the socket. 23% of surgeons used hydroxy-apatite coated implants on both the femoral and acetabular sides of the joint. Stainless steel remained the most popular choice of femoral head bearing surface (42%) followed by chrome-cobalt (33%) and ceramic (25%). On the acetabular side, high density polyethylene predominated--accounting for 95%, with only 3% using chrome cobalt and 2% ceramic. There would appear to be a remarkably conservative attitude among British surgeons, the majority of whom prefer to stick with tried and tested cemented femoral implants when dealing with the younger patient. There are a small number of uncemented acetabulae and the hybrid configuration. Hydroxy-apatite coatings seem to be the most popular choice for the non-cemented prostheses. Ceramic femoral heads are used more frequently than the ceramic acetabular bearing, and equally metal/metal bearings remain infrequently used.
Electronic forms of data collection have gained interest in recent
years. In orthopaedics, little is known about patient preference
regarding pen-and-paper or electronic questionnaires. We aimed to
determine whether patients undergoing total hip (THR) or total knee
replacement (TKR) prefer pen-and-paper or electronic questionnaires
and to identify variables that predict preference for electronic
We asked patients who participated in a multi-centre cohort study
investigating improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQoL)
after THR and TKR using pen-and-paper questionnaires, which mode
of questionnaire they preferred. Patient age, gender, highest completed
level of schooling, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, indication
for joint replacement and pre-operative HRQoL were compared between
the groups preferring different modes of questionnaire. We then
performed logistic regression analyses to investigate which variables
independently predicted preference of electronic questionnaires.
A total of 565 THR patients and 387 TKR patients completed the
preference question. Of the THR patients, 81.8% (95% confidence
interval (CI) 78.4 to 84.7) preferred pen-and-paper questionnaires
to electronic questionnaires, as did 86.8% (95% CI 83.1 to 89.8)
of TKR patients. Younger age, male gender, higher completed level
of schooling and higher BMI independently predicted preference of
electronic questionnaires in THR patients. Younger age and higher
completed level of schooling independently predicted preference
of electronic questionnaires in TKR patients.
The majority of THR and TKR patients prefer pen-and-paper questionnaires.
Patients who preferred electronic questionnaires differed from patients
who preferred pen-and-paper questionnaires. Restricting the mode
of patient-reported outcome measures to electronic questionnaires
might introduce selection bias.
Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:238–44.
Health-related quality of life; Total hip replacement; Total knee replacement; Patient-reported outcome measure; PROM; Questionnaire mode
The aim of this postal survey was to determine the prevalence and impact of patient-perceived leg length discrepancy (LLD) at 5–8 years after primary total hip replacement (THR). A postal audit survey was undertaken of all consecutive patients who had a primary unilateral THR at one elective orthopaedic centre between April 1993 and April 1996. The questionnaire included the Oxford hip score (OHS) and questions about LLD. Questionnaires were received from 1,114 patients. In total, 329 THR patients (30%) reported an LLD, although radiographic analysis revealed that only 36% of these patients had anatomical LLD. Patients with a perceived LLD had a significantly poorer OHS (p < 0.001) and reported more limping than those patients without a perceived LLD. This study found that a third of patients perceived an LLD after THR and that perceived LLD was associated with a significantly poorer midterm functional outcome.
It is estimated that over 8 million people in the United Kingdom suffer from osteoarthritis. These patients may require orthopaedic surgical intervention to help alleviate their clinical condition. Investigations presented here was to test the hypothesis that total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) orthopaedic surgery result in changes to leukocyte and endothelial markers thus increasing inflammatory reactions postoperatively.
During this 'pilot study', ten test subjects were all scheduled for THR or TKR elective surgery due to osteoarthritis. Leukocyte concentrations were measured using an automated full blood count analyser. Leukocyte CD11b (Mac-1) and CD62L cell surface expression, intracellular production of H2O2 and elastase were measured as markers of leukocyte function. Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were measured as markers of endothelial activation.
The results obtained during this study demonstrate that THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery result in similar changes of leukocyte and endothelial markers, suggestive of increased inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in a leukocytosis, this being demonstrated by an increase in the total leukocyte concentration following surgery. Evidence of leukocyte activation was demonstrated by a decrease in CD62L expression and an increase in CD11b expression by neutrophils and monocytes respectively. An increase in the intracellular H2O2 production by neutrophils and monocytes and in the leukocyte elastase concentrations was also evident of leukocyte activation following orthopaedic surgery. With respect to endothelial activation, increases in vWF and sICAM-1 concentrations were demonstrated following surgery.
In general it appeared that most of the leukocyte and endothelial markers measured during these studies peaked between days 1-3 postoperatively. It is proposed that by allowing orthopaedic surgeons access to alternative laboratory markers such as CD11b, H2O2 and elastase, CD62L, vWF and sICAM-1, an accurate assessment of the extent of inflammation due to surgery per se could be made. Ultimately, the leukocyte and endothelial markers assessed during this investigation may have a role in monitoring potential infectious complications that can occur during the postoperative period.
A cross-sectional study was performed to compare the practice of total hip replacement (THR) in the UK against national guidelines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A postal questionnaire was sent to all fellows of the British Orthopaedic Association.
Of the 1587 questionnaires sent out, 966 (60.9%) were returned. Of these, 706 (73.1%) were available for data collection and analysis.
Consensus was observed in several areas including the use of pre-admission clinics and modern cementing techniques. Facilities deemed necessary for THR surgery such as HDU/ITU back-up, ultra-clean air and dedicated orthopaedic wards are almost universally available. However, a lack of consensus is evident in many areas including the process of obtaining written consent, thrombo-embolic prophylaxis, duration of antibiotic prophylaxis, supervision of trainee surgeons and follow-up arrangements. The proliferation in the range of implants, particularly aimed at ‘younger’ patients, available to surgeons has once again been highlighted.
Total hip replacement; Hip; Arthroplasty; Audit; Postal questionnaire
Aseptic loosening is the major problem in hip joint replacement. Improved cementing techniques have been shown to improve the long-term survival of implants significantly. To assess the use of modern cementing techniques in British surgeons, a detailed questionnaire was sent to all Fellows of The British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) regarding cement preparation, bone preparation, cementing technique and prostheses used in total hip arthroplasty. Excluding retired fellows, surgeons who use no cement, and those who had filled in forms inadequately, 668 responded, who between them performed 43,680 hip arthroplasties per year. In this survey, 21 different types of hip prostheses were implanted by the surgeons; 48% of hips implanted were Charnley type. Of the surgeons, 46% used Palacos with gentamicin as their cement for both the femur and acetabulum. For the femur, 44% of surgeons remove all cancellous bone, 40% use pulse lavage, 59% use a brush to clear debris, 94% dry the femur, 97% plug the femur, 76% use a cement gun and 70% pressurise the cement. For the acetabulum, 88% of surgeons retain the subchondral bone, 40% use pulse lavage, 100% dry the acetabulum, 22% use hypotensive anaesthesia and 58% pressurise the cement. Overall only 25% of surgeons (26% of hips implanted) use 'modern' cementing techniques. This has implications for the number of arthroplasties that may require early revision.
Inpatient satisfaction with care is a standard indicator of the quality of care delivered during hospitalization. Total hip and knee replacement (THR/TKR) for osteoarthritis (OA) are among the most successful orthopaedic interventions having a positive impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim was to evaluate the effect of satisfaction shortly after hospital discharge on 1-month, 6-month and 1-year Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) scores for OA patients after THR and TKR, controlling for patient characteristics, clinical presentation and preoperative SF-36 scores.
A multicenter prospective cohort study recruited 231 patients with OA scheduled to receive THR or TKR. Satisfaction was assessed by the Patients Judgment of Hospital Quality (PJHQ) questionnaire and HRQoL by the SF-36 questionnaire. Linear models for repeated measures assessed the relation between satisfaction (scores were dichotomized) and postoperative SF-36 scores.
Of 231 participants, 189 were followed up 12 months after discharge (mean age 69 SD = 8; 42.6% male). The mean length of hospital stay was 13.5 (SD = 4) days. After adjustment for preoperative SF-36 scores, sociodemographic and clinical patient characteristics, satisfied patients (PJHQ score > 70) had higher SF-36 scores 1 year after surgery than did less-satisfied patients. Admission, medical care, and nursing and daily care scores mainly predicted bodily pain, mental health, social functioning, vitality and general health scores of the SF-36.
Besides being a quality-of-care indicator, immediate postoperative patient satisfaction with care may bring a new insight into clinical practice, as a predictor of self-perceived health status after surgery.
The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Western populations undergoing major orthopaedic surgery without any thromboprophylaxis has been reported to range from 32% to 88%. There is however limited information on incidence of VTE in Indian patients and most of the Indian patients undergoing these surgeries do not receive any form of prophylaxis regardless of their risk profile.
A prospective study was performed on 147 patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery for total knee replacement (TKR), total hip replacement (THR), and proximal femur fracture fixation (PFF) without any prophylaxis. These patients were profiled for presence of the known risk factors responsible for development of VTE. A duplex ultrasound on both lower limbs was done 6 to 10 days after surgery. Twenty three patients underwent THR, 22 patients underwent TKR, and 102 underwent surgery for PFF. The patients were assessed clinically for any signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A helical CT scan was done in case of suspicion of PE and a duplex ultrasound was done in case of clinical suspicion of DVT irrespective of the stage of study.
The overall incidence of VTE was 6.12% and that of PE was 0.6%. The risk factors that were found to be significantly responsible for development of VTE (p < 0.05) were: immobility greater than 72 hours, malignancy, obesity, surgery lasting more than two hours.
The study reconfirms the belief that DVT has a lower incidence in Indian patients as compared with other ethnic groups.
deep venous thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; thromboprophylaxis
This is an audit of patient understanding following their consent for orthopaedic procedures and uses information on new Orthoconsent forms endorsed by the British Orthopaedic Association as the set standard. The objectives were to: (i) assess whether patients& understanding of knee arthroscopy (KA) and total knee replacement (TKR) at the point of confirming their consent reaches the set standard; and (ii) to ascertain whether issuing procedure-specific Orthoconsent forms to patients can improve this understanding.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
This was a prospective audit using questionnaires consisting of 26 (for KA) or 35 (for TKR) questions based on the appropriate Orthoconsent form in a department of orthopaedic surgery within a UK hospital. Participants were 100 patients undergoing KA and 60 patients undergoing TKR between February and July 2008. Participants were identified from sequential operating lists and all had capacity to give consent. During the first audit cycle, consent was discussed with the patient and documented on standard yellow NHS Trust approved generic consent forms. During the second audit cycle, patients were additionally supplied with the appropriate procedure-specific consent form downloaded from which they were required to read at home and sign on the morning of surgery.
Knee arthroscopy patients consented with only the standard yellow forms scored an average of 56.7%, rising to 80.5% with use of Orthoconsent forms. Similarly, total knee replacement patients& averages rose from 57.6% to 81.6%.
Providing patients with an Orthoconsent form significantly improves knowledge of their planned procedure as well as constituting a more robust means of information provision and consent documentation.
Informed consent; Consent documentation; Orthopaedic surgery; Audit;
Computer-assisted total knee replacement (TKR) has been shown to improve radiographic alignment. Continuous feedback from the navigation system allows accurate adjustment of the bone cuts, thus reducing errors. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of experience both with computer navigation and knee replacement surgery on the frequency of errors in intraoperative bone cuts and implant alignment. Three homogeneous patient groups undergoing computer assisted TKR were included in the study. Each group was treated by one of three surgeons with varying experience in computer-aided and knee replacement surgery. Surgeon A had extensive experience in knee replacement and computer-assisted surgery. Surgeon B was an experienced knee replacement surgeon. A general orthopaedic surgeon with limited knee replacement surgery experience performed all surgeries in group C. The cutting errors and the number of re-cuts were determined intraoperatively. The complications and mean surgical time were collected for each group. The postoperative frontal femoral component angle, frontal tibial component angle, hip–knee–ankle angle and component slopes were evaluated. The results showed that the number of cutting errors were lowest for TKR performed by the surgeon with experience in navigation. This difference was statistically significant when compared to the general orthopaedic surgeon. A statistically significant superior result was achieved in final mechanical axis alignment for the surgeon experienced in computer-guided surgery compared to the other two groups (179.3° compared to 178.9° and 178.1°). However, the total number of outliers was similar, with no statistically significant differences among the three surgeons. Experience with navigation significantly reduced the surgical time.
The reported association of smoking with risk of undergoing a total joint replacement (TJR) due to osteoarthritis (OA) is not consistent. We evaluated the independent association between smoking and primary TJR in a large cohort.
The electronic records of 54,288 men and women, who were initially recruited for the Second Australian National Blood Pressure study, were linked to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry to detect total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) due to osteoarthritis. Competing risk regressions that accounted for the competing risk of death estimated the subhazard ratios for TJR. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to represent uncertainty in the classification of smoking exposure and socioeconomic disadvantage scores.
An independent inverse association was found between smoking and risk of THR and TKR observed in both men and women. Compared to non-smokers, male and female smokers were respectively 40% and 30% less likely to undergo a TJR. This significant association persisted after controlling for age, co-morbidities, body mass index (BMI), physical exercise, and socioeconomic disadvantage. The overweight and obese were significantly more likely to undergo TJR compared to those with normal weight. A dose–response relationship between BMI and TJR was observed (P < 0.001). Socioeconomic status was not independently associated with risk of either THR or TKR.
The strengths of the inverse association between smoking and TJR, the temporal relationship of the association, together with the consistency in the findings warrant further investigation about the role of smoking in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis causing TJR.
Total joint replacement; Smoking; Socioeconomic status; Exposure misclassification; Sensitivity analysis
The aim of this survey study was to evaluate the current opinion and practice of trauma and orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands in the removal of implants after fracture healing.
A web-based questionnaire consisting of 44 items was sent to all active members of the Dutch Trauma Society and Dutch Orthopaedic Trauma Society to determine their habits and opinions about implant removal.
Though implant removal is not routinely done in the Netherlands, 89% of the Dutch surgeons agreed that implant removal is a good option in case of pain or functional deficits. Also infection of the implant or bone is one of the main reasons for removing the implant (> 90%), while making money was a motivation for only 1% of the respondents. In case of younger patients (< 40 years of age) only 34% of the surgeons agreed that metal implants should always be removed in this category. Orthopaedic surgeons are more conservative and differ in their opinion about this subject compared to general trauma surgeons (p = 0.002). Though the far majority removes elastic nails in children (95%).
Most of the participants (56%) did not agree that leaving implants in is associated with an increased risk of fractures, infections, allergy or malignancy. Yet in case of the risk of fractures, residents all agreed to this statement (100%) whereas staff specialists disagreed for 71% (p < 0.001). According to 62% of the surgeons titanium plates are more difficult to remove than stainless steel, but 47% did not consider them safer to leave in situ compared to stainless steel. The most mentioned postoperative complications were wound infection (37%), unpleasant scarring (24%) and postoperative hemorraghe (19%).
This survey indicates that there is no general opinion about implant removal after fracture healing with a lack of policy guidelines in the Netherlands. In case of symptomatic patients a majority of the surgeons removes the implant, but this is not standard practice for every surgeon.
Osteosynthesis; Implant removal; Survey; Complaints; Fracture healing
Background and purpose
Deep vein thrombosis is common after total joint replacement. It is frequently asymptomatic, and it is unclear whether this leads to longer-term problems such as post-thrombotic syndrome and leg ulceration. We investigated whether the postoperative prevalence of ulceration in patients who had undergone primary total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) was higher than that found in a control group who had not undergone total joint replacement.
The study group consisted of patients who had undergone THR or TKR at one orthopedic center 12–16 years previously without routine chemothromboprophylaxis, and who had not undergone revision surgery. The control group was recruited via primary care. All participants were recruited by post and asked to complete a questionnaire. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of self-reported leg ulceration was calculated, and logistic regression was used to determine whether there were any associations between THR or TKR and leg ulceration.
Completed questionnaires were received from 441 THR patients (54% response rate), 196 TKR patients (48%) and 967 control participants (36%). No statistically significant differences in age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of ulceration were found between the groups, for either lifetime prevalence or prevalence over the previous 15 years.
Patients who undergo THR and TKR without chemothromboprophylaxis are unlikely to be at a higher risk of long-term venous ulceration than the normal population.
Malaria is a potentially lethal illness for which preventive measures are not optimally used among all travellers. Travellers visiting friends and relatives in their country of origin (VFRs) are known to use chemoprophylaxis less consistently compared to tourist travellers. In this study, factors explaining the low use of chemoprophylaxis were pursued to contribute to improving uptake of preventive measures among VFRs.
Following in-depth interviews with Ghanaians living in Amsterdam, a questionnaire was developed to assess which behavioural determinants were related to taking preventive measures. The questionnaire was administered at gates of departing flights from Schiphol International Airport, Amsterdam (the Netherlands) to Kotoka International Airport, Accra (Ghana).
In total, 154 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. Chemoprophylaxis had been started by 83 (53.9%) and bought by 93 (60.4%) travellers. Pre-travel advice had been obtained by 104 (67.5%) travellers. Those who attended the pre-travel clinic and those who incorrectly thought they had been vaccinated against malaria were more likely to use preventive measures. Young-, business- and long-term travellers, those who had experienced malaria, and those who thought curing malaria was easier than taking preventive tablets were less likely to use preventive measures.
Almost half of the VFRs travelling to West Africa had not started chemoprophylaxis; therefore, there is room for improvement. Risk reduction strategies could aim at improving attendance to travel clinics and focus on young-, business and long term travellers and VFRs who have experienced malaria during consultation. Risk reduction strategies should focus on improving self-efficacy and conceptions of response efficacy, including social environment to aim at creating the positive social context needed.
Malaria; Travellers; Chemoprophylaxis; Behavioural determinants
This prospective audit studies the use of cross-matched blood in 301 patients over a 1-year period undergoing total knee (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR) surgery in an orthopaedic unit.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Analysis over the first 6 months revealed a high level of unnecessary cross-matched blood. The following interventions were introduced: (i) to cease routine cross-matching for THR; (ii) all patients to have a check full blood count on day 2 after surgery; and (iii) Hb < 8 g/dl to be considered as the trigger for transfusion in patients over 65 years and free from significant co-morbidity. These changes are in accordance with published national guidelines [Anon. Guidelines for the clinical use of red cell transfusions. Br J Haematol 2001; 113: 24–31].
In the next 6 months, the number of units cross-matched but not transfused fell by 96% for THR, and the cross-match transfusion (C:T) ratio reduced from 3.21 to 1.62. Reductions were also observed for the TKR cohort. These results provide evidence of a substantial risk and cost benefit in the use of this limited resource. A telephone survey of 44 hospitals revealed that 20 hospitals routinely cross-matched blood for THR and 11 do so for TKR.
Changes can be made to the Maximum Surgical Blood Ordering Schedules (MSBOS) in other orthopaedic units according to national guidelines.
Total hip replacement; Total knee replacement; Cross-match transfusion ratio (C/T); Maximum Surgical Blood Ordering Schedule (MSBOS)
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication of major orthopaedic surgery of the lower limbs. Fondaparinux, a synthetic pentasaccharide and highly selective inhibitor of activated Factor Xa, is the first in a new class of antithrombotic agents. To determine the optimal dose in Japanese patients, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging studies of fondaparinux were conducted in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) or total hip replacement (THR) surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a once-daily subcutaneous injection of fondaparinux (0.75, 1.5, 2.5, or 3.0 mg) or placebo in Study 1 (TKR) and Study 2 (THR). In Study 1, the incidence of VTE was 65.3% in the placebo group and was 34.2%, 21.3%, 16.2%, and 9.5% in the groups receiving 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.0 mg fondaparinux respectively. In Study 2, the incidence of VTE was 33.8% in the placebo group and was 24.2%, 4.6%, 7.4%, and 14.4% in the 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.0 mg fondaparinux groups respectively. Dose–response effects were observed in both studies; however, no statistically significant differences in major bleeding events were found among any groups. Fondaparinux proved to be a potent anticoagulant with a favourable benefit-to-risk ratio in the prevention of VTE in these study patients.
The objective of this study was to examine the association between occupation and osteoarthritis (OA) leading to total knee (TKR) or hip (THR) joint replacement.
The following is the case-control study design. All patients still living in Iceland who had had a TKR or THR due to OA as of the end of 2002 were invited to participate. First degree relatives of participating patients served as controls. N = 1,408 cases (832 women) and n = 1,082 controls (592 women), 60 years or older and who had adequately answered a questionnaire were analyzed. Occupations were classified according to international standards. Inheritance of occupations was calculated by using the Icelandic Genealogy Database.
The age adjusted odds ratio (OR) for male farmers getting a TKR due to OA was 5.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 12.4) and for a male farmer getting a THR due to OA the OR was 3.6 (95% CI 2.1 to 6.2). The OR for a fisherman getting a TKR was 3.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 8.4). No other occupations showed increased risk for men. For women there was no increased risk for any occupation. Farming and fishing were also the occupations that showed the greatest degree of inheritance.
These results support an association in males between occupations with heavy physical load and both TKR and THR for OA.
Mechanical prophylaxis with foot pumps provides an interesting alternative to chemical agents in the prevention of thromboembolic disease following major orthopaedic surgical procedures. Recent studies have suggested that the simultaneous use of graduated compression stockings (GCS) may hinder the pneumatic compression effect of foot pumps. The hypothesis of this prospective study was that the use of foot pumps without GCS does not affect the efficacy of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis and improves patient compliance. A total of 846 consecutive patients admitted at a single institution undergoing total hip (THR) or knee replacement (TKR) were included in the study. The A-V Impulse System foot-pump unit (Orthofix Vascular Novamedix, Andover, UK) was used in all patients. Of these 846 patients, 46 discontinued the use of foot pumps, leaving 400 patients who received foot pumps in combination with GCS and 400 patients with foot pumps alone. Eleven patients of the stocking group (2.7%) and nine patients of the no-stocking group (2.3%) developed postoperative symptomatic DVT (p = 0.07). DVT was more frequent in TKR (10/364; 2.7%) than in THR (10/436; 2.3%). Non-fatal pulmonary embolism occurred in four of the 20 patients with symptomatic DVT, two patients each of the stocking and no-stocking groups. The foot-pump discontinuation rate of patients treated with stockings was 7% versus 4% of the patients treated without stockings (p < 0.05). In conclusion, management of patients with foot pumps without GCS does not reduce the efficacy of DVT prophylaxis after THR and TKR and improves patient compliance.
Patients older than 60 with unicompartmental knee arthritis can be treated with total or unicompartmental knee replacement. The aim of this study was to compare the results of matched paired groups of patients with isolated medial compartment knee arthritis replaced with either UKR (group A) or computer-assisted TKR (group B). The results included 68 knees at a minimum follow-up of 3 years. All patients had a varus deformity no greater than 8º and a BMI lower than 30. Patients were matched in terms of preoperative arthritis severity, age, gender and preoperative range of motion. In the computer-assisted TKR group, all the implants were positioned within 4º of the correct hip-knee-ankle angle and frontal tibial component angle. The surgical time and hospital stay were statistically longer in the CA TKR group. During the study no implant required revision. The results showed higher scores for a UKR in the treatment of isolated primary unicompartmental knee arthritis in patients older than 60 compared to a computer-assisted TKR. In this study a computer-assisted alignment system for TKR with optimal implant positioning did not produce equivalent clinical results compared to a UKR, but did increase the financial costs.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-known complication of total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR). Various drugs have been introduced in an attempt to reduce the mortality as well as the short-term and long-term morbidity associated with the development of VTE. The aim of this study was to analyze drug utilization for thromboprophylaxis and the cost of illness in real clinical practice in patients with THR or TKR.
Materials and methods
A multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study based on local health unit administrative databases was conducted. All patients (≥18 years old) discharged for THR/TKR procedures between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 were included in the study. The date of first hospital discharge was the index date; patients were followed up for a period of 12 months.
A total of 10,389 patients were included: 3516 males (33.8%, 69.4 ± 10.4 years) and 6873 females (66.2%, 71.7 ± 9.0 years), of which 5483 (52.8%) were discharged for THR and 4906 (47.2%) for TKR. First antithrombotic treatments after discharge were enoxaparin (3937, 37.9%), heparin (3752, 36.1%), antiplatelet agents (658, 6.3%), vitamin K antagonists (276, 2.7%), fondaparinux (136, 1.3%), combinations (185, 1.8%), and no therapy (1445, 13.9%). Overall, we observed 2347 (22.6%) treatment changes; median duration of antithrombotic treatment was 23 days (range 11–47) for THR and 22 days (range 11–46) for TKR. During the follow-up period, we observed 129 cases of VTE (120 per 10,000 patients), five post-thrombotic syndrome (4.8 per 10,000 patients), and three heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (2.9 per 10,000 patients). Median cost for both THR and TKR was €9052.00 (range €8063.00–€9084.96), with a median length of stay of 9.0 days (range 6.0–12.0).
venous thromboembolism; VTE; total hip replacement; THR; total knee replacement; TKR; real practice; cost of illness; antithrombotic therapy
To analyse differences of opinions on indications for primary total hip replacements (THRs) within and between groups of orthopaedic surgeons and the physicians who refer patients to them.
22 orthopaedic centres in 12 European countries took part, resulting in a postal survey of 304 orthopaedic surgeons and 314 referring physicians. Each participant was asked to state what importance different domains (pain, functional impairment, physical examination and radiographs) have on their decision to recommend THR and to select the most appropriate level of severity of each symptom or sign for recommending THR. In addition, the participants were asked to prioritise other personal or environmental factors that affect their decision to undertake a THR.
Rest pain, pain with activity and functional limitations were the most important criteria for THR, although range of motion and radiographic changes were of least importance. Both similarities and differences were observed within and between groups of surgeons and referring physicians in the overall approach to indications and the most appropriate level of severity of disease for recommending THR. Most surgeons agreed on severity levels in only 4 of 11 items and most referring physicians in only one. Between the groups, major differences occurred with regard to the importance of activities of daily living and the appropriate level of symptoms for THR. In general, compared with surgeons, referring physicians reported that the disease needed to be more advanced to warrant surgery.
Currently, no consensus exists on objective indication criteria for THR. The observed differences between the gatekeepers (referring physicians) and surgeons can lead to variations and perhaps inequities in the provision of care.
With an aging society and raised expectations, joint replacement surgery is likely to increase significantly in the future. The development of postoperative complications following joint replacement surgery (for example, infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and deep vein thrombosis) is also likely to increase. Despite considerable progress in orthopaedic surgery, comparing a range of biological markers with the ultimate aim of monitoring or predicting postoperative complications has not yet been extensively researched. The aim of this clinical pilot study was to test the hypothesis that lower limb orthopaedic surgery results in changes to coagulation, non-specific markers of inflammation (primary objective) and selective clinical outcome measures (secondary objective).
Test subjects were scheduled for elective total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) orthopaedic surgery due to osteoarthritis (n = 10). Platelet counts and D-dimer concentrations were measured to assess any changes to coagulation function. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured as markers of non-specific inflammation. Patients were monitored regularly to assess for any signs of postoperative complications, including blood transfusions, oedema (knee swelling), wound infection, pain and fever.
THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery resulted in similar changes of coagulation and non-specific inflammatory biomarkers, suggestive of increased coagulation and inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in an increase in platelet (P = 0.013, THR) and D-dimer (P = 0.009, TKR) concentrations. Evidence of increased inflammation was demonstrated by an increase in CRP and ESR (P ≤ 0.05, THR and TKR). Four patients received blood transfusions (two THR and two TKR patients), with maximal oedema, pain and aural temperatures peaking between days 1 and 3 postoperatively, for both THR and TKR surgery. None of the patients developed postoperative infections.
The most noticeable changes in biological markers occur during days 1 to 3 postoperatively for both THR and TKR surgery, and these may have an effect on such postoperative clinical outcomes as oedema, pyrexia and pain. This study may assist in understanding the postoperative course following lower limb orthopaedic surgery, and may help clinicians in planning postoperative management and patient care.
Coagulation; Inflammation; Orthopaedic surgery
Induction programme for trainee doctors in the UK generally do not focus on the surgical aspects of their jobs. In this context we decided to conduct a telephonic survey among the hospitals belonging to three orthopaedic training regions in the UK from the point of view of the diversity of instrumentations and implants used for index procedures.
We chose four index trauma & orthopaedic procedures (Total hip replacement, total knee replacement, intramedullary nailing and external fixator systems for long bone fractures). A telephonic survey was done in six NHS trust hospitals which were part of an orthopaedic training rotation (2 from England, 2 from Wales and 2 from Scotland). In total there were 39 different instrumentation systems for these 4 index procedures in the 6 trusts (see table 1). These comprise 12 Total hip replacement (THR) systems, 14 total knee replacement (TKR) systems, 9 intra-medullary nailing systems, and 4 external fixator systems. The number of different systems for each trust ranged from 7 to 19. There is a vast array of implants and instrumentation systems in each trust, as highlighted by our survey. The surgical tools are not the same in each hospitals. This situation is more complicated when trainees move to new hospitals as part of training rotations.
Number of implants/instrumentations used in each of the 6 UK trusts (3 training regions).
E = England, W = Wales, S = Scotland
In view of this we feel that more focused theatre based induction programmes for higher surgical trainees is advocated in each hospital trust so trainees can familiarise themselves with the tools available to them. This could include discussion with the consultants and senior theatre staff along with representatives from the companies supplying the implants and instrumentation systems.
A novel low-stiffness extensively porous-coated total hip femoral component was designed to achieve stable skeletal fixation, structural durability, and reduced periprosthetic femoral stress shielding. In short- to intermediate-term clinical review, this implant achieved secure biologic fixation and preserved periprosthetic bone. We retrospectively reviewed all 102 prospectively followed patients (106 implants) with this implant to document the longer-term implant survivorship, clinical function, fixation quality, and periprosthetic bone preservation. Ninety-seven patients with 101 implants had current followup or were followed to patient death (range, 1–14 years; average, 10 years). Eighty-six living patients were followed for an average implant survivorship of 10 years. There were no known femoral implant removals. The average Harris hip score at 10-year followup was 98. Radiographs demonstrated secure implant fixation and maintenance of periprosthetic bone. These data suggest this implant design provided long-term function characterized by extensive fixation, structural durability, and radiographic appearance of maintained periprosthetic cortical thickness and density.
Level of Evidence: Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.