Base analogs are powerful antimetabolites and dangerous mutagens generated endogenously by oxidative stress, inflammation, and aberrant nucleotide biosynthesis. Human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) hydrolyzes triphosphates of noncanonical purine bases (i.e., ITP, dITP, XTP, dXTP, or their mimic: 6-hydroxyaminopurine (HAP) deoxynucleoside triphosphate) and thus regulates nucleotide pools and protects cells from DNA damage. We demonstrate that the model purine base analog HAP induces DNA breaks in human cells and leads to elevation of levels of ITPA. A human polymorphic allele of the ITPA, 94C->A encodes for the enzyme with a P32T amino-acid change and leads to accumulation of nonhydrolyzed ITP. The polymorphism has been associated with adverse reaction to purine base-analog drugs. The level of both spontaneous and HAP-induced DNA breaks is elevated in the cell line with the ITPA P32T variant. The results suggested that human ITPA plays a pivotal role in the protection of DNA from noncanonical purine base analogs.
Sanitization of the cellular nucleotide pools from mutagenic base analogs is necessary for the accuracy of transcription and replication of genetic material and plays a substantial role in cancer prevention. The undesirable mutagenic, recombinogenic and toxic incorporation of purine base analogs (i.e. ITP, dITP, XTP, dXTP or 6-hydroxyaminopurine (HAP) deoxynucleoside triphosphate) into nucleic acids is prevented by inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA). The ITPA gene is a highly conserved, moderately expressed gene. Defects in ITPA orthologs in model organisms cause severe sensitivity to HAP and chromosome fragmentation. A human polymorphic allele 94C->A encodes for the enzyme with a P32T amino acid change and leads to accumulation of non-hydrolyzed ITP. ITPase activity is not detected in erythrocytes of these patients. The P32T polymorphism has also been associated with adverse sensitivity to purine base analog drugs. We have found that the ITPA-P32T mutant is a dimer in solution, as is wild-type ITPA, and has normal ITPA activity in vitro, but the melting point of ITPA-P32T is 5 degrees C lower than that of wild-type. ITPA-P32T is also fully functional in vivo in model organisms as determined by a HAP mutagenesis assay and its complementation of a bacterial ITPA defect. The amount of ITPA protein detected by western blot is severely diminished in a human fibroblast cell line with the 94C->A change. We propose that the P32T mutation exerts its effect in certain human tissues by cumulative effects of destabilization of transcripts, protein stability and availability.
Pure nucleotide precursor pools are a prerequisite for high-fidelity DNA replication and the suppression of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. ITPases are nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatases that clean the precursor pools of the non-canonical triphosphates of inosine and xanthine. The precise role of the human ITPase, encoded by the ITPA gene, is not clearly defined. ITPA is clinically important because a widespread polymorphism, 94C>A, leads to null ITPase activity in erythrocytes and is associated with an adverse reaction to thiopurine drugs. We studied the cellular function of ITPA in HeLa cells using the purine analog 6-N hydroxylaminopurine (HAP), whose triphosphate is also a substrate for ITPA. In this study, we demonstrate that ITPA knockdown sensitizes HeLa cells to HAP-induced DNA breaks and apoptosis. The HAP-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity observed in ITPA knockdown cells are rescued by an overexpression of the yeast ITPase encoded by the HAM1 gene. We further show that ITPA knockdown results in elevated mutagenesis in response to HAP treatment. Our studies reveal the significance of ITPA in preventing base analog-induced apoptosis, DNA damage and mutagenesis in human cells. This implies that individuals with defective ITPase are predisposed to genome damage by impurities in nucleotide pools, which is drastically augmented by therapy with purine analogs. They are also at an elevated risk for degenerative diseases and cancer.
Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPase) is a ‘house-cleaning’ enzyme that degrades non-canonical (‘rogue’) nucleotides. Complete deficiency is fatal in knockout mice, but a mutant polymorphism resulting in low enzyme activity with an accumulation of ITP and other non-canonical nucleotides, appears benign in humans. We hypothesised that reduced ITPase activity may cause acquired mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects. Furthermore, we investigated whether accumulating mtDNA defects may then be a risk factor for cell transformation, in adult haematological malignancy (AHM).
DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Microarray-based sequencing of mtDNA was performed on 13 AHM patients confirmed as carrying the ITPA 94C>A mutation causing low ITPase activity, and 4 AHM patients with wildtype ITPA. The frequencies of ITPA 94C>A and IVS2+21A>C polymorphisms were studied from 85 available AHM patients.
ITPA 94C>A was associated with a significant increase in total heteroplasmic/homoplasmic mtDNA mutations (p<0.009) compared with wildtype ITPA, following exclusion of haplogroup variants. This suggested that low ITPase activity may induce mitochondrial abnormalities. Compared to the normal population, frequencies for the 94C>A and IVS2+21A>C mutant alleles among the AHM patients were higher for myelodyplastic syndrome (MDS) - but below significance; were approximately equivalent for chronic lymphoblastic leukemia; and were lower for acute myeloid leukemia.
This study invokes a new paradigm for the evolution of MDS, where nucleotide imbalances produced by defects in ‘house-cleaning’ genes may induce mitochondrial dysfunction, compromising cell integrity. It supports recent studies which point towards an important role for ITPase in cellular surveillance of rogue nucleotides.
ITPA; Mitochondria; Haematological malignancy; Microarray; N-call
Human ITPase, encoded by the ITPA gene, and its orthologs (RdgB in Escherichia coli and HAM1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exclude noncanonical nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) from NTP pools. Deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) and 2′-deoxy-N-6-hydroxylaminopurine triphosphate are both hydrolyzed by ITPase to yield the corresponding deoxynucleoside monophosphate and pyrophosphate. In addition, metabolites of thiopurine drugs such as azathioprine have been shown to be substrates for ITPase. The ITPA 94C>A [P32T] variant is one of two polymorphisms associated with decreased ITPase activity. Furthermore, the ITPA 94C>A [P32T] variant is associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions for patients treated with azathioprine. The nature of the observed phenotypes for ITPA 94C>A [P32T] variant individuals is currently unclear. Our biochemical assays indicate the P32T ITPase has 55% activity with dITP compared to wild-type ITPase. Complementation experiments at 37°C show that N-6-hydroxylaminopurine sensitivity of E. coli rdgB mutants is reduced with a plasmid bearing the ITPA 94C>A [P32T] gene approximately 50% less than with a plasmid bearing the wild-type ITPA gene. The reduction in sensitivity is less at 42°C. Experiments with synthetic lethal E. coli recA(ts) rdgB mutants show that the ITPA 94C>A [P32T] gene also complements the recA(ts) rdgB growth deficiency at 42°C approximately 40% lower than wild-type ITPA gene. Western blot analysis indicates the expression level of P32T ITPase is reduced in these cells relative to wild-type. Our data support the idea that P32T ITPase is a functional protein, albeit with a reduced rate of noncanonical NTP pyrophosphohydrolase activity and reduced protein stability.
ITPA; ITPase; RdgB; noncanonical purines; dITP; N-6-hydroxylaminopurine
A novel dNTP pyrophosphatase, Mj0226 from Methanococcus jannaschii, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of
nucleoside triphosphates to the monophosphate and PPi, has been
characterized. Mj0226 protein catalyzes hydrolysis
of two major substrates, dITP and XTP, suggesting that the 6-keto
group of hypoxanthine and xanthine is critical for interaction with the
protein. Under optimal reaction conditions the kcat /Km value
for these substrates was ∼10 000 times that
with dATP. Neither endonuclease nor 3′-exonuclease
activities were detected in this protein. Interestingly, dITP was
efficiently inserted opposite a dC residue in a DNA template and
four dNTPs were also incorporated opposite a hypoxanthine residue
in template DNA by DNA polymerase I. Two protein homologs of Mj0226
from Escherichia coli and Archaeoglobus
fulgidus were also cloned and purified. These have catalytic
activities similar to Mj0226 protein under optimal
conditions. The implications of these results have significance
in understanding how homologous proteins, including Mj0226,
act biologically in many organisms. It seems likely that Mj0226
and its homologs have a major role in preventing mutations caused
by incorporation of dITP and XTP formed spontaneously in the nucleotide pool
into DNA. This report is the first identification and functional
characterization of an enzyme hydrolyzing non-canonical nucleotides,
dITP and XTP.
Mammalian inosine triphosphatase encoded by ITPA gene hydrolyzes ITP and dITP to monophosphates, avoiding their deleterious effects. Itpa− mice exhibited perinatal lethality, and significantly higher levels of inosine in cellular RNA and deoxyinosine in nuclear DNA were detected in Itpa− embryos than in wild-type embryos. Therefore, we examined the effects of ITPA deficiency on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Itpa− primary MEFs lacking ITP-hydrolyzing activity exhibited a prolonged doubling time, increased chromosome abnormalities and accumulation of single-strand breaks in nuclear DNA, compared with primary MEFs prepared from wild-type embryos. However, immortalized Itpa− MEFs had neither of these phenotypes and had a significantly higher ITP/IDP-hydrolyzing activity than Itpa− embryos or primary MEFs. Mammalian NUDT16 proteins exhibit strong dIDP/IDP-hydrolyzing activity and similarly low levels of Nudt16 mRNA and protein were detected in primary MEFs derived from both wild-type and Itpa− embryos. However, immortalized Itpa− MEFs expressed significantly higher levels of Nudt16 than the wild type. Moreover, introduction of silencing RNAs against Nudt16 into immortalized Itpa− MEFs reproduced ITPA-deficient phenotypes. We thus conclude that NUDT16 and ITPA play a dual protective role for eliminating dIDP/IDP and dITP/ITP from nucleotide pools in mammals.
Inosine triphosphatase (ITPase) is encoded by the polymorphic gene ITPA and maintains low intracellular levels of the inosine nucleotides ITP and dITP. The most frequently reported polymorphisms are ITPA c.94C>A (rs 1127354) and ITPA c. 124+21 A>C (rs7270101). Some nucleoside-analogues used in the treatment of HIV-seropositive (HIV+) patients are potential substrates for ITPase. Therefore, the frequency of ITPA SNPs and ITPase activity were studied in a population of HIV+-patients.
The study population consisted of 222 patients, predominantly Caucasian males, >95% using HAART. Erythrocyte ITPase activity was determined by measuring the formation of IMP from ITP. ITPA genotype was determined by sequencing genomic DNA. Distribution of ITPase activity, genotype-phenotype correlation and allele frequencies were compared to 198 control subjects. The effect of nucleoside analogues on ITPase activity was studied using lymphoblastic T-cell cultures and human recombinant ITPase. Enzyme kinetic experiments were performed on erythrocyte ITPase from HIV+ patients and controls.
No difference was observed in the allele frequencies between the HIV+-cohort (± HAART) and the control population. HIV+ carriers of the wild type and ITPA c.94C>A had significantly lower ITPase activities than control subjects with the same genotype (p<0.005). This was not observed in ITPA c. 124+21 A>C carriers. Nucleoside analogues did not affect ITPase activity in cell culture and human recombinant ITPase. Conclusion: ITPA population genetics were identical in HIV+ and control populations. However, the majority of HIV+-patients had decreased erythrocyte ITPase activity compared to controls, probably due to decreased amounts of ITPase protein. It seems unlikely that ITPase activity is decreased due to nucleoside analogues (HAART). Long-term effects of HIV-infection altering ITPase protein expression or stability may explain the phenomenon observed.
Nucleotides function in a variety of biological reactions; however, they can undergo various chemical modifications. Such modified nucleotides may be toxic to cells if not eliminated from the nucleotide pools. We performed a screen for modified-nucleotide binding proteins and identified human nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X-type motif 16 (NUDT16) protein as an inosine triphosphate (ITP)/xanthosine triphosphate (XTP)/GTP-binding protein. Recombinant NUDT16 hydrolyzes purine nucleoside diphosphates to the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates. Among 29 nucleotides examined, the highest kcat/Km values were for inosine diphosphate (IDP) and deoxyinosine diphosphate (dIDP). Moreover, NUDT16 moderately hydrolyzes (deoxy)inosine triphosphate ([d]ITP). NUDT16 is mostly localized in the nucleus, and especially in the nucleolus. Knockdown of NUDT16 in HeLa MR cells caused cell cycle arrest in S-phase, reduced cell proliferation, increased accumulation of single-strand breaks in nuclear DNA as well as increased levels of inosine in RNA. We thus concluded that NUDT16 is a (deoxy)inosine diphosphatase that may function mainly in the nucleus to protect cells from deleterious effects of (d)ITP.
The influence of genetic polymorphism in inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) on thiopurine-induced adverse events has not been investigated in the context of combination chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study investigated the effects of a common ITPA variant allele (rs41320251) on mercaptopurine metabolism and toxicity during treatment of children with ALL. Significantly higher concentrations of methyl mercaptopurine nucleotides were found in patients with the nonfunctional ITPA allele. Moreover, there was a significantly higher probability of severe febrile neutropenia in patients with a variant ITPA allele among patients whose dose of mercaptopurine had been adjusted for TPMT genotype. In a cohort of patients whose mercaptopurine dose was not adjusted for TPMT phenotype, the TPMT genotype had a greater effect than the ITPA genotype. In conclusion, genetic polymorphism of ITPA is a significant determinant of mercaptopurine metabolism and of severe febrile neutropenia, after combination chemotherapy for ALL in which mercaptopurine doses are individualized on the basis of TPMT genotype.
Endonuclease V, encoded by the nfi gene, initiates removal of the base analogs hypoxanthine and xanthine from DNA, acting to prevent mutagenesis from purine base deamination within the DNA. On the other hand, the RdgB nucleotide hydrolase in Escherichia coli is proposed to prevent hypoxanthine and xanthine incorporation into DNA by intercepting the noncanonical DNA precursors dITP and dXTP. Because many base analogs are mutagenic when incorporated into DNA, it is intuitive to think of RdgB as acting to prevent similar mutagenesis from deaminated purines in the DNA precursor pools. To test this idea, we used a set of Claire Cupples' strains to detect changes in spontaneous mutagenesis spectra, as well as in nitrous acid-induced mutagenesis spectra, in wild-type cells and in rdgB single, nfi single, and rdgB nfi double mutants. We found neither a significant increase in spontaneous mutagenesis in rdgB and nfi single mutants or the double mutant nor any changes in nitrous acid-induced mutagenesis for rdgB mutant strains. We conclude that incorporation of deaminated purines into DNA is nonmutagenic.
The crystal structure of a putative NTP pyrophosphohydrolase, YP_001813558.1 from E. sibiricum, reveals a novel segment-swapped linked-dimer assembly.
The crystal structure of a putative NTPase, YP_001813558.1 from Exiguobacterium sibiricum 255-15 (PF09934, DUF2166) was determined to 1.78 Å resolution. YP_001813558.1 and its homologs (dimeric dUTPases, MazG proteins and HisE-encoded phosphoribosyl ATP pyrophosphohydrolases) form a superfamily of all-α-helical NTP pyrophosphatases. In dimeric dUTPase-like proteins, a central four-helix bundle forms the active site. However, in YP_001813558.1, an unexpected intertwined swapping of two of the helices that compose the conserved helix bundle results in a ‘linked dimer’ that has not previously been observed for this family. Interestingly, despite this novel mode of dimerization, the metal-binding site for divalent cations, such as magnesium, that are essential for NTPase activity is still conserved. Furthermore, the active-site residues that are involved in sugar binding of the NTPs are also conserved when compared with other α-helical NTPases, but those that recognize the nucleotide bases are not conserved, suggesting a different substrate specificity.
structural genomics; putative NTP pyrophosphohydrolase; MazG nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase; dUTPases
The crystal structure of M. tuberculosis phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase, the second enzyme in the histidine-biosynthetic pathway, is presented. The structural and inferred functional relationships between M. tuberculosis phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase and other members of the nucleoside-triphosphate pyrophosphatase-fold family are described.
Phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase is the second enzyme in the histidine-biosynthetic pathway, irreversibly hydrolyzing phosphoribosyl-ATP to phosphoribosyl-AMP and pyrophosphate. It is encoded by the hisE gene, which is present as a separate gene in many bacteria and archaea but is fused to hisI in other bacteria, fungi and plants. Because of its essentiality for growth in vitro, HisE is a potential drug target for tuberculosis. The crystal structures of two native (uncomplexed) forms of HisE from Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been determined to resolutions of 1.25 and 1.79 Å. The structure of the apoenzyme reveals that the protein is composed of five α-helices with connecting loops and is a member of the α-helical nucleoside-triphosphate pyrophosphatase superfamily. The biological unit of the protein is a homodimer, with an active site on each subunit composed of residues exclusively from that subunit. A comparison with the Campylobacter jejuni dUTPase active site allowed the identification of putative metal- and substrate-binding sites in HisE, including four conserved glutamate and glutamine residues in the sequence that are consistent with a motif for pyrophosphohydrolase activity. However, significant differences between family members are observed in the loop region between α-helices H1 and H3. The crystal structure of M. tuberculosis HisE provides insights into possible mechanisms of substrate binding and the diversity of the nucleoside-triphosphate pyrophosphatase superfamily.
histidine biosynthesis; pyrophosphatase; tuberculosis; actinobacteria; catalytic mechanism
AIM: To investigate and clarify, for the first time, the role of inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) polymorphism in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients.
METHODS:The human genomic DNA of all patients was extracted from peripheral blood cells in order to determine the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ITPA (rs1127354). SNP genotyping was performed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, ABI TaqMan allelic discrimination kit) for 102 treatment-naive Egyptian patients with chronic HCV. All patients had no evidence of cardiovascular or renal diseases. They received a combination treatment of pegylated interferon α (PEG-IFNα) as a weekly subcutaneous dose plus an oral weight-adjusted dose of ribavirin (RBV). The majority received PEG-IFNα2a (70.6%) while 29.4% received PEG-IFNα2b. The planned duration of treatment was 24-48 wk according to the viral kinetics throughout the course of treatment. Pre-treatment liver biopsy was done for each patient for evaluation of fibrosis stage and liver disease activity. The basal viral load level was detected quantitatively by real time PCR while viral load throughout the treatment course was performed qualitatively by COBAS TaqMan assay.
RESULTS: Ninety-three patients (91.2%) had ITPA SNP CC genotype and 9 (8.8%) had non-CC genotype (CA and AA). The percentage of hemoglobin (Hb) decline was higher for CC patients than for non-CC patients, particularly at weeks 4 and 8 (P = 0.047 and 0.034, respectively). During the first 12 wk of treatment, CC patients had significantly more Hb decline > 3 g/dL than non-CC patients: 64.5% vs 22.2% at weeks 8 and 12, respectively, (P = 0.024 and 0.038). Reduction of the amount of the planned RBV dose was significantly higher for CC patients than non-CC patients during the first 12 wk (18% ± 12.1% vs 8.5% ± 10.2%, P = 0.021). The percentage of CC patients with RBV dose reduction was significantly greater than that of non-CC patients (77.4% vs 44.4%, P = 0.044). Multivariate analysis identified only the percentage of RBV dose as a predictor for Hb decline. Platelet decline was significantly higher in non-CC patients than CC patients at weeks 12, 24 and 48 (P = 0.018, 0.009 and 0.026, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Rs1127354 ITPA polymorphism plays a decisive role in protecting against treatment-induced anemia and the need for RBV dose reduction in Egyptian HCV patients.
Anemia; Dose reduction; Hepatitis C; Inosine triphosphate; Ribavirin; Rs1127354
Published studies have described a strong association with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) gene and ribavirin (RBV)-induced hemolytic anemia in HCV-infected patients receiving pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and RBV. This study sought to evaluate the effect of these polymorphisms on anemia, hemoglobin reduction, HCV kinetics, and treatment outcomes. Sixty-three patients coinfected with HIV and HCV and 58 patients infected with HCV only were treated with pegIFN/RBV were genotyped using the ABI Taq-Man allelic discrimination kit for the 2 ITPA SNP variants rs1127354 and rs7270101. A composite variable of ITPA deficiency using both SNPs was created as previously reported. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test or Chi square/Fishers exact test for categorical data and mixed model analysis for multiple variables. Thirty-five patients (30%) were predicted to have reduced ITPA activity. ITPA deficiency was found to be protective against the development of hemoglobin reduction >3 g/dl over the course of treatment. The rates of hemoglobin reduction >3 g/dl decreased in correlation with the severity of ITPA deficiency. ITPA deficiency was associated with slower hemoglobin decline early in treatment (week 4, P = 0.020) and rapid virologic response (RVR) at week 4 (P = 0.017) in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV. ITPA polymorphisms are associated with hemoglobin decline and in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV it is also associated with early virologic outcomes. Determination of ITPA polymorphisms may allow prediction of RBV-induced anemia and earlier initiation of supportive care to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes.
ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia; ITPA; HIV/HCV; pharmacogenomics
A case of imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning in monoclinic crystals of fungal fatty acid synthase is discussed. A space-group transition during crystal dehydration resulted in a Moiré pattern-like interference of the twinned diffraction patterns.
The recent high-resolution structures of fungal fatty acid synthase (FAS) have provided new insights into the principles of fatty acid biosynthesis by large multifunctional enzymes. The crystallographic phase problem for the 2.6 MDa fungal FAS was initially solved to 5 Å resolution using two crystal forms from Thermomyces lanuginosus. Monoclinic crystals in space group P21 were obtained from orthorhombic crystals in space group P212121 by dehydration. Here, it is shown how this space-group transition induced imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning in the monoclinic crystal, giving rise to a Moiré pattern-like interference of the two twin-related reciprocal lattices. The strategy for processing the twinned diffraction images and obtaining a quantitative analysis is presented. The twinning is also related to the packing of the molecules in the two crystal forms, which was derived from self-rotation function analysis and molecular-replacement solutions using a low-resolution electron microscopy map as a search model.
imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning; fungal fatty acid synthase
Background. A recent genome-wide association study reported a strong association with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the inosine triphosphate (ITPA) gene and hemolytic anemia in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin. We investigate these polymorphisms in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV–coinfected patients.
Methods. DNA was available for 161 patients with validated outcomes. We analyzed the association between the variants and week 4 hemoglobin reduction. Anemia over the course of therapy, ribavirin (RBV) dose reduction, serum RBV level, and rapid virological response (RVR) and sustained virological response (SVR) were also investigated. Using a candidate gene approach, ITPA variants rs1127354 and rs7270101 were tested using the ABI TaqMan kit. Multivariable models were used to identify predictors of anemia.
Results. A significant minority (33%) of patients were predicted to have reduced ITPase activity. The minor allele of each variant was associated with protection against week 4 anemia. In multivariable models only the genetic variants, creatinine, and zidovudine exposure remained significant. ITPase deficiency was not associated with RBV-dose reduction, RVR, or SVR.
Conclusions. This study confirms that polymorphisms in the ITPA gene are associated with protection from RBV-induced anemia in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients but not improved clinical outcomes.
1-(2'-Deoxy-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-3-nitropyrrole phosphate was incorporated into a DNA decamer and analyzed via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The extent and composition of the various fragment peaks were compared with those in the MALDI-MS spectrum of dT4AT5. The nitropyrrole-containing oligomer proved to be more robust. Two different DNA template assays were then used to attempt to identify DNA replicating enzymes that would incorporate the corresponding triphosphate, i.e. 1-(2'-deoxy-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-3-nitropyrrole triphosphate (dXTP). It was shown that dXTP was not incorporated by some enzymes and it inhibited others. However, DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment and avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase incorporated dXTP in place of dATP and then replicated the template overhang in the usual way. The potential of dXTP as a surrogate for dATP in DNA sequencing with MALDI-MS analysis is discussed.
The human GTP fucose pyrophosphohydrolase protein has been crystallized via the hanging-drop technique over a reservoir of polyethylene glycol (MW 8000) and ethylene glycol. The orthorhombic crystals diffract to 2.8 Å resolution.
The human nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme GTP fucose pyrophosphorylase (GFPP) has been purified to homogeneity by an affinity chromatographic procedure that utilizes a novel nucleoside analog. This new purification regime results in a protein preparation that produces significantly better crystals than traditional purification methods. The purified 66.6 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized via hanging-drop vapor diffusion at 293 K. Crystals of the native enzyme diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121. There is a single GFPP monomer in the asymmetric unit, giving a Matthews coefficient of 2.38 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 48.2%. A complete native data set has been collected as a first step in determining the three-dimensional structure of this enzyme.
GTP fucose pyrophosphohydrolase
Although most DNA polymerases discriminate against ribonucleotide triphosphaets (rNTPs) during DNA synthesis, recent studies have shown that large numbers of ribonucleotides are incorporated into the eukaryotic nuclear genome. Here, we investigate how a DNA polymerase can stably incorporate an rNTP. The X-ray crystal structure of a variant of human DNA polymerase λ reveals that the rNTP occupies the nucleotide binding pocket without distortion of the active site, despite an unfavorable interaction between the 2′-O and Tyr505 backbone carbonyl. This indicates an energetically unstable binding state for the rNTP, stabilized by additional protein–nucleotide interactions. Supporting this idea is the 200-fold lower catalytic efficiency for rNTP relative to deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) incorporation, reflecting a higher apparent Km value for the rNTP. Furthermore, distortion observed in the structure of the post-catalytic product complex suggests that once the bond between the α- and β-phosphates of the rNTP is broken, the unfavorable binding state of the ribonucleotide cannot be maintained. Finally, structural and biochemical evaluation of dNTP insertion onto an ribonucleotide monophosphate (rNMP)-terminated primer indicates that a primer-terminal rNMP does not impede extension. The results are relevant to how ribonucleotides are incorporated into DNA in vivo, during replication and during repair, perhaps especially in non-proliferating cells when rNTP:dNTP ratios are high.
The title compound, C40H64O12, crystallizes in a pseudomerohedrally twinned primitive monoclinic cell with similar contributions of the two twin components. There are two symmetry-independent half-molecules of nonactin in the asymmetric unit. Each molecule has a pseudo-S
4 symmetry and resides on a crystallographic twofold axis; the axes pass through the molecular center of mass and are perpendicular to the plane of the macrocycle. The literature description of the room-temperature structure of nonactin as an order–disorder structure in an orthorhombic unit cell is corrected. We report a low-temperature high-precision ordered structure of ‘free’ nonactin that allowed for the first time precise determination of its bond distances and angles. It possesses an unfolded and more planar geometry than its complexes with encapsulated Na+, K+, Cs+, Ca2+ or NH4
+ cations that exhibit more isometric overall conformations.
Human ribonucleotide reductase (hRR) is the key enzyme involved in de novo dNTP synthesis and thus represents an important therapeutic target against hyperproliferative diseases, most notably cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of non-natural indolyl-2’-deoxynucleoside triphosphates to inhibit the activity of hRR. The structural similarities of these analogs with dATP predicted that they would inhibit hRR activity by binding to its allosteric sites. In silico analysis and in vitro characterization identified one particular analog designated as 5-nitro-indolyl-2'-deoxyribose triphosphate (5-NITP) that inhibits hRR. 5-NITP binding to hRR was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. X-ray crystal structure of 5-NITP bound to RR1 was determined. Cell-based studies demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of the corresponding non-natural nucleoside against leukemia cells. 5-NITP binds to hRR with micromolar affinity. Binding does not induce hexamerization of hRR1 like dATP, the native allosteric inhibitor of hRR that binds with high affinity to the A-site. The X-ray crystal structure of S. cerevisiae RR1-5-NITP (ScRR1-5-NITP) complex determined to 2.3 Å resolution shows that 5-NITP does not bind to the A-site but rather at the S-site. Regardless, 5-NIdR produces cytostatic and cytotoxic effects against human leukemia cells by altering cell-cycle progression. Our studies provide useful insights towards developing new inhibitors with improved potency and efficacy against hRR.
Ribonucleotide reductase; Cancer chemotherapy; Crystallography; X-ray; Drug design; DNA synthesis; Isothermal titration calorimetry; docking; Cell cycle; Non natural nucleotide
To identify C-MYC targets rate-limiting for proliferation of malignant melanoma, we stably inhibited C-MYC in several human metastatic melanoma lines via lentivirus-based shRNAs approximately to the levels detected in normal melanocytes. C-MYC depletion did not significantly affect levels of E2F1 protein reported to regulate expression of many S-phase specific genes, but resulted in the repression of several genes encoding enzymes rate-limiting for dNTP metabolism. These included thymidylate synthase (TS), inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2) and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 2 (PRPS2). C-MYC depletion also resulted in reduction in the amounts of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) and inhibition of proliferation. shRNA-mediated suppression of TS, IMPDH2 or PRPS2 resulted in the decrease of dNTP pools and retardation of the cell cycle progression of melanoma cells in a manner similar to that of C-MYC-depletion in those cells. Reciprocally, concurrent overexpression of cDNAs for TS, IMPDH2 and PRPS2 delayed proliferative arrest caused by inhibition of C-MYC in melanoma cells. Overexpression of C-MYC in normal melanocytes enhanced expression of the above enzymes and increased individual dNTP pools. Analysis of in vivo C-MYC interactions with TS, IMPDH2 and PRPS2 genes confirmed that they are direct C-MYC targets. Moreover, all three proteins express at higher levels in cells from several metastatic melanoma lines compared to normal melanocytes. Our data establish a novel functional link between C-MYC and dNTP metabolism and identify its role in proliferation of tumor cells.
C-MYC; melanoma; nucleotide metabolism
Two new crystal structures of A. niger α-amylase are reported, one of which reveals two hitherto unobserved maltose-binding sites.
Aspergillus niger α-amylase catalyses the hydrolysis of α-1,4-glucosidic bonds in starch. It shows 100% sequence identity to the A. oryzae homologue (also called TAKA-amylase), three crystal structures of which have been published to date. Two of them belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121 with one molecule per asymmetric unit and one belongs to the monoclinic space group P21 with three molecules per asymmetric unit. Here, the purification, crystallization and structure determination of A. niger α-amylase crystallized in the monoclinic space group P21 with two molecules per asymmetric unit in complex with maltose at 1.8 Å resolution is reported. Furthermore, a novel 1.6 Å resolution orthorhombic crystal form (space group P21212) of the native enzyme is presented. Four maltose molecules are observed in the maltose–α-amylase complex. Three of these occupy active-site subsites −2 and −1, +1 and +2 and the hitherto unobserved subsites +4 (Asp233, Gly234) and +5 (Asp235). The fourth maltose molecule binds at the distant binding sites d1 (Tyr382) and d2 (Trp385), also previously unobserved. Furthermore, it is shown that the active-site groove permits different binding modes of sugar units at subsites +1 and +2. This flexibility of the active-site cleft close to the catalytic centre might be needed for a productive binding of substrate chains and/or release of products.
α-amylase; Aspergillus niger; maltose; Aspergillus oryzae; TAKA-amylase
As part of an ongoing effort to develop new antiviral nucleoside analogs, our interest was drawn to N1-aryl purines as a novel structural class and potential scaffold for drug discovery. Herein, we describe the synthesis of N1-3-fluorophenyl-inosine (FPI) and N1-3-fluorophenyl-hypoxanthine (FP-Hx) and their antiviral activity against hantaviruses. The EC50 for FPI and FP-Hx were 94 μM and 234 μM, respectively, against Hantaan virus. FPI was not toxic to mammalian cells at concentrations that exhibited antiviral activity. Analysis of its metabolism revealed a low conversion of FPI in Vero E6 or human cells to a 5′-triphosphate, and it was a poor substrate for human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Further, the compound did not alter GTP levels indicating FPI does not inhibit inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. With respect to the virus, FPI did not decrease viral RNA levels or increase the mutation frequency of the viral RNA. This suggests that the antiviral activity of FPI might be solely due to the interaction of FPI or its metabolites with viral or host proteins involved in post-replication events that would affect the levels of infectious virus released. Synthesis of other compounds structurally similar to FPI is warranted to identify more potent agents that selectively abrogate production of infectious virus.
Hantaan virus; nucleosides; ribavirin; hantavirus