A 2.15 Å resolution crystal structure of TM0159 with bound IMP and enzyme-kinetic data are presented. This noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase from T. maritima helps to maintain a correct pool of DNA and RNA precursor molecules.
The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase that catalyzes the conversion of inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) and xanthosine triphosphate (XTP) into inosine monophosphate (IMP), deoxyinosine monophosphate (IMP) and xanthosine monophosphate (XMP), respectively. The k
m values determined at 323 and 353 K fall between 1.31 × 104 and 7.80 × 104
−1 s−1. ITP and dITP are slightly preferred over XTP. Activity towards canonical nucleoside triphosphates (ATP and GTP) was not detected. The enzyme has an absolute requirement for Mg2+ as a cofactor and has a preference for alkaline conditions. A protein X-ray structure of the enzyme with bound IMP was obtained at 2.15 Å resolution. The active site houses a well conserved network of residues that are critical for substrate recognition and catalysis. The crystal structure shows a tetramer with two possible dimer interfaces. One of these interfaces strongly resembles the dimer interface that is found in the structures of other noncanonical nucleoside pyrophosphatases from human (human ITPase) and archaea (Mj0226 and PhNTPase).
enzymes; Thermotoga maritima; noncanonical nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase; nucleotide metabolism; dimer interface
Sanitization of the cellular nucleotide pools from mutagenic base analogs is necessary for the accuracy of transcription and replication of genetic material and plays a substantial role in cancer prevention. The undesirable mutagenic, recombinogenic and toxic incorporation of purine base analogs (i.e. ITP, dITP, XTP, dXTP or 6-hydroxyaminopurine (HAP) deoxynucleoside triphosphate) into nucleic acids is prevented by inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA). The ITPA gene is a highly conserved, moderately expressed gene. Defects in ITPA orthologs in model organisms cause severe sensitivity to HAP and chromosome fragmentation. A human polymorphic allele 94C->A encodes for the enzyme with a P32T amino acid change and leads to accumulation of non-hydrolyzed ITP. ITPase activity is not detected in erythrocytes of these patients. The P32T polymorphism has also been associated with adverse sensitivity to purine base analog drugs. We have found that the ITPA-P32T mutant is a dimer in solution, as is wild-type ITPA, and has normal ITPA activity in vitro, but the melting point of ITPA-P32T is 5 degrees C lower than that of wild-type. ITPA-P32T is also fully functional in vivo in model organisms as determined by a HAP mutagenesis assay and its complementation of a bacterial ITPA defect. The amount of ITPA protein detected by western blot is severely diminished in a human fibroblast cell line with the 94C->A change. We propose that the P32T mutation exerts its effect in certain human tissues by cumulative effects of destabilization of transcripts, protein stability and availability.
Base analogs are powerful antimetabolites and dangerous mutagens generated endogenously by oxidative stress, inflammation, and aberrant nucleotide biosynthesis. Human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) hydrolyzes triphosphates of noncanonical purine bases (i.e., ITP, dITP, XTP, dXTP, or their mimic: 6-hydroxyaminopurine (HAP) deoxynucleoside triphosphate) and thus regulates nucleotide pools and protects cells from DNA damage. We demonstrate that the model purine base analog HAP induces DNA breaks in human cells and leads to elevation of levels of ITPA. A human polymorphic allele of the ITPA, 94C->A encodes for the enzyme with a P32T amino-acid change and leads to accumulation of nonhydrolyzed ITP. The polymorphism has been associated with adverse reaction to purine base-analog drugs. The level of both spontaneous and HAP-induced DNA breaks is elevated in the cell line with the ITPA P32T variant. The results suggested that human ITPA plays a pivotal role in the protection of DNA from noncanonical purine base analogs.
Human ITPase, encoded by the ITPA gene, and its orthologs (RdgB in Escherichia coli and HAM1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exclude noncanonical nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) from NTP pools. Deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) and 2′-deoxy-N-6-hydroxylaminopurine triphosphate are both hydrolyzed by ITPase to yield the corresponding deoxynucleoside monophosphate and pyrophosphate. In addition, metabolites of thiopurine drugs such as azathioprine have been shown to be substrates for ITPase. The ITPA 94C>A [P32T] variant is one of two polymorphisms associated with decreased ITPase activity. Furthermore, the ITPA 94C>A [P32T] variant is associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions for patients treated with azathioprine. The nature of the observed phenotypes for ITPA 94C>A [P32T] variant individuals is currently unclear. Our biochemical assays indicate the P32T ITPase has 55% activity with dITP compared to wild-type ITPase. Complementation experiments at 37°C show that N-6-hydroxylaminopurine sensitivity of E. coli rdgB mutants is reduced with a plasmid bearing the ITPA 94C>A [P32T] gene approximately 50% less than with a plasmid bearing the wild-type ITPA gene. The reduction in sensitivity is less at 42°C. Experiments with synthetic lethal E. coli recA(ts) rdgB mutants show that the ITPA 94C>A [P32T] gene also complements the recA(ts) rdgB growth deficiency at 42°C approximately 40% lower than wild-type ITPA gene. Western blot analysis indicates the expression level of P32T ITPase is reduced in these cells relative to wild-type. Our data support the idea that P32T ITPase is a functional protein, albeit with a reduced rate of noncanonical NTP pyrophosphohydrolase activity and reduced protein stability.
ITPA; ITPase; RdgB; noncanonical purines; dITP; N-6-hydroxylaminopurine
A novel dNTP pyrophosphatase, Mj0226 from Methanococcus jannaschii, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of
nucleoside triphosphates to the monophosphate and PPi, has been
characterized. Mj0226 protein catalyzes hydrolysis
of two major substrates, dITP and XTP, suggesting that the 6-keto
group of hypoxanthine and xanthine is critical for interaction with the
protein. Under optimal reaction conditions the kcat /Km value
for these substrates was ∼10 000 times that
with dATP. Neither endonuclease nor 3′-exonuclease
activities were detected in this protein. Interestingly, dITP was
efficiently inserted opposite a dC residue in a DNA template and
four dNTPs were also incorporated opposite a hypoxanthine residue
in template DNA by DNA polymerase I. Two protein homologs of Mj0226
from Escherichia coli and Archaeoglobus
fulgidus were also cloned and purified. These have catalytic
activities similar to Mj0226 protein under optimal
conditions. The implications of these results have significance
in understanding how homologous proteins, including Mj0226,
act biologically in many organisms. It seems likely that Mj0226
and its homologs have a major role in preventing mutations caused
by incorporation of dITP and XTP formed spontaneously in the nucleotide pool
into DNA. This report is the first identification and functional
characterization of an enzyme hydrolyzing non-canonical nucleotides,
dITP and XTP.
Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA), a key enzyme involved in maintaining the purity of cellular nucleoside triphosphate pools, specifically recognizes inosine triphosphate and xanthosine triphosphate (including the deoxyribose forms) and detoxifies them by catalyzing the hydrolysis of a phosphoanhydride bond, releasing pyrophosphate. This prevents their inappropriate use as substrates in enzymatic reactions utilizing (d)ATP or (d)GTP. A human genetic polymorphism leads to the substitution of Thr for Pro32 (P32T) and causes ITPA deficiency in erythrocytes, with heterozygotes having on average 22.5% residual activity, and homozygotes having undetectable activity. This polymorphism has been implicated in modulating patients’ response to mercaptopurines and ribavirin. Human fibroblasts containing this variant have elevated genomic instability upon treatment with base analogs. We find that the wild-type and P32T forms are dimeric in solution and in the crystal structure. This abolishes the previous speculation that the P32T change disrupts dimerization as a mechanism of inactivation. The only difference in structure from the wild-type protein is that the area surrounding Thr32 is disrupted. Phe31 is flipped from the hydrophobic core out into the solvent, leaving a hole in the hydrophobic core of the protein which likely accounts for the reduced thermal stability of P32T ITPA and ultimately leads to its susceptibility to degradation in human cells. Circular dichroism and thermal denaturation studies confirm these structural results. We propose that the dimer of P32T variant subunit with wild-type subunit is degraded in cells similarly to the P32T homodimer explaining the level of loss of ITPA activity in heterozygotes.
Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase; Nucleotide pool; X-ray crystallography; Protein stability; Hydrophobic surfaces; Genomic instability
The crystal structure of a putative NTP pyrophosphohydrolase, YP_001813558.1 from E. sibiricum, reveals a novel segment-swapped linked-dimer assembly.
The crystal structure of a putative NTPase, YP_001813558.1 from Exiguobacterium sibiricum 255-15 (PF09934, DUF2166) was determined to 1.78 Å resolution. YP_001813558.1 and its homologs (dimeric dUTPases, MazG proteins and HisE-encoded phosphoribosyl ATP pyrophosphohydrolases) form a superfamily of all-α-helical NTP pyrophosphatases. In dimeric dUTPase-like proteins, a central four-helix bundle forms the active site. However, in YP_001813558.1, an unexpected intertwined swapping of two of the helices that compose the conserved helix bundle results in a ‘linked dimer’ that has not previously been observed for this family. Interestingly, despite this novel mode of dimerization, the metal-binding site for divalent cations, such as magnesium, that are essential for NTPase activity is still conserved. Furthermore, the active-site residues that are involved in sugar binding of the NTPs are also conserved when compared with other α-helical NTPases, but those that recognize the nucleotide bases are not conserved, suggesting a different substrate specificity.
structural genomics; putative NTP pyrophosphohydrolase; MazG nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase; dUTPases
Inosine triphosphatase (ITPase) is encoded by the polymorphic gene ITPA and maintains low intracellular levels of the inosine nucleotides ITP and dITP. The most frequently reported polymorphisms are ITPA c.94C>A (rs 1127354) and ITPA c. 124+21 A>C (rs7270101). Some nucleoside-analogues used in the treatment of HIV-seropositive (HIV+) patients are potential substrates for ITPase. Therefore, the frequency of ITPA SNPs and ITPase activity were studied in a population of HIV+-patients.
The study population consisted of 222 patients, predominantly Caucasian males, >95% using HAART. Erythrocyte ITPase activity was determined by measuring the formation of IMP from ITP. ITPA genotype was determined by sequencing genomic DNA. Distribution of ITPase activity, genotype-phenotype correlation and allele frequencies were compared to 198 control subjects. The effect of nucleoside analogues on ITPase activity was studied using lymphoblastic T-cell cultures and human recombinant ITPase. Enzyme kinetic experiments were performed on erythrocyte ITPase from HIV+ patients and controls.
No difference was observed in the allele frequencies between the HIV+-cohort (± HAART) and the control population. HIV+ carriers of the wild type and ITPA c.94C>A had significantly lower ITPase activities than control subjects with the same genotype (p<0.005). This was not observed in ITPA c. 124+21 A>C carriers. Nucleoside analogues did not affect ITPase activity in cell culture and human recombinant ITPase. Conclusion: ITPA population genetics were identical in HIV+ and control populations. However, the majority of HIV+-patients had decreased erythrocyte ITPase activity compared to controls, probably due to decreased amounts of ITPase protein. It seems unlikely that ITPase activity is decreased due to nucleoside analogues (HAART). Long-term effects of HIV-infection altering ITPase protein expression or stability may explain the phenomenon observed.
The crystal structure of M. tuberculosis phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase, the second enzyme in the histidine-biosynthetic pathway, is presented. The structural and inferred functional relationships between M. tuberculosis phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase and other members of the nucleoside-triphosphate pyrophosphatase-fold family are described.
Phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase is the second enzyme in the histidine-biosynthetic pathway, irreversibly hydrolyzing phosphoribosyl-ATP to phosphoribosyl-AMP and pyrophosphate. It is encoded by the hisE gene, which is present as a separate gene in many bacteria and archaea but is fused to hisI in other bacteria, fungi and plants. Because of its essentiality for growth in vitro, HisE is a potential drug target for tuberculosis. The crystal structures of two native (uncomplexed) forms of HisE from Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been determined to resolutions of 1.25 and 1.79 Å. The structure of the apoenzyme reveals that the protein is composed of five α-helices with connecting loops and is a member of the α-helical nucleoside-triphosphate pyrophosphatase superfamily. The biological unit of the protein is a homodimer, with an active site on each subunit composed of residues exclusively from that subunit. A comparison with the Campylobacter jejuni dUTPase active site allowed the identification of putative metal- and substrate-binding sites in HisE, including four conserved glutamate and glutamine residues in the sequence that are consistent with a motif for pyrophosphohydrolase activity. However, significant differences between family members are observed in the loop region between α-helices H1 and H3. The crystal structure of M. tuberculosis HisE provides insights into possible mechanisms of substrate binding and the diversity of the nucleoside-triphosphate pyrophosphatase superfamily.
histidine biosynthesis; pyrophosphatase; tuberculosis; actinobacteria; catalytic mechanism
RdgB is a bacterial dNTPase with a strong in vitro preference for non-canonical DNA precursors dHapTP, dXTP and dITP that contain deaminated or aminogroup-modified purines. Utilization of these nucleotides by replisomes in rdgB mutants of E. coli produces modified DNA, on which EndoV-nicking near the base analogs initiates excision repair. Some EndoV-initiated excision events cause chromosomal fragmentation, which becomes inhibitory if recombinational repair is also inactivated (the rdgB recA co-inhibition). To reveal the sources and the identities of the non-canonical DNA precursors, intercepted by RdgB in E. coli, we characterized 17 suppressors of the rdgB recA co-inhibition. Ten suppressors affect genes of the RNA/DNA precursor metabolism, identifying the source of non-canonical DNA precursors. Comparing chromosomal fragmentation with the density of EndoV-recognized DNA modifications distinguishes three mechanisms of suppression: 1) reduction of the non-canonical dNTP production; 2) inhibition of the base analog excision from DNA; 3) enhancement of the cell tolerance to chromosomal fragmentation. The suppressor analysis suggests IMP as the key intermediate in the synthesis of the clastogenic DNA precursor, most likely dITP.
rdgB; recA; dITP; clastogenesis; IMP; EndoV
Cellular nucleotide pools are often contaminated by base analog nucleotides which interfere with a plethora of biological reactions, from DNA and RNA synthesis to cellular signaling. An evolutionarily conserved inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) removes the non-canonical purine (d)NTPs inosine triphosphate and xanthosine triphosphate by hydrolyzing them into their monophosphate form and pyrophosphate. Mutations in the ITPA orthologs in model organisms lead to genetic instability and, in mice, to severe developmental anomalies. In humans there is genetic polymorphism in ITPA. One allele leads to a proline to threonine substitution at amino acid 32 and causes varying degrees of ITPA deficiency in tissues and plays a role in patients’ response to drugs. Structural analysis of this mutant protein reveals that the protein is destabilized by the formation of a cavity in its hydrophobic core. The Pro32Thr allele is thought to cause the observed dominant negative effect because the resulting active enzyme monomer targets both homo- and heterodimers to degradation.
nucleotide pool; ITPA gene polymorphism; pharmacogenetics; base analogs; mercaptopurines; protein stability; dominant negative
Mammalian inosine triphosphatase encoded by ITPA gene hydrolyzes ITP and dITP to monophosphates, avoiding their deleterious effects. Itpa− mice exhibited perinatal lethality, and significantly higher levels of inosine in cellular RNA and deoxyinosine in nuclear DNA were detected in Itpa− embryos than in wild-type embryos. Therefore, we examined the effects of ITPA deficiency on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Itpa− primary MEFs lacking ITP-hydrolyzing activity exhibited a prolonged doubling time, increased chromosome abnormalities and accumulation of single-strand breaks in nuclear DNA, compared with primary MEFs prepared from wild-type embryos. However, immortalized Itpa− MEFs had neither of these phenotypes and had a significantly higher ITP/IDP-hydrolyzing activity than Itpa− embryos or primary MEFs. Mammalian NUDT16 proteins exhibit strong dIDP/IDP-hydrolyzing activity and similarly low levels of Nudt16 mRNA and protein were detected in primary MEFs derived from both wild-type and Itpa− embryos. However, immortalized Itpa− MEFs expressed significantly higher levels of Nudt16 than the wild type. Moreover, introduction of silencing RNAs against Nudt16 into immortalized Itpa− MEFs reproduced ITPA-deficient phenotypes. We thus conclude that NUDT16 and ITPA play a dual protective role for eliminating dIDP/IDP and dITP/ITP from nucleotide pools in mammals.
Pure nucleotide precursor pools are a prerequisite for high-fidelity DNA replication and the suppression of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. ITPases are nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatases that clean the precursor pools of the non-canonical triphosphates of inosine and xanthine. The precise role of the human ITPase, encoded by the ITPA gene, is not clearly defined. ITPA is clinically important because a widespread polymorphism, 94C>A, leads to null ITPase activity in erythrocytes and is associated with an adverse reaction to thiopurine drugs. We studied the cellular function of ITPA in HeLa cells using the purine analog 6-N hydroxylaminopurine (HAP), whose triphosphate is also a substrate for ITPA. In this study, we demonstrate that ITPA knockdown sensitizes HeLa cells to HAP-induced DNA breaks and apoptosis. The HAP-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity observed in ITPA knockdown cells are rescued by an overexpression of the yeast ITPase encoded by the HAM1 gene. We further show that ITPA knockdown results in elevated mutagenesis in response to HAP treatment. Our studies reveal the significance of ITPA in preventing base analog-induced apoptosis, DNA damage and mutagenesis in human cells. This implies that individuals with defective ITPase are predisposed to genome damage by impurities in nucleotide pools, which is drastically augmented by therapy with purine analogs. They are also at an elevated risk for degenerative diseases and cancer.
Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPase) is a ‘house-cleaning’ enzyme that degrades non-canonical (‘rogue’) nucleotides. Complete deficiency is fatal in knockout mice, but a mutant polymorphism resulting in low enzyme activity with an accumulation of ITP and other non-canonical nucleotides, appears benign in humans. We hypothesised that reduced ITPase activity may cause acquired mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects. Furthermore, we investigated whether accumulating mtDNA defects may then be a risk factor for cell transformation, in adult haematological malignancy (AHM).
DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Microarray-based sequencing of mtDNA was performed on 13 AHM patients confirmed as carrying the ITPA 94C>A mutation causing low ITPase activity, and 4 AHM patients with wildtype ITPA. The frequencies of ITPA 94C>A and IVS2+21A>C polymorphisms were studied from 85 available AHM patients.
ITPA 94C>A was associated with a significant increase in total heteroplasmic/homoplasmic mtDNA mutations (p<0.009) compared with wildtype ITPA, following exclusion of haplogroup variants. This suggested that low ITPase activity may induce mitochondrial abnormalities. Compared to the normal population, frequencies for the 94C>A and IVS2+21A>C mutant alleles among the AHM patients were higher for myelodyplastic syndrome (MDS) - but below significance; were approximately equivalent for chronic lymphoblastic leukemia; and were lower for acute myeloid leukemia.
This study invokes a new paradigm for the evolution of MDS, where nucleotide imbalances produced by defects in ‘house-cleaning’ genes may induce mitochondrial dysfunction, compromising cell integrity. It supports recent studies which point towards an important role for ITPase in cellular surveillance of rogue nucleotides.
ITPA; Mitochondria; Haematological malignancy; Microarray; N-call
Published studies have described a strong association with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) gene and ribavirin (RBV)-induced hemolytic anemia in HCV-infected patients receiving pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and RBV. This study sought to evaluate the effect of these polymorphisms on anemia, hemoglobin reduction, HCV kinetics, and treatment outcomes. Sixty-three patients coinfected with HIV and HCV and 58 patients infected with HCV only were treated with pegIFN/RBV were genotyped using the ABI Taq-Man allelic discrimination kit for the 2 ITPA SNP variants rs1127354 and rs7270101. A composite variable of ITPA deficiency using both SNPs was created as previously reported. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test or Chi square/Fishers exact test for categorical data and mixed model analysis for multiple variables. Thirty-five patients (30%) were predicted to have reduced ITPA activity. ITPA deficiency was found to be protective against the development of hemoglobin reduction >3 g/dl over the course of treatment. The rates of hemoglobin reduction >3 g/dl decreased in correlation with the severity of ITPA deficiency. ITPA deficiency was associated with slower hemoglobin decline early in treatment (week 4, P = 0.020) and rapid virologic response (RVR) at week 4 (P = 0.017) in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV. ITPA polymorphisms are associated with hemoglobin decline and in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV it is also associated with early virologic outcomes. Determination of ITPA polymorphisms may allow prediction of RBV-induced anemia and earlier initiation of supportive care to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes.
ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia; ITPA; HIV/HCV; pharmacogenomics
Recombinant nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases from N. caninum and T. gondii have been purified and crystallized for X-ray structure analysis.
The nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases that are produced by Neospora caninum (NcNTPase) and Toxoplasma gondii (TgNTPase-I) have a different physiological function from the ubiquitous ecto-ATPases. The recombinant enzymes were crystallized at 293 K using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant and X-ray diffraction data sets were collected for NcNTPase (to 2.8 Å resolution) and TgNTPase-I (to 3.1 Å resolution) at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The crystals of NcNTPase and TgNTPase-I belonged to the orthorhombic space group I222 (unit-cell parameters a = 93.6, b = 140.8, c = 301.1 Å) and the monoclinic space group P21 (unit-cell parameters a = 87.1, b = 123.5, c = 120.2 Å, β = 96.6°), respectively, with two NcNTPase (V
M = 3.7 Å3 Da−1) and four TgNTPase-I (V
M = 2.7 Å3 Da−1) molecules per asymmetric unit. SAD phasing trials using a data set (λ = 0.97904 Å) collected from a crystal of selenomethionylated NcNTPase gave an initial electron-density map of sufficient quality to build a molecular model of NcNTPase.
nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases; Neospora caninum; Toxoplasma gondii
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) gene correlate with ribavirin (RBV)-induced anemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) receiving combination therapy. Managing anemia is an early priority in the treatment process.
The aim was to develop a predictive index based on ITPA SNP status to identify CHC patients at risk of anemia.
Patients and Methods:
A total of 418 eligible East Asian patients diagnosed with CHC genotype 1 (G1) received combination therapy in this study. Participant DNA was genotyped for a functional ITPA SNP (C/C, A/A or C/A) on chromosome 20 at rs1127354. A predictive index was constructed by incorporating independent factors identified for severe anemia events (hemoglobin < 10 g/dL). Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUCs) represented the diagnostic accuracies of the predictive index in randomly assigned development and validation cohorts.
Multiple logistic regressions identified age (≥ 50 y: OR = 9.7, 95% CI = 5.0 - 18.6), ITPA rs1127354 (C/C: OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.8 - 5.8) and baseline hemoglobin (< 14.0 g/dL: OR 6.4, 95% CI = 3.3 - 12.1; 14.0 - 14.9: OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2 - 4.6) as predictors of severe anemia throughout the treatment. For severe anemia, the predictive index incorporating age, ITPA SNP status and baseline hemoglobin yielded diagnostic accuracies (AUCs) of 0.830 (95% CI = 0.783 - 0.871) in the development (n = 324) and 0.902 (0.826 - 0.925) in the validation (n = 81) cohorts.
In patients with CHC G1 and receiving combination therapy, ITPA SNP-based index was an accurate and practical solution for prediction of severe anemia.
Polymorphism; Inosine Triphosphate; Hepatitis C; Ribavirin; Anemia
6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is used in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Its red blood cell (RBC) metabolite concentrations (6-thioguanine [6-TGN] and 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides [6-MMPN]) are related to drug response. We investigated the impact of non-genetic covariates and pharmacogenetic polymorphisms affecting thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) on 6-MP metabolism and response.
Sixty-six children with ALL treated according to EORTC 58951 protocol were included in this study. Six patients had a heterozygous genotype for the most common TPMT polymorphisms, nine for ITPA 94 C > A and 17 for ITPA IVS2+21 A > C. 6-MP metabolites concentrations were analyzed by mixed model analysis.
During maintenance, steady-state RBC 6-TGN concentrations were lower in patients aged 6 years or younger (493 pmol/8 × 108RBC) than in older children (600 pmol/8 × 108RBC). 6-MMPN concentrations were low in patients with TPMT variant/wild-type ITPA (1862 pmol/8 × 108RBC), intermediate in wild-type patients and high (16468 pmol/8 × 108RBC) in patients wild-type TPMT/variant ITPA. A 6-MMPN threshold of 5000 pmol/8 × 108RBC was associated with an increased risk of hepatotoxicity.
In this study, age and both TPMT and ITPA genotypes influenced 6-MP metabolism. High 6-MMPN was associated with hepatotoxicity. These pharmacological tools should be used to monitor ALL treatment in children.
hepatotoxicity; leukaemia; mercaptopurine; metabolism; paediatrics; pharmacogenetics
The influence of genetic polymorphism in inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) on thiopurine-induced adverse events has not been investigated in the context of combination chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study investigated the effects of a common ITPA variant allele (rs41320251) on mercaptopurine metabolism and toxicity during treatment of children with ALL. Significantly higher concentrations of methyl mercaptopurine nucleotides were found in patients with the nonfunctional ITPA allele. Moreover, there was a significantly higher probability of severe febrile neutropenia in patients with a variant ITPA allele among patients whose dose of mercaptopurine had been adjusted for TPMT genotype. In a cohort of patients whose mercaptopurine dose was not adjusted for TPMT phenotype, the TPMT genotype had a greater effect than the ITPA genotype. In conclusion, genetic polymorphism of ITPA is a significant determinant of mercaptopurine metabolism and of severe febrile neutropenia, after combination chemotherapy for ALL in which mercaptopurine doses are individualized on the basis of TPMT genotype.
The EF1143 protein from Enterococcus faecalis is a distant homolog of deoxynucleotide triphosphate triphosphohydrolases (dNTPases) from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus. These dNTPases are important components in the regulation of the dNTP pool in bacteria. Biochemical assays of the EF1143 dNTPase activity demonstrated nonspecific hydrolysis of all canonical dNTPs in the presence of Mn2+. In contrast, with Mg2+ hydrolysis required the presence of dGTP as an effector, activating the degradation of dATP and dCTP with dGTP also being consumed in the reaction with dATP. The crystal structure of EF1143 and dynamic light scattering measurements in solution revealed a tetrameric oligomer as the most probable biologically active unit. The tetramer contains four dGTP specific allosteric regulatory sites and four active sites. Examination of the active site with the dATP substrate suggests an in-line nucleophilic attack on the α-phosphate center as a possible mechanism of the hydrolysis and two highly conserved residues, His-129 and Glu-122, as an acid-base catalytic dyad. Structural differences between EF1143 apo and holo forms revealed mobility of the α3 helix that can regulate the size of the active site binding pocket and could be stabilized in the open conformation upon formation of the tetramer and dGTP effector binding.
Allosteric Regulation; Crystal Structure; Enzyme Catalysis; Enzyme Structure; Metalloenzymes; Nucleoside Nucleotide Metabolism; Phosphodiesterases; Deoxynucleotide Triphosphate Triphosphohydrolase
A case of imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning in monoclinic crystals of fungal fatty acid synthase is discussed. A space-group transition during crystal dehydration resulted in a Moiré pattern-like interference of the twinned diffraction patterns.
The recent high-resolution structures of fungal fatty acid synthase (FAS) have provided new insights into the principles of fatty acid biosynthesis by large multifunctional enzymes. The crystallographic phase problem for the 2.6 MDa fungal FAS was initially solved to 5 Å resolution using two crystal forms from Thermomyces lanuginosus. Monoclinic crystals in space group P21 were obtained from orthorhombic crystals in space group P212121 by dehydration. Here, it is shown how this space-group transition induced imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning in the monoclinic crystal, giving rise to a Moiré pattern-like interference of the two twin-related reciprocal lattices. The strategy for processing the twinned diffraction images and obtaining a quantitative analysis is presented. The twinning is also related to the packing of the molecules in the two crystal forms, which was derived from self-rotation function analysis and molecular-replacement solutions using a low-resolution electron microscopy map as a search model.
imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning; fungal fatty acid synthase
P212121 crystals of SIV Nef core domain bound to a peptide fragment of the T-cell receptor ζ subunit exhibited noncrystallographic symmetry and nearly perfect pseudo-merohedral twinning simulating tetragonal symmetry. For a different peptide fragment, nontwinned tetragonal crystals were observed but diffracted to lower resolution. The structure was determined after assignment of the top molecular-replacement solutions to various twin or NCS domains followed by refinement under the appropriate twin law.
HIV/SIV Nef mediates many cellular processes through interactions with various cytoplasmic and membrane-associated host proteins, including the signalling ζ subunit of the T-cell receptor (TCRζ). Here, the crystallization strategy, methods and refinement procedures used to solve the structures of the core domain of the SIVmac239 isolate of Nef (Nefcore) in complex with two different TCRζ fragments are described. The structure of SIVmac239 Nefcore bound to the longer TCRζ polypeptide (Leu51–Asp93) was determined to 3.7 Å resolution (R
work = 28.7%) in the tetragonal space group P43212. The structure of SIVmac239 Nefcore in complex with the shorter TCRζ polypeptide (Ala63–Arg80) was determined to 2.05 Å resolution (R
work = 17.0%), but only after the detection of nearly perfect pseudo-merohedral crystal twinning and proper assignment of the orthorhombic space group P212121. The reduction in crystal space-group symmetry induced by the truncated TCRζ polypeptide appears to be caused by the rearrangement of crystal-contact hydrogen-bonding networks and the substitution of crystallographic symmetry operations by similar noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) operations. The combination of NCS rotations that were nearly parallel to the twin operation (k, h, −l) and a and b unit-cell parameters that were nearly identical predisposed the P212121 crystal form to pseudo-merohedral twinning.
pseudo-merohedral twinning; noncrystallographic symmetry; pseudosymmetry; human immunodeficiency virus; Nef; T-cell receptor
Human DCTPP1 (dCTP pyrophosphatase 1), also known as XTP3-transactivated protein A, belongs to MazG-like nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase (NTP-PPase) superfamily. Being a newly identified pyrophosphatase, its relevance to tumorigenesis and the mechanisms are not well investigated. In the present study, we have confirmed our previous study that DCTPP1 was significantly hyperexpressed in breast cancer and further demonstrated its strong association with tumor progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer. Knockdown of DCTPP1 in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells remarkably retarded proliferation and colony formation in vitro. The capacity of mammosphere formation of MCF-7 was suppressed with the silence of DCTPP1, which was consistent with the enhanced mammosphere-forming ability in DCTPP1-overexpressed MDA-MB-231 cells. To further dissect the mechanisms of DCTPP1 in promoting tumor cell growth and stemness maintenance, its biochemical properties and biological functions were investigated. DCTPP1 displayed bioactive form with tetrameric structure similar to other MazG domain-containing pyrophosphatases based on structure simulation. A substrate preference for dCTP and its methylated or halogen-modified derivatives over the other canonical (deoxy-) NTPs was demonstrated from enzymatic assay. This substrate preference was also proved in breast cancer cells that the intracellular 5-methyl-dCTP level increased in DCTPP1-deficient MCF-7 cells but decreased in DCTPP1-overexpressed MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, global methylation level was elevated in DCTPP1-knockdown MCF-7 cells or mammosphere-forming MCF-7 cells but decreased significantly in DCTPP1-overexpressed MDA-MB-231 cells and its mammospheres. Our results thus indicated that human DCTPP1 was capable of modulating the concentration of intracellular 5-methyl-dCTP. This in turn affected global methylation, contributing to a known phenomenon of hypomethylation related to the cancer cell growth and stemness maintenance. Our current investigations point to the pathological functions of DCTPP1 overexpression in breast cancer cells with aberrant dCTP metabolism and epigenetic modification.
The production and purification of recombinant SoGST3 and SoGST6, two GST-like proteins from S. oneidensis, are reported and preliminary crystallographic studies of crystals of the recombinant enzymes are presented.
Genome analysis of Shewanella oneidensis, a Gram-negative bacterium with an unusual repertoire of respiratory and redox capabilities, revealed the presence of six glutathione S-transferase-like genes (sogst1–sogst6). Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 184.108.40.206) are found in all kingdoms of life and are involved in phase II detoxification processes by catalyzing the nucleophilic attack of reduced glutathione on diverse electrophilic substrates, thereby decreasing their reactivity. Structure–function studies of prokaryotic GST-like proteins are surprisingly underrepresented in the scientific literature when compared with eukaryotic GSTs. Here, the production and purification of recombinant SoGST3 (SO_1576) and SoGST6 (SO_4697), two of the six GST-like proteins in S. oneidensis, are reported and preliminary crystallographic studies of crystals of the recombinant enzymes are presented. SoGST3 was crystallized in two different crystal forms in the presence of GSH and DTT that diffracted to high resolution: a primitive trigonal form in space group P31 that exhibited merohedral twinning with a high twin fraction and a primitive monoclinic form in space group P21. SoGST6 yielded primitive orthorhombic crystals in space group P212121 from which diffraction data could be collected to medium resolution after application of cryo-annealing protocols. Crystal structures of both SoGST3 and SoGST6 have been determined based on marginal search models by maximum-likelihood molecular replacement as implemented in the program Phaser.
glutathione S-transferases; Shewanella oneidensis
Genetic polymorphisms are important factors in effects and toxicity of chemotherapeutics. This study aimed to investigate whether there was a correlation between genotype or haplotype of inosine triphosph pyrophosphohydrolase(ITPA) and toxicities during maintenance therapy with mercaptopurine (6-MP) in Chinese patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). 95 ALL children who hospitalized between October 2004 and September 2007,were retrospectively analyzed. 6-MP toxicity was documented according to Common Toxicity Criteria, Version 2.0. ITPA sequencing was undertaken. Correlation between genotype/haplotype and 6-MP toxicity was analyzed. The results indicated that 50 cases (52.6%) had grade III-IV of bone marrow inhibition. These children had long-term disease-free survival (DFS), without hepatic and other organs’ dysfunction and secondary tumors. Three variations were observed in ITPA exon 2 (94 C → A), exon 3 (138 G → A), and exon 8 (561 G → A), the 94A carriers (CA and AA) had a lower risk of developing 6-MP toxicity when compared with carriers of the CC genotype (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.98, P = 0.039). The risk of 6-MP intolerance was decreased in patients with 138 allele and 561 allele polymorphism, but with no significant difference. Patients carrying the haplotype 94A-138A-561A was tolerance compared to those with wild-type haplotype 94C-138G-561G (OR: 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.94 P = 0.043). In conclusion, the risk of 6-MP intolerance was decreased in patients with 138 allele and 561 allele polymorphism, but without significant difference. Patients carrying the haplotype 94A-138A-561A was tolerance compared to those with the wild-type haplotype 94C-138G-561G.
ITPA; ALL children; mercaptopurine related toxicity